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Evaporator

ERT 216 HEAT & MASS TRANSFER

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bblee@UniMAP

1. Introduction &
2. General Types of Evaporators
3. Methods of Operation of
Evaporators
4. Overall Heat-Transfer
Coefficient In Evaporators
5. Calculation Methods for Single
Effect Evaporators
bblee@UniMAP

5.1 Effects of Processing Variables


on Evaporator Operation
5.2 Boiling-Point Rise of Solutions
5.3 Enthalpy-Concentration Charts
of Solutions

6 Evaporation of biological
materials

bblee@UniMAP

Evaporation:
The vapor from a boiling liquid solution
is removed and a more concentrated
solution remains.
A separation process of removing water
from an aqueous solution.
Examples: Concentrated aqueous solutions
of.

Sugar

Sodium
chloride

Glycerol

Milk

bblee@UniMAP

Orange
juice
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Evaporation processes:
to evaporate seawater to provide
drinking water have been developed and
used.
to concentrate a solution so that upon
cooling, salt crystals will form and
separated (crystallization).

bblee@UniMAP

Physical & chemical properties of the


solution being concentrated and of the
vapor being removed are influenced by
the type of evaporator used and the
pressure and temperature of the process.
Some of the properties which affecting
the processing methods:
i. Concentration in the liquid.
Liquid feed to an evaporator is
relatively dilute (its viscosity is low),
relatively high heat transfer
coefficients are obtained.
bblee@UniMAP

As evaporation proceeds, the solution


may become very concentrated & quite
viscous, causing heat transfer
coefficient to drop markedly.
Adequate circulation &/or turbulence
must be present to keep the coefficient
from becoming too low.
ii. Solubility
As solutions are heated and the
concentration of the solute or salt
increases, the solubility limit of
material in solution may be exceeded
and crystals may form.
bblee@UniMAP

This may limit the maximum


concentration in solution which can be
obtained by evaporation.

Fig 1:
Solubility
curves for some
typical salts in
water.
bblee@UniMAP

iv. Temperature sensitivity of materials


Food & biological products may be
temperature sensitive & degrade at
higher temperatures or after
prolonged heating.
The amount of degradation is a
function of the temperature and the
length of time.
v. Foaming & frothing
Caustic solutions, food solutions (e.g.
skim milk), & fatty acid solutions
form a foam or froth during boiling.
bblee@UniMAP

This foam accompanies the vapor


coming out of the evaporator and
entrainment losses occur.
vi. Pressure & temperature
The boiling point of the solution is
related to the pressure of the system.
The higher the operating pressure of
the evaporator, the higher the
temperature at boiling.
As the concentration of the dissolved
material in solution increases, the
boiling temperature may rise.
bblee@UniMAP

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vii. Scale deposition & materials of


construction
Some solutions deposit solid materials
called scale on the heating surfaces.
Scale could be formed by
decomposition products or by
decreases in solubility.
The overall heat-transfer coefficient
decreases, the evaporator must
eventually be cleaned.
Material of construction of the
evaporator should be chosen to
minimize corrosion.
bblee@UniMAP

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Evaporator:
The heat is generally provided by the
condensation of a vapor (e.g. steam) on
one side of a metal surface, with the
evaporating liquid on the other side.
The type of equipment used depends
primarily on the configuration of the
heat-transfer surface & on the means
used to provide agitation or circulation
of the liquid.

bblee@UniMAP

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1. Open kettle or pan:


The simplest evaporator (inexpensive).
It consists of an open pan
(or kettle) in which the
liquid is boiled.
The heat is supplied by
condensation of steam
in a jacket or in coils
immersed in
liquid or
direct-fired.
bblee@UniMAP

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2. Horizontal-tube natural circulation


evaporator
The horizontal bundle of heating tubes is
similar to the bundle of tubes in a heat
exchanger.
The steam enters
the tubes, where it
condenses.
The steam condensate
leaves at the other end
of the tubes.
bblee@UniMAP

