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ISBN 978-5-7925-0409-7


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Urbanaeva I. S.
Formation of Tibetan and Chinese Mahayana: in the Context of Authentic
Buddhism Problem. Ulan-Ude: Buryat Science Center SD RAS Publishing, 2014.
364 p.
The author examines the most important aspects of Tibetan and Chinese Buddhism
formation in a comparative format depending on their objective and subjective factors and
on characteristics of Tibetan and Chinese civilizations taking into account differences in
mental patterns and strategies of Buddhism perception in Tibet and China. Comparative
analysis of two Mahayana Buddhism traditions from their origins and in relation to Indian
Buddhism, and also peculiarities of canons formation, etc. is carried out in the context of
the authentic Buddhism problem. The book might be useful for specialists in the field of
Buddhist studies, philosophy, cultural history, religion studies, and also for a wide circle of
readers interested in Buddhism and in its history.
571.54
87+86

.. , 2014
, 2014
- , 2014

ISBN 978-5-7925-0409-7
2

..7
10
.10
1. ..28
1.1.
?.......................................................................................................................................28
1.2. ?................................32
1.3.
47
1.4. , 66
1.4.1. : /c
/ ..66
1.4.2. : 81
1.4.3.
94
1.4.3.1. 94
1.4.3.2. .101
1.4.3.3. . ..106
1.4.3.4. ?.................................................................................................................................................112
1.5. ..131
1.5.1.
: , ...131
1.5.2. : 142
1.5.3. : 158
1.6. 171
2.
..189
2.1. ..189
2.2. ?........................201
2.3. ..221
2.3.1.
...221
2.3.2. 236
2.3.3.
, ..244
3

2.3.4.
/259
2.3.5. ..266
2.3.6. - .275
2.3.7. - .286
2.3.7.1. ()
(): ..286
2.3.7.2. -
..302
2.3.7.3. - ......316
.332
335
340

CONTENTS

PREFACE7
INTRODUCTION TO AUTHENTIC BUDDHISM AS A PROBLEM OF MODERN
BUDDHISM AND BUDDHIST STUDIES10
CH. 1. DIFFERENCES IN HISTORICAL SPREAD OF BUDDHISM IN TIBET AND
IN CHINA IN THE LIGHT OF AUTHENTIC BUDDHISM PROBLEM 28
1.1. WHY THE COMPARATIVE ANALISYS OF TIBETAN AND CHINESE TRADITIONS OF BUDDHISM IS CURRENT?.......................................................................................28
1.2. HOW AND WHY DID TIBET BECOME A CENTRAL COUNTRY OF THE
BUDDHAS TEACHINGS?...........................................................................................................32
1.3. THE DEBATE AT SAMYE AS A SYMBOLIC LANDMARK OF ESTABLISHING AUTHENTIC BUDDHISM IN TIBET..47
1.4. CHINESE BUDDHISM OR WHAT HAPPENED TO BUDDHISM IN
CHINA66
1.4.1. PARADIGMS THAT EXPLAIN THE TRANSFORMATION OF BUDDHISM IN
CHINA: THE SIMILARITIES/SYNTHESIS AND CONFRONTATION/ADAPTATION OF
BUDDHISM AND CHINESE SPIRITUALITY66
1.4.2. ADAPTATION OF BUDDHISM IN TERMS OF CULTURAL CONFRONTATION: A SPECIFICITY OF CHINESE MENTALITY AS A KEY FACTOR IN PERCEPTION
OF BUDDHISM IN CHINA ..81
1.4.3. SINIZATION OF BUDDHISM IN CHINA AND REASONS FOR DOUBTING
THE AUTHENTICITY OF CHINESE MAHAYANA TRADITION ..94
1.4.3.1. FACTORS OF BUDDHIST DIVERSIFICATION IN CHINA AND SPECIFIC
MOMENTS OF SELF-IDENTIFICATION OF CHINESE BUDDHISM AS A DIVISION OF
MAHAYANA 94
1.4.3.2. LINGUISTIC RELATIVISM AS A FACTOR OF SINIZATION OF BUDDHIST
PHILOSOPHY AND THE PROBLEM OF THE AUTHENTITY OF CHINESE TRANSLATIONS OF BUDDHIST TEXTS...101
1.4.3.3. W. LIBENTHAL ON THE DISTORTION OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY IN
CHINESE BUDDHISM106
1.4.3.4. WAS THE PHILOSOPHY OF CHINESE MADHYAMIKA SCHOOL AUTHENTIC TO NAGARJUNA TEACHING?..........................................................................................112
1.5. FORMATION OF BUDDHIST CANON IN TIBET AND CHINA..131
1.5.1. CRITERIA OF AUTHENTICITY OF BUDDHIST TEACHINGS IN THE CONTEXT OF BUDDHA WORDS CANON FORMATION IN INDIA: THE FOUR AUTHORITIES, THE FOUR RELIANCES, THE FOUR FACTORS.131
1.5.2. TIBETAN BUDDHIST CANON: ASPIRATION TO THE AUTHENTICITY AS A
CRUCIAL STRATEGY OF FORMING .142
1.5.3. CHINESE BUDDHIST CANON: SPECIFICITY OF FORMATION..158
1.6. PROBLEM OF AUTHENCITY OF THE FAR EASTERN BUDDHISM TRADITION .171
CH. 2. SCHOLARLY TRADITION OF NALANDA AND RATIONALIST FOUNDATION OF TIBETAN BUDDHISM189
2.1. GREAT MONASTIC UNIVERSITY OF NALANDA.189
2.2. FOR WHOM AND WHY THE ORIGIN OF MAHAYANA IS A PROBLEM?.........201
5

2.3. THE ROLE OF NALANDA SCHOLARS IN THE STATEMENT OF MAHAYNA AS


THE AUTHENTIC DOCTRINE OF THE BUDDHA.221
2.3.1. MEANING OF ARYA NAGARJUNAS SPIRITUAL BIOGRAPHY FOR UNDERSTANDING THE FORMATION OF MAHAYANA DEEP LINEAGE 221
2.3.2. ARYA ASANGAS SPIRITUAL BIOGRAPHY AS A FACTOR FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN OF MAHAYANAS LINEAGE OF EXTENSIVE PRACTICE....236
2.3.3. MEANING OF NAGARJUNAS VERIFICATION OF MAHAYANA AUTHENTICITY AND CLASSICAL CRITERIA OF AUTHENTICITY IN TIBETAN TRADITION.244
2.3.4. VERIFICATION OF AUTHENTICITY OF MAHAYANA AND ITS MERITS IN
THE ORNAMENT OF THE MAHAYANA SUTRAS BY ASANGA/MAITREYA..259
2.3.5. SHANTIDEVAS ROLE IN VERIFICATION OF MAHAYANA AS THE AUTHENTIC DOCTRINE OF THE BUDDHA AND THE MAHAYANA SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY AND MEDITATION...266
2.3.6. CRITERIA FOR DISTINGUISHING MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA, AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MAHAYANA IN THE INDO-TIBETAN TRADITION..275
2.3.7. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE INDO-TIBETAN TRADITION OF MAHAYANA
PRESENTATION.286
2.3.7.1. UNITY OF THE DEEP LINEAGE BY NAGARJUNA AND THE EXTENSIVE
LINEAGE BY ASANGA: ON THE BASIS OF ORAL TIBETAN COMMENTARIES TO THE
HEART SUTRA..286
2.3.7.2. LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHICAL RATIONALISM IN THE FOUNDATIONS OF
THE INDO-TIBETAN TRADITION OF GRADUAL PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT302
2.3.7.4. LAMRIM AS THE INDO-TIBETAN SYSTEM OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY
AND MEDITATION316
CONCLUSION302
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.335
BIBLIOGRAPHY340


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, ,
, , ,
[Gelek 2002, p. 106].
, , , .


.

.
,
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(tshogs zhing) , , , .
, [.:
2008, . 116, 120], , , ,
. , ,
. . ,
.

