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Keys to Effective

Leadership
and Management

Objectives

Define leadership and management


Distinguish between leadership and
management
Discuss the qualities and behaviors that
contribute to effective leadership
Discuss the qualities and behaviors that
contribute to effective management

Today, all nurses are managers


Must deal with other staff who work with
them
Must know what motivates people
Must be able to collaborate with others,
both as leaders and as members of the
team
Need to be confident in their ability to be
leaders and managers
3

Leadership

is the ability to
influence other people

The

Definition
Leadership and
Management
5

A Leadership Story:

A group of workers and their leaders are set a task


of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a
remote island to get to the coast where an estuary
provides a perfect site for a port.
The leaders organise the labour into efficient units
and monitor the distribution and use of capital
assets progress is excellent. The leaders continue
to monitor and evaluate progress, making
adjustments along the way to ensure the progress is
maintained and efficiency increased wherever
possible.
Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and
activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The
person surveys the scene from the top of the tree.
6

A Leadership Story:

And shouts down to the assembled group


below
Wrong Way!
(Story adapted from Stephen Covey (2004) The Seven Habits of Highly Effective
People Simon & Schuster).

Management

is doing things right,


leadership is doing the right things

(Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker)

LEADERSHIP

Covey defined a leader as one who enables people to


work more effectively together in a state of
interdependence.
Bryman influence, groups, and goal (involves
influencing other people, usually in some type of group,
to work toward the achievement of the groups goals ).
Max DePree defined it as liberating people to do what
is required of them in the most effective and humane
way possible.
8

nursing leader
inspires others to work
toward a goal.

According to Covey,

managers

Effective
are able
to elicit from each employee his or her
deepest commitment, continued loyalty,
finest creativity, consistent excellent
productivity, and maximum potential
contribution toward continuous
improvement of process, product, and
service.
10

In 1916, Henri Fayol defined


management as:

Planning
Organizing
Commanding
Coordinating
Controlling the work of a given set of
employees

11

management
Mitzberg (1989) said Fayols lists did not really
describe what managers do..
They do whatever is necessary to make sure
that employees do their work and do it well.
This includes interpersonal, informational and
decisional actions.

12

Are you ready to be a leader or


manager?
new graduates should not be given managerial
responsibility under most circumstances, they
time to develop their own clinical skills, breadth
and depth of their experience
ON THE OTHER HAND
new graduates can function as leaders within
their new nursing roles.
13

The Differences Between


Leadership and Management
Managers

have formal authority to direct


the work of a given set of employees
Managers are formally responsible for
the quality and cost of that work
Neither is necessary to be a leader
On the other hand, to be an effective
manager, you need to be a good leader.
14

You do not have to be a manager to be a


leader.

Managers control aspect of the


environment such as resources, time and
money

Management positions may be assigned


with a management position, comes power

15

Differences Between:
Leadership Management

Based on influence and Based on authority and


shared meaning
influence

An informal role
An achieved position
Part of every nurses
responsibility
Independent of
management

A formally designated role


An assigned position
Usually responsible for
budgets, hiring, and firing
people
Improved by the use of
effective leadership skills
16

What Makes a
Person a
Leader?

17

Leadership

18

Types of Leadership Style

19

Types of Leadership Style Autocratic:


(Authoritarian, Directive, Controlling)

Leader makes decisions without reference to


anyone else
High degree of dependency on the leader
Can create de-motivation and alienation
of staff
May be valuable in some types of business
where decisions need to be made quickly and
decisively

20

Types of Leadership Style Autocratic:


(Authoritarian, Directive,
Controlling)
Assumes individuals are motivated by external
forces; therefore leader makes all the decisions
Gives orders
Makes decisions for the group as a whole
Bears most of the responsibility for the
outcomes

21

Types of Leadership Style Autocratic:


(Authoritarian, Directive, Controlling)

this is an efficient way to run things,


it usually stifles creativity
may inhibit motivation,
may be either punitive or benign