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It is relatively cheap & is used for


nonviscous liquids with high heat transfer
coefficients and liquid that do not deposit
scale.
It is not suitable for viscous liquids due to
poor circulation.
Usually, the feed enters at a constant rate
& the concentrate leaves at a constant
rate (most types of evaporator).

bblee@UniMAP

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3. Vertical-type natural circulation evaporator

Vertical rather than horizontal tubes are


used; the liquid is inside the tubes and the
steam condenses outside the tubes.
The liquid rises in
Short
the tubes by natural
tube
circulation due to
evaporator
boiling and decreases
in density.
The liquid flows
downward through
a large, central open
space or downcomer.
bblee@UniMAP

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This natural circulation increases the


heat-transfer coefficient.
It is not used with viscous liquids.
A variation is the basket type,
the vertical tubes
are used but the
heating element is
held suspended in the
body so there is an
annular open space
as the downcomer.
bblee@UniMAP

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It differs in such a way where it has a


central instead of annular open space as
the downcomer.
It is used in the sugar, salt & cautic soda
industries.

bblee@UniMAP

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4. Long-tube vertical type evaporator


Since the heat-transfer
coefficient on the steam
side is very high
compared to that on
the evaporating liquid
side, high liquid
velocities are required.
In this type, the liquid
is inside the tubes
(3 10 m long).
Climbing film
evaporator
bblee@UniMAP

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Vapor bubbles are formed iside the tubes


causes a pumping action, which gives quite
high liquid velocities.
Generally the liquid passes through the
tubes only once and it is not re-circulated.
Contact times can be quiet low.
In some cases (e.g. condensed milk), when
the ratio of feed to evaporation rate is
low, natural recirculation of the product
through the evaporator is affected by
adding a large pipe connection between the
outlet concentrate line & feed line.
bblee@UniMAP

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5. Falling-file type evaporator


A variation of long-tube type evaporator.
The liquid is fed to the top of the tubes &
flows down the walls as a thin film.
Vapor liquid separation usually takes place
at the bottom.
It is widely used for concentrating heat
sensitive materials (e.g. fruitjuice)
because the holdup time is very small &
heat transfer coefficients are high.

bblee@UniMAP

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Falling film
Evaporator

Agitated-film Evaporator
bblee@UniMAP

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6. Agitated-film evaporator
Heat transfer in an evaporator is limited
on the liquid side.
By actual mechanical agitation of the
liquid film, turbulence in film and hence the
heat transfer coefficient is increased.
This is done in a modified falling-film
evaporator with only a single, large,
jacketed tube containing an internal
agitator.

bblee@UniMAP

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Liquid enters at the top of the tube & as it


flows downward, it is spread out into a
turbulent film by vertical agitator blades.
The concentrate leaves at the bottom &
vapor leaves through a separator and out
the top.
It is very useful with highly viscous
materials and heat-sensitive viscous
materials (e.g. rubber latex, gelatin,
antibiotics, fruit juices).
It has a high cost & small capacity.
bblee@UniMAP

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7. Forced circulation
type evaporator
The liquid film heat
transfer coefficient
can be increased by
pumping to cause
food circulation of
the liquid inside
the tubes.

bblee@UniMAP

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The long tube vertical type is modified


by adding a pipe connecting a pump
between the outlet concentrate line and
the feed line.
The vertical tubes of this type are usually
shorter than the long-tube type.
This type is very useful for viscous liquids.

bblee@UniMAP

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1. Single effect evaporators:


The feed enters at TF (K) and saturated
steam at TS enters the heat exchanger
section.
Condensed steam leaves as condensate or
drips.
Simplified
diagram of
single
effect
evaporator
bblee@UniMAP

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Solution in the evaporator is completely


mixed:
Concentrated product & the solution in
the evaporator = T1 (~ boiling point).
Vapor = T1 = boiling solution
Pressure (P1) is the vapor pressure of the
solution at T1.
An overall heat transfer coefficient is
used, the rate of heat transfer in an
evaporator:

q UA T
bblee@UniMAP

UA( TS T1 )
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Single effect evaporators are ofen used


when the required capacity of operation is
relatively small and/or the cost of stream
is relatively cheap compared to the
evaporator cost.
However, for large-capacity operation,
using more than one effect will
markedly reduce steam costs.

bblee@UniMAP

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2. Forward-feed multiple effect evaporators

A single effect evaporator is wasteful of


energy because the latent heat of the
vapor leaving is not used but is discarded.
This latent heat can be recovered &
reused by employing multi effect
evaporator.

