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1.

13

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1.

18

1.1.

19

1.1.1.

19

1.1.2.

21

1.2.

23

1.2.1.

23

2.

26

2.1.

27

2.2.

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27

2.3.

28

3.

33

3.1.

33

3.2.

35

3.2.1.

35

3.2.2.

36

3.3.

38

3.3.1.

38

3.3.2.

40

3.4.

43

3.4.1.

44

3.4.2.

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45

4.

49

4.1.

50

4.2.

52

4.3.

55

4.3.1.

55

4.3.2.

56

4.3.3.

57

4.4.

58

5.

61

5.1.

61

5.1.1.

62

5.1.2.

63

5.1.2.

65

5.2.

71

5.3.

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74

5.3.1.

74

5.3.2.

76

5.3.3.

76

5.4.

78

5.4.1.

78

5.4.2.

78

5.4.3.

WEB

79

6.

80

6.1.

80

6.1.1.

80

6.1.2.

82

6.1.3.

84

6.1.4.

87

6.1.5.

88

6.1.6.

90

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91

6.2.

94

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95

6.2.2.

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97

6.2.3.

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98

6.3.

104

6.3.1.

104

6.3.2.

105

6.4.

111

6.5.

112

6.6.

113

7.

115

7.1.

115

119
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1. " !"

123

2.

126

3.

129

3.1.

129

3.2.

129

3.3.

130

4.

132

5.

137

5.1.

137

5.1.1.

137

5.1.2 .

138

5.1.3.

139

5.2.

139

5.2.1.

139

5.2.2.

141

5.2.3.

143

6.

145

6.1.

145

6.2.

145

7.

153

8.

155

9.

156

10.

157

2.

159

160

1.

164

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164

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164

1.3.

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164

1.4.

165

1.5.

165

1.6.

165

1.7.

166

2.

167

2.1.

167

2.2.

168

2.3.

171

2.4.

171

2.4.1.

172

2.4.2.

173

2.4.2.1.

173

2.4.2.1.1.

174

2.4.2.1.2.
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174

2.5.

175

2.5.1.

175

2.5.2.

176

2.5.3.

178

2.5.4.

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179

2.5.5.

179

2.6.

182

2.7.

183

2.8.

184

3.

186

4.

189

5.

201

5.1.

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202

5.2.

203

5.3.

5.4.

205
208

1.

212

2. ,



215

3.

217

PART 3. ENGLISH LANGUAGE MANUAL OF STYLE

221

Introduction

222

1.

Manuscript Standards

224

2.

Reference Notes

226

3.

Bibliographies

234

4.

Parenthetical References and Reference Lists

239

5.

Examples

241

6.

Sources in Languages other than English

246

7.

Translated Sources

249

8.

The English Bible

252

9.

Electronic Sources

260

Appendix 1: Transliteration of Slavic alphabets

264

Appendix 2: Geographical names

265

Appendix 3: Capitalization

270

Bibliography

279



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ad locum (Lat.), at the place


Apocrypha(l)
Aquila's Gk. tr. of , . AD 140
bar/ben (Aram./Heb.), son of
British Museum
circa (Lat.), about, approximately
chapter(s)
Deuteronomist
Dissertation
Dead Sea Scrolls
ecclesiastical Latin
Ecclesiasticus (Apoc.)
edited by, edition, editor(s)
English translation
et alii (Lat.), and others
English version
Forthcoming
and the following (verse(s), etc.)
Figuratively
Law of Holiness
ibidem (Lat.), the same work
idem (Lat.), the same author
Yahwist
Literally
Late Latin
loco citato (Lat.), in the place already quoted
Septuagint (Gk. version of )
Maccabees (Apoc.)
Margin
Modern
manuscript(s)

141

MT
n.f.
n.s.
NT
OE
OL
op. cit.

par.
passim
Pent.
per se
Pesh
Phoen.
pl.
Q
q. v.
R.
Rom.
Suppl.
s. v.
Symm.
Targ.
Theod.
TR
tr.
v. (vv.)
v.l.
vol.
vss
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142

Massoretic text
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new series
New Testament
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Old Latin
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by or in itself
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Phoenician
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Roman
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5.2.3.

ad Fam.
Adv. Haer.
Ann.
Ant.
Apol.
BJ
Clem. Recog.
Contra Pelag.
Eccles. Hist.
EH

Cicero, Eptstulae ad Familiares


Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses
Tatitus, Annals
Josephus, Antiquties of the Jews
Justin Martyr, Apologia; Tertullian, Apologia
Josephus, Jewish Wars
Rufinus, Clementine Recognitions
Jerome, Contra Pelagium
Sozomen, History of the Church
Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History

Epig.

Martial, Epigrammaticus Latinus

Ep. r.

Seneca, Epistulae Morales ad Lu-cilium

Eus.

Eusebius

Ev. Petr.

Gospel of Peter (apocryphal)

Exc. Theod.

Clement of Alexandria, Excerpta ex Theodoto

Geog.

Ptolemy, Geography; Strabo, Geography

Hist.

Dio Cassius, History; Tacitus, History

Hypot.

Clement of Alexandria, Hypotyposes

Il.

Homer, Iliad.

Iul.

Suetonius, C. Julius Caesar (Lives of the Caesars)

In Verr.

Cicero, In Verrem Actio

Jos.

Josephus

Juv.

Juvenal

Lk. Hom.

Origen, Homily on Luke

Magn.

Ignatius, Magnesians

NH

Pliny, Natural History

Od.

Horace, Odes

Onom.

Eusebius, Onomasticon de Locis Hebraicis

Philad.

Ignatius, Philadelphians

143

Praep. Ev.

Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica

Quaest

Seneca, Quaestiones Naturales

Sal.

Juvenal, Satires; Persius, Satires

Strom.

Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis

Trall.

Ignatius, Trallians

Vesp.

Suetonius, Vespasian (Lives of the Caesars)

Vit. Mas.

Philo, De Vita Mosis (Life of Moses)

: , 
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, .

144

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220

I / 2

III


ENGLISH LANGUAGE
MANUAL OF STYLE

URO-SIN CCRDITING SSCITION

221

H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

INTRODUCTION

To make scholarly theological writing from the countries of


the former Soviet Union available to the widest readership pos
sible, Bogoslovskie razmyshleniia/ Theological Reflections pub
lishes all articles both in the language of the author and in En
glish. As straightforward as that sounds, it has meant that
many curious and unanticipated problems have had to be solved
in the editing process.
Because the writers who contribute to the journal have been
educated on different continents and in different languages
and scholarly traditions, their work inevitably reflects a vari
ety of approaches to organizing information. Moreover, even
the most skillful translators do not always have the tools avail
able to produce an accurate rendering of a theological article.
While it would be impossible to compile a manual that would
cover all possible editing situations, the following information
on standard American scholarly usage has been collected to help
writers and translators avoid the problems that occur most fre
quently, especially in creating adequate notes and bibliogra
phies.
However, that task is also not as straightforward as it sounds.
No single authoritative body exists in the United States to es
tablish standards for American scholarly writing. The general
consensus is that The Chicago Manual of Style, published by
the University of Chicago Press, is a reliable basic guide. How
ever, even sources that claim to rely mainly on The Chicago
Manual of Style may disagree with one another on details.
Why should this be so? Scholarly usage has its own subcatego
ries. One of the sources consulted to compile this manual (see
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INTRODUCTION

Bibliography) lists eight headings in its bibliography covering


additional volumes on writing related to different disciplines
social sciences, humanities, engineering, and so on. That is,
every field has its own nuances depending on what aspects of
scholarly apparatus are of particular significance to that field.
For example, the sciences commonly use parenthetical refer
ences with a reference list (authordate style) because that style
presents the date of publication first, which is important in
fields that are constantly being brought up to date. Biblical
studies and theology, on the other hand, use humanities style
that emphasizes precision in citing the author's full name, edi
tion number, translator's name, and so on.
Naturally, if there are bound to be differences in the way that
scholars prefer to arrange information, we may expect the same
from postSoviet theological authors translated into English!
Therefore, if a writer or translator finds exceptions to the
guidelines laid down here, it will come as no surprise. Just as
"common sense and flexibility has always been a fundamen
tal and abiding principle" of The Chicago Manual of Style,26
so should it be of the EAAA!
Wherever it has not been possible to find an existing written
standard for specific stylistic issues, such as how to treat sourc
es translated from other languages into Russian, I have relied
on bibliographies of scholarly books to cull the basic pattern.
Finally, some readers may wonder why the EAAA standard is
American and not British. The decision is somewhat arbitrary,
but is basically due to the frequency of contact between evan
gelical scholars from the United States and Eurasia. Over the
last fifteen years enough theological scholars from the former
Soviet Union have received higher education in the United
States and enough professors from there have worked and
taught in the former Soviet Union to make American style fa
miliar.
Mary Raber
26

The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. (Chicago: The University of Chicago
Press, 1993), vii.
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1
MANUSCRIPT STANDARDS

Educational institutions and publishing houses have their own


style sheets to which writers are expected to conform, although
of course many manuscripts submitted for publication will re
quire some adaptation of the standard. Find out about a pub
lisher's or institution's requirements for manuscript prepara
tion before submitting an article, research paper, or book
manuscript, and follow their instructions carefully.
When submitting a translated article, the author (not the
translator!) is responsible for making sure it meets the neces
sary standard.
The following points apply to most situations; many adjust
ments are made automatically when using a standard word pro
cessor:
Type Size: Use twelvepoint type in a nonornamental typeface
such as Times New Roman for text and tenpoint type for foot
notes.
Margins: Leave a margin of at least four centimeters on all four
sides of the paper.
Spacing: Doublespace the text, but singlespace block quota
tions (more than three lines), notes, captions, and long head
ings.

