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OmniScan MX2 Training Program

Phased Array Probes

OmniScan MX2 Training Phased Array Probes Overview

Material in this section of the MX2 training program is a summary of


phased array probes typical used in OmniScan MX2 applications. The
information is taken primarily from of the Olympus probe catalog and
Olympus technical resources and is intended to provide an overview of the
various features that optimize individual applications.
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OmniScan MX2 Training Phased Array Probes Overview cont.

Phased array probes come in a variety of shapes and sizes for different
applications. The most common types are listed below.
Typical array probes from Olympus have a frequency range between 113 MHz and have between 8-256 elements.
There are 4 primary 1D probe types for use with OmniScan MX2:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Angle beam probes.


Curved probes.
Immersion/Straight beam probes.
Integrated wedge probes.

OmniScan MX2 Training Phased Array Probes Overview cont.

1D Linear array probes are the most widely used for industrial
inspection and the only type that is supported directly in the OmniScan
MX2 software (Wizards).
Phased array probes other than 1D linear must use focal laws
generated from an external calculator for import into MX2.

OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probes Definition

1D linear array probes are defined by the following parameters.

Size or Pitch of the elements. (.25-2mm)


Number of elements. (8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256)
Frequency. (1-17 MHz)
Radius focused or flat.
Reference point. (Only required for use without wedge and does not affect PA
calculator)

OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probe Element Parameters

The dimensional parameters of a 1D linear phased array probe are


defined as follows:

A = Aperture. Total length of all elements in active plane. (Pitch X


element count)
H = Element height in the passive plane. Also called element elevation.
P = Pitch. Center to center distance between two adjacent elements.
E = Size. The width of an individual element.
G = Gap. The spacing between two adjacent elements.
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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probe Element Parameters cont.

The OmniScan MX2 focal law calculator requires only the pitch for
generation of focal laws.
The OmniScan MX2 probe database requires pitch and total elements to
prevent programation errors by the operator.
The number of elements for 1 focal law and the total number of elements
available on the probe are directly related to the instrument configuration.
(16:16, 16:64, 32:128, etc) This is covered in a later section.

A = Aperture. Total length of all elements in active plane. (Pitch X


element count)
P = Pitch. Center to center distance between two adjacent elements.
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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probes - Pitch

The pitch of the probe is directly related to the maximum size or Aperture of the
beam based on the available pulsers on the OmniScan MX2 acquisition module.
(16:64, 32:32, etc)
Below are two low frequency deep penetration probes that differ in both pitch and
total number of elements. (A4 and A5)
Only a 32:XXX acquisition module can utilize all 32 elements of the A5 probe for a
sector scan. More elements of a smaller size increase beam steering limits,
energy, and focusing. (32X .75mm = 24mm aperture)
A 16:XXX acquisition module can create a larger aperture using the A4 probe
because the pitch is larger. Larger element pitch reduces beam steering. Fewer
elements reduces focus. (16X 2mm = 32mm)

A4

A5

OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probes Pitch cont.

Most probe\wedge combinations for angle


beam inspection are designed for a
steering range of approximately 30-70
degrees.
As the size of the element pitch is
reduced, beam steering is improved.
Defining the limits of any probe\wedge
combination with respect to beam steering
is dependent on many factors including
sound path required for the application,
size of reflector, and what is an acceptable
A-scan signal to noise ratio for any one
customer.
For this reason, the OmniScan MX2
software does not attempt to limit or
predict acceptable steering limits in the
software.
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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probe Element Identification

1D linear array probes have elements aligned in one axis and are
numbered 1-16, 1-32, etc so the element wiring direction is known to the
user and the probe can be installed correctly in the system or on the
wedge.
Some Olympus probes have an arrow to indicate the direction of element
wiring and no numbers are present.
The probe element wiring can be reversed in the software. This is a
function of the wedge orientation and is explained in another section.

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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probes Total Elements

The total number of elements on one or more probes that can be used with the
OmniScan MX2 or any phased array system is dependent on the acquisition
module configuration (XX:128, XX:64, XX:32, etc) and available probe adapters or
splitters. The second of the two numbers is relevant for total element utilization.
Example 1: The image below is of a single 32 element phased array probe using
one sector scan group. The minimum module configuration to perform this
inspection using all elements would be a 32:32 module. A 16:XXX instrument using
the same probe is capable of only the maximum aperture and would only utilize
the first 16 of the available 32 elements.