43

-
, 25 (25 2013 . 3
2014 .).
42

. : , . , ,
, [.: 1989].
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.
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, : , , , [, . 36].
:
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Prajpramit?
: , ,
[], Prajpramit, , . , , , ,
, Prajpramit,
[. :
Adamek, 2007, p. 309].



. 47,
[ ]. ( , -
.), , ,
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. (17041788)
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46

(Pod) c . , (Pod-rgyal), (Pod). Lungrnam-byed, ,


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. 36].
47
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45


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.
(dbu
can) (dbu med). , . ,
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jug pa .) [Geshe Lhundup
Sopa 1983, . 112, 127]48. , ,
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, () [ 1998], ,

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-


.
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48

, -, -. , , , -- [, . 40].
46

1.3.

, 50- . XX . , , ,
- XIV, , .
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.) , , ,
.

,
.
, VIII . . . 49.
, , [.: , . 253256; 1997, 1958; Goodman and Davidson
1992, p. 154163; Imaeda 1975]. - . , ,
,
()50
[Tucci 1958, p. 285287].
, (Zhi-ba-tsho, .
705765), , (Khri Srong lde b(r)tsan, 755794/9) (pad-ma byunggnas, VIII .) .

49

, ( bSam yas), 1765


1780 . . .
50
bKha-thang sde-lnga, , , (), , , . , , . , , - 713 .,
()
[ 1997, . 46].
47

VIII . , , , , (mkhen po),


,
c. ,
, : ,
, (), ( ), (), [ 2001]. ,
12 c, - : .
(. 700750 713794), , -.
-, , .
,
[; 1958; Stein 1961]
(Bhvankrama; bsgom pai rim pa)51. . , , ,
, [ 1999, . 256]. , [ 1997, . 44] .
, , , [Demieville
1952], , , -
. , ,
,
[Ruegg 2010, p. 255], , -
.
.

[Ruegg 2010, p. 253]. , , ,

51

, .
-, -
- [ 1997; Tucci 1958].
48

.
Lam rim
Lam rim, .
, , (rtsen min pa).
. . , rtsen-min-pa ston-mun-pa,
, tun
chien, .
,
, rim gyis jug pa [g]cig c[h]ar gyis jug pa [Ruegg 2010,
p. 259]. . , rtsen-min-pa , ston-mun-pa , , , [1997].
,
(Lam rim chen
mo), (Lam rim bring po) (Lam rim bsdus
don52) .
-, , 53.
,
.
, , ,
, 54 . , , , ,
, ,
.

52

Lam rim nyams mgur ( ).


53
, , , [ 2003].
54
.
49

, , , ,
.
, .
, , . , , -, -, -, -
, . , , [.: ,
. 200208, 212213]. ,
, ,
.
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,
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,
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,
,
, -. [.: van Schaik
2007]. . ,
,
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[ ]. , . , ,
,
55.

55

, , ,
50

(chos-byung
zin-bris nor-bu phreng-ba)
. , . , , , . ,
, ,
[Indian Buddhist Pandits
2008, p. 5259; 6772].
[Ibid., p. 7378]. ,
,
[ 2008a, . 48].
- , , .
, (ston mun pa), . ,

, ,
. : , , . :

[, . 256]. ,

, . ,
, - XIV ,
, . - (Indo-Tibetica),
.
- , , :
. , ,

() ,

, .
51

. Kumbum
Dscham ba ling, [.: Flichner, S. 311; Grnwedel 1900, S. 169],
. [1999, . 161]. , - , , , , , ,
.
,
, . XIV 17 [Pan grub
2012]. - ,
,
.
, , -,
56. -, 1970- .
,
, , . , , , , . 1935 .
, , . . 1986 .
, 1993 . , .
. - ,
Sino-Tibetan Buddhist Studies.
57, , ,

56

. : [ 1947; Demieville
1952; Pachow 1963; Gomez 1983; Eastman 1983; Dunhuang Studies 2012; Tanaka and Raymond
1992; Ueyama 1983; Lai and Lancaster 1983; van Schaik and Dalton 2004, 2006; van Schaik
2010; 2011; 2007], : http://dunhuangica.orientalstudies.ru/; http:// earlytibet.com/2008/05/15/tibetan-chan-ii-the-teachings-of-heshang-moheyan/.
57
Sino-Tibetan Buddhist Studies Sino-Tibetan Studies
,
. Sino-Tibetan Studies
- ,
- .
Sino-Tibetan Studies - .
52

, ,
[.: Weirong and Shiu 2007]. Indo-Tibetica. .
, ,
, , , ,
[Ibid.].

. , , 58, (
), ,
( ),
,
. ,
,
,
, , ,
.
, , 794 . ,
[.: Roccasalvo 1980, p. 506]. 1975 ., 1983 ., 1970 .,
1983 ., 1992 .
[.: Lai and Lancaster 1983; Ruegg 2010, p. 254].
.
, Sba bzhed hos byung Me tog snying po,
(Nyang Nyi ma od zer), , 59
(. rtsod pa),

58


, .
(CUTS) , : ,
dbu-ma-pa,
(dbu-ma).
59
,
Byang chub gling .
53

, 60. ,
,
974 . , ,
[Demieville 1952, p. 42; Roccasalvo 1980, p. 506]. ,
bKha-thang sde-lnga, , , , (bTsad po),
, ,
-,
() [1997, . 4647]. ,
, , . , , ,
, , . .

, .
. , Le Concile de Lhasa

[Tucci 1958, p. 5], , , . , [Ueyama 1983] ,
,
[.: Ruegg 2010, p. 255]. .
[Demieville 1952,
p. 183], , ,
. , - . , , : - -
. , ,

. , ,
[Ibid., p. 182].

[.: Roccasalvo 1980; 1999]. , . , ,
. ,
60

,
, .: [ 1999, . 254256; Ruegg 2010, p. 254255].
54

, , 61. , ,
, ,
, , Bhavanakrama62 [,
1999, . 163]. , , , . ? (gsar ma pas), , ,
, [.: Ruegg 2010, p. 259].
, [.: van Schaik 2011, p. 3839].
- Bhavanakrama
(bsGom-pai rim-pa), [The Dalai Lama 2001],
- XIV II Bhavanakrama
[Ibid.], [ 1997; Tucci 1958], Bhavanakrama,
. [ 2011], ,
[ 1999], . ()
[Gmez 1983],
, , ,
[Roccasalvo 1980],
[van Schaik 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011],
. [Adam 2006], [Hoffmann 1961, p. 76], . . . [Tanaka and Robertson 1992], [Ruegg 2010, p. 261
263] . , , , , , , .
-
, ,
,
. , -

61

, , ,
, : , , .
[1997, . 41].
62
(bsGom pai rim pa) , , (dbu-ma).
.
55

, . ,
, , , , , , ,
.
.
, ,
. , , , ,
. . ,
, , , , X .
[.: Ueyama
1983; Mair 1990].
,
[van Schaik 2007]. (), ,
(byang chub klu dbang). ,
bSam gtan gi yi ge.
The Chan Document. ,
, , ,
(lha
btsan-po khri-sron lde-btsan-gi mgur-gi phyag-rgya og-nas byung-ba) [Ibid.].
,
. , , , , , , ,
. , , The Chan
Document .
, , , : , . ,
[Ibid.]. , , , - [van Schaik and Dalton 2004,
2006]. , .
, 56

, [Eastman 1983].
, ,

. ,
,
(bSam gtan), bSam gtan-gi yi-ge , , , .
, , , , .
, , bSam gtan yi-ge ,
[van Schaik 2007].
, , [Ibid.]. ,
, , bSam gtan-gi yi-ge, , . ,
.
, XIV . bKa-thang sde-lnga /. . ,
,
: , , [Tucci 1958, p. 64]. ,
. . . . , , , 12, 13
14 bLon-po bKa-thang sde-lnga. bLon-po
, , . 14 ,
,
, () [Ibid., p. 101].
: () : / , , / [] . / . / sTon -mun-pa, , . , , : ,
, , , , , ... , , . , ,
57

[Tucci 1958, p. 65]. , , , ,


. , , bSam-gtan
(gnubs-chen Sangs-rgyas ye-shes, 772892), ,
, . , bSam-gtan , bLon-po, , [Tanaka and Robertson, p. 72]. bLonpo, , 12 13
bLon-po bSam-gtan, bLon-po bSam-gtan. ,
bSam-gtan bKa-thang sde-lnga. ,
bSam-gtan bLon-po [Ibid., p. 73].
bLon-po, bSam-gtan:
, , , . bSam gtan, , 13 bLon-po, .
, ,
bLon po - bKa-thang sde-lnga
, ,
, . : ,
bLon-po bSam gtan
( ),
,
bSam gtan [Ibid.]. , ,
. .
The Great Perfection, , bLon-po
bSam gtan,
, [Karmay 1988, p. 9099].
. .
. , ,
, . , ,
, . ,
, 58

[ 1999]. , ,
, ,
, .
.
. . , . , , ,
. , , ,
[Ruegg 2010, p. 257]. ,
, . ,
, , , ,
. , ,
[Ibid., p. 258]. ,
,
, [Tanaka and Robertson 1992; Goodman 1992, p. 161].
,

, , ,
, . , . ,
,
. ()
, , ,
, [Ruegg 2010, p. 259].
, ,
, , ,

, , , , , .
, , , . ,

59

63.

