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. ..

02.00.02

:

..

2014

10

1. .

11

1.1.

11

1.2.

20

1.3.

29

1.4.

34

46

2. , ,

48

2.1. ,

48

2.2.

57

2.2.1.

57

2.2.2.

61

3.

69

3.1. -

70

3.2.

82

3.2.1.

83

3.2.2.

84

3.3. ,

88

92

4.

93

103

5.
-

104

5.1.

107

5.2.

108

5.3.

118

5.3.1.

132

5.3.2.

134

5.4.

136

141

6.

143

6.1.

144

6.2. -

148

6.3.

149

155

156

158


() ,

. ,

86-90%, 95-97%.

, , ,
.

400 / (, ,
.), , , , ,
, (V, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mg .),
, (, N, F .).
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
( 500 2/ 100),
- ,
. .



( ).


- -
(- -).
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.

().
,

, .
, ,

(Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cr, Fe, Zn, Ba, Pb, Al, Si). , V Ni
.

,
.


,
,
( ).

( )
. :

,
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;

- ;

-
(-);

(-)

;


(-);

.

1. ()
.
2.

(-,

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,
(fingerprint) .
3.
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4.

.
5.
(
).

1.

-
, 30 .
2.
.
3.

-
.
4.


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-
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;
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-

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,
(
).

(,

2009);

II


(,

2010);

III


(, 2011); -2011
(, 2011); XIX
(, 2011); Euroanalysis 2011 (,
2011); (,
2012); V - (
) ISSE-2012 (, 2012);
12-

(, , 2012); (, 2013).

4 10
.


, , ,

187

, 55 , 32 289
.

10


;
;
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;
;
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;
;
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;
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.

11

1. .


1.1.

, , (, , ,
.) [1]. 90% -
,
.
: , .
,
.


.
(), (), ()
() ,
.

, -, ,
60 % [2].
,

()
() [3].
,
6568 [4], [5] 78. -,
C36H74 [6].

12

[6] -
C10C14 -. ,
- [7].
[2, 812]. [13, 14], ,
, ,
, -
; , 1 3

-;

,
.
[2, 15]. ,
,
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56 [16], - [18] 78 .
- -
,
5 [17, 19, 20].
.
- [2123],
, 500 C, ,
:

C>C>C>>C>C.

[24].

, -

13

[17].

[18].
,
,
, .
- ,
CHNS-O
(S, N, ), 35 .
S N ,
,
[2527].
.

[28]. ( )
,
[2930].

45 [18, 31, 32].

2,3-

3,4-

.


. 1,2- 3,4-, , 1,2,5,6, 1,12- [33].
, 58

[17].

14



- - [34].
, ,
700 1000 ... ,
.
[3537].
,
.
,
[38, 39].
() ,
[25].

. (0,50,15)% (1,00,2)%
,
(5,10,4)%.

[40, 41],


() [42, 43].
()
, .
, .
,
,
, ,
[25, 44].

15

,
,
[14].
, , ,
.
,
, ,
.

[2, 11, 45].

, ,
- , ,
, .
.
F, Ni, V, r, Mg, . [2, 11, 44,
4649], : ;
, ;
; ;

[17].

[46, 50].
[48, 50],
(
) ( ).
,
. (7987 c. %) ,
12 c. % [2, 34, 51].
,

[34, 5254]. [55],

16

,
.
[17] ,

, .
,
[56],
.

,
.
,
,
[2, 17, 35, 36, 45, 57, 58].

(4001200), ,
, [17, 59].
,
,

[45].


[2, 60, 61].
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,
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[17, 62].

17

. [17, 58], ,
( ) [29],
.

C-S,

-,

,
-

. , ,

-,

-,

,
(
, ),
,

.
,


[2, 13, 45, 6365].
1214

[65, 66].

: 853 8,10,7 . %
:, 1,150,05 [17, 62].

, S>O>N [62,
67]. [68],
. [2, 29]
[61, 6972] ,

18

(, , ),
.

1015
[73],
[74].

[75, 76],
.
[75].
[76]

[77].

[78-80]
[81].
95% ;
[82]. ,

-
[83].
-
[84]:

.
,

[62].

19

,
-

(,
-,

) [43, 85].
S, N V,
F, , 1, Ni, Si, , , g, Zn, r, . [29, 44, 86, 87].
60 .


[46, 88]; ,
.
,
, 23 ,
( 2000 140000 ...) [2, 45, 61].
, ,
( ) [17, 89].