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Printing:
Print on only one side of A4 white bond paper. (Note that
standard paper size in the United States is 81/2 x 11
inches, which looks "fat" to European eyes.)
Use the best quality printer available; make sure that
there is enough ink in the cartridge to produce a
manuscript dark enough to be photocopied easily.
Page Numbers: Every page should have a number, and pagina
tion should be continuous from the beginning to the end of the
manuscript.
The first page number and the numbers of pages with
major headings (chapter, bibliography) should be cen
tered at the foot of the page at least three centimeters
from the edge. All subsequent page numbers should be
either in the center or flush right at the top of the page,
at least three centimeters from the edge.
Use arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) for pages of text. In a
longer article or book manuscript (with table of
contents, introduction, and so on) the preliminary pages
are numbered with lowercase roman numerals (v, vi, vii,
etc.).

ENGLISH

L A N G UAG E M A N UA L O F S T Y L E

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

2
REFERENCE NOTES

Scholarly research is a communal as well as an individual ac


tivity. The primary purpose of notes and bibliographies is not
to protect the author against charges of plagiarismalthough
that is important!or even to show that he or she has an ade
quate grasp of existing sourcesalthough that is important too!
Rather, notes and bibliography are tools used by a community.
Scholars do not work in a vacuum, but as part of a body, each
one enhancing the work of others. Every article or book repre
sents a contribution to a much larger field of knowledge, and
every scholar working in that field is responsible for clearly
setting out where he or she found certain information so that
other scholars can locate and use it too.

2.1. Use of notes


Notes are used in a manuscript for the following purposes:
To cite the source of a quote or other information. It is
extremely important both to give credit where it is due,
and to give the reader the most complete directions pos
sible so that the source may be located again for other
research.
To add comments that cannot appropriately be includ
ed in the text itself, such as definitions, explanations,
references to other parts of the text, and so on.
To refer the reader to other sources of related interest.

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REFERENCE NOTES

2.2. Forms of notes


Editors disagree about which form of notes is most useful to the
reader, and different forms are considered more suitable for
different scholarly disciplines.
Footnotes are the most traditional. They appear at the
bottom of the page on which they are cited, and have the
advantage of immediacy; that is, the reader need not
page back and forth searching for a source. Footnotes
are easily inserted when using a word processor. When
using a typewriter, footnotes appear in numerical order,
indented, in smaller type than the text (usually 10
point), singlespaced, under a short ruled line drawn
three centimeters from the lower lefthand margin of
the page.
Endnotes are organized in the same way as footnotes,
but appear in a list at the end of an article, book, or chap
ter. They appear in numerical order, singlespaced and
indented. Endnotes are becoming more common in
scholarly writing because they do not "interrupt" the
reader. In other words, they do not affect the appear
ance of the text by chopping it up with different type
faces, and the reader is free to decide which notes are
worth looking up.
Parenthetical references and reference lists are pre
ferred by some fields of scholarship, such as the natu
ral and social sciences. Authors writing about Christian
education or history may occasionally use this style. A
more complete description of this form of notes is in
Section 4.
Bogoslovskie razmyshleniia/Theological Reflections
prefers footnotes. Standard treatment for footnotes,
endnotes, and parenthetical references is given
below.

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

2.3. Preparing notes on books


When citing books in footnotes or endnotes, the following in
formation is given in this order:
Full name of author(s) or editor(s) as it appears on the
title page.
Full title of the book in italics, including subtitle.
Full name of editor(s), translator(s), or compiler(s), if
any.
Edition, if other than the first.
Number of volumes, if any.
Facts of publication: city (and state or province, if pub
lished in the U.S. or Canada and the city is not well
known), publisher, and year of publication.
Volume number, if any.
Page number(s).
2.3.1. Author's or editor's name:

Give the full name of the author(s) or editor(s) as it appears on


the title page, followed by a comma. Generally in American
usage initials are not used if the full name is known, or unless
the author's name appears that way on the title page. There is
a period and a space between two initials.
Elaine Storkey

William Sanford La Sor

Rudolph Bultmann

F. F. Bruce

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin S. V. Sannikov


For a work by two or three authors, give the full names in the
order that they appear on the title page, separating the names
of two authors with and, and those of three authors with com
mas, the last comma followed by and. If there are more than
three authors, cite the name of the first author given on the ti
tle page and add et al. or and others.

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REFERENCE NOTES

Ruth A. Tucker and Walter L. Liefeld


Louis Fienberg, Julius Horwitz, and Moses Horwitz
Cornelius J. Dyck et al., eds. OR Cornelius J. Dyck
and others, eds.
For a work by a premodern author, use the standard English
spelling of the name. Consult the Biographical Names section
in any good English dictionary, such as MerriamWebster Col
legiate Dictionary.
Aristotle (not Aristote or Aristoteles)
John Chrysostom (not Ioann Golden Mouth)
Augustine or Augustin (not Augustinus)
Jerome (not Hieronymus)
2.3.2. Title of book

Give the title and subtitle (if any) of books in italics. Always
capitalize the first and last words in a title, including the first
word after the colon in a subtitle. All other words should be
capitalized except articles, prepositions, to used as part of an
infinitive, and coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for):
The Divorce Myth
The Book of Genesis: Chapters 117
Paul: Follower of Jesus or Founder of Christianity?
The Way: What Every Protestant Should Know about
the Orthodox Church
Telling the Truth: The Gospel as Tragedy, Comedy,
and Fairy Tale
2.3.3. Name of editor(s), translator(s), or compiler(s)

Indicate the name of an editor, translator, or compiler (if dif


ferent from the author) with the abbreviation ed., trans., or
comp., as appropriate.
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229

H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

Nicholas Berdyaev, The End of Our Time, trans. Donald


Atwater (New York: Sheed & Ward, Inc., 1933), 140141.
James R. Krabill, Walter Sawatsky, and Charles E. Van En
gen, eds., Evangelical, Ecumenical, and Anabaptist
Missiologies in Conversation (Maryknoll, N. Y.: Orbis,
2006), ix.
Michael S. Montgomery, comp., American Puritan Stud
ies: An Annotated Bibliography of Dissertations, 1882
1981 (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1984), 102.
2.3.4. Number of volumes

When citing a volume in a multivolume work, note the num


ber of volumes in the series.
John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. John
T. McNeill, 2 vols. (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1960),
2:1016.
2.3.5. Edition, if other than the first

Information concerning the edition is required if the work cit


ed is not the first edition. If information about the edition is
not given on the title page, check the copyright page (reverse
of the title page).
T. R. Glover, The Ancient World (London: Pelican, 1935; reprint,
Penguin: 1957), 306.
John Lawrence, A History of Russia, 2d rev. ed. (New York:
Mentor, 1969), 41.
2.3.6. Facts of publication
2.3.6.1.Placeofpublication

Indicate the city where the book or article was published, as it


appears on the title page, in parentheses.
If more than one city is listed, only the first city should
be used.

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REFERENCE NOTES

If the city is not well known (sometimes a debatable


point), include also the name of the state or province
where the city is located (if in North America). In the
case of Grand Rapids, Michigan (home of publishers
Baker, Eerdmans, and Zondervan), you may or may not
add the abbreviation Mich. after the name of the city,
but whatever you decide to do, be consistent. A list of
state and province abbreviations is given in Appendix 2.
In an English translation, use the English name for the
city (if there is one) where the source is published, even
if the article or book is in Russian, German, or other
language. A list of geographical names is given in Ap
pendix 2.
Moscow (not Moskva)
St. Petersburg (not SanktPeterburg)
Vienna (not Wien)
Munich (not Munchen)
Prague (not Praha)
Vaclav Havel, Letters to Olga, trans. Paul Wilson (London:
Faber and Faber, 1988; paperback 1990), 137.
Henri J. M. Nouwen, Clowning in Rome: Reflections on Sol
itude, Celibacy, Prayer, and Contemplation (Westmin
ster, Md.: Christian Classics, Inc., 1992), 20.
Douglas D. Webster, A Passion for Christ: An Evangelical
Christology (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1987), 89.
OR
Douglas D. Webster, A Passion for Christ: An Evangelical
Christology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987), 89.
2.3.6.2.Nameofpublisher

In footnotes and endnotes the name of the publisher may be ab


breviated. University presses are an exceptionthe word "Press"
should not be omitted from them.
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231

H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company OR Eerdmans


BUT
Oxford University Press
2.3.6.3.Yearofpublication

Cite the year of publication as given on the copyright page (re


verse of the title page). Look for the date with the publisher's
imprint; if there is more than one date given, use the most recent
one. The date is followed by a closed parenthesis and comma.
2.3.7. Volume number and page number

After the closed parenthesis and comma, cite the volume num
ber (if any) and page number(s) to which the reference is made.
It is not necessary to add the abbreviations p or pp unless their
absence would cause confusion. In the example below the num
ber 3 refers to the volume and 15 to the page number.
Adolf Harnack, History of Dogma, trans. Neil Buchanan,
7 vols. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 18961905), 3:15.