, 64.
(rNam par snags mdzad) , . ,
, . , , [
1999, . 21, 159].
,
, , , . ,


, .
, 65,
, . , Sino-Tibetan Buddhist Studies. -
, ,
[.: Tucci 1956, 1958; Ruegg 1992, 2010 .].
,

(-) ()
, - .
,

63

, -
. ,
, ,
[ 1970].
64
, . - , Minor Buddhist Texts, part I, ,
[1999, . 161]. .
65
,
, . [Gomez 1983].
60

,
,
. ,
.
, - , , . .
.
.
, .
, ,
bLon-po bKa-thang sde-lnga,
[.: Tanaka and Robertson 1992, p. 73],
, .
, ,
,
,
. , , ,
,
.
, (rdzogs-pa chen-po)
, . , (phyag-rgya chen-po),
, .
, ,
,
(ngags-rim).
, ,
. , .. :
. ,
, , , , [ ]. , . . . . , , ,
[2005].
61

, -

,
, .
,

, .
. , , (Bka gyur) , , .
(Bstan gyur) , (Wnchuk),
(Chos grub)/- (Fa-cheng) [Ruegg 2010, p. 262].
, -
(Deb ther sngon po),
. ,
, (, ), , , .
:
, !
[ 2001].
, ,
, , , [van Schaik 2011, p. 37]. , . ,
. .
[Ibid.].
.
,
. .
,
(),
. ,
,
- ,
.
62

, ,
[van Schaik 2011, p. 37]. .
.
.
,
.
, ,
. , , ,
.
, .
,
, . ,

.

, . [McRae 1986, p. 11]. ,
, . [Adamek 2007,
p. 3].
, , , , Lidao fabao ji. Record of the Dharma Jewel Through the Genarations( , ) [Ibid.].
, , 1900 . (). . , , Lidao fabao ji, . , , , ,
.
, (9801053) (1357
1419), .
63


, -,
. -,
, . Lam rim
, .
, , (gzi gnas) (lhag mthong).
,
,
. -
,
, [.: 2013; 2011; Adam 2006; The Dalai Lama 2001 .]. ( ) ,
. , ,
. , . ,
, , , , , . , ,
, .
, , ,
( ), , , .
.

, .

, . , , ,
Lam rim ( Ngags-rim),
. , [ 2010, . 134].
, (
) 64

. , . . , , , . , ,
,
. , , (11811251) sDom gsum rab dbye [Ruegg
2010, p. 263]. , , , ,
. , bSam gtan ,
.
(rgya nag lugs kyis rdzog chen) (da ltai phyag chen)66,
. ,
,
, .

, ,
. , .
.
. ,
, : , .
. (od
gsal) (sgyu-lus)
. 12 , .
, , -,

66


(10791153), , .
65

67.
, . , , , .
,
, ,
, . . [1999, . 112]. , 826 .,

(bGom-ldan-das-kyi dun-sa),
. [ ]. , , , , , , , Lam rim
. ,
, , , .
1.4. ,

1.4.1. :
/c /

, , 68, , , , [

67


, .
68
, .: [Pachow 1980; Tan 2008]. . : http://ccbs.ntu.
edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR.-FOCR/jc26894.htm]. : http://international.uiowa.edu/ centers/caps/documents/SchutterSecularsources.pdf.
66

2009, . 5]. ,
. , ,
, , ,
. , ,

. . , ,

. - -

- ,
, ,
. , ,

. , ,
, . ,
,
, , .
, .
,
, . . [2000,
. 178]. , , .
[ 1994]. - [Zrcher 2010].
[Liebenthal 1952; Zrcher 2010]. , .
.
67


, , ,
, , .
, 69, 70 71, , , . (314385) 374 .
Zongli zhongjin mulu ( ),
. 90 %
.
. ,
[Zrcher 2010, p. 9].
,
, , . ,
, VIIIIX .,
,
. , , .
, . , .
. . , - , ,
. , . , . . , . ,
. , . , . , . , . , . , . . , . , . , . . , . . , .. ,
. . , . . , . . . ,
69

. - . , . .
70
,
.
71
,
.
68

, ,
, .
, ,
,
- , . , , , . [ 1977; 1983; 1989; Gombrich 1996, 2006; McRae 1999,
2010, 2012; Heirman 2007; Robinson 1967; Zrcher 1959, 2012 .].
. . ,

,

, ? [Zrcher 2012, p. 1].
,
.
.
,
.
.
, ,
, , -, .
, , .
,
.

[Chan 1958, 1964; Holt 1995; Weirong 2007; McRae 1999,
2010, 2012; Heirman 2007; Zhihua 2009; Bumbacher 2007; Tan 2008]72.

(. . , . . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . .),

72


: [Tan 2008].
69

, . /. , , .
, ,
,
, ,
. , . . ,
( ) [2000, . 169]. . .
, [1982, . 5].
, , , . ,
-, ,
; -,

, . , , ,
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.
, ,
.
. ()
[.: Tan 2008].
, . ,

. , . . ,
, , ,
, , [2007, . 75]. , ,
.
70

, , ,
, ,
. ,
(sinification)

. , , ,

, .
, -
, , - [Sharf 2002, p. 18, 21].
, , .
, ,
. - . / / .
, , , , . , . , . . . ,
, . [Mather
19551956; 1973].
/, , , ,
, . ,
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, . / , , . . . ,
, , - . 71

. 73.
, , ,
. , (638713)74 , [ 2002, . 49].
. . . . .

. . /,
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[ 2000]. , . . , ,
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[ ].
,
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[Zurcher 2007, p. xiii]. . , [Huntington 1993, 1996], ,
-,
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.

73

. (. ), -,
, , .
74
() , .
72

, ,
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: ,
[2007, . 69].
, / , . , . [Holt 1995] , , , , . , , ,
- ,
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73

, .
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[Zrcher 2007, p. xi]. , IV .? , ? , ,
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, ,
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,
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. . . - , . , [2002, . 124].
, ,
[ ]. .
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[ , . 125].
74

.
.
,
, , (, , ) . ,
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,
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[ 2002, . 125]. , , /.
. . , ,
, - ,
[.: 2004; 1994, 2003; 2002].
, , ,

, . , [ 1994, c. 77; 2003]. ,
( 528 .),
/ . - (637713), , /,
, ,
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/ [ 2002, c. 127].
, , ,
,
,
[ , . 124]. ,
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.
75

, , , ,
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, .
, , . , ,
,
.
- , , , . . , ,
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, , , , . : [Adamek 2007]. ,
75

, ,
,
[ 1993]. , , , .
, , , , [
2002; 2007].
76

,
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,

.
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-
.
,
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- . , 76. , (17111776), I - (17641776), , . , ,
.
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76

www.savetibet.ru . - . , 26 2008 , , , :
- , , ,
, ! . http://savetibet.ru/
2008/03/26/ayusheev.html.
77

.
,
. 77 ,
[.: Dalai
Lama 2005]. . , ,
. - ,
,
.
-
78.
, ,

(18911962), , .
, , ,
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. . , , , . .
, , ,
, , [ 1994, . 8].
, , , ,
, - ,
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77

.
, . , ,
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78

78

.
, (lung; dbang). (byin
rlabs), ,
, , , , , .
, ,
.
- XIV, :
, , , ,
.
,
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. , , [McMahan1998, p. 253; Collins 1992].

