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KSU-EDCI 763- Final Exam (Dec 10)

Assignment- ID Tutorial

Tutorial for Instructional Design


By Cong-Kai (Kyle) Jin

Content: (with hyperlinks)


I. Why is Instructional Design important?
II. Definition of Instructional Design
III. What is Instructional Design?
IV. Basic Principles of Instructional Design
V. Major Models of Instructional Design
VI. How do people learn? Some Major Learning Theories
VII. Process of Instructional Design

I. Why is instructional design important?


The purpose of instructional design is to make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more
efficient, effective and appealing (Merrill, M.D., Drake, L., Lacy, M.J., & ID2_Research Group,
1996, Retrieved from http://mdavidmerrill.com/Papers/Reclaiming.PDF). Since the principle of
instructional design is directly descended from educational psychology which was used during
World War II for development of effective training methods for complex military programs and
thus achieved successful results, well-designed instructional plans would help instructors
achieve the intended goals of education in the most effective and efficient way. Therefore,
learning instructional design is actually learning how to get the most results in education in a
systematic and scientific way so as to save time as well as resources.
Implementing instructional design expands the flexibility that people need to enjoy the
learning experience. Because instructional design, as a linking science first envisioned by John
Dewey, is a discipline that constantly looks to the finding of other disciplines to study and
improve methods of developing, delivering, and evaluating instruction and instructional
practices. That makes instructional design itself a very flexible developing process in order to

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adapt the needs of various target learners groups and to achieve desirable goals. Thus the
intention of instructional design is to keep flexibility the top priority so as to effectively facilitate
the learning of both large and the small units of subject matter at all level of complexity
(University of Michigan, 2003).
Instructional design can help instructors assess and evaluate whether people learn what
instructors hope they learn per the lesson plan. Because evaluating the results of implementing
the instructional design is the last and very important stage of any instruction plan. Only by
evaluating and assessing learners performance, can instructors to deliberate and improve the
existing instructional design in order to reinforce learning more effectively and to achieve the
intended goals of instruction more efficiently.
Therefore, learning instruction design is imperative, essential and a must for modern
educators.

II. Definition of instructional design:


According to Dr. Patricia L. Smith and Dr. Tillman J. Ragan in their book Instructional
Design published in 2005, instructional design may be currently defined as the systematic and
reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional
materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation, in order to ensure the quality of
instruction (University of Michigan, 2003) and make the acquisition of knowledge and skill
more efficient, effective and appealing (Merrill, M.D., Drake, L., Lacy, M.J., & ID2_Research
Group, 1996, Retrieved from http://mdavidmerrill.com/Papers/Reclaiming.PDF).
Sources:
1. Smith, P. L. & Ragan T. J. (2005). Instructional Design, 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley &
Sons.
2. Brown, A., & Green, T.D. (2011), The Essentials of Instructional Design (pp. 3-7), Boston,
MA: Pearson Education.
3. University of Michigan (2003). Adapted from Training and Instructional Design, Applied
Research Laboratory, Penn State University. (1996). The University of Michigan. Retrieved
December 3, 2014, from http://www.umich.edu/~ed626/define.html.
4. Wikipedia. (August 15, 2014). Instructional Design. Retrieved December 3, 2014, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_design.

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III. What is instructional design?
Instructional design, as a linking science first envisioned by John Dewey, is directly
descended from educational psychology and can be viewed as a process, a discipline, a
science and a reality, which constantly looks to the finding of other disciplines to study and
improve methods of developing, delivering, and evaluating instruction and instructional
practices. Scholars produced models to describe the instructional designing process of
analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE), and recently a few
approaches on instructional design process prefer more eclectic way to combine the five
processes mentioned above instead of formally separating them. Although some postmodern
approaches like rapid prototyping are quite popular, there is no substitute for careful planning
and evaluation in instructional design.
Instructional Design as a Process:
Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using
learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of
analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those
needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and
evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
Instructional Design as a Discipline:
Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about
instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.
Instructional Design as a Science:
Instructional design is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development,
implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both
large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity.
Instructional Design as Reality:
Instructional design can start at any point in the design process. Often a glimmer of an idea
is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. By the time the entire process is done
the designer looks back and she or he checks to see that all parts of the "science" have been
taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion.