22

Types of Leadership Style


Democratic (Participative)
Encourages decision making
from different perspectives leadership
may be emphasised throughout
the organisation

Consultative: process of consultation before


decisions are taken
Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to
persuade others that the decision
is correct

23

Types of Leadership Style


Democratic (Participative)

May help motivation and involvement


Workers feel ownership of the firm and its
ideas
Improves the sharing of ideas
and experiences within the business
Can delay decision making

24

Types of Leadership Style


Democratic (Participative)
Assumes individuals are motivated by internal forces,
leader uses participation and majority rule to get work
done
Shares the planning, decision making and

responsibility for the outcomes with other members of


the group

Often a less efficient way to run things,


25

Types of Leadership Style


Democratic (Participative)
More flexible and more likely to foster motivation
and creativity
Open, trusting environments encourages one to
seek new skills
Characterized by guidance rather than control
Concerned with teamwork
Fosters open communication
Creates a spirit of collaboration

26

Types of Leadership Style


Laissez-Faire (Permissive, nondirective)
(let it alone)

Let it be the leadership responsibilities


are shared by all
Can be very useful in businesses
where creative ideas are important
Can be highly motivational,
as people have control over their working life
Can make coordination and decision making
time-consuming and lacking in overall direction
Relies on good team work
Relies on good interpersonal relations
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Types of Leadership Style


Laissez-Faire (Permissive, nondirective)
(let it alone)
Assumes

individuals are motivated by internal forces


and should be left alone to complete work; leader
provides no direction or facilitation
Leader does very little planning or decision making
and fails to encourage others to participate in either

Is a lack of leadership

28

Types of Leadership Style


Laissez-Faire (Permissive, nondirective)
(let it alone)

Leaves people feeling confused and frustrated


because there is no goal, no guidance, and no
direction
Some mature individuals enjoy laissez-faire
leadership because they need little guidance
Has few established policies

29

Types of Leadership Style Paternalistic

Leader acts as a father figure


Paternalistic leader makes decision but
may consult
Believes in the need to support staff

30

Pavitt summed up the difference


between these styles nicely

a democratic leader attempts to move the


group toward its goals,

an autocratic leader attempts to move the


group toward the leaders goals,

a laissezfaire leader makes no attempt to


move the group
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Authoritarian

Democratic

Laissez-Faire

Degree of
freedom

Little freedom

Moderate
freedom

Much freedom

Degree of
control

High control

Moderate
control

Little control

Decision
making

By the leader

Leader and
group together

By the group or
by no one

Leader activity
level

High

High

Minimal

Assumption of
responsibility

Leader

Shared

Abdicated

Output of the
group

High quantity,
good quality

Creative, high
quality

Variable, may
be poor

Efficiency

Very efficient

Less efficient
than

quality
32

The most effective leader is able to

balance tasks and relationships of working


together

Some emphasize tasks, other relationships

33

Change Leadership

34

Change Leadership

The most challenging aspect of business is


leading and managing change
The business environment is subject to fastpaced economic and social change
Modern business must adapt
and be flexible to survive
Problems in leading change stem mainly from
human resource management

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Change Leadership

Self-esteem

2. Minimisation: As the
change becomes clearer,
people try to fit in the
change with their own
personal position and may
try to believe that it will
not affect them.

3. Depression: as reality
begins to dawn staff may
feel alienated and angry,
feelings of a lack of control
of events overtake people
and they feel depressed as
they try to reconcile what
is happening with their
own personal situation.

3
1
1. Immobilisation
as rumours of the
change circulate, the
individual feels some
sense of shock and
possible disbelief
so much so that they
deem it worthy of
doing nothing.

4. Acceptance/letting go:
The lowest point in selfesteem finally sees people
starting to accept the
inevitable. Fear of the
Time
future is a feature of this
stage.
36

Change Leadership
Self-esteem

6. Search for meaning:


Individuals begin to work
with the change and see
how they might be able to
make the change work for
them self esteem begins
to rise.