Simplified
diagram of
forwardfeed triple
effect
evaporator

bblee@UniMAP

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The first effect operates at a


temperature that is high enough that the
evaporated water serves as the heating
medium to the second effect.
Almost 3 kg of water will be evaporated
for 1 kg of steam in a three-effect
evaporator.
The steam economy is increased.

Steam economy
bblee@UniMAP

kg vapor evaporated
kg steam used
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Forward-feed operation:
The fresh feed is added to the first
effect and flows to the next in the same
direction as the vapor flow.
It is used when the feed is hot or the
final concentrated product might be
damaged at high temperature.
The boiling temperatures decreases
from one effect to another effect.
If the first effect (P1) is 1 atm, then
the last effect (P3) will be under
vacuum.
bblee@UniMAP

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3. Backward-feed multiple-effect evaporators

The fresh feed enters the last & coldest


effect and continues on until the
concentrated product leaves the first
effect - Reverse feed.

Simplified diagram of backward-feed


triple-effect evaporator
bblee@UniMAP

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It is advantageous when the fresh feed is


cold.
Liquid pumps must be used in each
effect, since the flow is from low to
high pressure.
It is used when the concentrated product
is highly viscous.

bblee@UniMAP

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In making preliminary designs or cost


estimation, it is helpful to have available
overall heat transfer coefficients usually
encountered in commercial practice.
Refer to Table 8.3-1
However, detailed calculation is needed
for actual evaporator design and/or for
evaluating the effects of changes in
operating conditions on the coefficients.
bblee@UniMAP

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Table 8.3-1: Typical Heat Transfer


Coefficients for Various Evaporators

* Generally, nonviscous liquids have the higher


coefficient than viscous liquids in the ranges
given.
bblee@UniMAP

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5.1 Heat & Material Balances for Evaporators

Basic equation for solving for the capacity


of a single effect evaporator:

q UA T

The difference in temperature


between the condensing steam and
the boiling liquid in the evaporator.

q could be determined by making a heat &


material balance on the evaporator.
Material balance: F = L + V
For a balance on the solute (solids) alone,

F xF

L xL
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Enthalpy
Enthalpy
Mass fraction
Enthalpy

Enthalpy

Enthalpy

Fig 1: Heat & Mass balance for single effect


evaporator
bblee@UniMAP

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The condensed steam leaving of S kg/h is


assumed usually to be at TS (saturation
temperature) and enthalpy hS.
The steam gives off only its latent heat:

HS

hS

For heat balance,


total heat entering = total heat leaving
Heat in feed +
Heat in steam
bblee@UniMAP

Heat in concentrated
liquid + Heat in vapor +
Heat in condensed steam
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Assumes no heat by radiation or


convection:

FhF
Hence,

SH S

LhL VH V

FhF

ShS

LhL VH V

The q transferred in the evaporator,

S HS

hS

Note: The latent heat () of steam at the


saturation temperature TS can be obtained
from steam tables.
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bblee@UniMAP

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5.1 Effects of processing variables on


evaporator operation:
1. Effect of feed temperature:
The inlet temperature of the feed (TF)
has a large effect on the operation on the
evaporator.
Example 8.4-1:
The feed temperature was cold (311.0 K)
as compared to the boiling temperature
(373.2K).
About of the steam was used to heat
the cold feed to the boiling point.
bblee@UniMAP

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Only about of the steam was left for


vaporization of the feed.
Preheating the feed can reduce the size
of evaporator heat-transfer area needed.
2. Effect of pressure:
In many cases a large T (>10K) is
desirable, since, as T increases, the
heating surface area A and cost of the
evaporator decrease.
To reduce the pressure (< 101.32kPa to
be in vacuum), a condenser and vacuum
pump can be used.
bblee@UniMAP

