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,

. .

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2014

FEDERAL STATE INSTITUTION


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN, BUDDHIST AND TIBETAN STUDIES
OF SIBERIAN BRANCH OF RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

IRINA S. URBANAEVA

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY AND MEDITATION


IN A COMPARATIVE CONTEXT
BASED ON THE INDO-TIBETAN TEXTS
AND ORAL TRADITIONS OF TIBETAN BUDDHISM

Ulan-Ude
2014

571.54
87+86
69


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69

(
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, 2014. 376 .
ISBN 978-5-8200-0347-9
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URBANAEVA, IRINA S.

Buddhist philosophy and meditation in a comparative context (based on the IndoTibetan texts and oral traditions of Tibetan Buddhism). Ulan-Ude: IMBTS SB RAS,
2014. 376 p.
The author studies the rationalistic content of Buddhism in comparison with the cognitive approach of
modern science and Western philosophy. She explains the relationship of Buddhist philosophy and
meditation, as it is represented in the Indo-Tibetan tradition, and explores the meaning of the heritage
of Nalanda as a rationalist foundation authenticity of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition.
The book might be useful for specialists in the field of Buddhist and Tibetan studies, philosophy,
religious studies specialists, and all those interested in Buddhist topics.
571.54
87+86
.. , 2014
, 2014


. 4, 33, . 01201252890
ISBN 978-5-8200-0347-9
3


...8
1. - - .10
1.1.
.10
1.1.1.
..10
1.1.2. .19
1.1.3. ..45
1.2. - ..62
1.3.
.....67
1.4. ...72
2. :
- ...78
3. ...99
3.1. :
?99
3.2. ...123
3.3. ..126
3.4. . .133
3.5. ...136
3.6. ...146
3.6.1. -146
3.6.2. - .158
3.7. ...162
3.8.
...165
3.9. :
..178
3.9.1. :
.178
3.9.2. 184
3.9.3.
.191
3.9.4. (
)..206
3.9.4.1. : .206
3.9.4.1.1. 206
3.9.4.1.2. 209
4

3.9.4.2. :
..215
3.9.4.2.1.
..215
3.9.4.2.2.
..219
3.9.4.2.2.1. .221
3.9.4.2.2.2.
..231
3.9.4.2.2.3. .238
3.9.4.2.3.
..240
3.9.4.2.4. 243
3.9.4.3.
...245
3.9.4.4. ( )
249
3.9.4.5. :
...254
3.9.4.6. ............................................................................................................................................273
4. .284
4.1.
: , 284
4.2. - ..293
3.3. ()
(): ...304
4.4. - ..319
4.5. - ........330
...345
..348
...355

CONTENTS
Foreword..8
Chapter 1. Theoretical and methodological aspects in examining the rationalist system of Buddhist philosophy and meditation of the Indo-Tibetan tradition..10
1.1. Methodological prerequisites for understanding of rationalist content of Buddhism in the
context of pluralization of models of science..10
1.1.1.Overcoming scientific materialism as a prerequisite understanding of Buddhist rationalism...10
1.1.2.Comparative analysis of science and Buddhism as two cognitive traditions19
1.1.3.Features of Buddhist philosophy in comparison with the philosophical rationalism of the
West.45
1.2. Experience of Russian Buddhist scholars in the study of History of Buddhist Philosophy...62
1.3. The connection of the "external" and "internal" approaches the newest trend of Buddhist studies.67
1.4. The problem of reality as an integral basis of the distinction between Buddhist and nonBuddhist philosophy72

Chapter 2. Interconnection between philosophy and meditation: a general description of


features of the presentation of Buddha's teaching in the Indo-Tibetan tradition.77
Chapter 3. Philosophical basis of Buddhism in its internal system.99
3.1. The phenomenon of the Buddha and the Enlightenment: Is the mystery of the authentic being cognizable?................................................................................................................................99
3.2. Essence of Buddhahood as a universal spiritual principle.123
3.3. Buddhahood and the manifestation of the Tathgata.126
3.4. Buddha nature. Tathgatagarbha133
3.5. Qualities of the Buddha 136
3.6. Buddhism as the Doctrine and the Word of the Buddha146
3.6.1. Absolute Dharma Jewel..146
3.6.2. Relative Dharma Jewel Buddhas Word..158
3.7. "Internal" criterion for distinction between Buddhist and non-Buddhist teachings..162
3.8. The Four philosophical Seals as an ontological basis for soteriological pragmatism of the
Four Noble Truths.165
3.9. The Four Noble Truths: presentation of the general Teaching of the Buddha in the relationship of philosophy and meditation178
3.9.1. General Characteristics of the Four Noble Truths: ontology of great compassion and
moral imperatives of the Buddha..178
3.9.2. Presentation of the First Noble Truth..184
3.9.3. The classic presentation of the Second Noble Truth, and the Mahayana approach to the
"full knowledge" of the Noble Truth of Origin ...191
3.9.4. Presentation of the Noble Truth of Origin in Tibetan Buddhism (the tradition of Je
Tsongkhapa)..206
3.9.4.1. Section One of the Noble Truth of Origin, the process of immersion in samsara..206
3.9.4.1.1. Defilement by kleshas..206
3.9.4.1.2. Process of accumulation of karma209
3.9.4.2. Section Two of the Noble Truth of Origin, reflection on the twelve links of interdependent origination215

3.9.4.2.1. General characteristics of the concept of twelve links of interdependent origination........215


3.9.4.2.2. Presentation of the twelve links of interdependent origination in the oral tradition of
Tibetan Buddhism.219
3.9.4.2.2.1. Definition of the twelve links221
3.9.4.2.2.2. Grouping of the links.231
3.9.4.2.2.3. Number of lives the full cycle of the twelve links of interdependent origination covers238
3.9.4.2.2.4. General instructions for meditation on the links of interdependent origination
...240
3.9.4.2.5. Methods of analytical meditation on the twelve links of interdependent origination in
correlation with the Four Noble Truths.243
3.9.4.3. Brief presentation of the Third Noble Truth the Truth of Cessation in classical Indian
and Tibetan traditions245
3.9.4.4. Brief presentation of the Fourth Noble Truth the Truth of Path in classical Indian and
Tibetan traditions...249
3.9.4.5. Meditation on sixteen aspects of the Four Noble Truths: a general description of methods of purification of consciousness from the kleshas..254
3.9.4.6. Instructions from oral Tibetan tradition on the three levels of presentation of the Buddha's teachings on the Four Noble Truths.273

Chapter 4. Scholarly tradition of Nalanda the rationalist foundation of authenticity of


Tibetan Buddhism in the unity of philosophy and meditation...284
4.1. Criteria of authenticity of the Buddhist teachings in the context of formation of the canon
of the Word of the Buddha in India: "four authorities", "four reliance" and "four factors".284
4.2. Distinguishing features of Mahayana in the Indo-Tibetan tradition.293
4.3. Unity of Nagarjunas profound lineage and Asangas extensive lineage transmissions on
the basis of oral Tibetan commentaries on the Heart Sutra...304
4.4. Logic and philosophical rationalism in the foundations of the Indo-Tibetan tradition of
gradual path to Enlightenment.319
4.5. Lamrim as an Indo-Tibetan system of Buddhist philosophy and meditation. .330
Conclusion345
List of abbreviations.348
Bibliography.355


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: (kun tu bzang po);
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mnyam pa); (mkyen lnga pa); (gro bai bla ma); (rgyal ba).
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-- (bcom ldan das); (chags
joms); (chags bral); (chos kyi rgyal);
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dul); (gnyis med gsung ba); (ston pa);
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sgrol); (thams cad rtogs); (thams cad gzigs);
(thub pai dbang po); (dus gsum mkhyen);
(de bzhin gshegs pa); (dran pai dgra);
(bdag nyid chen po); (bdud dul); (bde gshegs); (rnam par dren pa); -
(mi mnyms pa); (lus med thul); . .

