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09/03/2016

STRATATerminology

accommodation
aggradation
baselevel
clinoformsurface
coastaltrajectory

AccommodationwasdefinedbyJervey(1998)as"thespaceavailableforpotentialsediment
accumulation.Thisspaceisthecombinedproductofmovementof:
1.Theseasurface:globalsealevelmeasuredfromadatumsuchasthecenterofearth)
2.Theseafloor(tectonics)
3.Changesinratesofsedimentaccumulation.

ecologicalaccommodation
eustasy
fondoformsurface
physicalaccommodation
parasequence
progradation
relativesealevel
relativesealevelfall
relativesealevelrise
regression

Jervey(1998)furthersuggestedthatthemajorcontrolsonaccommodationarechangesinrelative
sealevel(i.e.thecombinedproductofeustasyandtectonicmovement).Curray,(1964),Posamentier
&Allen,(1999),Coeetal(2002),andCatuneanu(2002),amongmanyothers,putanemphasison
ratesofsedimentationasatleastacoequalcontrolofaccommodation.Asdemonstratedbelow
changesofbalancedagainstratesofsedimentaccumulationleadtoaccommodationspacethatis
responsibletotransgressionsandregressions.

retrogradation

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STRATATerminology

Iftherelativesealevelrisesandthereisazeroorlowsedimentflux,thentransgression
occurs.
Ifrelativesealevelrisesandthereisalowrateofsedimentflux,thenretrogradationofthe
coastalsequenceparasequenceoccurs.
Ifrelativesealevelrisesandtherateofsedimentfluxmatchesthesealevelrise,then
aggradationofthecoastalparasequenceoccurs.
Ifrelativesealevelrisesandtherateofsedimentfluxexceedsthesealevelrise,then
progradationofthecoastalsequenceparasequenceoccurs.
HellandHansenandMartinsen(1960)considertheprocessesresponsiblefortheslopeofthe
trajectorytakenbytheseretrogradational,aggradationalandprogradationalparasequencesofa
shoreline.Theysuggestthatthisiscontrolledbythecharacteroftheaccommodationandits
interactionwiththefluxofsedimentintothesemarinesettings.thisfluxisreflectedintransportionvia
theshoreline(themaximumwaveenergyzone)andredistributioninresponsetothehydrodynamic
regimeofthebasin.PomarandKendall(2009)describehowsedimentsaggradetillwavesand
currentsmovethemdownshelf,flatteningofthedepositionalprofile.Theseprofilesarenotonly
associatedwiththeoriginalaccommodationasitrelatestotheslopebutabasinwardgrainsize
decreasethatreflectsthebalancebetweeninput,redistributionandaccumulationofsediment
(Johnson,1919ReineckandSingh,1980Allen,1982Swiftetal.1991b).Theresulting"physical"
accommodationismodifiedbythis"shelfequilibriumprofile"ofSwiftandThorne(1991).Thisprofile
ofSwiftandThorne(1991)representsaconceptualsurfaceofdynamicequilibriumsimilartothe
"marineprofileofequilibrium"ofDietz(1963).Itisanexpressionofthenotionofwavebasematching
thegreatestdepthtowhichthebottomisstirredbywavesduringstorms(Rich,1951).
Thus"physical"accommodationcomprisesthespacebetweenseafloorandthe"shelfequilibrium
profile"ofSwiftandThorne(1991),andtheundaform,clinoformandfondoformsofRich(1951).In
factthe"baselevel"forsedimentaccumulationtendstomatchthe"shelfequilibriumprofile"andis
oftenconfusedwithsealevel.Thisshouldbenosurprisesincebaseleveldatumwillbeeffectively
equivalenttosealevelwhenassociatedwithoverfedsedimentarysystemslikedeltas.Conversely
the"dynamicequilibrium"betweensedimentinputandhydrodynamicpowermeanthatdeepeningof
theshelfequilibriumprofile(deltaretreat)willresultifthereisasubsequentdecreaseinsediment
supply.
Inconclusioneustasyandtotalseafloorsubsidence,aswellaschangesinhydrodynamicconditions,
governmanyofthechangesofaccommodationspace.Itshouldberecognizedthatunlikethe
accommodationofsiliciclasticsdescribedabove,theaccommodationspaceforcarbonates,is
affectedbyhydrodynamics,butalsothecapacityoforganismstoproduceandtoaccumulate
sedimentsabovecertainhydrodynamicthresholds.Thislatereffectistheecologicalaccommodation
definedbyPomar(2001aandb).
References
Allen,JRL,1982,Amodelofstormsedimentationinshallowwaterssedimentarystructures:their
characterandphysicalbasis:DevelopmentsinSedimentology,30B.Elsevier,Amsterdamp.487
506.
Catuneanu,O.,2002,Sequencestratigraphyofclasticsystems:concepts,merits,andpitfalls,
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HenryW.Posamentier,AndrStrasser,andMauriceE.Tucker,2011,"Sequencestratigraphy:
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Coe,Angela,DanBosence,KevinChurch,SteveFlint,JohnHowellandChrisWilson,(2002),
TheSedimentaryRecordofSeaLevelChange,CambridgeUniversityPress,288pp.
Curray,J.R.,1964,transgressionsandregressions,inMiller,RL,ed.,PapersinMarineGeology:
NewYork,TheMacmillanCompany,p.175203.
Dietz,R.S.,1963,Wavebase,marineprofileofequilibrium,andwavebuiltterraces:Acritical
appraisal,GeologicalSocietyofAmericaBulletin,v.74,p.971990.
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