2.4. Preparing notes on periodicals


When citing periodicals (journals, newspapers, etc.) the follow
ing information is given:
Full name of author(s).
Title in quotation marks.
Name of periodical in italics.
Volume and issue numbers.
Date in parentheses followed by a colon (:)
Page number(s)

232

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Examples:

Sergei Averintsev, "Overcoming the Totalitarian Past,"


Religion in Eastern Europe Volume XXIV, Number 3
(June 2004): 28.
Josef Smolik, "Comenius, a Man of Hope in a Time of Tur
moil," Christian History, Volume VI, Number 1 (1987):
17.

2.5. Subsequent references


After the first complete reference to a work, it is acceptable to
abbreviate subsequent references. For example:
3 Thomas M. Raitt, A Theology of Exile (Philadelphia: For

tress, 1977), 177.


4 Raitt, Exile, 177.

When the same work is referred to with no other intervening


references, it is acceptable to use the Latin abbreviation ibid.
(short for ibidem, "in the same place") in place of the author's
name, title of the work, and as much of the succeeding materi
al as is identical. For example:
2 Ruth A. Tucker and Walter L. Liefeld, Daughters of the

Church: Women and Ministry from New Testament


Times to the Present (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987),
408.
3 Ibid., 410.

More examples are given in Section 5.

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

3
BIBLIOGRAPHY

A bibliography is a list of major works that relate to the topic


of an article or book and to related topics. A note tells the read
er exactly where a certain quote or piece of information may be
found, while a bibliography informs the reader of other works
of interest. If a work was merely quoted in the article, it usu
ally does not need to be included in the bibliography unless it
relates to the topic being discussed. For example, if an author
quotes a dictionary or encyclopedia article, it does not necessar
ily mean that the dictionary or encyclopedia must be listed in
the bibliographythe note is sufficient.
A bibliography is given at the end of the work. It is usually or
ganized alphabetically according to the authors' last name, but
if many different kinds of sources (books, articles, films, paint
ings, archival materials) are consulted, it may be divided into
sections according to the type of medium. Sources in different
languages may be grouped together or not, according to the
preference of the author.

3.1. Preparing a Bibliography


A bibliography is singlespaced with one blank line between
entries. The first line of each entry is flush left, and any addi
tional lines are indented five spaces (see examples below). The
different items included in a bibliography are separated by pe

234

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

riods, not commas, as in a note. In general, the information in


cluded in a bibliographic entry is the same as in footnotes and
endnotes and occurs in the same order, but is organized some
what differently.
Full name of author(s) or editor(s) as it appears on the
title page, alphabetized according to surname.
Full title of the book or article, including subtitle.
Full name of editor(s), translator(s), or compiler(s), if
any.
Edition, if other than the first.
Number of volumes.
Facts of publication: city (and state or province, if pub
lished in the U.S. or Canada and the city is not well
known), publisher, and year of publication.
Volume number (if any).
Page number(s), if the work cited is part of a larger
whole. For example, to cite a chapter of a book or an
article from a journal, the beginning and ending pages
of the section should be included in the reference. Oth
erwise, page numbers are not given in bibliographies.
3.1.1. Author's name

A bibliography is arranged alphabetically according to the au


thor's or editor's surname followed by a period to separate it
from the title of the book or article. If there are two or more
authors, only the name of the first author is presented last
name first. The other names are given in their normal order.
Alexander, Patrick H., John F. Kutsko, James D.
Ernest, Shirley A. DeckerLucke and David L. Peterson,
eds.
Blomberg, Craig L.

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235

H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

If several works by the same author are listed in a bibliogra


phy, only the first entry should contain the full name. Subse
quent entries are represented by an eightspace line (made by
striking the underscore key eight times) ending in a period. The
entries may be listed according to publishing date or alphabet
ically.
Norris, Kathleen. The Cloister Walk. New York: Riverhead
Books, 1996.
________. Amazing Grace: A Vocabulary of Faith. New
York: Riverhead Books, 1998.
3.1.2. Title of book or article

Give the title and subtitle (if any) of books in italics followed
by a period, unless another punctuation mark (question mark
or exclamation point) is at the end of the title.
The Divorce Myth.
Paul: Follower of Jesus or Founder of Christianity?
Give the title and subtitle of a journal or newspaper article
in quotation marks, followed by a period.
"Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage, and Celibacy: An
Exegesis of Matthew 19:312."
Capitalize the first and last words of a title (including the first
word after the colon in a subtitle) and all other words, except
articles, prepositions, to used as part of an infinitive, and co
ordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for):
Book titles:
Knowing God.
Good People in an Evil Time: Portraits of Complicity and Resis
tance in the Bosnian War.
Anabaptist History and Theology: An Introduction.
Articles:

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Dietrich Bonhoeffer on Theology and Philosophy."


"Origen: Friend or Foe?"
"World Congresses of Mission: Reconvergence under What
Perspective?
3.1.3. Name of editor, translator, or compiler

Bibliographic entries use the complete phrases, "edited by,"


"translated by," or "compiled by," unless the editor, translator
or compiler's name is considered the name of the author.
Bengtson, Hermann. Introduction to Ancient History.
Translated from the 6th ed. by R. I. Frank and Frank D.
Gilliard. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.
Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Edited
by John T. McNeill, 2 volumes. Philadelphia: Westmin
ster, 1960.
3.1.4. Edition number, if other than the first

Alkire, Leland G., Jr. Periodical Title Abbreviations. 2 vol


umes, 9th edition. Detroit: Gale Research, 1994.
3.1.5. Facts of publication

See Section 2.3.5. for more detail. Note that in a bibliographic


reference the facts of publication are not put in parentheses.
Indicate the city where the book or article was pub
lished, as it appears on the title page.
As in footnotes and endnotes, the name of the publisher
may be abbreviated. University presses are an ex
ception the word Press should not be omitted from them.
Cite the year of publication as given on the copyright
page (reverse of the title page). Look for the date with
the publisher's imprint; if there is more than one date
given, use the most recent one. Follow with a period.

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237

H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

Examples:

Havel, Vaclav. Letters to Olga. Translated by Paul Wilson.


London: Faber and Faber, 1988; paperback 1990.
Nouwen, Henri J. M. Clowning in Rome: Reflections on
Solitude, Celibacy, Prayer, and Contemplation. West
minster, Md.: Christian Classics, Inc., 1992.
Webster, Douglas D. A Passion for Christ: An Evangelical
Christology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1987.
OR
Webster, Douglas D. A Passion for Christ: An Evangelical
Christology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987, 89.
3.1.6. Page numbers

If a book is cited in a bibliographic entry, the page numbers are


not given unless the reference is to a specific chapter or article
in the book. If a journal article is listed, the page numbers must
be given.
Book:

Pospielovsky, Dimitry. The Russian Church under the So


viet Regime, 19171982, Volume One. Crestwood, N. Y.:
St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1984.
Article:

Bailey, Kenneth E. "Women in the New Testament: A Mid


dle Eastern Cultural View." Anvil Volume 11, Number
1 (1994): 724.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

4
PARENTHETICAL REFERENCES
AND REFERENCE LISTS

Some fields of scholarship, such as the natural and social sci


ences prefer the use of parenthetical references and reference
lists to footnotes and bibliography. Authors writing about his
tory or Christian education may occasionally use this style.
In parenthetical reference style, when an author is quoted or
otherwise referred to, the surname of the author (or editor,
compiler, translator, group of authors, etc.) is introduced into
the body of the text in parentheses, together with the year of
publication. There is no comma between the name and the year.
Works having more than three authors use the name of the
first, followed by et al. or and others. The page number from
which the quote is taken follows after a comma.
(Sannikov 2001,121)
(Hudson and Townsend 1988, 70)
(Alexander and others 1999, 42)
Details on the publications quoted are then given in the refer
ence list at the end. Like a bibliography, a reference list is or
ganized alphabetically according to the authors' last name and
singlespaced with one blank line between entries. The first line
of each entry is flush left, and any additional lines are indent
ed five spaces.
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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

The information in the reference list is presented in the


following order:
Author's name, surname first.
The year of publication.
The full title and subtitle of the book (in italics), or
article (without quotation marks), capitalized in
sentence style (capitalize the first word of the title or
subtitle and only proper nouns and proper adjectives
thereafter).
Full name of editor(s) and translator(s).
Name of series, and volume and number in the series.
Edition, if other than the first.
Number of volumes.
City where the book was published (and state or
province, if in North America and not well known),
followed by a colon.
Name of publisher.
Note that all the items in a reference list are separated from one
another by a period except for the city where a work was pub
lished, which is followed by a colon.
Examples of reference list style:

Alexander, Patrick H., John F. Kutsko, James D. Ernest,


Shirley A. DeckerLucke, David L. Peterson. 1999. The
SBL handbook of style for ancient near eastern, biblical,
and early Christian studies. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrick
son.
Hudson, Bob and Shelley Townsend, eds. 1988. A Christian
writer's manual of style. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Sannikov, S. V. 2001. Dvadtsat' vekov khristianstva. Vol.
2, Vtoroe tysiacheletie. Odessa: Bogomyslie.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

5
EXAMPLES OF REFERENCE NOTES,
BIBLIOGRAPHIES, AND PARENTHETICAL
REFERENCES

In the examples below, the following abbreviations are used:


N=Note;
B=Bibliography;
PR=Parenthetical Reference;
RL=Reference List

5.1. A book by a single author:


N

Thomas M. Raitt, A Theology of Exile (Philadelphia: For


tress, 1977), 177.