, []
[ 2008, . 130134].
56
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[ 2008, . 116118].
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phra mo); 3) , (chi bdag gi bdud phra
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(tshul khrim kyi pha rol tu phyn pa); 3)
(bzod pai pha rol tu phyin pa); 4) (brtson grus kyi pha rol
tu phyin pa); 5) (bsam gtan gyi pha rol tu phyin pa);
6) (shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa); 7)
(thabs kyi pha rol tu phyin pa); 8)
(stobs kyi pha rol tu phyin pa); 9) (smon lam gyi pha rol tu
phyin pa); 10) (ye shes kyi pha rol tu phyin
pa).
63
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.
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2012, . 139160].
106

, , . ,
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[Lankavatara-sutra 1996, S. 346].
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Lam rim rnam grol lag bcangs , :


[Pha-bon-kha-pa 1999, p. 264].
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(rdo rje) , , , , .
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: mya ngan das pa ltar yin pa.
--.
108

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. (gsang ba bsam gyi mi
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[ 1994, . 228238]
71 [ 2008].
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, . , , 70

. (, mngon rtogs rgyan


bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pai rgyan) (rgyud bla ma
theg pa chen poi rgyud bla mai bstan bcos zhes byao); (rin chen
phreng ba) ; (byng chub sems grel)
; (dpe la bstod); (bstod pa
brgya lnga bcu); , (bsngags os bsngags bstod); (khyad par phags bstod), ; (Lam rim chen mo) (Lam rim bsdus don) ;
(Lam rim rnam grol lag bcangs) .
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. .
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, - 72, . -
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223].

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(600660 .)73 (tshad ma rnam grel)74, - ( )
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;
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752 -, :
, . , [LankavataraSutra 1996, p. 346].
73
(chos grags) ,
(dzam gling mdzes pai rgyan drug), VI . . .
, .
, (tshad ma), , [
1999, . 227], , , . ,
, , ,
[Gomde
Lharamba 2005, p. 191].
74
. pramana, . tshad ma , , , . , .
tshad-ma rnam-grel-gyi tshig leur byaspa.
111

, ,
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Skyes-bu tshad-ma , bden-pa-po .


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1999, . 225]. ,
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78


, 2000 . (). .
[ 2011, . 191209].
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(bsngo ba) , ,
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.
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[ 2005, . 1617].

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, 16491723), - (16171682)
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(4) (pratyaveksana-jna; so-sor rtogpai ye-shes);
(5) (krtyaanusthna-jna; bya-ba sgrub-pai ye-shes) [ 1999, . 123].
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[ 2008, . 117].

, , , ( ) [
1999, . 124]. , [ 1994, . 59]. - ( )89 , ,
, , . XX .
[Anesaki Masaharu 1907]. , , 89

- , , -.
. - ( ) -
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.
124


, . 'God' in the Lotus Stra: A Question of Function The
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the Truth Body ( , der
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, [Cheng Chien
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[Cheng Chien Bhiku 1997, p. 18].

:
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, .
(-, -, -)
,
133

(-) [ 1997]. , ,
, ,

[Cheng Chien Bhiku 1997, S. 4453; Ruegg 1989;
Huntington & Geshe Namgyal Wangchen 1989, 2007, p. 249, n. 123].
,
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.

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[Eltschinger 2014, p. 234244].
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134

. .
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- -
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Fajie guanmen. :
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Bhiku 1997, p. 50].
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[Ibid. P. 52]. ,
. , -.

[Ibid.].
, ,
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.

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135

3.5.
,
, (kun tu od),
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[ 2004, . 320].


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[ 2004, . 302]

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[ 2004, . 321].
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10 , 4 , 18 .
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136

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. , , .
(Lam rim rnam grol
lag bchangs), XIV
, , , :
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,
[
2008, . 119].

,
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! [ ].
137

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2008, . 120].

, , . , , . (mtshan so gnyis). :
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138

, 96:
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[Dalai Lama 1993, 1998, p. 36]97.

:
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98 .. : [ , ] , , 99
, . , , [ 2008, . 122].

: ,
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1994, . 59; Cheng Chien Bhiku 1997].
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96

, ,
(Lam rim nyam gur).
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. .
: [ 1995, . 166175; 2006].
98
Skus khyab .
99
Zhing khams : 1) , , ; 2)
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139


.
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.
[ 1994, . 231; 2008, . 123]

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.
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(gnod sbyin gtogs dod) [ ].
. , , ,
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101

Kun tu rgyu 1) ; 2) (grangs can pa).


142

. .. . .
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: ,
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143

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(rgyud bla ma)


:
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. :
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, .
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144

:
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, , (sangs rgyas kyi
phrin las), , , .
, ,
, (rnam dkar gyi
yon tan).
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,
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, (dal
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102.

, . ,
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(ngo-bo nyid-sku). ,
102

- , (, 1998 .).
145

, .
(ye-shes chos-sku).

. ,
,
, - -
.
3.6.
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,
.
(mi bslu ba) .

(tshogs gshing) (skyabs gnas gsum), . ?
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[ 1994, . 238; 2008, . 128]. ,
,
.
:
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, ; ;
[] [] [];
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] [] ; [ ], ,
[ 1994, . 238].

? ,
chos, 103.
, ()104,
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:
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. ,
(gog bden), -
103

, : 1) (); 2)
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104
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, [
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, .
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, [ ].
-
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105

, , . , . ,
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, [ 1993, . 16].
147

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(rtogs).

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107.

,

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[ 1999, . 68].
106

, ( , 28 1998 .).
(od ldan), ,
[ 1999, . 67].
107

148

,
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149

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111

, : , , , , , , .
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.. .
[, , 2006, . 8].
113
, , -, , .
154

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[ 2006, . 65].

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(mi rtag), (sdug bsngal) . ,
,
, (theg chen
gyi sde snod), (sems bskyed), (phyin
drug) , . , , 155

. , , , ,
[ 2006, 6566].


