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AP ® Physics B 2009 Free-Response Questions Form B The College Board The College Board

AP ® Physics B 2009 Free-Response Questions Form B

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TABLE OF INFORMATION FOR 2008 and 2009

 

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

 
 

-

27

   

Proton mass,

m

p

=

1.67

¥

10

kg

   

Electron charge magnitude,

e

=

1.60

¥

10

-

19

C

Neutron mass,

m

n

=

1.67

¥

10

-

27

kg

 

1 electron volt,

1 eV

=

1.60

¥

10

-

19

J

 

Electron mass,

 

9.11

10

-

31

kg

 

c

=

3.00 ¥ 10

8

m

e

=

¥

 

Speed of light, Universal gravitational constant, Acceleration due to gravity at Earth’s surface,

 
3 m
3
m

m s

 

Avogadro’s number,

Universal gas constant,

N

0

= 6.02 ¥ 10

23

mol

N 0 = 6.02 ¥ 10 23 mol R = 8.31 J (mol i K)

R = 8.31 J (moliK)

-1

G

=

6.67

¥

g = 9.8 m

10

s
s

2

- 11

 

kg s

i

2

Boltzmann’s constant,

k

B

=

1.38

¥

10

-

23

10 - 23 J K

J K

 
 

1 unified atomic mass unit,

Planck’s constant,

 

1 u

h

hc

1.66

6.63

1.99

10

10

10

- 27

-

34

- 25

kg

J s

J m

931 MeV

4.14

10

kg J s J m 931 MeV 4.14 10 - c 15 10 3 = i

-

c

15

10

3

=

i

1.24

i

2

eV s

i

i

eV nm

 
 

Vacuum permittivity,

=

0

8.85

¥

10

- 12

C

2

C 2

i

N m

2

 

Coulomb’s law constant,

 

9

k = 1 4 p 9.0 10 Nim C

0

22

 

Vacuum permeability,

 

m

0

=

4 p

¥

10

-

7

7 (T m) A i

(T m) A

i

 
 

Magnetic constant,

k

¢=

0

m 4 p

=

10

-

7

(T m) A

i

 
 

1 atmosphere pressure,

 

1 atm 1.0

10

52 N m

52

N

m

1.0

10

5

Pa

   

meter,

m

mole,

mol

 

watt,

 

W

 

farad,

F

 

kilogram,

kg

hertz,

Hz

coulomb,

C

tesla,

T

 

UNIT

second,

N

 

V

 

C

 

SYMBOLS

s

newton,

 

volt,

 

degree Celsius,

 

ampere,

A

pascal,

Pa

ohm,

W

electron-volt,

eV

 

kelvin,

K

joule,

J

henry,

H

 
 

PREFIXES

 

VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES

Factor

Prefix

Symbol

 

q

0

30

37

45

53

60

90

 

10

9

giga

G

 

sin q

0

1 2

1 2

3

3

5

2  10 9 giga G   sin q 0 1 2 3 5 4 5 3

4 5

4

5

3
3

2

 

1

10

6

mega

M

 

cos q

1

3
3

2

4

4

5

210 6 mega M   cos q 1 3 2 4 5 3 5 1 2

3 5

3

5

1 2

1 2

 

0

10

3

kilo

k

 

tan q

0

3
3

3

3

3

4

 

1

4 3

4

3

3
3
 

10

-

2

centi

c

   

10

-

3

milli

m

 

The following conventions are used in this exam.

 

10

-

6

micro

m

 

I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial.

10 -

9

nano

n

II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive charge (conventional current).

-

10

12

pico

p

III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at an infinite distance from the charge.

IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations, W represents the work done on a system.

