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Forced conviction heat transfer

AHMED ABDELHAMEED NEMR


DEPARTMENT: MECHANICS
REG:14102369

ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment is to find the main contributors to heat transfer in the
system. Water is heated and the energy is transferred in two ways throughout the system.
The system is run for a period of 30 minutes, in both free and forced convection. The heat
produced by the boiler will remain constant throughout the experiment and the actual
energy gathered will be a result of the condensed water captured in the three different
vessels. The theoretical and experimental data was determined through measurements
taken in the experiment by thermocouple, scale and water drainage for the forced and free
convection trials. The steam condensed on the outer surface of the inner tube as well as the
inner surface of the outer tube. When theoretical values for forced convection were
calculated (284KJ) was compared to the 220 KJ for the experimental values, roughly 25%
error was experienced.

Contents
ABSTRACT-............................................................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION-....................................................................................................................... 3

Methodology & Experimental System-..................................................................................... 4

Theory...................................................................................................................................... 5

Results..................................................................................................................................... 9

Conculsion-............................................................................................................................ 14

INTRODUCTION-

The experimental system uses a boiler which supplies heat to the water to create
steam. Heat is lost in the system and calculations are shown later in the report to analyze
this for the two trials in the experiment, forced and free convection.
Convection refers to the transfer of thermal energy in the means of diffusion. As a
fluid moves around the boundaries of an object, with a given velocity, an amount of heat
energy will be transferred. It is used in many processes, such as cooling a circuit board or
keeping a room cool during a hot summer. The fluid, which comes in at a certain
temperature, will experience the change in temperature. The object is being cooled while
the fluid keeps flowing. This process repeats over and over again, keeping the object at a
desired temperature.
A reservoir in the system was adjusted between forced and free convection levels.
This means that the pressure head is being changed. The forced convection setup creates a
pressure head capable of moving water through the system with a velocity. The free

convection setup does not circulate as much new water into the system. The forced
convection setup results in an increase in dissipated heat in the exiting of the fluid into the
drainage tank. This results in a larger total heat transfer for the forced convection than the
free convection.
In the next section of the report the procedure used to complete the actual
experiment is shown. After that a general understanding of the equations and methodology
used will be explained. Finally, a series of sample calculations are shown that show how
achieving the hc = convection heat transfer coefficient was possible and what conclusions
can be made through these results.

Methodology & Experimental System-

The equipment used for this experiment is basically one piece equipment which
includes different components. An electric boiler is the driving force of the experiment. The
boiler is set to a constant output (1100 watts) and as a result it heats the water and turns it
into steam. This steam is fed into a condensing tower. This tower is comprised of a closed
jacket and a central single aluminum tube. Cooling water passes upward though the inside
of this condenser tube, causing the steam to condense on the outside surface. Steam also
condenses on the inside surface of the jacket as heat escapes out into the room. A boiler
supply tank is used to provide and maintain a constant level in the boiler this insures that
the mass within the system remains constant during the experiment (glass tube). Cooling
water is provided by reservoir that allows the experiment to be performed with either free or
forced convection. All the copper-constantan (type T) thermocouples are monitored using a
high impedance millivoltmeter. Tube wall and shell wall condensates are collected separately
from drain tubes provided, and cooling water flow through the condenser tube is collected in
the weigh tank mounted on the scale.
When performing the experiment many water levels needed to remain constant in the
system. The group members were given different responsibilities such as, maintaining the
glass tube water height, maintaining reservoir height (forced/free setting), as well as
keeping track of the start and finish water levels.

Theory-

When analyzing convection heat transfer coefficients, three dimension-less values


must be acquired. To determine what numerous constants are the initial conditions must be
known so tables can be utilized.
Nusselt Number:

Nu=

hc D
K

Prandtl Number:

Pr=

Cp
,
K

Grashoff Number:
2

Gr=

D g ( T )
2

Reynolds number, for internal flow, is obtained by the following equation:

D=

UD

These equations are crucial to calculate to determine what type of flow exists in the system.
In order to use the correct heat transfer equation the type of flow must be known to be
laminar or turbulent.