. , , -,

, -,
[
2006, . 67]. ,

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114

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(756 797)
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156

(bstan dzin), , ,
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, [ 1999, . 36].
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, , , ,
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116
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[ , . 27].
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,
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, (, , ).
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(mi dge bcu), ,
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. : 1) , ; 2)
; 3) , ,
[ 1999, . 36].
3.6.2. -

, ,
, , , ,
[ 1994, . 2223]. .
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[ 1999, .
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, , [ , . 36].


.
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118

, ,
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158

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[ 1998].
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[ 1998].
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159

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[ 2003, . 20].
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( , 28 1998 ).
, , , gsung-rab-kyi
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161

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125
5 1998 . (-).
126
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164

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- , , grub
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.
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165

, , [Gomde
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(chos kyi sdom bzhi lta ba bka rtags kyi
phyag rgya bzhi131 ). , ,
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: ,
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, 14 1999 .
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lta ba bka btags kyi phyag rgya bzhi chos-kyi sdom
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132
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133
: , ---
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134
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166

. ,
.
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,
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:
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grub mtha ,
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167


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. - [Dalai Lama 1993, p. 134].


, ,
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168

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[ 2008, .5]

, . [bdag med],
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, , , , , ,
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, , (grub mtha smra ba)
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, ,
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:
. ,
, ,
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; 2) ; 3) ; 4)
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. : , , , , , , , . ,
[ 1996, . 55]. ,
() , 169

, ( ) [ , . 70]. ,
, .
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, -
;
[Dalai
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.
, , ,
. :
, , ,
, ,
-,
. , ,
, ,
[Ibid. P. 94].

, .
, , , , , , , [Ibid.].
, .
,
, . ,
,
. . . , , - . : ,
, . , (rgyud): , , , . , ,
: , , .

: ,
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: , , , 170

, . ,
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143.
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: .
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. .

, : , .
[
2008, . 273].

,
.
, ,
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, .
, , .
. ,
, ,
[ 2008, . 274].
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ma),
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[ 1995].
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1996, . 38]. .
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14 mnyam-med-tsong-kha-pa-chen-po-rgyal-ba-gnyis-pa-blo-bzang-gragspai-lam-rim-bsdus-don-bzhugs-so [ 2006, . 34].


160
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.: Gomde Lharamba, . 1568. .


166
(.:
[Geshe Ngawang Dhrgyey 1992, p. 18)].
167
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170
, [ 2008, . 255].
171
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2005; Geshe Ngawang Dhargyey, 1992, . 1518 .
187

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1992, p. 18]. ,
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(-; bshes-pa-i-spring-yig), , :
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Ngawang Dharyey 1992, p. 21].

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, :
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.. .. , 70.7 [ 2006, . 195].


190

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[ 1995, . 27].

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176

rnam shes yid [Geshe Ngawang Dhargyey 1992, p. 23].


191


, (chos dbyings).
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[Blo-rig 1985, p. 4], -
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177

-
(byang chub sems grel),
(4 2003 .).
178
, ,
: 2005, . 623; Eltschinger 2014, p. 154190; Lipman 1992.
192

. ,
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, ,
,
.
,
sems,
, (gtso sems),
(rnam shes, sems rgyud, rgyud), (yid).
(rnam shes drug). :
1. (mig-gi rnam-par shes-pa).
2. (rna-I rnam-par shes-pa).
3. (sna-I rnam-par shes-pa).
4. (lce-yi rnam-par shes-pa).
5. (lus-kyi rnam-par shes-pa).
6. (. yid-kyi rnam-par shes-pa)
[Geshe Ngawang Dhargyey, 1992, p. 23].


,
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, [
2005, . 196], ,
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[Kaba Paltseg 2003]181,
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I. (kun-gro lnga)
,
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:
1. (sems-pa) ,
. ,
,
[Geshe Ngawang Dhargyey, 1992, p. 25].
2. (yid-la byed-pa) ,

,
.
3. (reg-pa) 182.
4. (tshor-ba) :
, .
5. (dus-shes)
,
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II. (yul so sor nges pa lnga).
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:

180

, .

- (du-byed-kyi phung-po),
, . , , (. sems dang ldan-pa ma-yin-pa) [Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 12].
182
, ,
[Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 3].
181

194

1. (shes-rab). ,
,
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2. 183 (dun-pa). ,
. ,
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, [Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 4].
3. ,

(ting-nge-dzin).

.
4. , (dran-pa). ,
, .
5. , (mos-pa).
[Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 4]184.
III. : (dge-ba bcugcig). :
1. (dad-pa). ,
[Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 5].
, ,
, .
:
a) ;
b) ,
;
c) .
,
[Geshe
Ngawng Dhargyey 1992, p. 26]. :
,
, ,
.
2. (ngo-tsha shes-pa), ,
. ,
.
3. (khrel-yod-pa). , ,
, ,
.

183

intention [Geshe
Ngawang Dhargyey 1992, p. 26] aspiration [Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 3].
184

[Geshe Ngawng Dhargyey 1992, p. 26].
195

4. - (ma-chags-pa). .
.
5. , (zhe-sdang med-pa).
, .
6. (gti-mug med-pa). ,
,
.
.
7. , , , (brtson-grus).
8. , (shin-tu sbyangs-pa).
,
, , .
.
9. , (bag-yod-pa).
, , ,
.
10. (btang-snyoms).
,
,
.
11. (rnam-par mi-tshe-ba). ,
.
IV. (rtsa-nyong drug).
. ,
.
V. (nye-nyong). (phenbyed-kyi las), ,
.
VI. (gzhan-gyur bzhi)185.
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1. (ma-rig-pa)186. ,
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185

. , , .
186
, , ma-rig-pa [Geshe Ngawng Dhargyey 1992, p. 26; , p. 2207; Tsepak Rigzin 1997, p.
211 .]. (XII .) , ,
() . VIII ., 196


,
, ,
.
2. (dod-chags).
3. (khon-khro)187.
4. (nga-rgyal).
5. (the tshom nyon-mong-can).
6. (lta-ba nyon-mong-can).
,
, ,
;

[Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 7].
:
,
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. ?

. ,
. .
, .
, .
.
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, .
, 188.

, ,
, , () [Tsepak
Rigzin 1997, p. 144].
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
[Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. X].
ma-rig-pa [Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 6].
gti mug,
.. , , , blo rig,
gti mug [ 2005, . 42].
187
khon-khro [Kaba
Paltseg 2003, p. 6]. , ..
, zhe-dang (), [ 2005, . 42].
188
.
197


.
, : [Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 7].
.
-,
, :

,
,
n .

:
,
[ntideva 2007, . 147].