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when P , boiling point , T

3. Effect of steam pressure:


Using higher pressure, saturated steam
increased T, which decreases the size
and cost of the evaporator.
Although high-pressure steam is more
costly, more valuable power source.
Overall economic balances are really
needed to determine the optimum steam
pressures.
bblee@UniMAP

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5.2 Boiling point rise of solutions:


In most cases, the thermal properties of
solution being evaporated may differ
considerably from those of water.
The processed solutions are not dilute
solutions.
The concentration of the solutions are
high enough that the heat capacity &
boiling point are quite different from
those for water.
The boiling point rise for strong solutions
of dissolved solutes cannot be predicted.
bblee@UniMAP

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A useful empirical law (Duhrings rule)


can be used.

Fig 2: Duhring
lines for
aqueous
solutions of
sodium
hydroxide
(at constant
pressure)
bblee@UniMAP

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5.3 Enthalpy-concentration Charts of


solutions:
Heat of solution - It is found a
considerable temperature rise occur, heat
is evolved when pellets of NaOH are
dissolved in a given amount of water.
Enthalpy-concentration chart for NaOH:
It is not made for solutions having
negligible heats of solution, since the
heat capacities can be easily used to
calculate enthalpies.
Such charts are available for only a few
solution.
bblee@UniMAP

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Fig 3:
Enthalpyconcentration
chart for the
system
NaOH-water.
bblee@UniMAP

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Evaporation of biological materials


frequently differs from the evaporation of
inorganic materials and organic materials.
Inorganic: NaCl, NaOH
Organic: Ethanol, acetic acid
Biological: pharmaceuticals, milk, citrus
juices, vegetable extracts.
Heat sensitive, & often contain fine
particles of suspended matter in solution.
The degradation of biological materials on
evaporation is a function of temperature,
and time length.

bblee@UniMAP

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To keep the temperature low, the


evaporation must be done under vacuum,
which reduces the boiling point of the
solution.
To keep the time of constant low, the
equipment must provide for a low holdup
time (contact time) for the material being
evaporated.
Examples:
Long tube vertical evaporator:
condensed milk.
Falling film evaporator: fruit juices
bblee@UniMAP

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Agitated-film (wiped-film)
evaporator: rubber latex,
gelatin, antibiotics, fruit
juices.
Heat-pump cycle
evaporator: Fruit juices,
milk, pharmaceuticals.

Fig 4: A rising film cassette evaporator


for orange juice production.

bblee@UniMAP

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6.1 Fruit Juices


Fruit juices are heat-sensitive and the
viscosity increases greatly as
concentration increases.
Solid suspended matter in fruit juices
has a tendency to cling to the heating
surfaces, thus causing over-heating
which leads to burning and spoilage of
the matter.
To avoid this tendency of stick and to
reduce residence time, high rates of
circulation over the heat-transfer
surface are necessary.
bblee@UniMAP

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A fruit juice concentration plant usually


employs a single and not a multiple
evaporation unit.
Vacuum is used to reduce the
temperature of evaporation.
A typical fruit juice evaporation system
using the heat-pump cycle employs low temperature ammonia as the heating fluid.

bblee@UniMAP

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6.2 Sugar solutions


Sugar (Sucrose) is obtained by primarily
from sugarcane and sugar beets.
Sugar tends to caramelize if kept at high
temperatures for long periods.
The tendency is to use short-tube
evaporators of the natural circulation
type.
The feed is first preheated by exhaust
system and then typically enters a sixeffect forward-feed evaporator system.
bblee@UniMAP

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6.3 Paper-pulp waste liquors


In the manufacture of paper pulp in the
sulfate process, wood chips are digested
or cooked and spent black liquor is
obtained after washing the pulp.
This solution contains primarily sodium
carbonate and organic sulfide
compounds.
It is concentrated by evaporation in six
effect system.

bblee@UniMAP

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