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IV. Basic Principles of Instructional Design:
A view of the instructional design process in general is David Merrills first principles of
instruction (2002). Merrill suggests there are five basic principles that hold true for the design of
any instruction. The first principles of instruction state learning is promoted when:
1. Learners are engaged in solving real-world problems;
2. Existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge;
3. New knowledge is demonstrated to the learner;
4. New knowledge is applied by the learner;
5. New knowledge is integrated into the learners world.
Sources:
Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and
Development, 50(3), 43-59.

V. Major Models of Instructional Design:


The most popular approach to designing instruction, arguably, is to follow some variation of
what is essentially a three-step process:
1. Analyze the situation to determine what instruction is necessary and what steps need to
be taken to deliver that instruction;
2. Produce and implement the instructional design;
3. Evaluate the results of implementing the instructional design.
This tutorial will examine five major models of instructional design:
1. ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate) Process;
2. Dick and Careys Systems Approach Model;
3. Kemp, Morrison, and Mosss Instructional Design Plan;
4. OAR Model of Instructional Design in Higher Education; and,
5. Wiggins theory of Backward Design.

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ADDIE Process:
ADDIE is one of the most commonly used descriptions of instructional design. ADDIE is an
acronym for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. Although some scholars
argue that ADDIE is actually a means of describing the essential components of any
instructional design model even if many instructional practitioners use ADDIE as a prescriptive
model for developing instruction, scholars generally agree that ADDIE is a process-illustration
of the essential steps in instructional
process, thus making ADDIE the
most fundamental instructional
design model which is particularly
useful as a framework for comparing
and contrasting more formally and
completely developed instructional
design models.

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Dick and Careys Systems Approach Model:
This model, published in 1978 by Walter Dick and Lou Carey, champions a systems view of
instruction, in contrast to defining instruction as the sum of isolated parts. It addresses
instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context (such as the
learners and the environment in which the instruction as to be offered), content, learning and
instruction. According to Dick and Carey, Components such as the instructors, learners,
materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments
interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning
outcomes. Dick and Careys model was designed to emphasize the importance of examining
and refining the instruction and provides guidance for making improvements.

Stage Flow in Dick & Careys System Approach Model:


Stage 1: Conduct Needs Analysis to Identify Instructional Goals;
Stage 2: Conduct Instructional/Content/Subject-matter/Learning-task Analysis;
Stage 3: Conduct Learner and Context Analysis to Identify Entry Behaviors and Learner
Characteristics;
Stage 4: Write Performance Objectives;
Stage 5: Develop Assessment Instruments and Criterion-Referenced Test Items;
Stage 6: Develop Instructional Strategy;
Stage 7: Develop and Select Instructional Materials;

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Stage 8: Develop and Conduct Formative Evaluation;
Stage 9: Develop and Conduct Summative Evaluation.

Kemp, Morrison, and Mosss Instructional Design Plan:


This model can be expressed as nine elements:
1. Identify instructional problems and specify goals for designing instruction.
2. Examine learner characteristics that will influence your instructional decisions.
3. Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.
4. Specify the instructional objectives.
5. Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.
6. Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.
7. Plan the instructional message and develop the instruction,
8. Develop evaluation instruments to assess the objectives.
9. Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.

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OAR Model of Instructional Design in Higher Education:
The Objectives-Resources-Activities (OAR) model is an instructional design model created
for a specific context: distance education courses delivered through a learning management
system (LMS) in higher education.
This model, a visual tool representing the components of online courses in higher education
and their relationship to each other, was developed to meet four criteria:
1. Maintain a strict focus on particular
learning system context;
2. Create a simple graphic-based aid
which facilitates communication
among design stakeholders;
3. Remain inclusive by avoiding
the use of jargon, and;
4. Represent the basic order of
operations in ID process.

Wiggins theory of Backward Design:


Backward design is an instructional design model which sets goals before choosing
instructional methods and forms of assessment. Backward design typically involves three
stages:
1. Identify the results desired;
2. Determine acceptable levels of evidence that support the desired results have occurred;
3. Design activities that will make desired results happen.
In backward design, the instructor starts with goals, plans out assessments then finally
makes lesson plans. Supporters of backward design liken the process to using a "road map",
i.e., the destination is chosen first and then the road map is used to plan the trip to the desired
destination.