,

[Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 7].
.
, ,
, . -
.
,
:
(a) (jigs-tshogs-la lta-ba),
,
.
(b) (mthar-dzin-pailta)
.
(c) (log-par lta-ba)
, , , , .
.
(d) (lta-ba mchog-tu dzinpa) ,
.
(e) (tshul-khrims-dang
rtul-zhugs mchog-tu-dzin) .
:
1. (khro-ba);
2. , (khon-du dzin-pa);
3. (tshig-pa) , ;
4. (rnam-par tshe-ba) ;
5. (phrag-dog);
6. (gyo);
198

7. (sgyu)189;
8. (ngo-tsha med-pa);
9. (khrel-med-pa);
10. (chab-pa);
11. (ser-na);
12. (rgyags-pa);
13. (ma-dad-pa);
14. (le-lo);
15. (bag-med);
16. (brjed-ngas-pa);
17. (shes-bzhin ma-yin-pa);
18. (rmug-pa);
19. (rgod-pa);
20. (rnam-par gyeng-pa).
, .

. ().
.
,

,
, ,

, [Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 11].
:
1. (gnyid);
2. (gyod-pa);
3. (rtog-pa)
;
4. (dpyod-pa), .
,
, ,
190,
,
[ 2005, . 45].
.. , -
- .


, .
189

, ,
,
[Geshe Ngawang Dhargyey 1992, p. 28].
190

, ['Jams-dbyangs bzhad-pa 1985] .. [ 2005, . 211293].
199

,
, ,
, , ,
.
. ,
. ,
,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
. -
, ,
, ,
, [. . ] [ 2006, .
51]. , ,
, - .
, .
, (mdo ting-dzin rgyal-po), ,
(las bras kyi rnam gzhags)
(bden paI bka) [
2008, . 169].
, ,
,
[ ].

, , ,
, , ,
.
, , , ,
.

,
.
, ,
,
,
, . , ,
,
(), [ 2006, . 51].
:
, , , , ,
. ,
(rtsa-nyong).
(), ,

[ 2006, . 51]. ,
200

,
.
,
.
,
, (),
. , ,
()

()

(), .
, ,
, , , ,
, . ,
, , ,
. ,
,
. ,
(), (),
, ()
(). , , ,
(duhkhatah) [. :
2006, . 110].
, , ,
,
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(. )
.
,
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(). ,

.
,
.
, ,
.
,
[ 2006, . 53].
,

. ,
98 : 36 ; 31
31 .
, ,
201

[ ]
() [ 2006, . 54]. , ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, [
1998, . 29]. ,
,
.
,
, .
: ,
, . ,
.
, , ,
,
, : (),
. , ,
, ,
. ,
! [ 1998, . 30].
: ,
?
, ,
, ,
(nyon-mongs skyes-baI rgyu-drug):
1) - ,
, , anuaya,
(nyon-mongs-pai bag-la nyal-ba ma-spangs-pa);
2) , (nyon-mongs skye-bai yul nye-bar
gnas-pa);
3) , (tshulbzhin ma-yin-par yid-la byed-pa).
, ,
(nyon-mongs-kyi rgyu-drug):
1) (rten);
2) (dmigs-pa);
3) (du-dzi);
4) (bshad-pa);
5) (goms-pa);
6) (yid-la byed-pa).

202

191.

[]
.
( )
,
. (; mthon-lam),
, .
192. ,
, , ,
, .

, , ,
.
,
,
, ,
, .
.
,
,

.

(; rtenbrel).
,
(; rten-brel yan lag bcu gnyis).

(nang-gi rten-brel
yan lag bcu gnyis). ,

193.
, ,
, ,

, - .
,
. :
, :
, ?
191

, 6 2003 . .
192
. 4.3. [ 2006, . 116].
193
[Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 1718].
203

: , . -
. - . :
- . - -,
,
. : -
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, , :
, :
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, [ 2008, . 274].

,
: - , .

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:
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.
, ,


(chos-dbyings bstod-pa).

, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
-, 2003 .
- XIV ,
194.
,
.
. .
, . ,
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, 194

(byang chub sems grel) (chos


dbyings bstod-pa).
204

(17081757)
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195

(kun-tu bzang-po) . , .

205

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196.
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197 198
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, 199.

3.9.4. ( )

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(lam-rim),
200:
:
:
.

. , .
- .
196
- (7 2003, , ).
197
.
198
, , , , . , .
199
-
( 13 ).
, .
200
, .
,
6 .
206

3.9.4.1. :

, -
, , . ,
.
3.9.4.1.1.

.
(nyon-mongs). ,
, , . , ,
. , . , , ,
, , , - . , , , (rdo-rje sems-pa), ,
, ,
. . , , (man-ngag), :
, ,
,
, .
, , , , , . ,
, . 201.

,
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
, : , , [ ], . [. :
1995, . 50].

201

.
207

202.
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:
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203.

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208

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204.

.
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3.9.4.1.2.


. ,
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. , .
. , -, . , , , ,
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204
205

, 8 2003 . ().
.
209

.
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(-; du-byed-kyi phung-po).
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206.
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[ 1995, . 58]. , -

206

. 1)
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210

, , 207. ,
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. :
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209.
207

, , 9 2003 . ().
208
.
209
: 2004, . 43. . 3538 :
Nagarjuna 2010, p. 58.
211

.
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(--) , --
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.
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(sbyor-lam), , . ,
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211 , []
[ 1995, . 60] .
, , , (dod-khams), , ,
.
.
, 212 213, [] 214 [ 1995, . 60]. ,
, ,
, .
[ 1995, . 61].
, 215,
210

(9 2003 ., ).
, .
212
(gzugs-khams).
213
(gzugs-med khams).
214
,
, , ,
, , , . .: 2006; 1995, . 59.
215
,
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211

212

. .
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216.

. , ,
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[], [ 1995, . 62].
, [tshogs zhing] , ,
, ,
. . ., , ,
, [ 2008, . 155].
. , ,
216

(9 2003 . , )
213

.
: , , . , , , , . :
217. , ,
:
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.
, 218.

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:
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: I. ; II. [ 1995, . 62].
, : 1) , ; 2) 217
218

(9 2003 ., ).
.
214

, ,
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.

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3.9.4.2. :

3.9.4.2.1.

(; rten cing bral bar byung


ba) , .
,

, , []
, []
, , [ 2004, . 187194;
2006, 2127; ].
, ,
, , .
,
.. ,
-
, (dge-dun bstan-dar 14931568)
, .. -
(17401810). ..

215

219
,
[ 2004, .
159]. , -
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,
[ 2004, . 160]. ,

,
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, [ 2004, . 161162]. ,
. ..
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[Hopkins 1996, p. 278]220
,
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219

- .. , .. , ..
.
220
.: Hopkins 1996, p. 276282; 707710.
216

,
,
.

, , ,
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.

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: -,
223, 224.
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221

. prattyasmutpda di vibhanga nirdea nma stra ; . rten-cing brel-bar byungba dang-po dang rnam-par dbye-ba bstan-pa zhes-bya-bai mdo.
.. [ 2004].
222
. [- 2003].
223
, .. , - [ 2004].
224
, .. , [ 2004].
225
.. , -, ,
, ,
[ 2004, . 237]. , , ,
. , , , , - .
, . , .
226
.. , ,
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(srid-pa), .
217

[] , , , ,
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[-, 2004, . 164].