,
. , ,
. . :
; , ,
, . : , , : ;
. , , . , , , , , , ... , , . ,
, , , . , .
, ,
[McMahan 1998, p. 254].


. , , ,
, , ,
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79

,
. , ,
, , , [Collins 1992].

. . , . . ,
,
[Mcmahan, p. 255].
.
. , , .
,
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--
, .
, .
, ,
, . ,
.
,
, . ,
,
: ,
[.: 1982, 1995, 2007; , 2010].
, - (, 522597), ,
80

,
. - ,
! [.: Brown 1985]. .
,
.
1.4.2. :

. Buddhist Conquest of China ,


,
.

.
, , ,
[Nakamura 1971; Lai 1983; Buswell 1990; Holt 1995; Adamek 2007; Tan 2008; Lancaster 2012; 1993; 2007 .].
, . , ,
, :
. ,
[Holt 1995]. ,
.
. ,
, .
(206 . . . 220 . . .). , , , ,
.
: , , ,
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- - [Zrcher 2007, p. xiv].
, , , . ,
81

. , . .
,
[ 1994, . 74]. ,
, , , ,
,
[ , . 88].
, , , - 79 [ 2009], , , [.:
1993; 1989]. ,
. ,
, , , - ,
.
,
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-. -,
- . . ,
.
[] [2007, . 40].
,
[ ].
. , .
IVV . [Zurcher 2007, p. 254285], . ,

79

. . , -, (VIIV . . . VIV .
. . ) .
[2009].
82

[Zrcher 2007, p. 288320; 1993].


.
, , , , , , , , , . . . . , -

[Haierman and Bumbacher 2007, p. 1].
, ,
.

, ,
, , .
,
. 80, , , .
,
,
, , ,
[Zrcher 2007, p. 255256].
, , .
,
, , . ,
, ,
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[Kapstein 2000]
, :
[Ibid., p. 82].
,
[.: 1989], , ,
80

. , , ,
. -: .
83

, .

, ,
(): ( ),
( ), ( ), ( ),
( ) ( ).
( ).
II . . .

:

: , [Zrcher 2007, p. 265]. ,
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. (127200)

: , . , , ,

.
, , . ,
( ) [Ibid.].
.
.
, .
- , , , , , , , IV . . .
, ,
[Ibid., p. 288].
- , IV . II . . . ,
, , -
81 ().

81

, - ( ) , , , , , , [.:
1956, 19721975; 1993; Zrcher 2007].
84

III .
,
, [ 1993]. , .
. . ,
- -
- (126145 .). . ,
, . ,
, - .
, . , , [ 1993].
.
, , , , ,
.
, ,
[Zrcher 2007, p. 290].
, -
[ 2009, . 36].
. . . ,
-, , [Zrcher 2007, p. 290].
. ,
. , ,
, -
,
. , , , . . .
, ( -), ,
. ,
- [
2009, . 36].
,
(Pelliot 4502 Pelliot 3404). . , - ,
- , ,
[Zrcher 2007, p. 302]. ,
85

82, , , ,
, - [Zrcher 2007,
p. 303]. - ( ), , , 83. . .
,
. , , ,
,
.

, -= , , .
, -, , -, , , , -, .
, , ,

.

, IV .
.

(Han Wei liang-Jin nanbeichao fojiao shi),
1938 . .
, , .

, , , [Ibid., p. 305].
, .

82

.
, - ,
, . , .
83

86

, (382465).
, 435 ., ,
,
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. : ,
, .
, . , ,
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,
, ,
, ,
[Zrcher 2007, p. 264].
,
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[ 1986; 2009; 2010 .],
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84

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86

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89

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. (. dge-bsnyen) , ,
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546 .
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. . , ,
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89


. (359429) . , (338 . . 424 .) . .
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90
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95

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380 . , . , V . . 450 . , . ,
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95, . , ,
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-
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100

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100

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102
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107

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, , .

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409 (431). . , -, , --, -,
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-, . (385
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109

. . ! . . .


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- (. Chun-lun) ; - (. Shiherh-men lun) ;


- (. Pai lun). , .
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VI .
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.
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, .

[Ibid., p. 7980].
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[]

, ,
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[Lam 1993, p. 112; 2008, . 4].

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127

, , . ,
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, , , . () ,
112


[ 1987].
128

, . , .
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1.5.
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XIX XX .
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135

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() [ntideva 2006, p. 17]122.

, . . ,
,
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- ,
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122

. (Cecil Bendall) Bibliotheca Buddhica (., 1897). ,


. . (E. B. Cowel). . . . . (W. H. D. Rouse), . 1922 .
1971 . 1981, 1990, 1999 2006 .
2006 . , . [ 2013],
, . .
136

,
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[Ibid.].

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. [ 2008, . 117118], - (don-dam-pai chos dkon-mchog) (rnam byang bden-pa).
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2003, . 27], ,
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2008]. , , ,
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124

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138

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. , 2009 ., :
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[Williams 2008, p. 39].

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[Raine; Stanley 2009].


140

, [ 2006, . 4950].
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2006, . 51]. 129. , , - ,
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127

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.
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141

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[Williams 2008, . 39].
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1.5.2. :

. , . , . , . . ., . ,
( bkagyur ) VII .
(snga dar), 200 .
.
, Ldan karma (812 .),
, 50300 (97,4 % ) , 312 (83,4 % ),
374 [Stanley 2009, p. 535].
44 %
(bstan-gyur). 79 , 842 .
, 100 80
[Khyentse 2009, p. 33].

,

.

. X ., (phyi dar 9581717 .) 700 , ,
[Raine]. (Rin
chen bkra shis, 1494 1577)
: 1)
, 2) , 3) [Simonson 1957,
p. 218]. (bca bcad)
142

,
[Schaeffer 2004, p. 272].
, -
130,
VIIXIV . [ 1989, . 8]. . .
: ,
; ; [ 1989].
.
131 (bka gyur )
(bstan gyur ). ,
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, , 736 [Snellgrove 1987,
p. 441]132. , ,

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130

bKa-gyur.
bstan-gyur.
131
.
132
, . . [ 1995, . 108].
143

133,
(gsung bum). . , , - -,
. , .
, , 1312 .,
[Schastri 2007, p. 23]. 20
, , , , , , .
[Schaeffer 2009,
p. 14; 1995, 1989; Badaraev 1968; Eimer 1983 .].
12 .
1410 . .
1980 . Dharma Publishing:
, 1115 3387
[Tsepag 2005, p. 53]134.
. ,
.135 , [Eimer
2002].

133

, , () [ ]. ,
- . , , , , ,
.
134
, , [Shastri 2007, p. 26].
[Ibid., p. 3839].
135
11 , 13
, 12 . ,
11 . 100 , 101, 105, 108 . , . , 109 .
144

,
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,
[Schaeffer 2009, p. 11]. .
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[Raine].
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.
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136

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137
(Kun-mkhen Bu-ston Rin-chen-grub) . , , . (11271225) ,
[ 1999, . 14]. 1364 . -
(Zhwa-lu), , ,
.
, ,
-, [Scheaffer 2004,
p. 265].
145

. (-),
(Peking Tenjur No. 5851). - . VIII . , [Kaba Paltseg 5849138; Kaba Paltseg 5850; Kaba
Paltseg 1992].
.
:
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1992, p. VIIIIX].

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138

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146

.

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147

. ().
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[. : Kaba Paltseg 1992, p. VIII].