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VI. How do people learn? Some Major Learning Theories:


Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and postmodernism are major perspectives
influencing instructional designers view on peoples cognition/thinking. Behavioral, cognitivist
and constructivist approaches are also dominating perspectives to the studies of how people
learn. Behaviorism argues learning is a result of a change in behavior as a result of experience;
congitivism argues learning is a change in mental representations and associations resulting
from experience; constructivism argues learners use their knowledge to construct a personally
meaningful understanding of new content that is the focus of learning. It is important that none
of these approaches should be used exclusively. Understanding different and often very
divergent perspectives on how people think will provide insights into how people learn, and
understanding how people learn is a key element in instructional design.
The fact that there are so many competing learning theories nowadays makes the point
there is no single learning theory so far that is absolutely true, accurate, persuasive or powerful

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enough to explain everything regarding the question of how people learn so as to exclude other
theories and dominate the field. Although these learning theories are majorly different in their
research focuses and scopes, none of these learning theories can provide a completely
satisfactory explanation on how people really learn. Therefore, no single learning theory can
best explain everything regarding the questions of how people think and learn. However, it is
important for instructional designers to examine various learning theories like
behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism, from a pragmatic point of view: knowing
how to extract and accommodate useful elements of different learning theories to
practical curriculum designing process so as to help students learn more effectively and
efficiently. For example, taking behavioral approach in teaching language might be more
effective sometimes than taking cognitive one.
Linda Darling-Hammond, Kim Austin, Suzanne Orcutt, and Jim Rosso of Stanford
Universitys School of Education provided quite complete, concise and easy-to-understand
description on the development of learning theories in human history in their article How People
Learn: introduction to learning theories in December, 2001 (Retrieved December 3, 2014, from
http://web.stanford.edu/class/ed269/hplintrochapter.pdf) and state that today teachers utilize a
variety of classroom practices that are based on all of these ideas about learning. Contemporary
learning theory recognizes the role that both experience and reflection play in the development
of ideas and skills. Researchers and practitioners appreciate that reinforcement and practice
play a role in the development of skills, and so do cognitive intent, effort, and reasoning. They
acknowledge the importance of developmental stages; they also recognize that development
can also be encouraged through social interaction and the structuring of experiences within the
learners zone of proximal development or readiness sphere. Modern learning theories
incorporate the role of culture and other influences on experience in views of how people
construct their understandings and develop their abilities.
Most importantly, Linda Darling-Hammond and others raised a very important point
regarding learning theories and instructional design: contemporary theories also recognize that
the content matters the nature of the disciplines has much to do with how they are learned
and best taught. In large part because of differences in underlying views of the purposes of
education, debates continue about best teaching practices. There is greater appreciation of the
fact that different strategies are useful for different kinds of learning. It is most productive to
think of these issues in terms of what kind of learning is sought in what contexts and
then deliberate about what strategies may be most appropriate for those goals. In short,

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the point is to consider which learning theory best applies to the particular type of learning task
at hand.
Constructivism, for instance, is one of the popular learning theories practiced by modern
educators, although Dr. George E. Hein argued in 1991 in his Constructivist
Learning Theory(http://www.exploratorium.edu/ifi/resources/constructivistlearning.html) that
there is nothing dramatically new in constructivism: the core ideas expressed by it have been
clearly enunciated by John Dewey among others, but there is a new, widespread acceptance of
this old set of ideas, and new research in cognitive psychology to support it.
For constructivism, a learning theory emerged over the past three decades and having
tremendous impact on learning, is derived from cognitivism which, along with behaviorism, is
considered as one of the most influential and popular perspectives in learning theories,
constructivism does provide a larger scope and accommodation on research efforts to explain
how people learn.
According to Concept to Classroom: Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and
Learning developed by Educational Broadcasting Corporation at website
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/, constructivism says that:
1. People construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing
things and reflecting on those experiences. When we encounter something new, we have to
reconcile it with our previous ideas and experience, maybe changing what we believe, or
maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. In any case, we are active creators of
our own knowledge. To do this, we must ask questions, explore, and assess what we know.
2. In the classroom, the constructivist view of learning can point towards a number of different
teaching practices. In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use
active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and
then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is
changing. The teacher makes sure she understands the students' preexisting conceptions,
and guides the activity to address them and then build on them.
3. Constructivist teachers encourage students to constantly assess how the activity is helping
them gain understanding. By questioning themselves and their strategies, students in the
constructivist classroom ideally become "expert learners." This gives them ever-broadening
tools to keep learning. With a well-planned classroom environment, the students learn HOW
TO LEARN. You might look at it as a spiral. When they continuously reflect on their

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experiences, students find their ideas gaining in complexity and power, and they develop
increasingly strong abilities to integrate new information.
4. One of the teacher's main roles becomes to encourage this learning and reflection process.
Therefore, for Constructivism practitioners, teacher acts as a facilitator.