, ,

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[] ).
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:
[Hopkins 1996, p. 37]. , ,
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[Ibid. P. 165].
227

, - : di yod-pas di byung la di skyespai phyir di skye-ba ste, .


218

, ,
, ..
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.

.
, ,

, .

,
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(, ),
,
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3.9.4.2.2.

, ,
(rten-brel yan-lag bcu-gnis)
,
, -,
.

,
: , ,
.
, -
.
,
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(; srid-pai khor-lo).
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:
228

(11 2003 ., ).
, , , . ,
, , . , , 229

219

, .
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. 230

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().
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,
.
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, [ 1995, . 89].
230
(11 2003 ., ).
220

, (bya) ,
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:
1. .
2. .
3.
.
4. .
3.9.4.2.2.1.

(; ma-rig-pa).
(; du-byed-kyi las) 231.
, ,
(; rnam-shes).
(; ming-gzugs)232.

231

du-byed-kyi las , ,
. connecting karma. , throwing karma ( ) [Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang
1974, p. 103].
232
. namarupa; . ming dang gzugs (name and form). ..
[ 2004, . 164, . 167]. - [ 1995, . 77].
221

(; skye-mched)233. .
(; reg-pa ).
(; tshor-ba ).
(; sred-pa). .
.
, , (; len-pa).
(; srid-pa ).
(; skye-ba ).
( ; rga-shi).

. :
- , , : ,
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.
233
yatanam; skye-mched ,
. .
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234
, , ,
, . . , 222

. . , .
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.
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.
, ,
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. ,

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235
, 2003 . .
236
. .
: , [ 1995, . 75].
223

, .
. ,
, .

, ,

. .

, , ,
, [ 2008, . 282283]237.
,
, .
,
, .
,
.

,
-,
,

, .

, .

,
, ,
.

- XIV, .
? , ,
(blo-sbyong nyi-maI od-zer bzhugs-so),
:
[ ] , -,
, , [ma-rig-pa],
,
. -, ,
,
. -, ,
[ 2006, . 143].

,
,
,
, , .
, :
237

, 2003 . , , 1921 2008 .


.
224

, ,
[rig-pa]. -
, ,
. ,
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, , ,
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[]
, [] , [ ]
,
[ 2006, . 144].

, ,

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, , 238,
. () .

(du-byed), . ,
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, , . ,
: ,
,
, .
238

, 2003 . .
225

. ,
,
. - rnam-shes,
, bagchag nus-pa. ,
, ,
instinct [Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang 1974, 1992, .
103]. , -
- , ,

.
bag-chag, , nus-pa,
, , ,
: ,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
, , -,
(du-byed-kyi phung-po).
:
, ,
, ,
239.


,
, .
(
; nyon-yid rnam-par shes-pa) ,
( ; kun-gzhi rnam-par shes-pa). ,
, .
, , , ,
- .
,

. ? , ,
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: ?
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239

, 2003 . .
226

(yid-kyi rnam-par shes-pa), .


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.
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.
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240.
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240

, , , ,
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227

,
(, , ).
,
(), . , ,
. ,
, , . ,
: 1) 241; 2) 242; 3)
243; 4) -, 244; 5)
245.

241


. 14) (bung-ba): , , , . 515) : , , , ,
, , , , , , [Kaba Paltseg
2003, p. 1].
242
:
, , [Kaba Paltseg 2003, p.
2].
243
: 1)
, ;
2) , ;
3) , [Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 2].
244
,
, ,
; ,
[Kaba Paltseg 2003, p. 2]. . , - (sems
dang ldan-pa ma-yin-pa). , , . : (thob-pa); (du-shes-med-pai gog-pa-la snyoms-par jug-pa); (gog-pai
snyoms-par jug-pa); (du-shes-med-pa); (srog-gi
dbang-po); (rigs-mthun-pa); (skye-ba); (rga-ba);
(gnas-pa); (mi-rtag-pa); (min-gi tshogs),; (tshig-gi
tshogs); (yi-gei tshogs); (so-so-i skye-bo-nyid).
,
, , ,
, ,
, [],
[Kaba Paltseg 1992, 2003, p. 12]. , (thob-pa),
,
, ,
, . , .
245
: , . .
228

, , ? ,
,
.
, [ 2008, . 284].

,
. .
, .
,

(-, -,
), .
, ,
, ,
, , 246,
. , ,
, , ,
:
, .
, ,
,
, ,
, . ,
()
,
-,
,
. . .
, .
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.
, .
(sred-pa). , .
, , ,
, .
. ,
. ,
,
[ 2008, . 286].

, , . ,
, ,
.
.
.
246
, ,
.
229



, , .
.
: .
- . (
) ,
, 247.
(; srid-pa)? ,
, , , ,
. ?
:
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, , , . ,
. ,
. , , ,
, .
, . , : ,
. , , . ,
, , ,
, .
,
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[
2008, . 288].

,
, . [- 2004, . 166], : ,
, . , ,
.
. . , . ,
,
247

, 2003 . .
230

, .
, , -, :
- - - - , , , , , , , , 248
[ ].

, .
. ,
. -
. .
, ,
,
, . 249,
, , ,
, : . , , , .
, .
3.9.4.2.2.2.

,
, [-
2004], , [ ; -], , , . :
, ,
, . - (rteg cing grel par byung baI
snying poI tshig leur byas pa, . rten brel yan lag) :
,
,
[]

248

.
,
2003 . .
249

231

, 250 .
, ,
,
.
[] [].
.
.
.
.
[ 2004, . 179180]


. :
. , [ 2004, . 182]. - ( ), , ( ) ( ). - , , .
( ) ( ). .
, , , , .
( ), ( ), ( ), (
), ( ), ( ).
, . [ 2008, . 289].
.
, ,
. , , . , , , ()
, . ,
-
. . ,
, ,
-. . 251 [ 2004, . 182].
, , , :
250

.. [ 2004, . 180],
, ,
.
251
, ,
.
232

-, ; -, . :
( , ,
). . : .
[
2008, . 289290].

,
,
. , , ,
, , , , ,
. ,
.
, .
- , . ,
, ,
-. . - ,
(yan-lag-bzhi) :
1. (phen-byed-kyi yan-lag) 252.
2. (phangs-brang)253.
3. (grub-byed-kyi yan-lag)254.
4. (grub-bras)255.

-
, .
, :

252

phen-byed-kyi yan-lag
. - . Propulsive causes ( ).
253
- .
[Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang
1974, 1992, p. 103].
254
grub-byed existence (),
The causes of existence. , grub
(to establish) [Ibid.].
- .
255
- .
The result, existence (, ).
233

1. (phen-byed-kyi yan-lag): , ,
.
2. 256 (grub-byed-kyi yan-lag): (), , .
3. (phangs-brang): , , , , .
4. , (grub-bras)257:
.
[Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang 1974, 1992, p. 103].