Raitt, Thomas M. A Theology of Exile. Philadelphia: For


tress, 1977.

PR (Raitt 1977, 12)


RL Raitt, Thomas M. 1977. A theology of exile. Philadelphia:
Fortress.

5.2. A book by two or three authors:


N

Ruth A. Tucker and Walter L. Liefeld, Daughters of the


Church: Women and Ministry from New Testament Times
to the Present (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987), 408.
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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

Tucker, Ruth A., and Walter L. Liefeld. Daughters of the


Church:Women and Ministry from New Testament
Times to the Present. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan,
1987.

PR (Tucker and Liefeld 1987, 408)


RL Tucker, Ruth A., and Walter L. Liefeld. 1987. Daughters
of the church:Women and ministry from New Testament
times to the present.Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan.

5.3. A book by more than three authors:


N

Bernard Brandon Scott et al., Reading New Testament


Greek (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1993), 53.

Scott, Bernard Brandon, Margaret Dean, Kristen Sparks,


and Frances LaZar. Reading New Testament Greek. Pe
abody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1993.

PR (Scott et al 1993, 53)


RL Scott, Bernard Brandon, Margaret Dean, Kristen Sparks,
and Frances LaZar. 1993. Reading New Testament
Greek. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson.

5.4. Editor or compiler as "author":


N

Ray C. Petry, ed., A History of Christianity, Readings in


the History of the Church, Volume 1: The Early and Medi
eval Church (New York: PrenticeHall, 1962; reprint,
Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981), 910.

Petry, Ray C., ed. A History of Christianity, Readings in


the History of the Church, Volume 1: The Early and Me
dieval Church. New York: PrenticeHall, 1962; reprint,
Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981.

PR (Petry 1981, 910)

242

M A N UA L / P R T 3

EXAMPLES OF REFERENCE

RL Petry, Ray C., ed. 1981. A history of Christianity, readings


in the history of the church, volume 1: The early and
medieval church. Grand Rapids: Baker. Original edition,
New York: PrenticeHall, 1962.

5.5. Author's work edited by another:


N

John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. John


T. McNeill, 2 vols. (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1960),
2:1016.

Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Edited


by John T. McNeill, 2 volumes. Philadelphia: Westmin
ster, 1960.

PR (Calvin 1960, 2:1016)


RL Calvin, John. 1960. Institutes of the Christian religion. Ed
ited by John T. McNeill, 2 volumes. Philadelphia: West
minster.

5.6. Author's work translated by another:


N

Broz, Svetlana, Good People in an Evil Time: Portraits of


Complicity and Resistance in the Bosnian War, ed. Laurie
Kain Hart, trans. Ellen EliasBursac (New York: Other
Press, 2004), xxxixxxii.

Broz, Svetlana. Good People in an Evil Time: Portraits of


Complicity and Resistance in the Bosnian War. Edited
by Laurie Kain Hart. Translated by Ellen EliasBursac.
New York: Other Press, 2004.

PR (Broz 2004, xxxixxxii)


RL Broz, Svetlana. 2004. Good people in an evil time: Portraits
of complicity and resistance in the Bosnian war. Edited
by Laurie Kain Hart. Translated by Ellen EliasBursach.
New York: Other Press.

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

5.7. A multi-volume work


N

Adolf Harnack, History of Dogma, trans. Neil Buchanan;


7 vols. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 18961905), 3:15.

Harnack, Adolf. History of Dogma. Translated from the 3rd


German ed. by Neil Buchanan. 7 vols. Boston: Little,
Brown & Co., 18961905.

PR (Harnack 18961905, 2:126)


RL Harnack, Adolf. 18961905. History of dogma. Translated
from the 3rd German ed. by Neil Buchanan. 7 vols. Bos
ton: Little, Brown & Co.

5.8. An article in an edited volume:


N

Rudolph Bultmann, "The Primitive Christian Kerygma and


the Historical Jesus," in The Historical Jesus and the
Kerygmatic Christ, ed. C. E. Braaten and R. A. Harmsville
(New York: Abingdon, 1964), 17.

Bultmann, Rudolph. "The Primitive Christian Kerygma


and the Historical Jesus." In The Historical Jesus and
the Kerygmatic Christ, ed. C. E. Braaten and R. A.
Harmsville, 1719. New York: Abingdon, 1964.

PR (Bultmann 1964, 17)


RL Bultmann, Rudolph. 1964. The primitive Christian keryg
ma and the historical Jesus. In The historical Jesus and
the kerygmatic Christ, ed. C. E. Braaten and R. A.
Harmsville, 1729. New York: Abingdon.

5.9. A revised edition:


N

John Lawrence, A History of Russia, 2nd rev. ed. (New


York: Farrar, & Giroux, 1957; repr. Mentor, 1969), 73.

Lawrence, John. A History of Russia, 2nd rev. ed. New


York: Farrar, & Giroux, 1957; Reprint, Mentor, 1969.

244

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EXAMPLES OF REFERENCE

PR (Lawrence 1969, 73)


RL Lawrence, John. 1969. A history of Russia, 2nd rev. ed. New
York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 1957. Reprint, Mentor
(page references are to the reprint edition).

5.10. A reprinted edition:


N

Thomas Merton, Love and Living, ed. Naomi Burton Stone


and Brother Patrick Hart (New York: Farrar, Straus & Gi
roux, 1979; repr. Bantam, 1980), 184.

Merton, Thomas. Love and Living. Edited by Naomi Bur


ton Stone and Brother Patrick Hart. New York: Farrar,
Strauss & Giroux, 1979. Reprint, Bantam, 1980.

PR (Merton 1980, 184)


RL Merton, Thomas. 1980. Love and living. Edited by Naomi
Burton Stone and Brother Patrick Hart. New York: Far
rar, Strauss & Giroux, 1979. Reprint, Bantam (page ref
erences are to the reprint edition).

5.11. A book in a series:


N

C. Arnold Snyder, The Life and Thought of Michael Sat


tler, Studies in Anabaptist and Mennonite History, ed. Cor
nelius J. Dyck, et al., no. 26, (Scottdale, Penn.: Herald
Press, 1984), 93.

Snyder, C. Arnold. The Life and Thought of Michael Sat


tler. Studies in Anabaptist and Mennonite History, ed.
Cornelius J. Dyck, et. al., no. 26. Scottdale, Penn.: Her
ald Press, 1984.

PR (Snyder 1984, 93)


RL Snyder, C. Arnold. 1984. The life and thought of Michael
Sattler. Studies in Anabaptist and Mennonite History,
ed. Cornelius J. Dyck, et. al., no. 26. Scottdale, Penn.:
Herald Press.
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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

6
SOURCES IN LANGUAGES
OTHER THAN ENGLISH

When citing books, articles, or other sources in languages oth


er than English in an English language scholarly work, the
standard American form for notes and bibliography should be
followed, with the following additional points.

6.1. Name of author:


The name of the author of the book or article should be given as
it reads on the title page or heading of the work without at
tempting to anglicize it.
Toivo Pilli
Pico Iyer
Nanao Sakaki
If the author's name is given in a language that uses an alpha
bet other than Latin (such as Russian or Ukrainian) it should be
transliterated into Latin letters according to a standard system
of transliteration (for example, Library of Congress or U.S.
Board on Geographic NamesSee Appendix 1). Any standard
system of transliteration is acceptable, provided it is followed
consistently throughout the work. If you are aware that an au
thor uses a particular spelling in English, that spelling should
be used.

246

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/ PRT 3

SOURCES IN LANGUAGES OTHER THAN ENGLISH

Constantine Prokhorov (not Konstantin)


Gennady Pshenichny but Gennadiy Sergienko
However, the names of wellknown writers should appear as
they most commonly do in English, without regard for the rules
of transliteration systems:
Leo Tolstoy
Taras Shevchenko
Maxim Gorky
Consult the Biographical Names section of a reliable English
language dictionary, such as MerriamWebster Collegiate
Dictionary.