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(Bye-brag-tu rtogs-par byed-pa chen-po )139. , [Pagel 2007, p. 151],
, (815841) [.: 2005]140.
,
- ,
.
141. ,
139

(Toh. 4346),
sgra-sbyor bam-po gnis-pa.
140
, , 800815 ., [.: Snellgrove 1987, vol. II,
p. 441, n. 110]. XVII . , ,
, .
. ,
, , [.:
Pagel 2007, p. 154].
141
VIII . , , , , ,
148

,
. 142
, , , . , ,
, - , [ 2005].
10 , 283 [Ishihama & Fukuda 1989].
, . , , [Keown 2003,
p. 167; Vitali 1990, p. 19]. [Sakaki 1962; Ishihama & Fukuda 1989; Srkzi 1995], [.: Pagel 2007, p. 151]. . . , ,
.
- XIII . (Dag yig mkhas-pai
byung gnas) ,
, , ,
, , chos , 143.
, , , . , [Kapstein 2003, p. 758].
,
. , .
. . ,
,

, , -. . , ,
[ 1995, . 111].
142
,
, : , , (
- ), , [Simonsson 1957,
p. 241].
143
.: [ , . 34].
149

- [ 1995,
. 111]144.

. -, (sGra sbyor bam po gnyis pa bye brag tu rtogs byed 'bring po) , ,
, , . , (Bye brag tu rtog byed chung ngu), , [Pagel 2007,
. 152].
(IX .) ,
.
(, 9821054)
(9581055). . , , ,
, , (10041065), (),
[Chattopadhyaya 1967]. ,
-, ,
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(gsang sngags gsar ma) [Chattopadhyaya
1967, p. 340341].
, , , , .
[ 2001; 2008].
125 , .

(XIII .). ( .)
. . , [ 1989].
1320 . . .
, .
-. , (

144

- .: [ 1962, . 184185].
150

), : -, -, , . .
, (
), , .
.
(Yig
mkhan rnams la gdams pa).
(Sgra tshad pa rin chen rnam rgyal,
13181388), ,
(kya mchog ldan, 14281507). , . : , [. : Schaeffer 2004, p. 266]. 1485 .
, [Ibid.].
,
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(; dge bshes)
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(Sku zhang kun dga don grub)

. , [Ibid., p. 268]. ,
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, (bka-bcad), , ,
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[Scherrer-Schaub 2002, p. 263340].
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. ,
.
151

, . , [ 2008, . 56].
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[. : 2008, . 68].

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[Rinchen Rnam Rgyal 1981, p. 343].

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148

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[ 1999, . 239240]. ,
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1757), . , -, , ; , [. :
Scheaffer 2004, p. 276].
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. .: [ 1913].
155

. , , .
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(rgya gar gyi skad las bod kyi skad du bsgyur), () (gung rab
bsgyur ba rnams skad gsar bcad kyis gtan la phab pa), (zhus dag go rims mdzad), / (zhus mdzad),
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/ (sgrig), / (phyogs sgrigs), (rgya gar gyi skad las bod kyi
skad du bsgyur cing ming du btags pa) [ 1995, . 111112].
, , ,
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: 1)
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; 8) , 17 , .

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150


.: [Khyentse 2009a, b].
151
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2013 . (25
2013 . 3 2014 . ).
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, .
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500 1100 . :
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[Tsepag 2005, p. 59]152.
4 .
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2009 . .
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[Khyentse 2009a, b]. -, , , , , ,
[Khyentse 2009b, p. 35]. , ,
.
1.5.3. :

, VII .
,
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152

. (The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center library(www.tbrc.org)


. . http://84000.co/kangyurtengyur-genres/.
158

, , : ,
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[Lancaster 2012, p. 237].
. ,
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229].

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, [Lancaster 2012, p. 231].
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, , .

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. .
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[2000, . 177]. ,

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[Lancaster 2012, p. 234235].
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,
[Storch 1993, p. 116; Mair 2012, p.155156]. ,
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() (-, . . ), ,
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[Storch 1993, p. 4].
.
, ,
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,
. , ,
(. lung)154. .
. , . ,
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,
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, , , (yig-cha). .

154


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() [Storch 1993], . ,
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. (312385), 155,
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, 156,
, 157.
,

[ 2009, . 40; , 2010, . 90
91; Storch 1993].
,
[ 2007, . 4041; ,
2010, . 91].
, [Storch 1993, p. 12].
155

.: [ 2007, . 4049; 2009, . 40].


156
. . , - [2007, . 45].
157
. . , , - [2009,
. 39].
164

, , ,
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[Storch 1993, p. 13].
,
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158. ,
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[Ibid., p. 14].
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.
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[Lancaster 2012, p. 232]. , , .

158

, - [Storch 1993, p. 14]. . . ,


- [
2009, . 40]. ? . .
. .
[2010, . 91].
165

. .
.
. V . ,
- . (
).
479 . [Lancaster 2012, p. 234].
.
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[Ibid., p. 235]. , , , ,
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, , .

(Sengyou, 445518) ( ), 505 515 . [Mair 2012, p. 150].
,
[Lancaster 2012, p. 235]. 159:
594 . 160, 659 .
.

159

. . , , , VI . : (515 .)
(518 .) - (519 .). -
( ). (594 .) (602 .),
(597 .)
[ 2009, . 52, 58].
160
. .
.
166

.

() .
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[2009, . 52].
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XIV ., XIV XV . , 6771


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[ 2009]. , , .
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1982 . ( ). , ,
220 , 4200 [ , . 71].
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VIII .), 161 . ,
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VIII . ,
[, 2010, . 118].

, 162. ,
161

, . . [, 2010, . 115]. . , : 1) , IIII .; 2) , IVVI .; 3) , VIVIII .; 4) , IX . [.: 2006]. , ,


.
162
.: [ 1995, . 38; 2006, . 62].
169

[ 2006, . 62]. , , .
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, ( bLa-ma lnga bcu-pa) [1995]164.
: ,
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163

.
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164

170

[Lai 2012, p. 14].


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.
171


. . , ,
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. 181]. , IIIIV .
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IVVI , , [2000]. -, . . ,
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IV ( ) () , . . [ , . 182].
[Lai
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172


,
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400 . . . . 420 .
. 500 . . 550 .
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, .
, . . , . [2000, . 182].
,
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[ ].
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?
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173

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168. , , ,
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168

.
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175

, , - , , -, ,
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.
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657 .

[, 2010, . 100].
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, [Grousset 1971, p. 161].

VII .

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176

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[.: Franco 2004, p.199212 ].
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[Lai 1982, p. 10]. . . ,
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178

, .

(. 645 .),
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/ [ 2006] . , .
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[Lee 2013]. , ,
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[ 2000; 2007; , 2010;
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170

.
180

. , - , XIII .
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Mahyna Buddhism: The doctrinal foundations,
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VI . .., , , IV . . . [Shoppen 2005].


212

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214

(aranyavasin) [Harrison 2003]. ,


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216

p. 32]. , , , , ,
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212

.: [Nattier 2003].
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Scen Collection [Williams 2008, p. 37].
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217

215, , [Williams 2008, p. 37].


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218

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[Snellgrove 1973, p. 401402; Williams 2008, p. 13].


219

:
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[Harrison 2003, p. 117122]. , , , -.
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p. 142]. , ,

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(gter-ma).
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2.3.1.

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, , 150250 . , 400 [ 1999, . 209]. ,
221

- , 500 [ 1869, . 80].


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III . [ 2000, . 34].
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(Chos-byung-zin-brisnor-bu phreng-ba), 218, , 482 . . . , 212 . . . , , 1200 [IBP 2005, p. 126].
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218

1970 . ,
Indian Buddhist Pandits [IBP 2005] , , Chos byung
zin bris nor bu phreng-ba. , , .
.
222

, [Walser 2005,
p. 67; Westerhoff 2009, p. 45]. ,
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[Ruegg 2010, p. 13].
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223

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224

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230
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[Taranatha 1970, p. 110]239.
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233

-; Shes-rab-kyi-pha-rol-tu-phin-pa-stong-phragbrgya-pa.
234
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235
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236
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242
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243
[.: 2000, . 2035; Walser 2005; Mabbett 1998].
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231

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, [mKhas grub 1992],
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[mKhas grub 1992, p. 403].
245
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grub 1992, p. 413].
246
( 186188 970). ,
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1913, . 15].
232

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256, , ,
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256

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240

(-; Theg-pa chen-poi mdo


sdei rgyan-gyi tshig leur byas-pa. P. 5521, vol. 108); 4) (; mNgon-par rtogs-pai rgyan. P. 5184, vol. 88);
5) (; Theg-pa chen-po rgyud bla-mai bstan bcos257. P. 5525, vol. 108258).
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[IBP 2005, p. 3; Taranatha
1970, p. 161].
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261
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241

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244

rtsa ba shes rab)266, , . .