[2, 45].
2000 ... ,

[62].
[17] ,
400500 ..., .. ,
.
-

[17, 9094] ,

20

,
37 ,

[95]
,
,
.
[92, 9698]
,

.
412 .
, -,
,
,
,
[99, 100].
1.2 .
, :
400 / (, ,
.), , , ,
, , (V, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mg
.), , (, N, F .) [1].
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,

, ,
.

21

,
-.
1 ,
,
[101119].
.
,
.
-,
.
1.


16


,





(,
,
)


1337982,
2555982
1774972,
ASTM D 1840
699474
105788
899789
ASTM D 705904
ASTM D 288702,
IP 480/2002, ASTM D 635298
IP 391/95, EN 12916,
IP 436/98, ASTM D 6379
IP 344
519302002,
ASTM D 6277
IP 469

22

, . ,
[120] (

, )
,

.

- [121, 122]. ,
-
, ()
() [123].
-
,
,
.

( 2). ,
,
, .

[124],
, , ,
.

, 2510-3 / 25
(, , -

-,

).

23

- -
[125].
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-, -,
,
n--M ( - )
,


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( + )
,
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.
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.

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.
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[1]. 1 3

24

. ,
.

25

3
1.
() - (),

()

, - () [126
130].
1967 , , ,
.
,
. ,

.
,

26

. 3
,

[130]. ,

Cu, Fe, Pb, V Ni.
3.

[130]

u, Fe, Ni, , ,
Pb, V

Ni, Zn

u, Fe, Ni, ,
V

-
- (1:1)



(, ,

, , )

Ca, K. Na,
Pb, V

Ni, V

, ,

--

Co, Fe

- (2:1)

27


,
()
. ,
: ,
(), , ,
200 / 100. ,
( 500 2/ 100).

4[127, 128,
131 138].

, [139
141]. ,
,
- : -
[142149], - [150155],
[156160], [161164].

28

4.

ASTM D 58631

Ni, V, Fe, Na

ASTM D 49512

Ba, B, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mo, P,


S, Zn

ASTM D 51843

Al, Si

ASTM D 36054

Na, Pb, Ca, V

ASTM D 46285

Ba, Ca, Mg, Zn

ASTM D 71116
ASTM D 5185-057
IP 470 8
9

Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li,


Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K,
Na, Si, Ag, Ti, V, Zn
Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe,
Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, S, K,
Na, Si, Ag, Ti, V, Zn
Al, Si, V, Ni, Fe, Ca, Zn
and Na
V, Ni, Fe, Na, Cu, K

-
-

, /
150

,/
~1

10150

~ 10

5250

510

0.1100

0.11

0.1100

0.11

0.1100

0.12

2160

~ 10

1150

110


0.150
0.10.3

52666-2006 10
Ba, Ca, Mg, Zn

0.0021 . %
~ 10

1 Ni, V, Fe, Na ; 2 Ba, B, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mo, P, S, Zn


- ; 3 Al Si ; 4
; 5 Ba, Ca, Mg Zn ;6 ; 7 Al, Ba, B,
Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, S, K, Na, Si, Ag, Ti, V, Zn ; 8 Al, Si, V, Ni, Fe, Ca, Zn and Na
; 9 ; 10 Ba, Ca, Mg, Zn .
UOP 391

29

1.3.

. ,
,

, ,
, , , [129];
.

, .


/

[165, 166].
,
.
- , -
,
.

,
,

.
.

30


(),

()
,

,
().

,
.

[167169, 170].

, ,

[171].


()
[172].
, ,
[173] [174],
[175], [176], [177].

1988-1989 [178]
[179].
() [180], - [181], Cs
Sr [182].
[183]. Am Eu [182],
- [183].

31


, ,
,
[184],
[170].
( ),

. ,

, [185].
2.


;

(= r/R, r
, R ).
=

r
R

2.

32

R
[186];
,
r ,
(
, ) [187].
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[188]),

( I ).

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[188, 190, 191],

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[188, 190, 191]. ,
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33

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[192].
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34

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35

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0,2 100 ;
30 60 ;
.
[203, 204].

.

U(R)

(, ) R
[197, 202]. ,
.
U(R)
,

, ,
:
U(R)=ke-k0Rk1R-1k2R-2k3R-3k4R-4k5R-5-k6R-6,

(1)

k / (, );
R ;
e ,
.

36

ke-k0R .
() ( )
.
() . -,
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.
k1R-1 ,
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k2R-2 ( ,

).

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k3R-3 .
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37

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k6R-6 (--),
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k3R-3,

k4R-4k5R-5

-,

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38

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,

(. 3).
[205].

1) ; 2) ; 3)

3. () ()

39

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) ,

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[199].
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[212].

[2,

17,

34]

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40

[212,

213]

[207].


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.
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[214-216].