2
6

3
1
5

7. Internalisation:
the change is
understood and
adopted within the
individuals own
understanding they
now know how to
work with it and feel a
renewed sense of
confidence and self
esteem.

5. Testing out:
Individuals begin to
interact with the change,
they start to ask questions
Time
to see how they might
work with the change.
37

Leadership
Theories

38

Theories of Leadership

39

Leadership Theories

Many opinions how one becomes a leader


No theory is clear provides the single best answer
to the question: What makes a person a leader?
We are not born to be leaders
Trait, behavioral and contingency theories
represent conventional approaches to leadership
and have provided important foundations for
leadership. We also have contemporary theories

40

Theories of Leadership

May depend on:

Type of staff
History of the business
Culture of the business
Quality of the relationships
Nature of the changes needed
Accepted norms within the institution

41

Theories of Leadership
Trait Theories
(concerned with what a leader is)
Leaders are born, not made.
Intelligence
Initiative
Excellent interpersonal skills
High self-esteem
Creativity
Willingness to take risks
Ability to tolerate the consequences of
taking risks

42

Theories of Leadership
Trait Theories

Is there a set of characteristics


that determine a good leader?

Personality?
Dominance and personal presence?
Charisma?
Self confidence?
Achievement?
Ability to formulate a clear vision?
43

Theories of Leadership
Trait Theories

Are such characteristics


inherently gender biased?
Do such characteristics
produce good leaders?
Is leadership more than
just bringing about change?
Does this imply that leaders are born not bred?

44

Theories of Leadership
Behavioural Theories
(concerned with hat the leader does)

Imply that leaders can be trained focus on the


way of doing things

Structure based behavioural theories focus on the


leader instituting structures task orientated
Relationship based behavioural theories focus on the
development and maintenance of relationships process
orientated

45

Theories of Leadership
Behavioural Theories
Type of Leadership Style used by the person
Authoritarian
Democratic
Laissex-faire

46

Theories of Leadership
Contingency (Situational)
Theories
These

theories recognize the


complexity of work situations and
encourage the leader to consider
a number of factors when
deciding what action to take
47

Theories of Leadership
Contingency (Situational)
Theories

Leadership as being more flexible different


leadership styles used at different times
depending on the circumstance.
Suggests leadership is not a fixed series of
characteristics that can be transposed into
different contexts

48

Theories of Leadership
Contingency (Situational)
Theories
suggest managers adapt their leadership
styles in relation to changing situations
May range from authoritarian to
permissive and vary in relation to current
needs and future probabilities

49

Contemporary

Theories

50

Trait, behavioral, and contingency theories


leadership and have provided important
foundations for leadership
Quantum leadership is based on the
concept that reality is a set of relationships
expressed at varying and continuously
changing levels of complexity
Charismatic Leadership
Transactional and transformational
Leadership
Connective Leadership

51

Theories of Leadership
Charismatic Leadership
Leadership

based on valued
personal characteristics and
beliefs

52

Theories of Leadership
Transformational
Recognized process as very complex
Something was missing:
Recognized inspiration and vision as
outstanding features
People need a sense of mission that goes
beyond good interpersonal relationships
or the appropriate reward for a job well
done
Goals should become fused, creating
unity, wholeness, and a collective purpose

53

Theories of Leadership
Transformational
Widespread changes
to a business or organisation
Requires:

Long term strategic planning


Clear objectives
Clear vision
Leading by example walk the walk
Efficiency of systems and processes
54

Theories of Leadership
Transactional Theories

A leadership style based on principles of


social exchange theory in which social
interaction between leaders and followers is
essentially economic and success is
achieved when needs are met, loyalty is
enhanced, and work performance is
enhanced

55

Theories of Leadership
Transactional Theories

Focus on the management of the organisation


Focus on procedures and efficiency
Focus on working to rules and contracts
Managing current issues and problems

56

Theories of Leadership
Connective Theories

A leadership style that values collaboration


and teamwork;
interpersonal skills are used to promote
collegiality in achieving organizational goals

57

Theories of Leadership
Invitational Theories

Improving the atmosphere and message sent out by the


organisation
Focus on reducing negative messages
sent out through the everyday actions of the business
both externally and, crucially, internally
Review internal processes to reduce these
Build relationships and sense of belonging and identity
with the organisation
that gets communicated to customers, etc.