Types of Convection observed-

Forced convection occurs when the fluid flows across the boundary of an object, with
the movement caused by external forces. Heat transfer coefficient for the forced convection
depends on the relationship between Nusselt number, Prandtl number and the Grashoff
number acquired for free convection. The relationship is expressed in the following equation:

hc D
DG m
=
mn=exponents experimentally acquired
K

( )

Free convection occurs when the fluid is allowed to flow by means of buoyancy forces.
This convection method occurs when the temperature differences exist between the two
ends of the air. When the end part touching the hot object contacts the object, the fluid
becomes warmer and less dense. The air moves up and the colder air moves in to replace
the warmer air. The combination of the variables in order to obtain the heat transfer
coefficient for the free convection process is:

Nu=f n ( Pr x Gr )
Heat transfer in condensation, because a phase change is involved, requires complex analysis.
Condensation takes place when vapor is cooled down. Once this occurs, heat is transferred in a
fundamentally different manner than when heat is added or taken away from a fluid without such phase
change. When vapor is condensed, it lets go of considerable amounts of energy. The condensed fluid
becomes a barrier, in the form of a liquid film which either completely or partially covers the cooler
surface. If the drainage of the fluid is done from vertical or inclined surface, the drainage will be naturally
faster than a horizontal surface. The film will be thinner. If the vertical height is great, the accumulation of
condensate fluid at the lower portion of the surface will thicken the film and make the lower portion less
effective than the upper transmitting heat.

In order to acquire an even more accurate result, the heat transfer that occurs when
heat is released during the condensation of the vapor must also be taken into account. This
value can be easily calculated by obtaining the latent heat of vaporization value.
Nevertheless, as the condensate is cooled below T sat, the equation must be modified to:

h*fg h fg 0.68C pl (Tsat Ts )

Setting up all equations together, the combination of the rate of heat transfer and the heat

transfer coefficient formulas, the following equation is obtained.

Q conden hAs (Tsat Ts ) mh*fg

Once every value has been obtained, the heat transfer coefficient for the free and
forced convection heat transfer processes can be obtained.
The theoretical value for the free convection is expressed as:
.25

k 3 2 h fg

h C

Do T

The theoretical value for the forced convection is expressed as:

k VDi
hC
Di

.8

Pr .4

In order to determine the heat transferred amount, two equations are needed. The
equations will take into account the gains and losses in the system. The first equation
needed is the heat transferred from the steam, which is expressed as follows:

QSteam VSteam h fg

The second equation needed is the heat transfer that occurs in the water. The

equation is expressed in the following manner:

QWater WWater Cp TWater

Therefore, in order to acquire the total amount of heat transferred, the two equations
must be combined. The total amount of heat transferred is expressed in the following
manner:

QLosses QSteam QWater

In order to find the heat transfer coefficient, the transfer heat amount must be
obtained. Further, the resistance must be taken into account. The resistance value will give
us the rate at which the heat is being transferred, which will symbolize the overall heat
transfer coefficient.
Heat Flow Through a pipe
Forced convection

c .4

k
VD .8

k
h=
d

Natural Convection

L3 2 Tg c n
)( )
k
2
k
h=
L

Condensing Steam

k 3 2 h fg
D T

h=

Results
All calculations are based on data collected from the tenth to fifteenth minutes of the
experiment. The data was averaged over the five minute time difference and used to
compute empirical and experimental values. The excel copies below show the average
temperatures and volume/weight of water/steam-condensate collected.

Forced Convection

Free Convenction

Heat Transfer Coefficient, Forced Convection, Inner

K V Di
h1 ( Forced ) C
Di

0.8

Cp
K

0.4

hi_forced = heat transfer Co efficient of FORCED convection


C is a constant = 0.0023
V = mean average velocity of fluid in m/s

Do = outer diameter of inner tube =

3
1
+2
0.0254=0.02064 m
4
32

( ( ))

Do = inner diameter of inner tube =

( 34 ) 0.0254=0.01905 m

g = acceleration due to gravity in m/sec/sec = 9.8 m/s2


k = Thermal Conductivity, in W/m* K
Cp= specific heat in kJ/kg
k = Thermal Conductivity, in W/mK
= Viscosity in kg/m*s
= Density of Water in kg/m3