. [217]

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.
, 103183 /,
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41

( 2060).

73 /

, 10
32 /, 4 26 /.,
,

320%, 5
15%. ,

[218].

,


() .
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.

,

(
t=120).
,
[219].
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, -
[220].

42

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),
[221]. ,
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.
( ) 4,93
4,271018 /.

,

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. 95 200
2,5 .

, , , , .


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43

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(-),
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). 2,6 8,21018 /.
58%. [222].
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[223].
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( /), .

.
[224].
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[225].

123,6

[226, 227].

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11004500
(2560)

44


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[228, 229]. ,
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0 0,34 2 10 [230].
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45

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46


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47

2.
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48

2. , ,

2.1.

, , 56.

380400, 400
420 560. 715.
ASTMD
2892

ASTMD

5236


EuroDistPotstill (. 4).

5 .

.

,
-
16.

49

5.
- ,

15, /
,
..
,
%
100
120
150
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

20, 2/

40, 2/
,


,
, %
, %
, /
, /
, /

, /
, %

, %
, %
, /
, %
, %
(), %

,
/3

, / (ppm)

857,0

870,8

864,0

53,0

40,0

45,2

3,0
5,5
12,0
14,0
18,5
22,5
26,5
12,0
14,0
18,5
22,5
26,5

6,0
9,0
14,0
16,0
19,0
22,5
26,0
29,0
33,0
36,5
40,5

7,0
9,5
12,0
15,0
17,5
21,5
24,0
27,5
31,0
36,0
40,0

ASTMD 445

11,87

17,37

21,15

ASTMD 445

9,486

13,42

10,97

ASTMD 97

- 21

- 21

- 18

ASTMD 56

< - 10,0

< - 10,0

< - 10,0

ASTMD 4294
ASTMD 4006

UOP 163

0,493
0,075
15
6
12
86,0

1,56
0,075
37
10
7
55,0

1,55
0,1
63
7
15
60

IP 143

1,0

< 0,50

0,7

ASTM D 473

ASTM D 664
11851
ASTM D 482
ASTMD 4530

0,01
0,078

0,01
0,150

0,01
0,100

0,11
2,8
0,003
3,03

0,15
6,5
0,009
7,08

0,11
0,005
5,08

21534

2,0

7,0

31

ASTM D 4929

< 1,0

< 1,0

< 1,0

ASTMD 1298
2177

50

6.
- ,


20,

1018
1008
1025
3
/
22524-77
, %
ASTMD
2,69
2,35
0,83

4294


1247
857
766
6258-85
100, 2/

7.
- 380400

15, /3
, %
, /

, %

,

,
, %
,
,

,

50, 2/

80, 2/

100, 2/
, /:
-
-
-
(), %


ASTMD 4052
ASTMD 4294
UOP 163
IP 391

882,0
0,517
<1
28,7

ASTM D 92

206

ASTMD 93

186,5


ASTMD 97
ASTMD 2500
IP 309

0,053
15
19
30

ASTMD 445

36,39

ASTMD 445

15,19

ASTMD 445

8,04

IP 470

ASTM D 4530

<1
< 10
<1
< 0,10

51

8.
- 400420


3
15, /
ASTMD 4052
, %
ASTMD 4294
, /
UOP 163

, %

ASTM D 92
,

ASTMD 93
,
,
ASTMD 97
, %

2
50, /
ASTMD 445
2
80, /
ASTMD 445
2
100, /
ASTMD 445
, /:
IP 470
-
-
-
(), %
ASTM D 4530

893,0
0,528
<1
29,1
216
210,5
24
0,050
18,02
7,040
4,488
<1
< 10
<1
< 0,1
9.

- 420440

15, /3
, %
, /

, %

,

,
, %
,
50, 2/
80, 2/
100, 2/
, /:
-
-
-
(), %


ASTMD 4052
ASTMD 4294
UOP 163

904,7
0,530
<1

29,5

ASTM D 92

242

ASTMD 93

236,5


ASTMD 97
ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445

0,072
30
30,64
10,42
6,237

IP 470
ASTM D 4530

<1
< 10
<1
< 0,1

52

10.
- 440460

15, /3
, %

, %
,

,
, %
50, 2/
80, 2/
100,
2/
, /:
-
-
-
(), %

ASTMD 4052
ASTMD 4294

911,9
0,578
30,4

ASTM D 92

244

ASTMD 93

238,5

ASTMD 97

ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445

33
0,053
47,63
14,46
8,208

IP 470

ASTM D 4530

<1
< 10
<1
< 0,1
11.