6.2. Title of book or article


The title of a work in a language other than English should be
given as it reads on the title page or the heading. The title of a
book is given in italics and the title of an article in quotation
marks. A Russian or Ukrainian work should be transliterated
according to a standard system exactly as it reads in the origi
nal language, capitalizing only those words that are capitalized
in the original. It is not necessary to translate the title into
English.
Communidad y compromise: Estudios sobre la renovacion
de la iglesia
"Die Besonderheiten in der Theologie von Comenius als
Quelle seiner Bemuhungen um die Allverbesserung"
Baptisty, ikh uchenie i zadachi

6.3. Publishing information


Give the common English name of the city of publica
tion rather than a transliteration (Moskva) or an abbre
viation (M). Consult the Geographical Names section of
a reliable Englishlanguage dictionary, if necessary. If
ENGLISH

L A N G UAG E M A N UA L O F S T Y L E

247

H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

the name of the city of publication has changed (St. Pe


tersburg, Petrograd, Leningrad), give the name of the
city at the time of publication, that is, the name of the
city as it reads on the title page.
Transliterate the name of the publisher according to a
standard transliteration system.
Examples:
Note:

E. Poselianin, Russkaya tserkov' i russkie podvizhniki XVIII


veka (St. Petersburg: I. L. Tuzov, 1905), 252.
Aleksandr Men', Syn chelovecheskiy (Moscow: Fond ime
ni Aleksandra Menia, 2000), 133.
A. Volkonskiy, Katolichestvo i sviashchennoe predanie vos
toka (Paris, 1932; L'viv: Missionerskoe obshchestvo sv.
Kirilla i Mefodiia, 1993), 84.
Gennady Pshenichny, "Chto skryvaet pokryvalo Vetkhogo
Zaveta?" Bogoslovskie razmyshleniia, No. 5 (2005): 23.
Bibliography:

Poselianin, E. Russkaya tserkov' i russkie podvizhniki


XVIII veka. St. Petersburg: I. L. Tuzov, 1905.
Men', Aleksandr. Syn chelovecheskiy. Moscow: Fond imeni
Aleksandra Menia, 2000.
Volkonskiy, A. Katolichestvo i sviashchennoe predanie vos
toka. Paris, 1932; L'viv: Missionerskoe obshchestvo sv.
Kirilla i Mefodiia, 1993.
Pshenichny, Gennady. "Chto skryvaet pokryvalo Vetkhogo
Zaveta?" Bogoslovskie razmyshleniia, No. 5 (2005): 7
26.

248

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SOURCES IN LANGUAGES OTHER THAN ENGLISH

7
TRANSLATED SOURCES

Many books have been translated into Russian or Ukrainian


from English and other languages over the last decade. Some
books exist in several translations. Many have been done
according to very high standards, but unfortunately that has
not always been the case. Not all translations have
acknowledged the name of the author, much less of the
translator, or even the title of the original work. Many have
been printed with little regard for issues of copyright.
Scholarly standards, however, require that any source cited be
identified with as much information as possible.
The basic form of notes and bibliography is the same (see
Sections 2 and 3), with the following additional points.

7.1. Name of author


The name of the author should be given in the original
language, not an attempt at translation or a transliteration.
Look for the author's name on the copyright page. If it is not
given, Google Scholar on the internet or the Biographical
Names section of a reliable Englishlanguage dictionary will
usually yield the correct spelling of a name.
Karl Barth (not Charles Bart)
Anthony Bloom (not A. Blum)
Walter Sawatsky (not Valter Zavatskiy)
ENGLISH

L A N G UAG E M A N UA L O F S T Y L E

249

H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

7.2. Name of publication and publication information


The title of the book or article should be transliterated
according to a standard format in sentence style (only
capitalizing the first word) with book titles in italics and
the titles of articles in standard print inside quotation
marks.
The original title of the work follows the translated title
in standard script, enclosed in parentheses.
Check the title page and copyright page for the name of
the translator and include it, if possible.
The name of the Russian or Ukrainian publisher should
be transliterated according to a standard format.
Include any original publication information that is
available.
Examples:
Note:

Justo L. Gonzalez, Istoriia khristianstva, tom 1: Ot osno


vaniia tserkvi do epokhi reformatsii (The Story of Chris
tianity, Vol. 1), trans. B. A. Skorokhodov (Saint Peters
burg: Bibliia dlia vsekh, 2003; San Francisco: Harper
Collins, 1984), 89.
Ernst Suttner, Khristianstvo vostoka i zapada v poiskakh
zrimogo proiavleniia edinstva (Die Christenheit aus Ost
und West auf der Suche nach dem sichtbaren Ausdruck
fur ihre Einheit), trans. Olga Velichko (Moscow: Bi
bleiskoBogoslovskiy institute sv. Apostola Andreia,
2004; Wurzburg: AugustinusVerlag, 1999), 82.
Bibliography:

Gonzalez, Justo L. Istoriia khristianstva, tom 1: Ot osnovaniia


tserkvi do epokhi Reformatsii (The Story of Christianity,
Vol. 1). Translated by B. A. Skorokhodov. St. Petersburg:

250

M A N UA L

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T R A N S L AT E D S O U R C E S

Bibliia dlia vsekh, 2003; San Francisco: HarperCollins,


1984.
Suttner, Ernst. Khristianstvo vostoka i zapada v poiskakh
zrimogo proiavleniia edinstva (Die Christenheit aus Ost
und West auf der Suche nach dem sichtbaren Ausdruck
fur ihre Einheit). Translated by Olga Velichko. Moscow:
BibleiskoBogoslovskiy institute sv. Apostola Andreia,
2004; Wurzburg: AugustinusVerlag, 1999.

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

8
THE ENGLISH BIBLE
8.1. English translations
Because there are many English translations of the Bible, let
the reader know which version you are referring to, or whether
the translation of a certain passage is your own. Indicate the
origin of the translation in a footnote or endnote after the first
Bible quotation used in the text.
If several different translations are used you may include the
abbreviation of the translation name together with the
scripture reference in parentheses. The abbreviation of the
translation name appears in capital letters, but in smaller
type. A list of abbreviations of some of the more common
English translations of the Bible is given below in Section
8.3.
Examples:

"Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not"


(1Co 13:4 KJV).
"Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy" (1Co 13:4
NIV).
"Love is patient; love is kind; love is not envious or boast
ful or arrogant" (1Co 13:4 NRSV).

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THE ENGLISH BIBLE

8.2. Use of Abbreviations


8.2.1. The full names of books of the Bible are used at the begin
ning of a sentence and usually are spelled out in the text, un
less there are so many references that shortened titles are need
ed to save space.
Examples:

"The Apocalypse of John of Patmos is a prophecy of the


same type (Rev. 1:3; 22:19)."27
"The heading at the beginning of the Book of Isaiah has a
very important purpose and repays careful study before we
turn to the prophecies themselves."
BUT
"Finally we must remember that the book is an integral
part of Biblical tradition, the first of the five prophetic
books (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and the
"Twelve"), and must be read in that larger context too."
8.2.2. When quoting specific references to biblical texts (including
chapter and verse numbers), standard abbreviations are
preferred and the citation usually is given in parentheses.
"We are reminded of those stories where people are saved
by their 'righteous acts': e.g. the righteous few in Sodom
(Gen. 18:2233); Noah, Daniel and Job (Ezek. 14:14)."
A list of biblical books and their abbreviations is found in sec
tion 8.4.
8.2.3. The words verse(s) (v., vv.) and chapter(s) (ch., chs.) may
be abbreviated in the text. However, the use of complete words
or abbreviations should be consistent throughout the text.
27
Examples in section 8.2 are quoted from John F. A. Sawyer, Isaiah Volume 1, The
Daily Study Bible Series, gen. ed. John C. L. Gibson (Philadelphia: Westminster,
1984), 68, 3, 2, 82, 75, 74.

ENGLISH

L A N G UAG E M A N UA L O F S T Y L E

253

H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

Examples:

"The description of judgment in verses 1113" OR


"The description of judgment in vv. 1113"
"The rest of the description carries on where chapter 5 left
off." OR
"The rest of the description carries on where ch. 5 left off."
At the beginning of a sentence, the complete word is preferred.
"Verse 13, in which the prophet angrily criticizes the king,
informs us that Ahaz has been 'wearying men'"

8.3. Bible Versions in English


AMPLIFIED
ASV
AV
BARCLAY

Amplified Bible (19581965)


American Standard Version (1901)
Authorized Version (1611; same as KJV)
The New Testament (Barclay; 196869)

CEV

Contemporary English Version

ERV

English Revised Version (NT 1881; OT 1885;


Apoc. 1895; same as RV)

GENEVA

Geneva Bible (1560)

GNB

Good News Bible (same as TEV; NT 1966; OT


1976)

GOODSPEED

The Complete Bible: An American Translation.


E. J. Goodspeed

JB

Jerusalem Bible (French 1956; English 1966)

KJV

King James Version (same as Authorized


Version; 1611)

LB

The Living Bible (NT 1967; OT 1971)

LB

The Book (same as The Living Bible)

MLB

Modern Language Bible (same as New Berkeley


Version; 1969)

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THE ENGLISH BIBLE

MLB

New Berkeley Version in Modern English


(same as Modern Language Bible; 1969)

MOFFAT

A New Translation of the Bible (Moffat; NT


1913; OT 1924)

NAB

New American Bible (NT 1941; OT 1969)

NASB

New American Standard Bible (NT 1963; OT


1971)

NAV

New American Version

NEB

New English Bible (NT 1961; OT and Apoc. 1970)

NIV

New International Version (NT 1973; OT 1978)

NIVSB

NIV Study Bible (1985)

NJB

New Jerusalem Bible

NKJV

New King James Version (1979)

NSRB

New Scofield Reference Bible (KJV; 1967)

NRSV

New Revised Standard Version

NWT

New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures


(Jehovah's Witnesses; 1961)

OAB

Oxford Annotated Bible (RSV; 1962)

PHILLIPS

The New Testament in Modern English


(Phillips; 1958)

REB

Revised English Bible

RSV

Revised Standard Version (NT 1946; OT 1952;


Apoc. 1957)

RV

Revised Version (NT 1881; OT 1885; Apoc.