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266

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Rtsod-zlog); 3) (; Stong-nyid
bdun-cu-pa); 4) (; Rigs-pa drug-cupa); 5) (; Zhib-mo
rnam-thag).
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(dBu-ma rigs-tshogs drug),
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268

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Dragonetti 1985].
269
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246

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, : 1) (; Chos dang chos-nyid rnam-par byed-pa. P. 5523, vol. 108); 2) (; dbUs dang mtha rnam-par
byed-pa. P. 5522, vol. 108) ; 3) (; Theg-pa chen-poi mdo sdei rgyan-gyi tshig leur byas-pa. P. 5521, vol. 108); 4) (; mNgon-par rtogs-pai rgyan. P5184, vol.
88); 5) (; Theg-pa chen-po rgyud bla-mai bstan bcos. P. 5525, vol. 108).
272
, .
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247

) ma brtags-pai sems-kyi rdo-rje brjod byar


ston-pai dbu-ma ( ,
). ,
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(rang-stong). ,

[mKhas grub 1992, p. 412]273.

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2008]. , , ,
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[.: Dalai Lama and Hopkins 1985; Mullin 1991; Bryant 1995; Khedrup 2004; Dalai
Lama 2005; Henning 2007]. -, , . , ,
- ( ),
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[Dalai
Lama 2005, p. 41; 2006].
,
() , , . . , - XIV Essence of the
Heart Sutra [Dalai Lama 2005] :
, . , ,
,

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[Dalai Lama 2005, p. 4748]. , -, ,
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275. , . , ,
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, .

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[Thurman 1995,
p. 5].
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.

275

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250

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- , - , , .
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(Essential Tibetan Buddhism), (spyen-ras-gzigs), (sgrol-ma),
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276

, mah-yna, mahpatha. mah-yna (, III, 1 ) [ 2000, . 195].


277
. . Dharma.
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.
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: 2000, . 242]. 79 :
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37 (- ; byang-chub phyogsmthun-gyi chos).


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2008]. , ,
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: (); dbU-ma rtsa-bai tshig leur byas-pa shes-rab ces bya-ba.


P. 5224, vol. 95.
256

[ ] , , . ,
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283 , .
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283

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257

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(; Chos-kyi dbyings-su bstod-pa. P. 2010, vol. 46).
- , [MMK
1995]. ? ,
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,
[Dalai Lama 2005, p. 4546].
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[ 2011, . 194196].
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[Dalai Lama 2005, p. 4546].
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2.3.4.
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[MSL 2000], , , . [MSL 2004].
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284

, , , , .
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remuneration, ways, fortune, object, things, object of senses, signification . .
[MSL 2000, p. 20].
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2000, p. 45].

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[MSL 2000, p. 5].

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285

, [MSL 2000,

p. 5].
286

, , , .
.., . , ,
[MSL 2000, p. 5].
287
vykaraa,
(, , . .). ,
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, [Ibid., p. 21].
261

, 288,
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[MSL 2000, p. 7].

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[MSL 2000, p. 8].
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288

. , dialectians. , , , .
262

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, , [MSL
2000, p. 9].

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[MSL 2000, p. 1112].

13:
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[MSL 2000, p. 12].

289

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14
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291, ,
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p. 13].
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2000, p. 14].
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290
291

.: [ 2006].
.
265

() , , . , .
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, [Pezzali 1968, 1986]. , Chos
byung zin bris nor bu phreng-ba [IBP 2005, p. 6772],
[Taranatha]293. 294.
. , ,
, .

292

. : [Dalai Lama 1996, S. 178].


-, .
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[ 1999, . 161166]. [ 1999, . 233237].
294
[Taranatha 1970, p. 215220; IBP 2005,
p. 6772; ntideva 2007, . 316322].
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266

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297

[IBP 2005] -, - .
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298
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299
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. 100103].
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300

,
, , [ 2011,
. 44].
301
, ,
: 1) (zab-mo lta-bai brgyud-pa); 2)
(rgya-chen spyod-pai brgyud-pa); 3)
(nyan-len byin-rlab-kyi brgyud-pa) [, p. 631]. ,
, , ,
, , . .
269


. . .
. . .
, , , . ,
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.
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. -, - ,

, .
, . ( ; Byang chub sem-kyi;

302


(sems bskyed). , , ,
: ?
270

grel-ba) ( ; Byang chub


sem-kyi grel-pa zhes bya-ba) [2011], -
[ntideva 1997, 2006, 2007; 1999].
,

, , , ,
.
,
(bLo-sbyong don bdun-mai
), , ,
.
303. , ,
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303


- [.: ntideva 1997, 2006, 2007; 1999].
271

304.
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[:] []305.
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[ntideva 2007, . 257].

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304

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305
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272

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].

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. [.: 2012; Hopkins 1996], . ,
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307 308, ,
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306

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307
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308
(sred-pa) , ,
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273

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4950309
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, (; rtog ge bar-ba) --310, . ,

309

. , , (XI . . .), .
310
, , . , .
274

, .
2.3.6.
-

( ) (,
, ), .
,
- - . .
.
. , , , (1507
1554), .
311.
, (ris med ) XIX . , [Callahan 2007,
p. 10]. , - ,

, , XVII . , ,
.
,
(), -. - V , - .

311

, (18131900) , ,
, . , (18081887), (18201892),
(18291870) (18461912), ,
.
275

, [Samuel 1993, p. 538, 546].


, , . , ,
- XIV, , - V
XIII, XV XVI, , . , . ,
- XIV, , , , ,
.

, : , , , . , , ,
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, .
,
, , [Callahan 2007, p. 10].
,
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,
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[Jamgn 2007].
, .
: , ; .

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.
: 1)
; 2) (sbyor ba) ; 3) 276

, ; 4) ,
; 5) , [Jamgn 2007, p. 162].
.
? , , ,

.
, (; Jig rten las das par bstod pa):
, , ,
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.
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[Jamgn 2007, p. 163]312.

, , . ,
,
, , ---- (jig rten-las das-pa)313, . .
.
, . , . ,
. , ,

. , . ,
[Ratnayaka 1985]. , , ,
[Anlayo 2010]. ,

312


(dBu ma la bstod pa), . 472 , 27
(Toh. 1120; Dg. T. Beijing 1, p. 197) [Jamgn 2007, p. 345].
313
Jig rten las das pa, , , . ,
. jig rten las das pa , ,
, .
277

, [Anlayo 2010, p. 10].


, . , . , ,
,

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, , .
,
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,
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, (),
, [ 2011].
, , , .
.
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, [.: 2000].

314:

.
,
.

, , - (blo-sbyong), / / [ 2006; 2008; bLo-sbyong 1995].

314

, (sLob dpon dpa bo), (rTa dbyangs) , .


278

. (; nyong sgrib).
, . .
, , , (shes
sgrib) [Jamgn 2007, p. 163].
[ ], , ,
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. :
[ ]
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315:
- ,
- .

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[Jamgn 2007, p. 163].
, , , .
,
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)
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(zung jug) .
,
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. , :

315

(; mNgon
rtogs rgyan) .
279

,
,
,
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;

,
316.

,
, .
1. , (; sde snod).
2.
.
3. : (; gang-zag-gi bdag-med)
(; chos-kyi bdag-med).
4. :
317.
5. :
(;
kun nyong), , , 318. , . ,
. , . , ,

-, , . , , , .
,
316

475, 20, 5960, toh. 4020, . 35a34; Dg. T. Beijing 70:881.