58

Qualities of Effective
Leaders

Effective leadership is defined as the


accomplishment of the goals shared by
leader and followers.

Integrity
Courage
Initiative
Energy
Optimism

Perseverance
Balance
Ability to Handle
Stress
Self-Awareness

59

Qualities of Effective
Leaders

Integrity.
Integrity is expected of healthcare professionals. Our
clients, colleagues, and employers all expect nurses
to be honest, law-abiding, and trustworthy.
Adherence to both a code of personal ethics and a
code of professional ethics (see the American Nurses
Association Code for Nurses in Appendix 1) is
expected of every nurse. Would-be leaders who do
not exhibit these characteristics cannot expect them
of their followers either.
60

Qualities of Effective
Leaders

Courage. Sometimes, being a leader means

taking some risks.


Initiative. Good ideas are not enough. To
be a leader, you must act on those good
ideas. This requires initiative on your part.
Energy. Leadership also requires energy.
Both leadership and management are hard
but satisfying work that requires effort on
your part. Of course, it is also important that
you use your energy wisely.
61

Qualities of Effective
Leaders

Optimism. When the work is difficult and one


crisis seems to follow another in rapid succession,
it is easy to become discouraged. However, it is
important not to let discouragement keep you and
your coworkers from seeking ways to resolve your
difficulties. In fact, the ability to see a problem as
an opportunity is part of the optimism that makes a
person an effective leader. Like energy, optimism
is catching. An optimistic leader can remotivate
a discouraged group. Holman (1995) calls this
being a winner instead of a whiner
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Winner or WhinerWhich Are


You?
A winner says . . .

A whiner says . . .

We have a real challenge This is really a problem.


here.
Ill give it my best.

Do I have to?

Thats great!

Thats nice, I guess.

We can do it.

Impossible. It cant be

Yes!

done.
63

Qualities of Effective
Leaders

Perseverance. Perseverance is a closely


related characteristic of effective leaders.
Effective leaders do not give up easily.
Instead, they persevere, continuing their
efforts when others are tempted to give up
the struggle. This perseverance often pays
off.

64

Qualities of Effective
Leaders

Balance. In our effort to become the best nurses we


can be, we may forget that other aspects of life are
equally important. As important as our clients and
colleagues are to us, family and friends are important
too. Although school and work are meaningful
activities, cultural, social, recreational, and spiritual
activities also have meaning. The most effective
leaders have found a balance between work and play in
their lives.
Ability to Handle Stress. There is some stress
in almost every job. Coping with stress in as positive
and healthy a manner as possible helps you conserve
your energy and be a model for others.
65

Behaviors of Effective Leaders

As mentioned earlier, leadership requires


action. The effective leader not only takes
action but also chooses the action carefully.
Important leadership behaviors include thinking
critically, solving problems, respecting people,
communicating skillfully, setting specific goals
and communicating a vision for the future, and
developing oneself and others
66

Behaviors of Effective Leaders

Think critically-choose actions clearly


Solve problems
Respect individuals
Listen and communicate carefully and
skillfully
Set goals and a vision for the future
Develop oneself and coach others
67

Behaviors of Effective Leaders


Critical thinking

is reflective, reasoned analysis that focuses on


thinking before deciding what to believe or do
(Miller & Malcolm, 1990). The essence of critical
thinking is questioning and analyzing ideas,
suggestions, habits, routines, common practices,
and policies before deciding to accept or reject
them. To avoid falling prey to the assumptions and
biases of oneself and others, ask yourself
frequently, Why do I believe that . . .? (Ulrich &
Glendon, 1999).
68

Behaviors of Effective Leaders


Solving Problems.