1895)

SRB

Scofield Reference Bible (KJV; 1909)

TEV

Today's English Version (NT 1966; OT 1976)

WEYMOUTH

Weymouth's New Testament in Modern Speech


(1903)

ENGLISH

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

8.4. English Abbreviations of Books of the Bible,


Apocrypha, and Pseudepigrapha
The abbreviations given below are adapted from The SBL
Handbook of Style and A Christian Writer's Manual of Style
and are recommended for articles published in Bogoslovskie
razmyshleniia/ Theological Reflections. If other abbreviations
are chosen, they must be used consistently. Note that the abbre
viations are not followed by periods, except in the Pseude
pigrapha, and that the titles and abbreviations of pseude
pigraphal works are italicized. This list follows the book order
of most English Bible translations.

Title of Book

Abbreviation

Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
12 Samuel
12 Kings
12 Chronicles
Ezra

Gen
Exod
Lev
Num
Deut
Josh
Judg
Ruth
12 Sam
12 Kgs
12 Chr
Ezra

Nehemiah
Esther
Job
Psalm(s)
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
(or Qoheleth)
Song of Songs/

Neh
Esth
Job
Ps/Pss
Prov

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/ PRT 3

Eccl, (Qoh)
Song, Cant

THE ENGLISH BIBLE

Song of Solomon/
Canticles
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Lamentations
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Romans
12 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
12 Thessalonians
12 Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews

ENGLISH

Isa
Jer
Lam
Ezek
Dan
Hos
Joel
Amos
Obad
Jonah
Mic
Nah
Hab
Zeph
Hag
Zech
Mal
Matt
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Rom
12 Cor
Gal
Eph
Phil
Col
12 Thess
12 Tim
Titus
Phlm
Heb

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James
12 Peter
123 John
Jude
Revelation

Jas
12 Pet
123 John
Jude
Rev

APOCRYPHA AND SEPTUAGINT


Baruch
Additions to Daniel
Prayer of Azariah
Bel and the Dragon
The Song of the Three Young Men/
The Song of the Three Holy Children
Susanna
12 Esdras
Additions to Esther/Rest of Esther
Epistle of Jeremiah
Judith
12 Maccabees
34 Maccabees
Prayer of Manasseh/Manasses
Psalm 151
Sirach/Ecclesiasticus
Tobit
Wisdom of Solomon

Bar
Add Dan
Pr Azar
Bel
Sg Three
Sus
12 Esd
Add Esth
Ep Jer
Jdt
12 Macc
34 Macc
Pr Man
Ps 151
Eccus
Tob
Wis

PSEUDEPIGRAPHA
1. Assumption of Moses
2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse)
3 Baruch (Greek Apocalypse)
Enoch (Ethiopic Apocalypse)
2 Enoch (Slavonic Apocalypse)
3 Enoch (Hebrew Apocalypse)

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As. Moses
2 Bar
3 Bar1
1 En
2 En
3 En

THE ENGLISH BIBLE

4 Ezra
Joseph and Asenath
Book of Jubilees
Letter of Aristeas
Life of Adam and Eve
Lives of the Prophets
Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah
3 Maccabees
4 Maccabees
Odes of Solomon
Paralipomena of Jeremiah
Pirke Aboth
Psalms of Solomon
Sibylline Oracles
Story of Ahiqar
Testament of Abraham
Testament of Adam
Testament of Benjamin
Testament of Dan

4 Ezra
Jos. Asen.
Jub.
Let. Aris.
L.A.E.
Liv. Pro.
Mart. Ascen. Isa..
3 Macc.
4 Macc.
Odes Sol.
Paralip.
Pirke Aboth
Pss. Sol.
Sib. Or.
Ahiqar
T. Ab.
T. Adam
T. Benj.
T. Dan

Testament of Gad
Testament of Job
Testament of Joseph
Testament of Levi
Testament of Naphtali
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
Zadokite Fragments

T. Gad
T. Job
T. Jos.
T. Levi
T. Naph.
T. 12 Patr.
Zad. Frag.

ENGLISH

L A N G UAG E M A N UA L O F S T Y L E

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

9
ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Academic research has been changed forever by the availabil


ity of the internet and other electronic media; in fact, the
changes are occurring so rapidly that it is difficult, even frus
trating, to keep up with them. It is also challenging to scholars
to evaluate and account for all the information available, espe
cially given that internet sources that are available one day may
disappear the next. In addition, the internet is a medium that
defies traditional ideas of legitimization, such as authorship,
copyright, authoritative opinion, and so on.
On the other hand, access to electronic information has also made
much of the scholar's task easier and swifter. It has "democra
tized" and freed information so that it is no longer the exclusive
property of specialists. Voices that were never heard before may
now participate in academic dialogue. And in any case, elec
tronic media are here to stay.
Whatever the medium, the scholar's responsibility to do thor
ough research, give credit where it is due, and help other re
searchers find the same material, remains the same.

9.1. Citing electronic sources


The question of how to use and cite electronic media in schol
arly research is far from settled. In general, there are two cat

260

M A N UA L

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ELECTRONIC SOURCES

egories of electronic media: physical entities such as CDROMs


and various online sources.
In both cases, the information needed in notes and bibliogra
phies is generally the same as for traditional sources and is set
out in the same way. The main difficulty is in locating complete
information.
9.1.1. Physical entities

Author's name (last name first in bibliographies)


Title of document in italics (book) or quotation marks
(article)
Title of complete work (if applicable) in italics
Original publication information (if available) in paren
theses
Name and description of source in brackets, e.g. CD,
diskette, etc.
Publication information of electronic source: city, pub
lisher or vendor, date in parentheses
Note that all the original publication information available
should be included for any material that was previously in
print.
Examples:
9.1.1.1.AtextonCD-ROM:

"Apostol'skiy simvol very," Bolshaya Theological Library:


Classical Christian Texts in Russian 1.0 [CDROM] (Odes
sa: EuroAsian Accrediting Association, Elektronnaia
khristianskaiia biblioteka, 2001).

"Apostol'skiy simvol very." Bolshaya Theological Library:


Classical Christian Texts in Russian 1.0 [CDROM].
Odessa: EuroAsian Accrediting Association, Elektron
naia khristianskaia biblioteka, 2002.
ENGLISH

L A N G UAG E M A N UA L O F S T Y L E

261

H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

9.1.1.2.AnissueofapreviouslypublishedjournalonCD-ROM:

Bratskiy vestnik No. 6 (1998): no page. History of Euro


Asian Evangelical Movement, Primary Sources 2.0 [CD
ROM] (Odessa: EuroAsian Accrediting Association, Elek
tronnaia khristianskaia biblioteka, 2002).

Bratskiy vestnik No. 6 (1998): no page. History of Euro


Asian Evangelical Movement, Primary Sources 2.0 [CD
ROM]. Odessa: EuroAsian Accrediting Association, Ele
ktronnaia khristianskaia biblioteka, 2003.

9.1.1.3.ApreviouslypublishedbookonCD-ROM:

V. A. Slobodianik, Ocherki po istorii piatidesiatnichestva


(s kommentariiami), 5557, History of EuroAsian Evan
gelical Movement, Primary Sources 3.0 [CDROM] (Odes
sa: EuroAsian Accrediting Association, Elektronnaia
khristianskaia biblioteka, 2003).

Slobodianik, V. A. Ocherki po istorii piatidesiatnichestva


(s kommentariami), 5557. History of EuroAsian Evan
gelical Movement, Primary Sources, 3.0 [CDROM].
Odessa: EuroAsian Accrediting Association, Elektron
naia khristianskaia biblioteka, 2003.

9.1.2. On-line sources

The biggest difficulty in citing information found online is


usually in finding complete information. In addition, since on
line information may disappear at any time, it is of particular
importance to give the date that information was accessed. As
much of the following information should be given as possible:
Author's name (last name first in bibliographies)
Title of work in italics (book) or quotation marks (arti
cle)
Title of complete work (if applicable) in italics

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ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Original publication information (if previously in print)


Any version or file numbers, type of online source in
brackets
Date of document or last revision (if available)
Protocol (http) and full URL
Date of access in parentheses
Examples:
9.1.2.1.On-linearticle,previouslypublished:

Alexander I. Negrov with Miriam Charter, "Why is there


no Russian Protestant Theology in Russia? A Personal
Outcry," Religion in Eastern Europe, Vol. XVII, No. 1 (Feb.
1977): 2 [Journal online];http://www.georgefox.edu/ac
ademics/undergrad/departments/socswk/ree/NEGROV_
P... (10 September 2005).

Negrov, Alexander I. with Miriam Charter. "Why is there


no Russian Protestant Theology in Russia? A Personal
Outcry." Religion in Eastern Europe, Vol. XVII, No. 1 (Feb.
1977):111 [Journal online]; http://www.georgefox.edu/aca
demics/undergrad/departments/socswk/ree/
NEGROV_P...(10 September 2005).