*Properties in red were found in water property tables at atmospheric pressure and T avg = T2
+ T7/2
Tavg = 34.99555769 C , = 994.0317414 kg/m3, = 0.000724071 kg/m*s, Cp= 4.178 kJ/kg
k = 0.622917743 W/m*K
W2 = 6.25 lbm; mass of water that passed through the inner pipe in a five minute interval

6.25lbs * 0.454kg / lb
0.009449792kg / s
5 min* 60sec/ min

; mass flow rate

Ai

Di2 (0.01905) 2

0.000285
4
4

V=

=
A

0.00945
994

hi =0.0023
forced

hi

kg
0.000285 m2
3
m

0.623
0.01905

= 341.08

forced

kg
s

)[(

m2 ; Cross sectional area of inner tube

=0.0333

m
s

994 0.0333 0.0195


0.000724

0.8

)(

4178 J /kg 0.000724


0.623

0.4

W
m2 K

Heat Transfer Coefficient; Condensing Steam; Outer Surface; Inner


Tube

k 3 2 h fg
ho =c
LT

1
4

* Properties used in this calculation were taken at T film = Tsurface + Tsteam


EXCEPT hfg taken at Tsteam
Tsurface is the average inner pipe outer surface temperature; T 8 + T9
Tsteam is the average temperature of condensing steam ; T 10

T s=

T 8 +T 9 92.58946154+80.441
=
=86.51
2
2

T film=

T surface +T steam 86.515231+103.546


=
=95.031 T = Tsteam Tsurface = 8.521 C
2
2

k = 0.677012277 m

kg

kg

, = 961.4779015 m3 , = 0.000290945 ms , hfg =

2,247,415.8 kg
C = 1.666 for vertical pipe with height L= 0.635m

0.6773 9612 2,247,415.8


ho =1.666
0.635 0.000290945 8.521

1/ 4

=6303.14

W
m
2

Heat Transferred; Forced Convection (empirical calculations)

ln

1
R

0.000285

T lmtd =

0.02064 m

1
1
0.01905
m
K
0.01905m

0.09308
W
W
0.02064m
W
6303.14 W
238
458.06 2

mK
m K
m2 K

T T out (91.0549.5)
=
=68.273 K
T
91.05
ln
ln
T out
49.5

68.273 =733.34 Watts J


Q=
0.09308
s
Total heat added to water in a five minute interval;
q=

t=746.7 J 300 seconds=220.01 kJ


Q
s

Experimental : Heat Transferred; Losses due to condensing steam on


inner Surface of OUTER Tube; Forced Convection
3
kg
kJ (
6 m
qloss =m steam hfg =25 mL10
961 3 ( at T 4 ) 2,239
at 100 )=53.8 kJ
mL
Kg
m
Experimental: Heat Transferred; Forced Convection
q transferred=m w C p (T 2T 7) time

q transferred=6.25 lbs 0.454

kg
J
4178
( 24 ) 300 s=284 kJ
lbs
kgK

When all the data was collected the heat transfer coefficient was able to be solved for.
Based on our data between the time period of 10 and 15 minutes the heat transferred for
the free convection was 186.5 KJ while for forced it was 220 KJ. Through the theory that was
previously talked about it would be a logical hypothesis to assume that the forced
convection would have a greater heat transferred. This is because a fluid is being forced
through having a flow rate that is constantly implementing new cooler fluid to the system.
Therefore, the new fluid has a greater difference in temperature and creates a greater heat
transfer.

ConculsionThe steam condensed on the outer surface of the inner tube as well as the inner
surface of the outer tube. This was the primary mode of heat transfer in the experiment.
The empirically calculated results varied by roughly 25% when compared to the
experimentally calculated results. This can be attributed to the experimental methods. The
experiment had its downfalls that could have poorly affected our results and therefore, our
calculations. The measurement system of filling up beakers seemed fairly unreliable. Since
the trials were 30 minutes long often times the beakers would become full and require
emptying, in which water was not being caught and mass was lost. In addition, there was
pressure accumulating inside of the cylinder itself that was not accounted for. This pressure
was assumed to be atmospheric when in reality it was probably higher.