,
-.
, .
.
,
[Geshe Ngawang Dhargyey 1992, p.
103104].
,
. , , , [Dhargyey
Geshe Ngawang 1974, 1992, p. 103]. :
, , . , , ( )258 . ( ) , . , 259.

, , ( ),
( - ).

.

256

'Grub-byed-kyi yan-lag ,
The causes of existence (
) , , ,
[Ibid. P. 103].
257
Grub-bras ().
The result, existence (, )
[Ibidem].
258
,
,
.
259
, . . : 2012, . 350.
234

,
. :
,
, . , , , 260.

'phangs-byed-kyi yan-lag
( ),
( - ). 261 , , , ,
. 'phangs-byed-kyi
yan-lag : , , , [Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang 1974, 1992, p.
104].

,
. , .
, ,
, : ,
, [Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang 1974, 1992, p.
103]. , (),
. ,
,
, [
] , [Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang 1974, 1992, p. 103].
, , ,
, . , ,
, , :
. ,
. 262.
, ,
.

:
, 263.
, ,
260

(, 2003 . ). . : 2012, . 350351.


261
, - :
, .. .
262
(, 2003 . ). . : 2012, . 351.
263
[ 1995, . 83].
, [Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang 1974, 1992, p. 104].
235

, : ,
.
.
.
264.

,
, ,
,
, .
,
- .

:
,
. , []
? [ 1995, . 82]. ,
,
?
,
:
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, .
. .
, , : -
,
,
, .
.
, ,
( ), ,
( ) .

.
(), . ,
.
:
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,

? , ,
.
265. ? ,

264

(, 2003 . ).
, , . ,
.
265

236

,
, ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
.
,
,
. , ,
, .
,
, , , ,
:
- -.
,
,
. ,
266.

, ( )
, ,
.
, , ( ),
,
, ,
. ,
, ;
; [ 1995, . 82].
, ( ,
, ) .
( )
(, )

267.
(, ) ,
. . ,
, , (,
, ), , (
) . , , ,
[ ]
, ,
[ 1995, . 82].

266

(, 2003 . ). . : [ 2014, . 359].


267
, () , .
237

, - , , , -
- ; -,
,
.
3.9.4.2.2.3.

, .
268. , (,
)
. ,
, , :
.. [ ] [ 1995, .
85]. ,
.
,
, .
, , ,
[ ]. , , ,
,
, []
, ,
[ ].
,
, .
, ,
(), , ,
,
,
. ,
,
, .
,
, , .

, , . ,
, .
,
.
.
, 269,
268
269

.
.
238

.
:
270.
,
. (,
) 271. ( ,
, , , , , )
. (, )
.
,
. ,
[Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang 1974,1992, p. 104].
, : , ,
. , , . .

, . . . , . .
.
. ,
, ,
. . ,
, , , ,
.
, . . .
, . . , , ,
, , 272.

270

,
, , .
271
,
.
272
. ,
,
. , , , [Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang 1974, 1992, p. 104].
239

,

, .
.
,
.
3.9.4.2.3.

,

, , .

,


,
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
,
. (phags-pa swa-luI ljang-pa zhes byaba chen-poI mdo) :
?
, , . ,
, ; ,
, , [
2003, . 88]. ,
(dod chags), (zhe sdang) (gti mug)
, ,
[ ]. (mun-pa
chen-po), (mngon-par du byed). ,
, (du byed), .
.
, ,
.

.
,
, , ,
(bsdus-ba) .
:
240

, [ ] (sa-bon-kyi
rang-bzhin). , [] (zhinggyi rang-bzhin). , []
(nyong-mong-pa'i rang-bzhin).
- (sa-bon rnam-par shes-pa),
-. (rlan-pa) . (debs) -.
, - [ 2003,
. 9394].

,
, :
, , ,
273 [ 1995, . 84].
.
274, , (, )
, ( , , , , , , ) .
(, ) .
: ( ), (
) ( ).
- - : , .
( ) ( ). ,
, ,
. , , ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ),
( ), ( ). . ,
[ 2008, . 289]275. .
, .
:
, , .
.

,
, , , . , ,
. .
? , , , ,
273

.
, ,
.
275
.
274

241

, , , . . .

. (mu gsum yod)276. , .
, , , . , , , . , , . .
. ,
.
:
.

, . ,
.

.
. -:
,
. :
, , , ,
277.

,
,
.

276

() p q. p q,
, q, p, , p, q [ 2001, . 13]. . : 2011, . 5864.
277
. .: 2012, . 365371.
242

3.9.4.2.4.

.
, - . , , , , . ,

,
. , . :
, :
, . , , . , ,
, ,
278.

,
, .
, , , .
:
[] , , [] , [.
: , 2004, 145].

.
, . ,
, ? : . ? :
, . ? , .
? .
? (). () -
. . . . , .
278

,
2003 . . .: 2012, . 365.
243

, , , ,
. , , . ?
, , , .
:
, , .
, , , .
, .279

,
. ,
.
, , , ,
, 280, .

, , .

,
, . :
, , ,
. , . . ,
. , , , .
, , ,
, . . 281.

, . ,
. , 279

,
2003 . . .: 2012, . 365366.
280
, [- - 1; - - 2;
19942000; 2008; 2008; 1998; 2008] .
281
(2003 ., ).
.: 2012, . 366370.
244

. .
, ,
.

. , ,
, - , .
,
.
: , ,
. :
, ?
, . , . , .
: ,
. , , , , ,
, , . : . , .
, .
, , .
. ,
. , ,
, ,
. , , , ,
, , . , ,
.
3.9.4.3.


,
: , .
245

,
, :
, . : 1)
; 2)
. .

, ,
, , ,
.
, .
,
, , .

: ,
()
, , ,
. ,
,
.
,
,
,
-
. .
? , , ,
, , ,
. ,

. , , 282.
,
, . ,

[]; [ ]
[ 2006, . 51]. , ,
[] [ ].
, ,

, .

. , ,
- . , .
,
, , , ,
282

, ,
( , 3 2003 .).
246

. , :
. ,

, , .
,
.
. , .
,
(dgra-bcom-pa) .
,
(nyon-sgrib). , ,
,
[Dhargyey Geshe Ngawng 1974,
1992, p. 31]. ,
, , ,

. , -,
( ; nyon-sgrib kun-btags); , ,

( ; nyon-sgrib lhan-skyes).
,
,
, ,
.
.
, , ,
,
,
. ,
, , .
,
,
(thams-cad mkhyen-pa),
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.). , ,
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, , . , , , [Lamott 1988,
p. 164]. 200 . . . ,
, [Ray 1993, p. 159]. ,
.
, 2009 ., :
,
, ,

.
. , , [Williams 2008, p. 39].

, , .
, , , . -,
,
, , 339. ,
,
.

339

, : (Lam rim rnam grol lag


bcangs) , - (sang rgyes dkon mchog)
- (don dam-pai sang rgyes dkon
mchog), , -
(kun rdzob-pai sang rgyes dkon mchog), . , ,
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291

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. (-/-; bCom ldan das-ma shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pai
snying-poi mdo), , . , ,
340


[Raine].
292

. ,
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2006, . 4950]. ,
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. .