, . , XIX [MSL 2000, p. 484484]. , , ,
. .
317
(-; bskal-pa grangs med-pa) , 1059.
318
(, ,
) (, , , ).
280

, ,
, , .
, ,
. , , - ,
.
(25 2013 . 3
2014 .) - XIV , .
, , . , , , () . . , ,
, .
6. ,
, 319.
( ; de bzhin gshegspai stobs bcu), [ 1998], -, , ? [.: 1998; TEDBT 1997] :
1) , , (gnas dang gnas min
mkhyen-pai stobs);
2) (las-kyi rnam-par smin-pa
mkhyen-pai stobs);
3) / (mos-pa sna-tshogs mkhyen-pai
stobs);
4) / (khams sna tshogs
mkhyen-pai stobs);
5) (dbang-po snatshogs mkhyen-pai stobs);
6) (thams-cad-du gro-bai lam
mkhyen-pai stobs);
7) (kun nas nyon
mongs pa dang rnam-par byang-ba mkhyen-pai stobs);

319

.: [Berzin 1982].
281

8) (sngon-gyi gnas rjes-su dran-pa mkhyen-pai


stobs);
9) , ( chi pho-ba dang skyeba mkhyen-pai stobs);
10) (zag-pa zad-pa mkhyen-pai stobs).
(mi jigs-pa bzhi) 320:
1.
.
2.
.
3. .
4. , , .
(sangs-rgyas-kyi chos-ma-dres-pa
bco-brgyad) [.: 1998; TEDBT 1997] :
. , (sphyod-pas bsdus-pa
drug):
1. (skui spyod-pa khrul-ba mi
mnga-ba).
2. (gsung ca co mi mnga-ba).
3. (dran-pa nyams-pa mi mnga-ba).
4. (thugs mnyams-par ma
bzhag-pa mi mnga-ba).
5. , (blan-dor ngo-bo nyid-kyis grub-paii tha-dad-pa nyid-kyi du-shes mi ngaba).
6. (so-sor mabrtag-pai btang snyoms mi mnga-ba).
. , / (rtogs-pas
bsdus-pa drug):
7. (dun-pa nyams-pa mi mngaba).
8. (brtson grus nyams-pa mi mnga-ba).
9. (sems-can dul-bai thabs dran-ba nyams-pa mi mnga-ba).
10. (ting-ngedzin nayms-pa mi mnga-ba).
11. (shes-rab nyams-pa mi mnga-ba).
12. , (rnam-par grol-ba mnyams-pa mi mnga ba).

320

,
. : [ 1998; TEDBT 1997].
282

. , (mdzad-pas
bsdus-pa gsum):
13. (skui phrin-las).
14. (gsung-gi phrin-las).
15. (thugs-kyi phrin-las).
. , (dus-kyis bsdus-pa gsum):
16. ( das-pai
dus mkhyen-pa la ma thogs ma chags-pai ye-shes).
17. (ma ongspai dus mkhyen-pa la ma thogs ma chags-pai ye-shes).
18. (da lta-bai
dus mkhyen-pa la ma thogs ma chags-pai ye-shes).
, ,
, ,
. , 321,
, , ,
, .
,
( ; dran-pa nye-bar bzhag-pa gsum) (; snying-rje chen-po) [TEDBT, p. 282].
, , . ,
,
, ,
, , (sangs rgyas-kyi thung-mong ma-yin-pai rnam-pa sodgu). ; ;
; 322; (de-bzhin nyid-kyi rnam-pa); (rang byung-gi rnam-pa);
(sangs rgyas-nyid-kyi rnam-pa) [TEDBT 1997,
p. 282].
-323, :

321

.
(so-so yang-dag rig-pa bzhi): 1) , (chos-so-so yang-dag rig-pa); 2) ,
(don so-so yang-dag rig-pa); 3) , (nges-tshig so-so yang0dag rig-pa); 4) , (spobs-pa so-so yang-dag rig-pa).
323
-; Shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyi-ba sdud-pa.
Phags-ps mdo sdud-pa (Toh. 13).
322

283

,
,
,
,

(. : Jamgn, p. 164).

324 :
; ; [] ;
; ;

, [ ].

, . , , , ,
, . , , , . ,
, , , . (; mtshan-nyid) , , . , , , , , [Jamgn 2007, p. 18]. , , [Ibid., p. 166].
, ,
, ,
, , - . , . ,

, . -
:
?
, .
, , .

324

-; Theg-pa chen-po bsdus-pa. Toh. 4048, f. 2b67; Dg. T. Beijing


76:5. .
284

:
,
(. : [Jamgn 2007, p. 166]).

, . :
,
325,
.
,
(, V, 84) (. : [ 2000, . 244]).

, , ,
, . (rgyui thegpa), ,
( . .). (bras-bui theg-pa), , 326, . :
. , , , .

: (, ), ,
, .
.
, , ,
.
[] (mchog gnis). [] (rgyan
drug) ,
. (rgyan drug)
(Phags-pa-lha), (dByig-gnyen), (Phyogs-glang),

325

. ; . yon-tan bsam-yas ,
.
326
: ; --; [ 2011; - 1996; TEDBT 1997].
285

(Chos-grags), (Yon-tan-od), (Shakya-od).


( ) .
,
.
.
( -), ,
[Siderits 2007, p. 208, 209],
[Dreyfus 1997]. ,
,
,
. . ,
.
, , , . , , (grub-mtha bzhi)
, , . , ,
(thun mong) . , , ,
,
.
2.3.7. -

2.3.7.1. ()
():

: , , () , [:]
.
286

. . , ,
[Taranatha 1970, p. 187].
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.
, , / . ,
,
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.
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,
. ,
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(bkagdams). - (Drom-tn Gyal-we Jungne, 10051064)
, : ,
327. , , . , , ,
,
[ 2008].
,
XIV,
327

, , .: [ 2008].
287

, (zab-mo) (rgya che-ba) [Byang chub 2012, p. 1117; 2008, . 177 187]. ,
():
, [],
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288

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[Byang chub 2012, p. 1112; 2008, . 177178]328.

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: -, , , ; -, , () .
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.

328

, ,
FPMT, : , , [.: ].
289

, , , , ,
, .
, -,
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, . - XIV, , ,
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,
- , ,
[Dalai Lama 2005, . 7; 2006]. ,
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,
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, , ,
[Thurman 1995, p. 2]329. , .
, , .
, .
, - XIV .
330 (-; Shes-rab snying-po)331 332

329

. , , ,
[Thurman 1995, p. 2].
330
, , .: [ 2006, . 811].
331
-; bCom-ldan das-ma shes-rabkyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pai snying-bo.
332
, .
(19041975),
, IVI . . .
290

. , ,
.
- [Dalai Lama 2005]
, -, , .
, ,
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333,
, .
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: .

334:
, , , , , . , , .

333

, (lung) , -
.
334
, [bLa-mai rnal-byor
2003, p. 446450].
, : [ 2006, p. 811], .
291

, , , ,
, , .
, , , , , ; , , , , , ;
, , , , , [] . , . , ,
. , ,
, ; , .

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,
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(gzhan stong) . ,
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, (),
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,
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335

, ,
, , .
.
, , , .
292

,
byang-chub sem-dpa, . ,
. byang chub , byang
, chub
. , sem-dpa , sem
. , -, ,

[Dalai Lama 2005].
, . ,
, , ,
, . ,
, ,
336, .
, (tshogs lam), ,

. , (sbyor lam),
,

[C 2006, . 131]. (mthong lam) ,
. ,
,
(sgom lam). , ,
--- (mi-slob lam) .
, , (gzhan stong), (rang stong). , ,

, . .
336
.
,
.
293

, 337. (rang stong)


. , ,
, -
, . , , ,
. ?
, -
[Dalai Lama 2005, p. 116117].
, ,
? , , ,
. -
,
, , ,
(kyang) . ,
, , , , .
, , .
, , , .
, -, ,
(). , -,
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, .
, , , [ 2001,
2004; Vose 2009; Ruegg 2010, p. 159194; Candrakrti 1989].
, ,
- , .
, , , .
, ,

337

.: [ 2006,
. 127131; Dalai Lama 2005, p. 116117].
294

, .