- 460480

15, /3
, %

, %

ASTMD 4052
ASTMD 4294

919,4
0,560
30,1

ASTM D 92

257

ASTMD 93

244,0


ASTMD 97
ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445
IP 470

0,099
36
68,71
18,85
10,22

, %
,
50, 2/
80, 2/
100, 2/
, /:
-
-
-
(), %

ASTM D 4530

<1
< 10
<1
< 0,1

53

12.
- 480500

15, /3
, %
,
%


ASTMD 4052
ASTMD 4294

921,0
0,485
29,7

,
,
, %

ASTM D 92
ASTMD 93

ASTMD 97
ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445
IP 470

260
249,5
0,118

,
50, 2/
80, 2/
100, 2/
, /:
-
-
-
(), %

ASTM D 4530

39
91,09
23,42
13,21
<1
< 10
<1
0,20
13.

- 500520

15, /3
, %

, %
,
,
, %
,
80, 2/
100, 2/
, /:
-
-
-
(), %


ASTMD 4052
ASTMD 4294

922,8
0,423
29,3

ASTM D 92
ASTMD 93

ASTMD 97
ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445
IP 470

262
254,5
0,120

ASTM D 4530

42
29,01
14,76
<1
< 10
<1
0,39

54

14.
- 520540

15, /3
, %
,
%
,
,
, %
80, 2/
100, 2/
, /:
-
-
-
(), %

ASTMD 4052
ASTMD 4294

ASTM D 92
ASTMD 97

ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445
IP 470

280
49
0,166

ASTM D 4530

927,4
0,345
29,0

41,73
20,09
<1
< 10
<1
0,88
15.

- 540560

15, /3
, %
,
%
,
, %
,
80, 2/
100 , 2/
, /:
-
-
-
(), %

ASTMD 4052
ASTMD 4294

ASTM D 92

ASTMD 97

294
0,190

ASTMD 445
ASTMD 445
IP 470

61,41
28,01

ASTM D 4530

933,8
0,239
28,1

54

<1
< 10
<1
1,79

55

16.
/
, /3
(20)

, 2/ (20)

0,8611

22,59

0,7730
0,8040
0,8209
0,8342
0,8510

1,253
2,399
3,294
4,900
11,83

0,998

1,01

NO3 1,0M

1,05

1,41

150200
200250
240260
260280
300350

4. EuroDistPotstill

56

.
(..).
.


( 18,2 ),
Milli-Q (Millipore, ),
65% HNO3 (Merck, ).

- .. (, ) - .. (,
).

- 99% (Panreac, ), ..
(, ), - 95% (Panreac, ), ..
(, ), .. (Panreac, ).
0,52,0
.
. (..),
- (..) (..).
. (
-)
Conostan ()
900 / (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na,
Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, Ti, V, Zn) .
(
-)
ICP-MS-68A Solution A (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn,
Ni, Na, V, Zn . 10 / 0.5% 2%- HNO3) ICP-MS-68ASolutionB
(Sb, Mo, Sn, Ti, W . 10 / 0.5% 2%- HNO3 TrHF
).

57

2.2.
2.2.1.

17.
17.




0,52,0


(
)

(-, ,
-, )

-
-

iCAP

6500

DuoThermoScientific ISOMIST.


:

58

iCAP 6500 DuoThermo Scientific ISOMIST


, , 1250 .
: 16 /, 1,0 /,
0,15 /. .

Agilent 7500c
().
Agilent Tuning solution, Li, Y, Ce, Tl, Co (10 /) 2%- HNO3.

156

CeO+/140Ce+

(137Ba2+/137Ba+)

- ( ).
Agilent 7500c , ,
1500 . :
15 /, 0,8 /,
1,2 /.
(, /)
:
C=

(A A ) V ,
m

A (/),
A
,
V , m (
, ).

0,3 5 ()
0,15 >5 .

59

Agilent 6890N
Agilent 5973N.
HP5ms (Agilent, ) 30 0,25 .
95%- 5%
, (
0,52 ).
:
- ;
- 0,7 /;
( split) 35,8 / (50:1);
250;
35, 10 ;
6/ 250;
250 10 ;
- ( ) 25,0 ;
1,0 .

SCAN (
).
-:
150;
230;
(solvent delay) 2,25 ;
25450 ...;
2,36 /;
20 .

60

, , ( NIST-98 Wiley).

()

- ()

MK-6S

IATROSCAN.

IP 469/01.
,
(10 /).
1 .
ChromarodS III.
DT-150.
/ :
1 100% (70 )/10 (20);
2 100% (70 )/6 (20);
3 : (67:3 )/2,5 (20).

70 2 2
.
: 160 /, 2,0 /,
30 /;
.

()

ThermoFinniganTraceGCUltra 2000.