VII. Process of Instructional Design:


Using ADDIE process and Dick and Careys Systems Approach Model for example:

Stage 1: Conduct Needs Analysis to Identify Instructional Goals;


Stage 2: Conduct Instructional/Content/Subject-matter/Learning-task Analysis;
Stage 3: Conduct Learner and Context Analysis to Identify Entry Behaviors and Learner
Characteristics;

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Stage 4: Write Performance Objectives;
Stage 5: Develop Assessment Instruments and Criterion-Referenced Test Items;
Stage 6: Develop Instructional Strategy;
Stage 7: Develop and Select Instructional Materials;
Stage 8: Develop and Conduct Formative Evaluation;
Stage 9: Develop and Conduct Summative Evaluation.

Stage 1. Conduct Needs Analysis to Identify Instructional Goals

Instructional Goal: Desirable state of affairs by instruction. This is simply a description of


the purpose of your instructional design. What is the instruction supposed to accomplish
or teach?

Needs Analysis: Analysis of a discrepancy between an instructional goal and the present
state of affairs or a personal perception of needs.

According to Dr. Abbie Brown and Timothy D. Green in their book The Essentials of
Instructional Design (2011), needs analysis is defined as an early step-if not the first stepin the instructional design process to identify the change that is requested and the different
variables surrounding this change. These variables include identifying the desired change
that needs to occur, who wants the change to occur, and in what environment this change
should occur.

Brown and Green also outlined some popular approaches to needs analysis as followed:
1. Performance Analysis by Robert F. Mager;
2. Needs Assessment, Goal Analysis and Performance Assessment by Gary R.
Morrison, Steven M. Ross, and Jerrold E. Kemp;
3. 5-step process Needs Analysis by Allison Rossett; and
4. Discrepancy-Based Needs Assessment Model, Problem-Finding, Problem-Solving
Model, and Innovation Model by Patricia L. Smith and Tillman J. Ragan.

Brown and Green argued that:

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1. Although these methods vary in how they are carried out, each shares the common
goal of providing an instructional designer with the appropriate data that helps inform
and influence the design and development of an effective and efficient solution. This
solution is one that helps solve a problem or bring about some type of change-typically,
an improvement in performance to knowledge, skill and/or attitudes. A needs analysis
is conducted using various data gathering tools to help answer fundamental questions.
2. Evaluating the success of a needs analysis is accomplished by using a combination of
formative and summative evaluation techniques to determine if an instructional designer
created the best possible solution, which helped solved a problem that exists, meet a
given need, or brought about a desired change.
Needs analysis requires project manager/planner/designer to answer fundamental questions
regarding 4Ws:
1. What is the problem or intended goal for change? Is it skill deficiency or lack of
motivation?
2. Who is requesting the change? Who is being asked to change?
3. Where will the solution or change need to take place?
4. Whether there really is a problem? Whether training/instruction is the most appropriate
means for solving the problem?
To answer above-mentioned questions for needs analysis, planner/designer needs to gather
data by using various tools. Thus surveying technique plays a crucial role in needs analysis.
Also, formative and summative evaluation techniques are required to determine the success
of a needs analysis. Therefore, it appears that surveying and evaluation techniques play
decisive roles in conducting the needs analysis.

Stage 2. Conduct Instructional/Content/Subject-matter/Learning-task Analysis

Purpose: To determine the skills involved in reaching a goal.

Task Analysis (procedural analysis): about the product of which would be a list of steps
and the skills used at each step in the procedure.

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Information-Processing Analysis: about the mental operations used by a person who has
learned a complex skills.

Learning-Task Analysis: about the objectives of instruction that involve intellectual skills.

This type of analysis is generally developed via flowchart. It provides a very clear
picture of how the instruction needs to proceed as well as a clear statement about what
skills or knowledge is necessary before the learner starts the instruction. The flowchart
usually looks like this:

Blue Box: Instructional Goal/Statement of Purpose.


Green Boxes: Entry Level Behaviors.