9.1.2.2.On-linearticle,notpreviouslypublished:

Sister Helene O'Sullivan, "Chapter for Religious Leaders,"


UNICEF Handbook to Combat Trafficking in Children,
forthcoming. http://www.uscatholicmission.org/res02
bkg.htm (no date).

O'Sullivan, Sister Helene. "Chapter for Religious Leaders."


UNICEF Handbook to Combat Trafficking in Children.
Forthcoming.
http://www.uscatholicmission.org/
res02bkg.htm (no date).

ENGLISH

L A N G UAG E M A N UA L O F S T Y L E

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

APPENDIX 1

TRANSLITERATION OF SLAVIC ALPHABETS*

* The Chicago Manual of Style Online, 15th ed., http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/


images/ch10_tab03.pdf (18 April 2008).

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APPENDIX

APPENDIX 2

GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES AND ABBREVIATIONS


The following is a partial list of cities where publishers are
located that are frequently cited by authors who contribute to
Bogoslovskie razmyshleniia/Theological Reflections. Note that
for the less familiar, the country, state, or province is also
given. It is up to the author to decide whether the additional
designation will be given in reference notes and bibliographies,
however it must always be done consistently throughout the
work.
Amsterdam
Atlanta
Basel
Berlin
Bloomington/Bloomington, In.
Boston
Cambridge
Carlisle
Cleveland
Crestwood/Crestwood, N.Y.
Dallas
Didcot, U.K.
Downers Grove/Downers Grove, Ill.
Dublin
Edinburgh
Eugene, Ore.
Goettingen
Grand Rapids/Grand Rapids, Mich.
The Hague
Hamburg
Heidelberg
Jerusalem
Jordansville/Jordansville, N.Y.
Kiev, Kyiv
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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

Kirksville/Kirksville, Mo.
Kitchener/Kitchener, Ont.
Leiden
Leningrad
London
Los Angeles
Louisville/Louisville, Ky.
Lvov/L'viv
Macon/Macon, Ga.
Malden/Malden, Mass.
Maryknoll/Maryknoll, N.Y.
Minneapolis
Moscow
Munich
Nashville
New York
North Newton/North Newton, Kans.
Notre Dame/Notre Dame, In.
Odessa
Oxford
Paris
Petrograd
Philadelphia
Prague
Rome
St. Petersburg
Salt Lake City
San Francisco
Scottdale/Scottdale, Penn.
Sheffield
Toronto
Tuebingen
Waco/Waco, Tex.
Waterloo/Waterloo, Ont.
Wuppertal
Valley Forge/Valley Forge, Penn.
Vienna

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APPENDIX

ABBREVIATIONS OF STATES, PROVINCES,


AND COUNTRIES
The names of states, provinces, and countries should usually be
spelled out in text. In lists, footnotes, indexes, bibliographies,
or charts, state, province, and country names may be abbrevi
ated with standard abbreviations. Twoletter postal abbrevia
tions for states and provinces should be used only when actual
mailing addresses are given. The following list shows state and
province abbreviations in both standard and postal style.28
Alabama
Ala.
AL
Alaska
Alaska
AK
Arizona
Ariz.
AZ
Arkansas
Ark.
AR
California
Calif.
CA
Colorado
Colo.
CO
Connecticut
Conn.
CT
Delaware
Del.
DE
Florida
Fla.
FL
Georgia
Ga.
GA
Hawaii
Hawaii
HI
Idaho
Ida.
ID
Illinois
Ill.
IL
Indiana
Ind.
IN
Iowa
Ia.
IA
Kansas
Kans.
KS
Kentucky
Ky.
KY
Louisiana
La.
LA
Maine
Me.
ME
Maryland
Md.
MD
Massachusetts
Mass.
MA
Michigan
Mich.
MI
Minnesota
Minn.
MN
28
The text and lists are from Bob Hudson and Shelley Townsend, eds., A Christian
Writer's Manual of Style (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988), 108110.

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Alberta
British Columbia
Manitoba
New Brunswick
Newfoundland
Northwest Territories
Nova Scotia
Ontario
Prince Edward Island
Quebec

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Miss.
Mo.
Mont.
Neb.
Nev.
N. H.
N. J.
N. Mex.
N. Y.
N. C.
N. Dak.
Ohio
Okla.
Ore.
Pa. or Penn.
R. I.
S. C.
S. Dak.
Tenn.
Tex.
Utah
Vt.
Va.
Wash.
W. Va.
Wis.
Wyo.
Alta.
B. C.
Man.
N. B.
Nfld.
N. W. T.
N. S.
Ont.
P. E. I.
Que. or P. Q.

MS
MO
MT
NE
NV
NH
NJ
NM
NY
NC
ND
OH
OK
OR
PA
RI
SC
SD
TN
TX
UT
VT
VA
WA
WV
WI
WY
AB
BC
MB
NB
NF
NT
NS
ON
PE
QC

APPENDIX

Saskatchewan
Sask.
SK
Yukon Territory
Y. T.
YT
Although most country names should be spelled out in text,
the following common abbreviations are exceptions. Note
that no space is used between the letters of these
abbreviations.
Soviet UnionU.S.S.R., USSR
United KingdomU.K., UK
United StatesU.S., US, USA

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H O W TO W R I T E & D E S I G N T H E O LO G I C A L W O R K S

APPENDIX 3

LIST OF COMMON CAPITALIZATIONS


Note that most publishing houses and academic institutions
have their own style sheets specifying what words and terms
are to be capitalized. Bogoslovskie razmyshleniia/Theological
Reflections does not have a strict style sheet, but uses this list
as a general guide.29
Aaronic priesthood
Abba
Abrahamic covenant
Adonai
Advent, the
Advent season
Advocate, the
age of grace
age to come, the
agnosticism
Almighty, the
almighty God
Alpha and Omega (Christ)
ancient Near East
Ancient of Days, the (God)
angel (cap if theophany)
angel Gabriel, the
angel of the Lord (cap if
theophany)
Annunciation, the
Anointed, the (Christ)
Anointed One, the (Christ)
29

anointing of the sick


anteNicene fathers
antichrist (the general
spirit)
Antichrist (the person)
antiChristian
antichurch
antilegomena
antiGod
apocryphal (cap only if
Apocrypha is meant)
apostle Peter, et al.
Apostle to the Gentiles
(Paul)
apostles, the
Apostles' Creed
apostolic age
apostolic benediction (2
Cor. 13)
apostolic council (Acts 15)
apostolic faith
archangel

This list of capitalizations is based on the one presented by Bob Hudson and Shelley
Townsend in A Christian Writer's Manual of Style (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988), 5969.

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APPENDIX

ark, the (Noah's)


ark of testimony
ark of the covenant
Arminianism
Ascension, the
Ascension Day
Athanasian Creed
atheism
Atonement, the
baby Jesus, the
Babylonian captivity
baptism
Baptism, the (of Christ)
Battle of Armageddon
(final battle)
Beast, the (Antichrist)
Beatitudes, the
Beloved Apostle, the
Bible school
biblical
Blessed Virgin
boy Jesus, the
Bread of Life (Bible or
Christ)
Bridegroom, the (Christ)
bride of Christ (the church)
Calvary
Calvinist(ic), ism
Canon, the (Scripture)
canon of Scripture, the
creation, the (the result)
Captivity, the (of the Jews)
catholic (universal)
Catholic Church (Roman
Catholic)

Catholic Epistles (James, et al.)


Catholicism
charismatic christ
charismatic church
charismatic movement
Daniel's
Seventieth Week
cherub(im)
chief priest
child Jesus, the
children of Israel (Jews)
chosen people (Jews)
Christ
Christ child
Christian (n. and adj.)
Christian era
Christianize, ization
Christlike
Christmas Day
Christmas Eve
Christocentrism
Christology, ical
church (body of Christ)
church (building)
church (service)
church age
church and state
church fathers (the
Fathers)
church invisible
church militant
church triumphant
church universal
church visible
City of David (Jerusalem,
Bethlehem)
Comforter, the (Holy Spirit)

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commandment (first, et al.)