Client problems, paperwork problems, staff


problems: these and others occur
frequently and need to be solved. The
effective leader helps people to identify
problems and to work through the problemsolving process to find a reasonable
solution.
69

Behaviors of Effective Leaders


Respecting the Individual.
Although we all have much in common as thinking,
feeling human beings, each of us has different wants
and needs and has had different life experiences. For
example, some people really value the psychological
rewards of helping others, and other people are more
concerned about earning a decent salary. There is
nothing wrong with either of these points of view; they
are simply different. The effective leader recognizes
these differences in people and helps them find the
rewards in their work that mean the most to them.
70

Behaviors of Effective Leaders


Listening to Others and Communicating
Skillfully. The only way to find out peoples
individual wants and needs is to watch what
they do and to listen to what they tell you. It is
amazing how often leaders fail simply because
they did not listen to what other people were
trying to tell them. We have separated listening
from communicating with other people just to
emphasize that communication involves both
giving and receiving information, not just giving
out information. Skillful communication
includes the following:

71

Behaviors of Effective Leaders

Encouraging the Exchange of Information. Many


misunderstandings and mistakes occur because people failed to
share enough information with each other. The leaders role is to
make sure that the channels of communication remain open and that
people use them.

Providing Feedback. Everyone needs some information about the


effectiveness of his or her performance. Frequent feedback, both
positive and negative, is needed so that people can continually
improve their performance. Some nurse leaders find it difficult to
give negative feedback, fearing that they will upset the other person.
How else can a person know where improvement is needed?
Negative feedback can be given in a manner that is neither hurtful
nor resented by the individual receiving it. In fact, it is often
appreciated. Other nurse leaders forget to give positive feedback,
assuming that coworkers will know when they are doing a good job.
This is a mistake; everyone appreciates positive feedback. In fact,
for some people, it is the most important reward they get from their
jobs.
72

Behaviors of Effective Leaders


Setting

Specific Goals and


Communicating a Vision for the Future.

Just as each one of us is unique in terms of our experiences,


needs, and wants, we are also likely to have unique goals for
ourselves. An important leadership task is to find the common
thread in all of those goals and to help the group reach a
consensus about its goals.
This may require considerable discussion before it is
achieved.
The effective leader also has a vision for the future.
Communicating this vision to the group and involving
everyone in working toward that vision create the inspiration
that keeps people going when things become difficult. Even
better, involving people in creating the vision is not only more
satisfying for employees but also has the potential for the
most creative and innovative outcomes (Kerfott, 2000). It is
this vision that helps make our work meaningful.
73

Behaviors of Effective Leaders


Developing Oneself and Others.
Learning does not end with leaving school. In fact,
experienced nurses will tell you that school is just
the beginning, that it only prepares you to
continue learning throughout your career. As new
and better ways to care for clients are discovered,
it is your responsibility as a professional to
critically analyze these new approaches and
decide whether they would be better for your
clients than current approaches to care.
74

Behaviors of Effective Leaders

Effective leaders not only continue to learn


but also encourage others to do the same.
Sometimes leaders function as teachers. At
other times, their role is primarily to
encourage and guide others to seek more
knowledge. Observant, reflective, analytical
practitioners know that learning takes place
every day if one is open to it (Kaagan,
1999).
75

Factors Affecting Style

76

Factors Affecting Style

Leadership style may be dependent


on various factors:

Risk - decision making and change initiatives


based on degree of risk involved
Type of business creative business
or supply driven?
How important change is
change for changes sake?
Organisational culture may be long embedded
and difficult to change
Nature of the task needing cooperation?
Direction? Structure?
77

What Makes a
Person a
Manager?

78

What Makes a Person a Manager?