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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probes Total Elements

Example 2: The image below is of a scanner with two 5L64-A2 probes. Each probe
contains 64 elements requiring a module configuration of XX:128.
A 16:128 acquisition module can fully utilize both probes. Any one A-scan or focal
law would have a maximum aperture of 9.6mm (16 X .6mm)
A 32:128 acquisition module can fully utilize both probes. Any one A-scan or focal
law would have a maximum aperture of 19.2mm (32 X .6mm)

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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probes - Frequency

Most ultrasonic flaw detection is performed with probe frequencies


between 2-10MHz although manufacturing is available from 1-17MHz.
As with conventional probes, frequency selection is a compromise between
resolution\sensitivity and penetration.
The probe frequency has a significant affect on the near field length that is
directly related to maximum focal length of the probe.
Lower frequency probes provide better penetration and are necessary on
materials like SS304 and SS316.
Although frequency is not an essential element of the focal law calculator,
when probe frequency is known by the software the filters and pulse width
can be automatically set and max focusing from near field calculation
known.

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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probes Internal Radius

The addition of an inner radius curvature to the 1D linear array combines


mechanical beam focusing in the passive axis with phased array beam steering and
focusing in the active axis.
Internally focused probes are becoming more widely used, especially for pipeline
and small diameter piping inspections.

Passive axis

xis
a
ive
Act

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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probes Internal Radius cont.

The primary benefit of the internally focused array is to improve length sizing on
the C-scan.
For girth weld inspection in the axial axis, the smaller the diameter of the pipe, the
greater the distortion of reflected sound from the curved pipe surface resulting in
the over sizing of defects on the C-scan and B-scan. (Length sizing)
The Cobra, Pipe Wizard, in-line manufacturing, and other inspections systems use
mechanically focused probes for improved results.
C-scan length sizing with flat 1D probe.

C-scan length sizing with internal radius focused 1D probe.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Olympus Probe Definition

The Olympus probe definition is below and can be found in the current Olympus
probe catalog.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Olympus Probe Housings

Olympus probes are sold with common housings to minimize the amount of
wedges and accessories.
Below is pictured a standard 5L64-A2 probe that uses the same housing as the
2.25L64-A2. All A2 probes are compatible with A2 wedges and are listed in the
OmniScan MX2 database independently to account for different pitch and
position.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Olympus Probe Cable Options

Olympus phased array probes are not consumables and have a very low fail rate.
Cable lengths come in standard 2.5 and 5 meters lengths.
Custom cable lengths available.
Common sources of failure due to misuse and abuse are the cable and cable
connection to the housing. Care should be taken not to bend it excessively beyond
90 degrees or allow excessive weight on the cable.
Due to the number of micro solder connections and coaxial cables, probe cables
cannot easily be repaired.
Cables for most probe models are available with optional armor shielding.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Probe Management in MX2 Software

The OmniScan MX2 has options for both single or multiple phased array probe
inspections but only one standard 128 pin connector on the instrument.
For multi-probe phased array inspections a Y splitter or adapter is required to split
the 128 connector into two separate connectors.

1-64
65-128
127,128
127,128

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OmniScan MX2 Training Probe Management in the MX2 Software cont.

In addition to multi-probe phased array inspection these accessories also support


conventional UT inspections by using pulsers from the 128 element phased array
connector or a dedicated lemo or BNC connector on the instrument.
These are necessary for a variety of both dedicated and complimentary conventional
UT applications including TOFD.
This hardware is explained in detail in a later section and can be found in the
Olympus industrial scanners catalog.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Universal Probes for use with MX2

Universal probes such as A10, A11, A12, And


A14 are designed for hand scanning or
automated inspections for a wide range of
applications including weld inspection and
corrosion monitoring.
Pitch and frequency makes these probes ideal
for thicknesses in carbon steel up to 100mm*
for new construction and in-service inspection.
Specific scanner adapters for automated
inspections and low profile wedges to reduce
the need for diameter contouring and improve
stability.

*Depending on acquisition module i.e. 32:128

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OmniScan MX2 Training Small Footprint Probes for use with MX2

Small footprint and access probes such


as the A00, A0, A15 and NW1\2\3 are
designed for confined areas and difficult
access inspections.
Special small footprint wedges with low
profile attachment points.
Custom probe direction for exit from side
or top. (A0 only)
Typical applications include aerospace
inspections and composite inspections
where near wall coverage is required.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Deep Penetration Probes for use with MX2

Deep penetration probes such as the


A3, A4, and A5 are designed for
heavy wall inspections and coarse
grain materials.
Typical applications include the
inspection of large plates, castings,
and forgings where maximum
penetration and power is needed.
Large element pitch and elevation with
low frequency options make the deep
penetration probes ideal for stainless
steel and course grain material
inspection over long sound paths.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Pipeline Weld Probes for use with MX2

Pipe Wizard probes such as the


PWZ series are the workhorse of
the Olympus pipeline phased array
systems.
Typical applications include high
speed precision inspection using
zone discrimination and amplitude
techniques on pipeline girth welds.
Suitable for manual and automated
inspections.
Specialized wedges used with the
PWZ include carbide wear pins and
sophisticated irrigation channels.
Internal radius focusing for
improved length sizing of pipeline
flaws. (Sharp C-scan and B-scan)
Short cable and front cable exit
available for scanner
accommodation.