-2-

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009

 

NEWTONIAN MECHANICS

 

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

u

= u + at

0

 

a

=

acceleration

F

=

1

q q

1

2

A

=

area

 

F

=

force

4 p

0

r

2

B

=

magnetic field

x =+x

0

u t +

0

2 1 at

2

f

=

frequency

E =

F

 

C

=

capacitance

h

=

height

d

=

distance

 

J

=

impulse

q

E

=

electric field

u

2

2

=+u

0

(

2ax - x

0

)

K

=

kinetic energy

U

=

qV

=

 

1

q q

1

2

e =

emf

Â=FF = ma

net

 

k

=

spring constant

E

4 p

0

r

F

=

force

=

length

 

I

=

current

F

£ m N

m

=

mass

E

avg

V

=-

 

=

length

fric

N

=

normal force

 

d

P

=

power charge point charge

resistance

u

2

P

=

power

V

=

4

1

Â

q

i

Q

=

a

=

=

momentum

p

 

r

i

q

R

=

c

 

r

p

r

=

radius or distance

0

i

=

t

= rF sin q

 

T

=

period

C

=

Q

 

r

=

distance

 

t

=

time

V

t

=

time

p = mv

 

U

=

potential energy

C

=

0 A

 

U

=

potential (stored) energy

J = FD t

=

D p

u

=

velocity or speed

d

V

=

electric potential or

 

W

=

work done on a system

1

1

 

potential difference

K

1

= mu

2

 

x

=

position

U =

c

2

QV =

2

CV

2

 

u

=

velocity or speed

 

2

m =

coefficient of friction

 

r =

D U

g

= mgh

q

t

=

=

angle

torque

I

=

avg

D

Q

t

D

 

q

f

m

=

resistivity angle

= magnetic flux

W

= FrD

cos q

 

R

=

r

 

A

 

P

 

W

V

= IR

=

 

avg

D

t

P

= IV

 

P

= F u cos q

 

C

p

=

Â

i

C

i

 
 

F

s

=-kx

 

1

C

= Â

1

C

U =

s

2 1 kx

2

s

R

s

=

i

Â

R

i

i

T

s

2

= p

m k
m
k
 

1

R

i

= Â

1

R

 
 

p

i

i

T

p

=

2

g
g

p

F

B

= qBu

sin

q

 

1

 

F

B

= BI

sin

q

 

T

=

 
 

f

B

=

m

0

I

   

2 p r

 
 

Gm m

1

2

 

F

G

=-

r

2

 

f

m

= BA

cos

q

   

D

f

m

 

U

G

=-

Gm m

1

r

2

 

e

avg

=-

D

t

 
 

e = B u

 

-3-

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS B EQUATIONS FOR 2008 and 2009

FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS

WAVES AND OPTICS

 

P

= P + r gh

0

 

A

= area

u

= f l

d

= separation

 
 

e

= efficiency

 

f

= frequency or

F

buoy

= rVg

F

= force

n

=

c

u

focal length

A

u = A u

11

2

2

h

H

= depth = rate of heat transfer

n

sin q

112

= n

sin q

2

h

L

= height

= distance

 
 

k

n

2

M

= magnification

P

1

++r gy ru =

2

2

const.

K

= thermal conductivity = average molecular kinetic energy

avg

sin

q =

c

n 1 m

111

n

= an integer

= index of refraction

D = a D T

 

= length

 

+

=

0

L

= thickness

ss

i

0

f

 

R

 
 

H

=

kA

D

L

T

M

n

N

= molar mass

= number of moles

= number of molecules

M

=

h

h

i

0

=-

s

s

i

0

s

u

= radius of curvature

= distance

= speed

P

=

F

A

P

Q

= pressure

= heat transferred to a system

= temperature

f

=

R

2

x

l

= position

= wavelength

PV = nRT = Nk

B

T

T

d sin q = m l

m

l

L

 

q

= angle

K

avg

rms

=

=

3

2

kT

B

3 RT M
3 RT
M

=

 

U

= internal energy

 

x m

d

 

V = volume

   
3 k T B m
3 k
T
B
m

u

= velocity or speed

 

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

u

u

rms

= root-mean-square velocity

Rectangle

A

= area

W

=-PVD

 

A

= bh

C

= circumference

 