One may emphasize the relationship of


managing people where another may
emphasize the task aspects of
management

79

Although there are many management theories,


it is most important to be familiar with the two
major but opposing schools of thought in
management: the human relations approach to
management and scientific management. As
you will see, one emphasizes the relationship
aspects of managing people, and the other
emphasizes the task aspects of management

80

Scientific Management

Frederick Taylor believed that most jobs


could be done more efficiently if they were
thoroughly analyzed and that most
workers could work more efficiently given
a properly designed tasks and sufficient
incentive to get the work done

The nurse manage would keep records


on work done
81

Scientific Management

The work itself was also analyzed to improve


efficiency. In health care, for example, there has
been a lot of discussion about the time it takes to
bring patients to x-ray or therapy versus bringing
the x-ray or therapist to the patient. The current
emphasis on eliminating excess staff and
increasing the productivity of remaining
employees is based on the same kind of thinking.

82

Scientific Management

Nurse managers who use the principles of


scientific management emphasize the task
aspects of providing health care. They pay
particular attention to the type of treatments and
procedures done on the unit, the equipment
needed to provide this care efficiently, and
strategies that would facilitate efficient
accomplishment of these tasks. These nurse
managers keep careful records of the amount of
work accomplished and reward those who
accomplish the most.
83

Human Relations-Oriented
Management

McGregors X,
Y Theory

keeping employee morale and


motivation as high as possible,
assuming that satisfied,
motivated employees will do the
best work

84

Human Relations-Oriented
Management
McGregors (Theory X)

Most people do not want to work very hard


and the managers job is to see that they do
work hard
Employees need strict rules, constant
supervision, and the threat of punishment
(in the form of reprimands, withheld raises,
and threats fo job loss) to make them
careful, conscientious workers
85

Human Relations-Oriented
Management
McGregors (Theory Y)
Managers believe the work itself can be
motivating and people will work hard if their
managers provide an atmosphere in which
they are supported and encouraged to do
so
Emphasizes guidance rather than control,
development rather than close supervision,
and reward rather than punishment

86

Work is something to be
avoided

The work itself can be


motivating

People want to do as
little as possible

People really want to do


their job well

Use control-supervision
punishment

Use guidancedevelopment reward

87

A human relationsoriented nurse manager


is concerned with keeping employee
morale as high as possible, assuming that
satisfied, motivated employees will do the
best work. Employees attitudes, opinions,
hopes, and fears are important to this type
of nurse manager. Considerable effort is
expended to work out conflicts and promote
mutual understanding among the staff to
provide an atmosphere in which people can
do their best work.
88

Qualities of An Effective
Manager
The effective nurse manager possesses a
combination of qualities:
Leadership
Clinical Expertise
Business Sense
None of these alone is enough; it is the
combination that prepares an individual for the
complex task of managing a group or team of
healthcare providers.
89

Qualities of An Effective Manager


Leadership.

All of the people skills of the leader are essential to


the effective manager. They are the core skills needed
to function as a manager.
Clinical

Expertise.

It is very difficult to either help others develop their


skills or evaluate how well they have done this without
possessing clinical expertise oneself. It probably is not
necessary (or even possible) to know everything every
other professional on the team knows, but it is
important to be able to assess the effectiveness of their
work in terms of patient outcomes.
90

Qualities of An Effective Manager

Business

Sense.