Commandments, the Ten
Counselor, the covenant, the
covenant of grace
covenant of works
Creation, the (the act)
Creator, the
Cross, the (the event)
cross (the object)
crown
Crucifixion, the
crucifixion of
Curse, the
divine
Divine Father
divine guidance
Divine Providence (God)
Divinity, the (God)
divinity of Christ, the
doxology
Dragon, the (Satan)
early church
Easter Sunday
Eastern church
Eastern religions
Eastern Rites
ecumenism, ical
Eleven, the
Emmaus road
end times, the
Enemy, the (Satan)
Epiphany
epistle (John's epistle, et al.)
epistle to the Romans
Epistles, the (NT apostolic

272

M A N UA L

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letters)
eschatology, ical
eternal God, the
eternal life
eternity
Eucharist
Evangel (any of the four
gospels)
evangelical (adj.)
evangelicals, ism
Evangelist (gospel writer)
evangelist (someone who
evangelizes)
Exile, the
Exodus, the (from Egypt)
extrabiblical
Garden of Eden
Garden of Gethsemane
gehenna
General Epistles
Gentile, a (distinguished
from Jew)
gnostic (generic)
Gnostic(ism) (specific sect)
God (Yahweh)
god (pagan)
Godhead (essential
being of God)
godless
godlike
godly
godsend
God's house
God's Word (the Bible)
God's word (promise)
Good Friday

APPENDIX

Good News, the


Good Samaritan
Good Shepherd (Jesus)
good shepherd, the parable
of the
gospel (John's gospel, et al.)
gospel of Matthew
Gospels, the
Great Commission, the
Great High Priest, the
Great Judgment, the
Great Tribulation, the
Great White Throne, the
Ground of Being
faith, the (Christianity)
faithhealing
Fall, the
fall of man
false christs
False Prophet (of
Revelation)
false prophet(s)
Father (God)
fatherhood of God
Fathers, the (of the church)
Feast (meaning Passover)
Feast of Booths (Sukkoth)
Feast of Esther (Purim)
Feast of Firstfruits
Feast of Tabernacles
Feast of the Dedication
(Hanukkah)
Feast of Lights (Hanukkah)
Feast of the Passover
(Pesach)
Feast of Unleavened Bread

First Adam
First Cause, the
Firstborn, the (Christ)
first person of the Trinity
Flood, the
four gospels, the
fourth gospel, the
free will
fundamentalist(s), ism
fundamentals of the faith
hades
Hagiographa
hagiographer
hagiographic
Hanukkah (Feast of the
Dedication)
Head, the (Christ head
of the church)
heaven (abode of the
redeemed)
heavenly Father
hell
Herodian
Herod's temple
High Priest, the (Christ)
high priest, a
High Priestly Prayer, the
John the Baptist
John the Evangelist
Jordan River (but the river
Jordan)
Jubilee (year of
emancipation)
Judaean
Judaic

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Judaism, ist, istic


JudeoChristian
judges, the
Judgment Day
judgment seat of Christ
Historical Books, the
holiness
Holy Bible
Holy City (present or New
Jerusalem)
Holy Communion
holy family
Holy Ghost (prefer Holy
Spirit)
Holy Land (Palestine)
Holy of Holies
Holy One, the (God, Christ)
Holy Saturday
Holy Scriptures
Holy Spirit
Holy Thursday
Holy Trinity
Holy Week (before Easter)
house of the Lord
Immanuel
Incarnation, the
incarnation of Christ
infant Jesus, the
Intercessor, the (Christ)
intertestamental
Isaian or Isaianic
kerygma
King (God or Jesus)
King James Version

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kingdom, the
kingdom age
kingdom of God
kingdom of heaven
kingdom of Israel
kingdom of Satan
King of Glory (Christ)
King of Kings (Christ)
kingship of Christ
koinonia
Koran, koranic
Jehovah
Jeremian or Jeremianic
Jesus Prayer, the
Jewish Feast (Passover)
Jewish New Year (Rosh
Hashanah)
Johannine
lake of fire
Lamb, the (Christ)
Lamb of God
Lamb's Book of Life
land of Canaan
Last Day, the
last days, the
Last Judgment, the
Last Supper, the
last times, the
law (as opposed to grace)
Law, the (Pentateuch)
Law of Moses, the
law of Moses (general)
Levitical
Levitical decrees
liberal(ism)

APPENDIX

Light of the World


(Christ)
living God
living Word, the (Bible)
Logos, the
Lord, the
Lord of Hosts
Lord of Lords
Lord's Anointed, the
(Christ)
Lord's Day, the
lordship of Christ
Lord's Prayer, the
Lord's Supper, the
Lord's Table, the
Lost Tribes
lost tribes of Israel
Love Chapter, the
Lukan
Magi
Magnificat, the
Major Prophets, the (div.
of OT)
major prophets (people)
mammon
Marcan or Markan
Masorete
Masoretic text
Matthean
Mediator, the (Christ)
mercy seat
Messiah, the (Christ)
messiahship
messianic
metropolitan (general)
Metropolitan Philip

midtribulation(al)
millenarian(ism)(ist)
millennial kingdom
Millenium, the
Minor Prophets (div. of
OT)
minor prophets (people)
Mishnah
modernist(s), ism
Mosaic
Mosaic Law (Pentateuch or
Ten Commandments)
Most High, the
Mount of Olives
Mount of Transfiguration
Mount Sinai
Muhammad
Muslim
name of Christ, the
Nativity, the
nativity of Christ, the
Near East
NeoBabylonian Empire
neoorthodox(y)
neopentecostalism
Neoplatonic
new birth
new covenant (NT)
new heaven and new earth
New Jerusalem (heaven)
New Testament church
Nicene Creed
Nicene fathers
nonChristian (n. and adj.)
northern kingdom
old covenant (OT)

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Olivet discourse
Omega, the
Omnipotent, the
One, the (but the one true
God)
Only Begotten, the
only begotten of the Father
only begotten Son of God
orthodox(y)
outer court (of the Temple)
Palm Sunday
papacy
parable of the prodigal son
Paraclete, the
paradise (heaven)
Paradise (Garden of Eden)
Parousia
Paschal Lamb (Jesus)
Passion Week
Passover
Passover Feast
Passover Lamb (Jesus)
Pastoral Epistles
Patriarch, the (Abraham)
Patriarch Aleksiy II
patriarch, a
patriarch of Moscow
Paul, the apostle
Pauline Epistles
Paul's epistles
Paul's letters
peace offering
penance
Pentateuch
Pentecost
Pentecostal(ism)

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person of Christ
(the three) persons of the
Trinity
Pesach (Passover)
Petrine
Pharaoh (when used as
name without article)
pharaoh, the (general)
pharisaic (attitude)
Pharisaic (in reference to
Pharisees)
Pharisee
pillar of cloud
Poetic Books, the
Pope Benedict XVI
pope, the
postbiblical
postChristian
postexilic
postmillennial(ism)(ist)
postNicene fathers
preChristian
predestination
premillenarian
premillennial(ism)(ist)
pretribulation(al)
priesthood of believers
Prince of Peace (Christ)
Prison Epistles
Prison Letters
Prodigal Son, the
Promised Land (Canaan or
heaven)
prophet Isaiah (et al.), the
Prophetic Books, the
prophets, the (people)
Prophets, the (books of OT)

APPENDIX

Protestant(ism)
Providence (God)
providence of God
Psalm 119 (etc.)
Psalms, the (OT book)
psalm, a
psalmist, the
Psalter, the (the Psalms)
pseudepigrapha(l)
purgatory
Purim (Feast of Esther)
Qumran
rabbi
rabbinic(al)
Rapture, the
Received Text, the
Redeemer, the
Reformation
Reformed theology
Reformers
Resurrection, the
resurrection of Christ
Roman Catholic Church
Rosh Hashanah (Jewish
New Year)
Russian Orthodox Church
Sabbath (day)
sacraments
sacred rite(s)
Sadducee
Sanhedrin
Satan
satanic
Savior, the (Christ)

scribe
scriptural
Scripture(s) (Bible; n. and
adj.)
scripture(s) (other
religions)
Second Adam (Christ)
Second Advent, the
Second Coming, the
second coming of Christ
second person of the
Trinity
Septuagint
Sermon on the Mount
Seventieth Week
shalom
Shechinah
sheol
Solomon's temple
Son of God
Son of Man
sonship of Christ
southern kingdom
Sovereign Lord
Sukkoth (Feast of Booths)
Sunday school
Supreme Being, the
synagogue
Synoptic Gospels
synoptics, the
synoptic writers, the
tabernacle, the (OT
building)
Talmud, talmudic
Tanach wise men
Targum, targumic
temple, the (at Jerusalem)

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Temptation, the
temptation in the desert, the
temptation of Christ, the
Ten Commandments (but
the second commandment)
ent of Meeting
Testaments, the
Textus Receptus
third person of the Trinity
throne of grace
time of the judges, the
tomb, the
Torah
Tower of Babel
Transfiguration, the
Tree of Knowledge of Good
and Evil
Tree of Life
tribe of Judah
Tribulation, the (historical
event)
Trinitarian
Trinity, the
Triumphal Entry
triune God
Twelve, the

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twelve apostles, the


unchristian
ungodly
united kingdom (of Israel)
universal church
universalism, ist
unscriptural
Upper Room Discourse
Virgin Birth, the
Virgin Mary, the
visible church
Way, the Truth, and the Life
Western church
Western Rites
Wisdom Literature, the
Word, the (Bible or Christ)
Word made flesh (Christ)
Word of God (Bible)
Yahweh
Year of Jubilee
Yom Kippur (Day of
Atonement)

APPENDIX

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alexander, Patrick H., John F. Kutsko, James D. Ernest, Shirley
A. DeckerLucke, David L. Peterson. The SBL Handbook of
Style for Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early Christian
Studies. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1999.
Hudson, Bob and Shelley Townsend, eds. A Christian Writer's Man
ual of Style. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1988.
Plotnik, Arthur. The Elements of Editing: A Modern Guide for
Editors and Journalists. New York: Macmillan, 1982.
Strunk, William, Jr. and E. B. White. The Elements of Style, 3rd
ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979.
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses,
and Dissertations, 6th ed. rev. by John Grossman and Alice
Bennett. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Walker, Janice R. and Todd Taylor. The Columbia Guide to Online
Style. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

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,
I
HOW TO WRITE & DESIGN THEOLOGICAL WORKS


:
1 ()
2 ()
3 ()

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. School Book.

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