. ,
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341.
341

, (18131900) , , , . ,
293

, (ris med ) XIX . ,


[Callahan 2007, p. 10].
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. , , - XIV, , - V XIII, XV XVI,
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(18081887), (18201892),
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, .
294

.
[Jamgn 2007]. , . :
, ; .
. .

,
. :
1) ; 2) (sbyor ba) ; 3)
, ; 4) ,
; 5) , [Jamgn 2007, p.
162].
.
? , , , .
, (; Jig rten las das par bstod pa):
, , ,
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,
[Jamgn 2007, p. 163]342.


, ,
. , , , , --- (jig rten-las das-pa)343, . . .
342

(dBu
ma la bstod pa), . 472
, 27 (Toh. 1120; Dg. T. Beijing 1, p. 197) [Jamgn 2007, p. 345].
343
Jig rten las das pa, ,
,
. , .
jig rten las das pa , , ,
.
295

, . ,
. ,
. , ,
.
,
. ,
[Ratnayaka 1985]. , , ,
[Anlayo
2010]. ,
, [Anlayo 2010,
p. 10].
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,
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.
,
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[ 2011].
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, , , -
, [ 2000].
344:

344

, (sLob dpon dpa bo),


(rTa dbyangs) , .
296


.
,
.

,
, -
(blo-sbyong), / / [ 2006; 2008; bLo-sbyong 1995].
. (; nyong sgrib). ,
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[Jamgn 2007, p. 163]. [ ],
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. : [ ] ,
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- ,
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, , , ,
, [Jamgn
2007, p. 163].
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(zung jug)
.
, , , ,
345

(; mNgon rtogs
rgyan) .
297


.
.
, () :
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,
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;

,
346.

,
, .
1. , (; sde snod).
2.
.
3.
: (; gang-zag-gi bdag-med) (; chos-kyi bdag-med).
4. :
347.
5. : (; kun
nyong), , , 348. , . , . , . , ,
-, 346

475,
20, 5960, toh. 4020, . 35a 34; Dg. T. Beijing 70:881. , . ,
XIX [MSL 2000, p. 484484]. , -,
,
. .
347
(-; bskal-pa grangs med-pa)
, 1059.
348
(, , ) (, , , ).
298

,
. , , , . , , , , ,
. ,
, . , , - ,
.
(25 2013 . 3
2014 .) - XIV , .
,
, . ,
, , () . . ,
,
, .
6. , , 349.
, ( ; de bzhin
gshegs-pai stobs bcu), [ 1998], -, , ? [ 1998; TEDBT 1997]
:
1) , , (gnas dang gnas min mkhyenpai stobs);
2) (las-kyi rnam-par smin-pa mkhyenpai stobs);
3) / (mos-pa sna-tshogs mkhyen-pai
stobs);
4) / (khams sna tshogs
mkhyen-pai stobs);
5) (dbang-po snatshogs mkhyen-pai stobs);
6) (thams-cad-du gro-bai lam mkhyenpai stobs);
7) (kun nas nyon mongs
pa dang rnam-par byang-ba mkhyen-pai stobs);
8) (sngon-gyi gnas rjes-su dran-pa mkhyen-pai stobs);
349

.: Berzin 1982.
299

9) , ( chi pho-ba dang skye-ba


mkhyen-pai stobs);
10) (zag-pa zad-pa mkhyen-pai stobs).
(mi jigs-pa bzhi) 350:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. , ,
.
(sangs-rgyas-kyi chos-ma-dres-pa
bco-brgyad) [ 1998; TEDBT 1997] :
. , (sphyod-pas bsdus-pa drug):
1. (skui spyod-pa khrul-ba mi mngaba).
2. (gsung ca co mi mnga-ba).
3. (dran-pa nyams-pa mi mnga-ba).
4. (thugs mnyams-par ma bzhagpa mi mnga-ba).
5. , (blan-dor ngo-bo nyid-kyis grub-paii tha-dad-pa nyid-kyi du-shes mi nga-ba).
6. (so-sor ma-brtagpai btang snyoms mi mnga-ba).
. , / (rtogs-pas bsdus-pa
drug):
7. (dun-pa nyams-pa mi mnga-ba).
8. (brtson grus nyams-pa mi mnga-ba).
9.
(sems-can dul-bai thabs dran-ba nyams-pa mi mnga-ba).
10. (ting-nge-dzin
nayms-pa mi mnga-ba).
11. (shes-rab nyams-pa mi mnga-ba).
12. , (rnam-par grol-ba mnyams-pa mi mnga ba).
. , (mdzad-pas
bsdus-pa gsum):
13. (skui phrin-las).
14. (gsung-gi phrin-las).
15. (thugs-kyi phrin-las).
. , (dus-kyis bsdus-pa gsum):
16. ( das-pai dus
mkhyen-pa la ma thogs ma chags-pai ye-shes).
350

, . : 1998; TEDBT 1997.


300

17. (ma ongs-pai


dus mkhyen-pa la ma thogs ma chags-pai ye-shes).
18. (da lta-bai dus
mkhyen-pa la ma thogs ma chags-pai ye-shes).
, ,
, , . , 351, , ,
, , .
, (
; dran-pa nye-bar bzhag-pa gsum) (;
snying-rje chen-po) [TEDBT, p. 282].

, , . , , , , , ,
(sangs rgyas-kyi thung-mong ma-yin-pai rnam-pa so-dgu). ; ; ;
352; (de-bzhin nyid-kyi rnam-pa); (rang byung-gi rnam-pa);
(sangs rgyas-nyid-kyi rnam-pa) [TEDBT 1997, p. 282]. -353,
:
,
,
,
,

(. : [Jamgn, p. 164]).

354 :

351

.
(so-so yang-dag rig-pa bzhi): 1) ,
(chos-so-so yang-dag rig-pa); 2) , (don so-so yang-dag rig-pa); 3) ,
(nges-tshig so-so yang0dag rig-pa); 4) , (spobs-pa so-so yang-dag rig-pa).
353
-; Shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyi-ba sdud-pa.
Phags-ps mdo sdud-pa (Toh. 13).
354
-; Theg-pa chen-po bsdus-pa. Toh. 4048, f. 2b67; Dg. T. Beijing 76:5.
.
352

301

; ; [] ;
; ;

, [ ].

, . ,
, , , , . , , ,
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, , . (; mtshannyid) , , . , ,
, , ,
[Jamgn 2007, p.
18]. , ,
- [Ibid. P. 166].
, ,
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, - .
, . ,
, . - :
?
, .
, , .
:
,
(. : [Jamgn 2007, p. 166]).

, . :
,
355,
.
,
(, V, 84) (. : [ 2000, . 244]).
355

. ; . yon-tan bsam-yas , .
302

, , , ,
.
(rgyui theg-pa),
, ( . .). (bras-bui thegpa), , 356, . :
. , ,
,
. : (, ), , ,
.