,
(tshogs lam) (sbyor lam).
( )
, ,
,
. , , , ,
.
, , , , , , .
( ) , . ,
[ 2006, . 97]. , ,
. , , . ,
, , . .

.
, , : ,
. :
, , , . , , , ,
, . . - ,
. , ,
.
, . ,
,
(). , ;
[Dalai Lama 2005, p. 115]. ,
,
295

, , , , .
, - . -,
. , ,
,
, .
,
. ,
, , [Dalai Lama 2005, p. 116].
,
, [ 2006, . 135]. , , ,
. -,

. .
.
- ,
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.

, ,
- [Dalai Lama 2005, p. 117]. , , . - :

:


[MMK 1995, p. 68].

,
, .
, , .
, , ,
296

. , , (), , ,
, . , ,
, , ,
, .


.
.

,
-. ,
, , . , , , ,
.

, , , , , . .
( ) , , , ,
[ 2008, . 6]. - ,
,
( ) . ( ), . ( ) , . , , .
, , , ,
-. ,
. ,
297

(zab-mo snang-ba). - ,
. ,
, .
, ,
,
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. ,
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: , , ,
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, , , .
- :
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,
,
,


[MMK 1995, p. 2].

, ,
,
, . , , , ,
. , , -,
298

: 1) , ; 2) ,
; 3) , .
, , ,
:
.
, , , ,
, : . , .
, :
.
, ,
, , ,
, , . ,
, , . (;
chos-dbying) .
, .
, , , , : , [ 2006, . 163168].
: , , ,
, , ;
, , , , , ; , ,
, , , [] .
, , , . ,
,
,
[
2006, . 170]. , ,
.
(skye-mched bcu gnyis). , , , .
,
(), (khams bco brgyad).
, (299

), . ,
, . , ,
. ,
, .
,
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, .
, ,
[ 2006, . 174].
: ,
,
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.
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, .

: , , , ; , . , ,
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.
,
. . : .
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338.
338

,
,
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300

, (-).
. , .
, , , , . ,
. ,
.
, . - ,
[Dalai Lama 2005,
p. 127]. ,
, , ,
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,
.
, :
.
: , , , ,
[Dalai Lama 2005, p. 131; 2006,
. 181].

. . ,
.

.
, ,
,
, .

, (sgom) , , ,
.

, , ,
---, , .

, . (1429
1503) ,
, , ,
, [Jamyang Gawai Lodro 2002, p. 162].
301

(mi gnas-pai mya ngan las das-pa)


, ,
, , [Dalai Lama 2005, p. 171].
- ,
. , . , . , , , , , ,
. , , (lhag
mthong). ,
, . -
,
, .

, , . , . ,
, [Dalai Lama 2005, p.132
133; 2006, . 181182].
, ,
, , ,
17 ,
, , ,
/ .
, :
,
. , ,
, .
, , ,
.
2.3.7.2.
-

, (Phyogs glang,
302

480540 .) (Chos grags, 600660 .), .



:
, , , . ,
-
, (bLo-rig-gi-rnam-gzhag-nyung-gsal-legs-bzhad-gser-gyi-phreng-mdzes-zhes-byaba-bzhugs-so), , , , , (tshad-ma) (blo rig ), ,
,
. . . ,
, , ,

[ 1995, . 211].

, . ,
,
, ,
. ,
, . ,
, . , , , ,
().
, . ,
(-;
Tshad-ma rnam grel),
339 (-; tshad-ma kun btus)340

339

. . [20082009].
303

rtags-rig ( ) blo-rigs (. ),
, , , , ,
.
-
, . -
, , .
, , - . , , , , ,

.

, ,

, . , ,
, , ,
. - 341
, .
-, ,
, -
. , (-)342, , , ,

340

Tshad-ma kun-las btus-pa zhes-bya-bai


rab-tu byed-pa.
341

, , . . [2008, 2011].
342
.: [ 2008].
304

, , , .

, , [Siderits 2007, p. 209] .
, . ,
. , empty logic ,
,
[Cheng 1991]. -
.
,
, , ,
.
- ,

.
,
. , , -, .
,
, , [1900]. ,
,
.
, , , .
,
, ( ) [ ].
. , . , ,
[ 1956]. ,
305

.
, : :
, [ 1956].
, ,
, .
,
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. ,

. , ().

, , ,
, ,
:
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, .
, , , .
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.

.
, .
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, !343,
( ) . :

343

! , , ,
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.
306

, ,
. . . , . ,
, , [ 1956].

, , ,
.
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. ,

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, ,
.
, :
, ( , , ,
).
. . , -
, , ,
. ,
. , , . . , (). , , .
, , ,
,
[ 2004, . 3].
, - - . ,
,
, . . , VII ., , . . , / , , ,
. 307

, [Loizzo 2006, p. 13].


, , , - , ,
, . / .

.

, , -, . , ,
( )
,
.
, , , , ,
, .
, , .
, 344
, .
, , (tshad-ma), .
tshad-ma rig-pa
gtan tshigs-rig-pa, .
(tshad-ma).
, , .
--

344

- .: [ 2011, . 4154]
308

345 , -.
, , ( ),
( ), ( ), . ,
: , , ,
() ,
. XIX XX .
. ,
. , . , .
XX . . , , , ,
, , , .
, ,
.
,
[1959]. , , (
),
.
,
,
-
, :
, , . . ,
,
, ,
. [Lipman 1992, p. 27].
, , -, ,
,
, ,
, -
, .

345

.
309

, , ,
, . -,
, . ., , :
, .
,
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,
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, . ( )
. , , ,
, . .

: (tshul gsum)

, (phyogs chos), (rjes khyab) , (ldog
khyab).
(, ) [ 2011, . 85]. (, ) [ , . 88].
(, ) [ , . 93].
, .
: ,
, , , , 310

346. (rtog-pa), , ,
- , , , , , .
rtog-pa ,
. . , ,
, , .
.
, , . .
, ,
, ,
, , . ,
,
,
. ,
, , [Kaba Paltseg 1992, p. 5]. ,
, [ 1999,
p. 1242]. , , , , ,
, , . . , , , . ,
, . ,
, , .
,
, . : ,

[Dhargay 1974, p. 26].

346


.
311

, , ,
, , - . . ,
, (400480), (480540), (600660), , , (630700), (720780), (740800), (725783), (740795),
(750810), (9501000), (X .), (XI .), (XI XII .), (11271225) [Dreyfus 1997, p. XVI].
, , ,
.
.
(Cha-pa chos-kyi seng-ge, 11091169),
(. 1073 .), .
, .
(bsdus grwa . ),

( , ),
, (Sa-skya pandita kun-dga
rgyal-mtshan, 11821251), ,
(tshad-ma rigs-gter). , . , ,
,
, , .

, , . , .
, , , 1220- . [.: Van
der Kuijp 1993, p. 279], . , [.:
Jackson 1983].

.
312


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[The Dalai Lama 2001].
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321

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350


--.
322

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,
.
(Lam gyi gtso-bo rnam gsumgyi rtsa-ba bzhugs-so) [ 2008],
, .
, , , ,
(-).
351

. : [Dalai Lama 1996, p. 15]. . : [], . , [ 2001, . 72].


323

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, 610-
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.
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,
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- ; 8) (Lam rim myur lam) ; 9) (Lam rim legs gsung nying khu)
; 10) (Lam gtso rnam gsum) ;
11) (Yon tan gzhir gyur ma ; 12)
: (rTogs brjod mdun legs ma); 13)
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; 17) (Lam rim rnam grol lag bcangs)
; 18) (Lam rim bring poi sa bcad)
.
325

, (dmar khrid):
. , , 2.4.1.1.1.3353 :
, . , , (sbyor chos), (skyabs yul),
(tshogs zhing) . . [Pha-bong-kha-pa
2003, p. 112 ].
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),
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326

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[Dalai Lama 1988, p. 21]. ,

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.
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2007]. , VIII . , , () . - XIV , , .
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. , 328


, . , :
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,
[Dalai Lama 1988, p. 69].
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, [Lama Yeshe
1998, p. 34].
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1983]. , ,
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.
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, [Klein 1991].
330

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.

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331


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334


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