61

:
- ;
- 0,7 /;
350;
25, 2 ;
20/ 350;
35025 ;
- ( ) 25,0 ;
1,0 .

2.2.2.

()

.

-3M (
, -, )
(VC) 19 (. 5).

(Masterflex,

)
( ) . 0,51,0
HNO3.
18.

62

5. -3M
18.

3
VC,
VS, 3
19
119


Beta

.
, /
750

= r/R
0,65; 0,4

F, /
0,51,2

d,
0,8; 1,6

10 0,51,0 HNO3,

-.
, ,
.
( )
-
.
-,
.

.
Z513
(VC) 30 (. 6).

63

(Masterflex,

)
.
19.

6.
19.

VC, 3
30

Beta

, /
= r/R
d,
15002000
0,4
1,6

(. 16 2), 13 ,
(4 1,0 M HNO3),
.
1 .


(ThermoFinniganTraceGCUltra 2000 (SimDist)).

64



-04 --2 ().
0,5 10 HNO3 .. (Merck, )
( 4
(1 160, 1 180, 2 200),
50 .
-. In.


.
100.
1 100 , 10, 30 60
(, -, -, -, ),
515 (
).
1 .
.
250
30 60 (, -, -, -,
).
.
3090 .

.

100 .

65

-919

7.

-919.

, .
.
8 20.
t,
,
:
t = 6,4

B 2
D 10 9 c
H

, ;
, /;
, -1,
D , .
9.

1025103 /.

ELMASONIC -200-5
0,7 3-200. 5 , 40 P (0,4 /).

66

- (); -
,
; ;
;

; 1 -
; 2
( ); 3
; 4 -
; - ,
2 r2; r3 - ; V

7.

67

19.

(- )
(2)

1,2

(4)

(6)

(8)

(10)

(12)

30

,
,
,
,


,
,
,
,

68

8.
)

9.

69

3.
,
, .
, ,
,

,
,
,
,
.

,
(Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cr, Fe, Zn, Ba, Pb, Al, Si).
V Ni
.

.

.
,
: ,

.

,
,
[236].

70

,
.
,
[237].
,
.

-
[238].
,

-.
3.1. -

, 70- ,

- [239241].

, , , , .
-

,
.
-
.

71


.

: (
-, -
-), ,
. . , - ,
, ,
, ,
.

iCAP 6500DUO
:
1.

(
).
2.

(I).
3.

Sr,


(I=I+ I).
4.

().

, ,
, .
: ,
, ,
.
.
Sr

72

S-21
. Sr ,
S-21, 4- 4-
, I
.
,

2+, 2+ ArC+.
.
ISOMIST.
-, 2,
, .
-
.

0,
, , [242,
243]. 5
,
.


.

-.

Sr 19
(. 21).
, [244]:
=kCSr,
k=2 P=0,95;

73

, I=2I,.
Sr, I
(Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Sn, Ti,
V, Zn), 0,0020,02, 0,01.
(. 21) ,
-.

- .
21.

- (P=0,95)

Ag
Al
Ba
Ca
Cd
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Ni
Pb
Si
Sn
Ti
V
Zn

328,068
308,215
455,403
317,930
228,802
357,869
324,754
259,940
279,553
257,610
204,598
818,326
221,647
283,307
212,412
283,999
334,941
309,311
213,856

I
I
II
II
I
I
I
II
II
II
II
I
II
I
I
I
II
II
I

, /

-
0,0156
0,0060
0,0155
0,0302
0,0004
0,0003
0,0011
0,0010
0,0069
0,0040
0,0119
0,0050
0,0100
0,0080
0,0104
0,0040
0,0004
0,0002
0,0019
0,0008
0,0105
0,0090
0,0008
0,0010
0,0075
0,0022
0,0062
0,0057
0,0043
0,0057
0,0049
0,0047
0,0030
0,0020
0,0053
0,0030
0,0080
0,0030

-
- (33 /; 17

74

/, 11 /).
.

( ).
22, , ,
, ,

.

. ,
.
22.
(17 /)
- - (/)

(n= 3, P = 0,95)

Mg
Al

279,553
308,215

Ca
V
Ni
Zn

317,930
309,311
221,647
213,856

0,30,1
0,20,1
3,80,9
3,50,8

0,20,1
0,20,1
2,70,5
3,00,6

1,00,3
903
305
2,00,4

0,80,2
914
286
1,70,3

1,00,2
643
223
1,00,2

0,90,3
664
223
0,80,3

90

15

90

15

,
, . [242]

75

CNC2CS>OH>NO()>CH>NHCCl,
. 190300

NO- 204,7; 215,49; 226,94; 237,02;


259,57 272,22 .
,
193,09; 199,36
247,86 2 232,0 .
350 ,
,
CN-, 2 .
- iCAP 6500DUO
. -,
190345 ,
. ,
2
Ni 231,604 , ,
Ni
. Ni
221,647 . , ,
, 23.