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Pink Boxes: Main performance objectives or skills.
Purple Boxes: Sub-objectives or sub-skills which must be completed in order to reach main
objective/skill.
Please notice that the flowchart isnt really for making any decisions (thats why all the
boxes are rectangular). The chart simply communicates the nature of the instructional task and
is read bottom to top, left to right. Notice that box 4.1 has an arrow pointing to box 4.2. This
means that the learner must do 4.1 before moving on to 4.2. The arrows from boxes 1.1, 1.2,
1.3 and 1.4 point directly to the 1 box. This means that the order that they are completed is not
important to accomplishing task 1. When order of completion is important, use arrows to
indicate the flow of instruction. If all the sub-parts can be completed in any order (as long as
they get done) then the arrows from them point to their corresponding main objective boxes.

Stage 3. Conduct Learner and Context Analysis to Identify Entry Level Behaviors and
Learner Characteristics

Purpose: To determine which of the required enabling skills the learners bring to the
learning task. These are behaviors, skills, or knowledge, which the learner must already
possess. If they dont have these entry level behaviors then the instruction will not fit
their needs and accomplish what it was intended to accomplish.

Intellectual skills.

Abilities such as verbal comprehension and spatial orientation.

Traits of personality.

List these behaviors to the extreme left of aforementioned flowchart and then draw a
vertical dotted line.

Stage 4. Write Performance Objectives

Purpose: To translate the needs and goals into specific and detailed objectives

Functions:

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Determining whether the instruction related to its goals;
Focusing the lesson planning upon appropriate conditions of learning;
Guiding the development of measures of learner performance;
Assisting learners in their study efforts.

Stage 5. Develop Assessment Instruments and Criterion-Referenced Test Items

To diagnose an individual possessions of the necessary prerequisites for learning new


skills.

To check the results of student learning during the process of a lesson.

To provide document of students progress for parents or administrators.

Useful in evaluating the instructional system itself (Formative/ Summative evaluation).

Early determination of performance measures before development of lesson plan and


instructional materials.

Stage 6. Develop Instructional Strategy

Purpose: To outline how instructional activities will relate to the accomplishment of the
objectives.

The best lesson design: Demonstrating knowledge about the learners, tasks reflected in
the objectives, and effectiveness of teaching strategies.
E.g. Choice of delivering system:
Teacher-led, Group-paced vs. Learner-centered, Learner-paced.

Stage 7. Develop and Select Instructional Materials

Purpose: To select printed or other media intended to convey events of instruction.

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Use of existing materials when it is possible.

Need for development of new materials, otherwise.

Role of teacher: It depends on the choice of delivery system.

Stage 8. Develop and Conduct Formative Evaluation

Purpose: To provide data for revising and improving instructional materials

To revise the instruction so as to make it as effective as possible for larger number of


students.

One on One: One evaluator sitting with one learner to interview.

Small Group.

Field Trial.

Stage 9. Develop and Conduct Summative Evaluation

Purpose: To study the effectiveness of system as a whole.

Conducted after the system has passed through its formative stage.

Small scale/ Large Scale.

Short period/ Long period.

Regarding formative and summative learner evaluation:


1. Learner evaluation can take place at different times during instruction-typically, prior to
instruction, during instruction, and after instruction has been completed.
2. Conducting learner evaluation prior to and during instruction is formative learner
evaluation because we are trying to determine how learners are progressing.
3. Learner evaluation conducted after instruction is completed is summative learner
evaluation to determine how successful a learner was.

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4. A well-designed learner evaluation will include both formative and summative elements.

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References

1. Briggs, L. J., Gustafson, K. L. & Tellman, M. H., Eds. (1991). Instructional Design: Principles
and Applications, 2nd edition. Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
2. Brown, A., & Green, T.D. (2011), The Essentials of Instructional Design (pp. 3-7), Boston,
MA: Pearson Education.
3. Dick, W. & Cary, L. (1990). The Systematic Design of Instruction, 3rd edition. Harper Collins.
4. Edmonds, G. S., Branch, R. C., & Mukherjee, P. (1994). A conceptual framework for
comparing instructional design models. Educational Research and Technology, 42(2), 55-72.
5. Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J. & Wagner, W. W. (1992). Principles of Instructional Design, 4th
edition. Holt, Reihhart, and Winston Inc.
6. Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and
Development, 50(3), 43-59.
7. Smith, P. L. & Ragan T. J. (2005). Instructional Design, 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley &
Sons.
8. University of Michigan (2003). Adapted from Training and Instructional Design, Applied
Research Laboratory, Penn State University. (1996). The University of Michigan. Retrieved
from http://www.umich.edu/~ed626/define.html.
9. Wikipedia. (August 15, 2014). Instructional Design. Retrieved September 3, 2014, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_design.

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