W

= work done on a system

Triangle

V

= volume

D U = QW+

 

y

= height

A

=

1

bh

S

= surface area

 

a

= coefficient of linear expansion

= mass of molecule

2

b

= base

e

=

W Q H
W
Q
H

m

Circle

A

= p r

2

h

= height

= length

 
 

r

= density

C

= 2 p r

w

= width

 

T

H

-

T

C

Parallelepiped

r

= radius

e

c

=

T

H

V

= wh

 

Cylinder

V

2

= p r

 
 

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Sr= 2 p + 2 p r

2

E

= hf

= pc

E

= energy

Sphere

K

max

= hf - f

 

f

= frequency

V

=

4

p

r

3

K

= kinetic energy

3

h

 

m = mass

S

= 4 p r

2

l =

p

p

= momentum

Right Triangle

 

l

= wavelength

222

abc+

=

 
 

D E = ( D m)c

2

f

= work function

sin

q

=

a

c q 90°
c
q
90°

a

 

c

cos

q

=

b

c

b

a

tan

q

=

b

-4-

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B)

PHYSICS B

SECTION II Time—90 minutes 6 Questions

Directions: Answer all six questions, which are weighted according to the points indicated. The suggested times are about 17 minutes for answering each of Questions 1-4 and about 11 minutes for answering each of Questions 5-6. The parts within a question may not have equal weight. Show all your work in this booklet in the spaces provided after each part, NOT in the lavender insert.

spaces provided after each part, NOT in the lavender insert. 1. (15 points) An experiment is

1. (15 points)

An experiment is performed using the apparatus above. A small disk of mass

attached to one end of a string. The string passes through a hole in the table and an attached narrow, vertical

plastic tube. An object of mass

disk rotate in a circle of constant radius r, while another student measures the period P.

m 1 on a frictionless table is

m

2

is hung at the other end of the string. A student holding the tube makes the

(a) Derive the equation

P

2

= p

m r 1 m g 2
m
r
1
m
g
2

that relates P and

m

2 .

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-5-

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B)

The procedure is repeated, and the period P is determined for four different values of

m

2

, where

m

1 = 0.012 kg and r = 0.80 m. The data, which are presented below, can be used to compute an

experimental value for g.

m

2

(kg)

0.020

0.040

0.060

0.080

P (s)

1.40

1.05

0.80

0.75

(b) What quantities should be graphed to yield a straight line with a slope that
(b)
What quantities should be graphed to yield a straight line with a slope that could be used to determine g ?
(c)
On the grid below, plot the quantities determined in part (b), label the axes, and draw the best-fit line to the
data. You may use the blank rows above to record any values you may need to calculate.
(d)
Use your graph to calculate the experimental value of g.

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-6-

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B)

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONS E QUESTIONS (Form B) 2. (15 points) Three particles are

2. (15 points)

Three particles are arranged on coordinate axes as shown above. Particle A has charge

initially on the y-axis at y = 0.030 m . The other two particles each have charge fixed on the x-axis at x = -0.040 m and x = +0.040 m , respectively.

q

= +

= -

0.30 nC

0.20 nC

, and is

A

q

B

and are held

(a)

Calculate the magnitude of the net electric force on particle A when it is at y = 0.030 m , and state its direction.

(b)

Particle A is then released from rest. Qualitatively describe its motion over a long time.

In another experiment, particle A of charge

0.50 T directed into the page, as shown below, entering the field with speed 6000 m s .

q

A

= -

0.20 nC

is injected into a uniform magnetic field of strength

nC is injected into a uniform magnetic field of strength (c) On the diagram above, sketch
nC is injected into a uniform magnetic field of strength (c) On the diagram above, sketch

(c)

On the diagram above, sketch a complete path of particle A as it moves in the magnetic field.

(d)

Calculate the magnitude of the force the magnetic field exerts on particle A as it enters the magnetic field.

(e)

An electric field can be applied to keep particle A moving in a straight line through the magnetic field. Calculate the magnitude of this electric field and state its direction.