.
24
Ni, V Fe. ,

()

76

17
/.

23.

- (P=0,95)

Ag
Al
Ba
Ca
Cd
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Ni
Pb
Si
Sn
Ti
V
Zn

,
328,068
308,215
455,403
317,930
228,802
357,869
324,754
259,940
279,553
257,610
204,598
818,326
221,647
283,307
212,412
283,999
334,941
309,311
213,856

I
I
II
II
I
I
I
II
II
II
II
I
II
I
I
I
II
II
I

, /

0,935
0,928
0,022
0,066
0,411
0,714
0,601
0,624
0,026
0,112
0,633
0,045
0,450
0,373
0,255
0,291
0,180
0,318
0,479

-
0,360
1,810
0,018
0,060
0,241
0,300
0,480
0,241
0,012
0,048
0,541
0,060
0,132
0,342
0,343
0,284
0,120
0,181
0,180

77

24.
Ni, V, Fe

,
/
33
17
11


1
/, /
V
Fe
Ni
2500
1800
820
2200
1300
1730
2600
2400
950
2200
2500
1750
2800
4800
960
2600
5300
2020


I/I
I I, .
W 1,001,50
V (1220 /),
. ,
I/I ,
W V.
(V /).

2 .

I/I,
.
iCAP 6500DUO: W=1,25 ;
V=16,0 /;
1,0 /; V=0,15 /;
V=0,5 /.

78

.
,
S-21. 25
,
17 /. ,
,
.

25.

( 17 /)
(n=3, P=0,95)
, /

(
)

0,24

Fe

0,19

Ni

1,00

2,50

Zn

0,05

0,25
1,20
3,50
0,25
1,20
3,50
0,25
1,20
3,50
0,25
1,20
3,50
0,25
1,20
3,50

0,49
1,44
3,74
0,44
1,39
3,69
1,25
2,20
4,50
2,75
3,70
6,00
0,30
1,25
3,55

0,500,02
1,540,2
3,440,4
0,420,02
1,390,2
3,790,4
1,250,02
2,300,2
4,400,4
2,740,02
3,700,2
5,900,4
0,290,02
1,250,2
3,250,4


-
-
. ,

79



[245].
26
(, ) -
- -
. ,

, -.
,
, ,
.
- -
r Pb,

.
, -
- - ,
.
26,

(, ).

80

26.
- -
(n=3, P=0,95)
, /

,
/

Na
Mg
Al
Si
Ca
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Ni
Zn
Ba
Pb

0,045
0,026
0,928
0,255
0,066
0,318
0,714
0,112
0,624
0,450
0,479
0,022
0,373

-/
-/
-/
/ / / / / /
-
-
-
-
0,060
0,012
1,810
0,343
0,060
0,181
0,300
0,048
0,241
0,132
0,180
0,018
0,342

0,120
0,360
0,060
0,180
0,068
0,319
0,180
0,030
0,160

153
2,20,8
7,00,6
233
140,8
1525
<
0,20,1
110,8
636
2,80,5
0,60,1
<

142
1,30,5
6,40,5
214
140,7
1475
<
0,20,1
110,7
524
2,30,5
0,60,1
<

1,90,5
6,90,4
1575
0,60,1
0,30,1
595
3,00,5
0,60,1
2,50,6

2,20,6
0,20,1
3,50,8
233
0,80,2
673
<
<
6,10,8
254
1,70,6
0,20,1
<

2,00,5
0,20,1
3,00,9
202
0,90,3
663
<
<
5,50,5
223
0,80,2
0,20,1
<

0,20,2
3,20,5
631
<
<
213
1,00,3
0,20,1
0,30,1

102
0,50,1
3,10,6
284
2,70,6
304
<
0,20,1
154
335
1,80,5
0,50,1
<

7,40,8
0,40,1
2,90,3
283
2,80,8
262
<
0,20,1
102
263
1,50,4
0,30,1
<

0,50,1
2,90,4
272
0,90,2
0,30,1
305
1,40,3
0,30,1
<

81

, ,
,
, , .
,
. ,
,
, ,

.

[246248] ,
V/Ni .

. , [248]
, V/Ni
1,0,
. V/Ni

, ,
.


[246]. 27,
( )
( ).

, [248].

,
. ,
, .