Nurse managers also need to be concerned with


the bottom line, that is, with the cost of providing
the care that is given, especially in comparison
with the benefit received from that care. In other
words, nurse managers need to be able to
analyze how much is spent to provide a given
amount of client care and how effective that client
care has been. This is a very complex task and
requires knowledge of budgeting, staffing, and
measurement of patient outcomes
91

Qualities of An Effective Manager

There is some controversy over the amount of


clinical expertise versus business sense that is
needed to be an effective nurse manager.
Some argue that a person can be a generic
manager, that the job of managing people is the
same no matter what tasks they perform.
Others argue that the manager must understand
the tasks better than anyone else in the work
group.
Our position is that both are needed, along with
excellent leadership skills.
92

Behaviors of An
Effective Manager
Mintzberg (1989) divides the managers activities
into three categories

Interpersonal
Informational
Decisional
93

Behaviors of An Effective Manager


Representing employees
Representing the organization
Dissemination
Networking
Conflict negotiation and resolution
Employee development
Rewards and punishment
Employee evaluation
Resource allocation
Planning
Job analysis and redesign

Informational

Interpersonal

Decisional

94

Behaviors of An Effective Manager

The interpersonal area is one in which


leaders and managers have similar
responsibilities. However, the manager has
some additional responsibilities that are
seldom given to leaders. The following are
additional interpersonal skills that nurse
managers need:

95

Behaviors of An Effective
Manager Interpersonal

Networking (The position of nurse managers in


the hierarchy provides them with many
opportunities to develop positive working
relationships with other disciplines, departments,
and units within the organization)

Conflict Negotiation and resolution (Managers


often find themselves occupied with resolving
conflicts between employees, between clients and
staff members, and between staff members and
administration)
96

Behaviors of An Effective
Manager Interpersonal

Employee Development (Providing for the


continuing learning and upgrading of the skills of
employees is a managerial responsibility that
overlaps with managers informational
responsibilities)

Rewards and Punishments (Managers are in a


position to provide both tangible (e.g., salary
increases, time off) and intangible (e.g., praise,
recognition) rewards as well as punishments )
97

Behaviors of An Effective Manager


Informational
Spokesperson. Managers often speak for administration when
relaying information to their staff members. Likewise,
they often speak for staff members when relaying
information to administration. In addition, they
frequently represent their work group or department at
various meetings and discussions.
Monitoring. Nurse managers monitor the activities of their
units or work groups. This may include the number of
clients seen, average length of stay, infection rates, and
so forth. They also monitor the staff (e.g., absentee rates,
tardiness, unproductive time) and the budget (e.g., money
spent, money left to spend in comparison with money
needed to operate the unit).
98

Behaviors of An Effective Manager


Informational
Dissemination. Nurse managers share information with
their clients, staff members, and employers. This
information may be related to the results of their
monitoring efforts, new developments in health care,
policy changes, and so forth. As you can see, nurse
managers have very complex, responsible positions
within healthcare organizations. Ineffective managers
may do harm to their employees and to the
organization, but effective managers can help their
staff members grow and develop as healthcare
professionals while providing the highest quality care
to their clients.
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Behaviors of An Effective Manager


Decisional
Employee Evaluation. Managers are responsible
for conducting formal performance appraisals
of their staff members.
Resource Allocation. In decentralized
organizations, nurse managers are often given a
set amount of money for running their units or
departments and must allocate these resources
wisely, especially when they are very limited.
Hiring and Firing Employees. Most nurse
managers participate in or carry out themselves
the hiring and firing for their units or departments.
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Behaviors of An Effective Manager

Decisional

Planning for the Future. Even though the day-to-day


operation of most units is a sufficiently complex and
time-consuming responsibility, nurse managers must
also look forward and prepare themselves and their
units for future changes in budgets, organizational
priorities, and patient populations.
Job Analysis and Redesign. In a time of extreme cost
consciousness, nurse managers are frequently being called
on to analyze and redesign the work of their units or
departments to make them as efficient and cost effective
as possible.
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Thinking critically is something an


effective leader uses
The essence of critical thinking is
questioning and analyzing
The effective leader influences others
successfully
A leader-manager is both a leader and a
manager
A leader may be an informal position
A manager has a formal position

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Effective

leadership is
defined as the
accomplishment of the
goals shared by leaders
and followers.inspiring
commitment
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Effective

managers should be
leaders

Every registered nurse needs leadership


skills to be effective as a practitioner and
colleague !!!!!!!!

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