5L32-PWZ3 probe used for inspection of 8 inch X 20mm piping.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Small Diameter CCEV Piping Probes - Cobra

Probes for the Olympus Cobra


scanner and other tight clearance
scanners are optimized for the
small piping diameter inspection.
The Olympus CCEV probes have
an internal radius of 35mm and
are suitable for thickness range of
approximately 4-25mm.
Have a low profile element design
and when used with the Olympus
Cobra scanner system need only
12mm pipe to pipe clearance.
Are available in a range of
frequencies for carbon steel and
austenitic material inspection.

5L16CCEV-A15 for inspection of 5mmX70mm SS304 piping.

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OmniScan MX2 Training - Immersion Probes for use with MX2

Olympus immersion probes are designed


to be used with a water wedge or in an
immersion tank.
Typical application include thin plate or
tubing inspection, composite inspection,
inline thickness testing, and any
immersion application.
They are longitudinal wave probes that
can be set up for refracted angle shear
wave inspections using a wedge or water.
Acoustic impedance matches water.
Linear scanning allow coverage of 3090mm in one line.
Corrosion resistant steel casing and
waterproof up to 1meter under water.

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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Power Piping Crack Sizing Probes

Designed to be used with the OmniScan MX2,


Olympus offers 4 different housing types with
compatible wedges for shear and longitudinal
wave inspection of stainless and carbon steel
power piping.
1.5 - 5 MHz Frequency and a range of pitch and
apertures for manual crack detection and sizing.
Small footprint wedges and ergonomic probe
casings for hand scanning and access in small
spaces and on small diameters for precision
measurement.
SS304 2mm SDH depth of 38mm

SS304 2mm SDH depth of 6mm

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SS304 ID notch - 68mm X 33 inch diameter.

OmniScan MX2 Training Dual Matrix Array TRL Probes

Dual matrix arrays or TRL probes perform a similar function as the conventional
version. 2 arrays in a pitch catch configuration provide maximum steering and
focus, elimination of interference echo and reduction of background noise.
Typical applications include cast austenitic stainless steels, dissimilar metal weld,
inconel welds, cladded components, coverage across the weld for one sided
inspections, and the most difficult materials to penetrate.
Squint angles and roof angles on on the wedges provide mechanical steering and
acoustic insulation in addition to the phased array beam steering.
Allows focusing at different depths in a defined plane in the material.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Dual Matrix Array TRL Probes cont.

Designed for longitudinal inspection with a steering range of


30-80 degrees and capable of a beam skew of +/- 20 degrees
from the center of the probe.
Low frequency (1.5 MHz) for maximum penetration of difficult
materials like spun cast stainless steels and inconel.
Requires 32:128PR acquisition module for OmniScan MX2.
Available in custom aperture, configuration and frequency.
-15 Skew

0 Skew

+15 Skew

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OmniScan MX2 Training 2D Matrix Array Probes

2D matrix arrays allow off axis beam skew up to 90 degrees.


Replacement of mechanical skews for transverse defect detection.
Inspection of austenitic materials, dissimilar metal welds, and deep penetration
applications.
Frequencies available from 1.5 -12 MHz.
Standard and custom element pitch and configuration available.
Full line of standard compatible wedges available. Custom and contoured wedges
available upon request.

High frequency (10 MHz) 2D array inspection of creep damage in HAZ of weld.

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OmniScan MX2 Training 2D Matrix Array Probes cont.


ID Notch detected at 0 degree beam skew

0 degree

ID Notch detected at 60 degree beam skew

60 degrees

ID Notch detected at 90 degree beam skew

90 degrees

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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Curved Array Probes

Typical applications include inspection of


carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP)
corners for composite delamination.
Acoustic impedance of water.
Corrosive resistant stainless steel casings
waterproof up to 1 meter.
Full line of adjustable immersion wedges.

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OmniScan Probe Manufacturing Probe Catalog

Presented in this training is only a sample of Olympus probe manufacturing


capability. The complete Olympus probe catalog, probe specific information and
application notes can found on the Olympus web site at www.olympus-ims.com

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OmniScan MX2 Training Olympus Probe Specification Conformance

Olympus probes are delivered from the factory


with a specification sheet that includes test
parameters, test results, and acceptance criteria
for the following parameters:

Median waveform.
Median waveform FFT.
-6dB center frequency average.
-6 dB percent bandwidth.
Peak to peak sensitivity.
-20 dB pulse width.
-40 dB pulse width.