82

27.
V Ni

[219]
, /

V
Ni

147
134
66
60
52
40
22
20


-, -
. , ,
, 30-40 ,
.
,

.
3.2.
,
.
, (
)
. ,
Sf (
),

83

, [185, 249
268].

[170]

/
, - .

.

[170].
=0,109 /3 =25,6 2/ Sf=0;
>0,210 /3 <0,470 2/ Sf>0,9.

, .
3.2.1.


(0,8 1,6 )
.
0,8
.
(0,51,2 /),
(2001000 /) 1:90
.
1,6
.

2001000 /.
< 600 /

84

, .
(> 800 /) .
[170].

=750 /, Sf
.
.
0,5 1,0 /
,
.
3.2.2.

HNO3

(0,5; 1,0 2,0 ), ,


(V=60 ). 28 29
- -
-.
HNO3
,
.

85

28.
HNO3
- (
-, 17 /)
/ ,
/
27

Al
V
53
Cr
59
Co
60
Ni
63
Cu
66
Zn
208
Pb
51

0,269
0,015
0,013
0,060
0,045
0,120
0,085
0,060

0,5 MHNO3
-
<
<
<
<
0,40,1 0,40,1
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<

, /
1,0 MHNO3

-
2,80,6
3,40,8
<
<
0,80,3
0,70,2
<
<
0,60,1
0,60,1
0,50,1
0,90,4
2,20,5
1,80,5
0,20,1
0,20,1

2,0 MHNO3
-
3,00,6
3,30,6
<
<
0,80,2
0,80,2
<
<
0,60,1
0,60,1
0,60,1
0,90,4
2,30,5
2,00,5
0,20,1
0,20,1

29.
HNO3
- (
-, 17 /)

,
/

Na
Al
Ni
Ca
Mn
Fe
Cu
Zn
Sr
Cd
Ba
Pb
Cr
Sn
V

0,012
0,307
0,030
0,020
0,029
0,062
0,071
0,023
0,068
0,034
0,015
0,155
0,023
0,032
0,049

0,5 MHNO3

-
2,00,5
2,00,5
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
9,11,4
7,31,2
0,20,1
0,60,3
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<

, /
1,0 MHNO3

-
4,10,6
4,00,6
2,50,5
3,00,5
0,40,1
0,40,1
1,70,5
1,60,5
0,40,1
0,40,1
193
173
0,50,1
0,80,3
1,80,5
1,50,4
1,10,3
1,00,2
<
<
2,20,5
2,10,5
<
<
0,80,2
0,70,1
<
<
<
<

2,0 MHNO3

-
4,20,6
4,10,6
2,50,5
3,00,5
0,40,1
0,40,1
1,80,6
1,60,4
0,40,1
0,40,1
184
163
0,50,1
0,80,3
1,90,6
1,70,5
1,10,4
1,00,3
<
<
2,30,6
2,20,5
<
<
0,80,2
0,70,1
<
<
<
<

86

, - -
. ,
, , , -
- .

-.

Pb, -

-.
0,5 1,0 2,0 . 0,5
(Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn)
; 1,0 2,0
.

1,0 HNO3.

(, -)
. 30 31

- -
33, 17 11 /. ,

, , -,
.

.
,
S-21, . 32

17 /
.

87

30.

-
( -)

,
/

Na

Al
Ni
Ca
Mg
Mn
Fe
Co
Cu
Zn
Sr
Cd
Ba
Pb
Cr
Sn
V

0,012
0,020
0,307
0,030
0,020
0,045
0,029
0,062
0,075
0,071
0,023
0,068
0,034
0,015
0,155
0,023
0,032
0,049

, /
,
,
,
33 /
17 /
11 /
- - -
2,50,5 1,80,5 4,10,6 4,00,6 6,30,6
6,20,6
2,40,6 1,30,4 4,30,5 4,20,6 4,80,6
4,50,6
1,80,5 1,00,3 2,50,5 3,00,5 3,70,5
4,00,5
0,30,1 0,30,1 0,40,1 0,40,1 0,70,2
0,80,3
1,40,6 0,60,2 1,70,6 1,60,5 2,20,5
1,80,5
0,30,1 0,40,2 0,40,1 0,40,1 0,40,1
0,50,2
0,30,1 0,30,1 0,40,1 0,40,1 0,60,1
0,50,1
7,30,6 7,80,6
193
173
193
173
<
<
<
<
<
<
0,40,1 0,20,1 0,50,2 0,80,2 0,60,2
0,80,2
0,90,5 0,60,1 1,80,4 1,50,3 2,40,3
2,10,3
0,40,1 0,50,2 1,10,2 1,00,2 1,90,4
1,60,5
<
<
<
<
<
<
0,30,1 0,30,1 0,40,1 0,40,1 0,40,1
0,40,1
<
<
<
<
0,30,1
0,30,1
0,40,1 0,40,1 0,80,3 0,70,3 1,00,2
1,10,2
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<

31.