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-7-

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B)

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONS E QUESTIONS (Form B) 3. (15 points) An underground pipe

3. (15 points)

An underground pipe carries water of density

point A, 0.50 m below ground level, the pipe has a cross-sectional area of

pipe has a cross-sectional area of

a cross-sectional area of pipe has a cross-sectional area of 1000 kg m 3 to a

1000 kg m

3 to a fountain at ground level, as shown above. At

1.0

¥

10

-

4

m

2

. At ground level, the

0.50

¥

10

-

4

m

2

. The water leaves the pipe at point B at a speed of 8.2 m/s.

(a)

Calculate the speed of the water in the pipe at point A.

(b)

Calculate the absolute water pressure in the pipe at point A.

(c)

Calculate the maximum height above the ground that the water reaches upon leaving the pipe vertically at ground level, assuming air resistance is negligible.

(d)

Calculate the horizontal distance from the pipe that is reached by water exiting the pipe at 60from the level ground, assuming air resistance is negligible.

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-8-

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B)

4. (15 points)

PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONS E QUESTIONS (Form B) 4. (15 points) The cylinder shown above has an

The cylinder shown above has an open top, and gas is held inside it by a piston of mass m and area A. The gas is

insulated from its surroundings and is initially in equilibrium at volume terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants.

V . Express all algebraic answers in

i

(a) Determine the absolute pressure

P i of the gas at equilibrium.

The gas is heated by a circuit that contains three resistors, each of known resistance

a power source of emf e . The piston is held fixed so that the gas remains at constant volume while being heated for a period of time t.

R

0

, connected in parallel to

(b)

Determine the resistance of the circuit.

(c)

Calculate the change in internal energy of the gas.

After the time t, the circuit is disconnected. The piston is then released and the gas is allowed to expand

adiabatically until it reaches volume

V

f

.

(d)

Indicate below whether the temperature increases, decreases, or remains the same during this process.

Increases

Decreases

Remains the same

Justify your answer.

(e)

The gas is then compressed isothermally to its original pressure and volume. On the axes below, draw a PV

diagram for the complete cycle described in this question, labeling

V and

i

V

f

on the volume axis.

in this question, labeling V and i V f on the volume axis. © 2009 The

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-9-

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B)

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONS E QUESTIONS (Form B) 5. (10 points) A wide beam

5. (10 points)

A wide beam of white light is incident normal to the surface of a uniform oil film. An observer looking down at

the film sees green light that has maximum intensity at a wavelength of the oil is 1.7.

5.2

¥

10

-

7

m

. The index of refraction of

(a)

Calculate the speed at which the light travels within the film.

(b)

Calculate the wavelength of the green light within the film.

(c)

Calculate the minimum possible thickness of the film.

(d)

The oil film now rests on a thick slab of glass with index of refraction 1.4, as shown in the figure below. A light ray is incident on the film at the angle shown. On the figure, sketch the path of the refracted light ray that passes through the film and the glass slab and exits into the air. Clearly show any bending of the ray at each interface. You are NOT expected to calculate the sizes of any angles.

You are NOT expected to calculate the sizes of any angles. © 2009 The College Board.

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-10-

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B)

2009 AP ® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONS E QUESTIONS (Form B) 6. (10 points) The electron energy

6. (10 points)

The electron energy levels above are for an electron confined to a certain very small one-dimensional region of

space. The energy

in terms of

E

n

of the levels, where n = 1, 2, 3,

., is given by

E

n

2

= n E . Express all algebraic answers

1

E 1 and fundamental constants.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

On the diagram above, label the three excited energy levels with the values for their energies in terms of the energy of the ground state.

Calculate the smallest frequency of light that can be absorbed by an electron in this system when it is in the ground state, n = 1.

If an electron is raised into the second excited state, draw on the diagram all the possible transitions that the electron can make in returning to the ground state.

Calculate the wavelength of the highest energy photon that can be emitted in the transitions in part (c).

E

1 ,

END OF EXAM

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-11-