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MX2 Training Probe Spec Conformance Median Waveform

The median waveform graph displays a typical median pulse-echo response


from the test target from one element. Half of the return pulses from the probe
elements will have a peak peak voltage greater than or equal to the median
element (35 below). The other half will have a smaller value. Return pulse
duration is shown on the horizontal axis in microseconds and amplitude is
shown on the vertical axis in voltage.

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MX2 Training Probe Spec Conformance Median Waveform FFT

The median waveform FFT graph shows the calculated spectrum for the median
waveform over a range of zero MHz to twice the probes frequency for 1
representative element that represents the median curve.

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MX2 Training Probe Spec Conformance -6 dB Center Freq Average

The -6 dB center frequency bar graph displays a calculated center frequency


value for each of the probes elements spectrum (FFT) data at the -6 dB level.
The average value of all the probes elements is displayed at the top of the
graph.

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MX2 Training Probe Spec Conformance -6 dB % Bandwidth

The -6 dB bandwidth bar graph displays a calculated percent bandwidth value


for each of the probes elements. This value is determined by using the length
(In frequency) of an imaginary line intersecting a given elements spectrum
(FFT) data at the -6 dB level. The average value of all the probes elements is
displayed at the top of the graph.

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MX2 Training Probe Spec Conformance Peak to Peak Sensitivity

The peak to peak sensitivity bar graph displays a value for each of the probes
elements representing the sensitivity of the probe. This value is calculated by
using the magnitude of the excitation test pulse sent to each element and the
peak to peak voltage measurement of that elements pulse echo return from the
test target. The reported value is -20 multiplied by the log of the ratio of these
two magnitudes. The average value of all the probes elements is displayed at
the top of the graph.

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MX2 Training Probe Spec Conformance Pulse Width

The various pulse width bar graphs display values representing the axial resolution of
the elements pulse echo returns at various levels such as -20 dB, -30 dB, and -40
dB. These values are calculated by measuring the return pulse's width in
nanoseconds at the desired level. Axial resolution is an important measure of the
ability to distinguish individual pulse returns from one another during normal probe
operation. The average value of all the probes elements is displayed at the top of
the graph.

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OmniScan MX2 Training 1D Linear Probes Dead Elements

A dead element refers to a dead ultrasonic channel. The OmniScan MX2 uses
modules that can have 32, 64, or 128 channels meaning they could support a probe
with the same amount of elements.
Cause of dead elements or channels is in the array housing, the probe side
connector, the cable, the instrument side connector, or a pulser in the instrument.
Water intrusion, excessive voltage, cable damage, etc can result in dead elements.
Dead elements can have an adverse effect on beam formation. A procedure or the
ability to calibrate or achieve satisfactory A-scan is what determines the limit.
Elements and pulsers are checked by programming a single focal law or A-scan for
each individual element in the probe and visualizing the S-scan. This allows both
the elements of the probe, the cable, and the instrument pulsers to be verified.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Olympus Probe Warranty

Olympus guarantees probes for one year against material and manufacturing
defects. The complete probe warranty is available on the probe specifications
sheets and the Olympus probe catalog.

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OmniScan Probe Manufacturing Facility State College, PA

Olympus probe shop is a 7000 Sq Ft state of


the art manufacturing facility located in State
College, PA.
With over 30 employees utilizing the latest
piezocomposite technology the Olympus probe
shop are world leaders in standard off the shelf
probes and custom complex matrix arrays.

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OmniScan Probe Manufacturing Facility State College, PA cont.

Streamed lined design and production engineering for reduced lead times and cost.
Industry leading quality standards.
Custom probe accommodation and engineering assistance for application
development.
Production super cells for lean manufacturing.
Olympus global sales distribution network and support centers.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Probe Management in MX2 Software

Olympus probes are delivered with a proprietary connector that contains a chip for
auto detection of probe model and parameters in the OmniScan MX2 software.
Probes can also be manually selected from an editable database of all common
Olympus probe models.
For multi-probe inspection auto probe detect must be off and the probes selected
manually from the database.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Probe Management in MX2 Software cont.

The probe sub menu in the OmniScan MX2 software is available in two places:
1. The group set up wizard.
2. The group probe and part sub menu.

When probe auto detect is on the probe selection is disabled and all probe
parameters are available based from the chip in the probe.
With auto detect off the probe selection is enabled and the probe may be selected
manually or created and saved in the OmniScan MX2 software.

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OmniScan MX2 Training Phased Array Calculator Review

Question:
What are the essential parameters of 1D linear array
probe that are required by the OmniScan MX2 software?
1. Probe model number.
2. Element pitch.
3. Element quantity.
4. Reference point.
5. Frequency.
Answer: All of the above
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OmniScan MX2 Training Phased Array Calculator Review

Question:
What are the essential parameters for the phased
array calculator?
1. Probe parameters.
2. Wedge parameters.
3. Material Velocity
4. Beam Formation.
Answer: All of the above.

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