-
( -)
/ ,
/
27

Al
V
53
Cr
59
Co
60
Ni
63
Cu
66
Zn
208
Pb
51

0,269
0,015
0,013
0,060
0,045
0,120
0,085
0,060

, /
,
,
,
33 /
17 /
11 /
-
- -
2,10,5 1,20,3
2,80,6
3,40,6
3,80,6
4,50,6
<
<
<
<
<
<
0,40,1 0,40,1
0,80,4
0,70,3
1,10,2
1,20,2
<
<
<
<
<
<
0,40,1 0,40,1
0,60,2
0,60,2
0,90,4
1,20,5
0,50,1 0,40,1
0,50,1
0,90,1
0,50,1
0,90,4
1,10,4 0,80,2
2,20,5
1,80,5
2,80,5
2,60,5
<
<
0,20,1
0,20,1
0,30,1
0,30,1

88

32.

(
17 /) (n=3, P=0,95)

(
)

0,03

Fe

0,32

Al

0,04

Cr

0,01

Zn

0,03

, /

0,25
1,20
3,50
0,25
1,20
3,50
0,25
1,20
3,50
0,25
1,20
3,50
0,25
1,20
3,50

0,28
1,23
3,53
0,57
1,52
3,82
0,29
1,24
3,54
0,26
1,21
3,51
0,28
1,23
3,53

0,290,02
1,330,4
3,330,4
0,550,02
1,620,2
3,920,4
0,280,02
1,240,2
3,540,4
0,260,02
1,210,2
3,610,4
0,270,02
1,240,2
3,230,4

3.3. ,

33
-

. ,

Cr Pb
, Ni V
( ,
[170]), .
, Ni V

89

; V
, .
,
, ,
, .

,
,
(. 34).
33.


(n=3, P=0,95)
, /


/-
Na
Mg
Al
Ca
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Ni
Zn
Ba
Pb

102
0,50,1
3,10,6
2,70,6
304
<
0,20,1
154
335
1,80,5
0,50,1
<


/-

/-

6,30,6
0,40,1
3,70,5
2,20,5
<
1,00,2
0,60,1
193
0,70,2
2,40,3
0,40,1
0,30,1

0,50,1
2,90,4
272
0,90,2
0,30,1
305
1,40,3
0,30,1
<

90


. 35

11 / ,
-. ,
, Ni V.

.

34.

- (P=0,95)

Ag
Al
Ba
Ca
Cd
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Ni
Pb
Si
Sn
Ti
V
Zn

328,068
308,215
455,403
317,930
228,802
357,869
324,754
259,940
279,553
257,610
204,598
818,326
221,647
283,307
212,412
283,999
334,941
309,311
213,856


, /
17 /

0,935
0,056
0,928
0,307
0,022
0,015
0,066
0,020
0,411
0,004
0,714
0,023
0,601
0,071
0,624
0,062
0,026
0,015
0,112
0,029
0,633
0,032
0,045
0,012
0,450
0,030
0,373
0,055
0,255
0,068
0,291
0,032
0,180
0,094
0,318
0,049
0,479
0,023

91

35.
(11 /)
, -
(n=3, P=0,95)

, /

Na
Mg
Al
Ca
V
Mn
Fe
Ni
Zn
Ba

,
/

0,012
0,045
0,307
0,020
0,049
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102
0,50,1
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2,70,6
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154
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96

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104

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105

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[275, 280].
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106


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107

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12,94

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113

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114

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1,89
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116

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117

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124

23. -
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2 ; 2 4 ; 3 6 )

125

46.

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2,6,10,14-

2,6,10,14-

,
/-

2c
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+
+
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126

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25).

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127

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128

47,
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6
(913) (2628).
,
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+
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+
+
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+
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129

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130

27. -
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/) 1118.

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131

48.
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1--2,3

2--1,1,3

2,6,11-


(
)

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2,6,10,14

2,6,10,14

/-

33 /
16 /
2c
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+
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+
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132

5.3.1.

28
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133

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134

5.3.2.

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29. (1)
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135

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,

[232, 233].
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, % .

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15,9
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22,9

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136

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137

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. 51.
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240260
260280
150200
200250
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260280
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260280
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150

,
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+ i div i = 0 .
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(3)

i i- ( x,
y, z) .
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t

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151

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152

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T



s

z = i + z +
s1
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x x
t
x z
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);
= T

();
.
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