.
,
, ,
. [] (mchog gnis). [] (rgyan drug)
, . (rgyan drug) (Phags-pa-lha),
(dByig-gnyen), (Phyogs-glang), (Chos-grags), (Yontan-od), (Shakya-od).
( )
. ,
.
. ( -), , [Siderits 2007, p. 208,
209], [Dreyfus 1997].
, , , . . ,
.
356

: ; --; -
[ 2011; - 1996; TEDBT 1997].
303

, , ,
. , ,
(grub-mtha bzhi) , , . ,
,
(thun mong) . -
, , , , .
4.3. ()
():

,
, () , [:] .
. . , , ,
[Taranatha 1970, p. 187].

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. ,
, -. , , ,

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, :
.
,
( )
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, .
, , , , 304

, (bkagdams). - , : ,
357. , ,
. , - ,
, , [ 2008]. ,

- XIV,
, (zab-mo) (rgya che-ba) [Byang chub 2012, p. 1117; 2008, . 177 187]. ,
():
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, , .:
2008.
305

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[Byang chub 2012, p. 1112; 2008, . 177178]358.

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,

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.
: -, , , 358

, , FPMT, : ,
, [.: ].
306

; -, , ()
. , .
, , , ,


. , ,
.
, , , ,
, , .
, , . , , ,
. , , , , . -
XIV, , ,
, , . , ,
, , , - ,
,
[Dalai Lama 2005, . 7; 2006].
, ,
, ().
, , , . . .
, , , [Thurman 1995,
p. 2]359. , .
, , . ,
. ,
- XIV .

359

. , , ,
[Thurman 1995, p. 2].
307

360 (-; Shes-rab snying-po)361 362


. ,
, .
- [Dalai Lama 2005] , -, ,
.
, ,

. ,
, .
- , .
- 363, ,
.
, , , ,
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, : -

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364:
, - ,
:
.
360

, , .: 2006, . 811.
-; bCom-ldan das-ma shes-rab-kyi
pha-rol-tu phyin-pai snying-bo.
362
, .
(19041975),
, IVI . . .
363
, (lung) ,
-
.
364

, [bLa-mai rnal-byor
2003, p. 446450].
, [ 2006, p. 811] .
361

308

:
, , , ,
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, (gzhan stong)
. , , .
. , (), ,
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, , .
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,

. , ,
, 365 . 365

, , , , .
. , , , . 309

, , byang-chub sem-dpa, . ,
. byang chub
, byang , chub .
, sem-dpa , sem
. , -, , [Dalai Lama 2005].

, . , ,
, , , . , , ,
366, .
, (tshogs lam), ,

. , (sbyor lam), ,

[C 2006, . 131].
(mthong lam) ,
. ,
, (sgom lam). ,
, -- (mi-slob lam) .
, , (gzhan stong),
(rang stong). ,
, , 367. (rang stong) , .

.
366
. ,
.
367
.: 2006,
. 127131; Dalai Lama 2005, p. 116117.
310

. , , ,
- , . , , , .
? , - [Dalai Lama 2005, p. 116117].
, ,
? , , ,
. -
, , ,
, (kyang) . ,
, , , ,
. ,
, .
, , , . , -, -
,
(). , -,
( ) , , -
, , . , , , [ 2001; 2004; Ruegg 2010, p. 159194; Candrakrti
1989].
, , - , .
, ,
, .
, ,
, . ,
.
( ) , ,
, .
, , , ,
311

. , , ,
, , , .
( ) , . ,
[ 2006, . 97]. ,
, . , , .
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. .
.
, ,
: , . : , , , . , ,
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,
.
, , (). , ;
[Dalai Lama 2005, p. 115].

, , , , , ,
. ,
- .
-, . ,
, ,
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, . ,
, , [Dalai Lama 2005, p. 116].
312

,
, [ 2006, .
135]. , ,
, . -, .
.
. - ,
, ,
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.

,
, - [Dalai Lama 2005, p. 117].

, , . :

:


[MMK 1995, p. 68].

,
, . , ,
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,
,
. ,
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. .

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-. ,
313

, , . ,
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.
. ( ) , , , ,
[ 2008, . 6]. , , ( ) . ( ), . (
) ,
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, (zab-mo snang-ba).
- , . , ,
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314

, ,
, . - :
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,


[MMK 1995, p. 2].

, , , , .
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-, : 1) , ; 2) , ; 3)
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:
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.
,
, , ,
, , , . , , , . (; chos-dbying) .
, .
, , , ,
: , [ 2006, . 163
168].
:
315

, , , , ,
; , , , ,
, ; , , , , ,
[] . ,
.

, , . , ,
, [ 2006, . 170].
,
,
. (skyemched bcu gnyis). , , , .
, (), (khams bco brgyad). , (), .
, , . ,
, . , ,
.
,
, , , , , . , ,
[ 2006, . 174]. :
, ,
.

. , ,

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, .
, , .
:
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.
316

- , , , : ,
. . ,
. . : . , , , (). .
, . 368.
,
(-).
. , .
, , , ,
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, .

, . - ,
[Dalai Lama 2005,
p. 127]. ,
, , ,
. , , .

, :
.
: , , , , [Dalai Lama 2005, p. 131; 2006,
. 181].
.
. , .

368

, , , . , , ,
, . (14291503)
,
, , , , [Jamyang Gawai Lodro 2002, p. 162].
317


. , , , , .
, (sgom) , , ,
. , , , ---, , . (mi gnas-pai mya ngan
las das-pa) , , , , [Dalai Lama 2005,
p. 171].
- , .
,
. ,
. , , , , ,
, .
, ,
(lhag mthong).
, ,
.
- ,
, .
,
,
. ,
. , ,
[Dalai Lama 2005, p.132133; 2006, . 181
182].
, ,
, , ,
17 ,
, , ,
/ .
, : , .

, , , . , 318

, ,
.
4.4.
-
,
(Phyogs glang, 480540
.) (Chos grags, 600660 .),
. :
, , , . ,
- ,
(bLo-rig-gi-rnam-gzhag-nyung-gsal-legs-bzhadgser-gyi-phreng-mdzes-zhes-bya-ba-bzhugs-so), , , ,
, (tshad-ma) (blo rig
), , ,
. . . , , , ,

[ 1995, . 211]. , .
, , ,
, .
, , .
,
, . , ,
, ,
().
, . ,
(-; Tshad-ma
rnam grel),
319

369 (-; tshad-ma kun btus)370


rtags-rig ( ) blo-rigs
(. ), , , , , ,
.
- , . -

, , . ,
,
-- .
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, . ,
, , , , . -
371
, .
-, , , - . ,
(-)372,
, , ,
, , 369

. . [ 2008].
370
Tshad-ma kun-las btus-pa zhes-bya-bai rabtu byed-pa.
371

, , . . [ 2008; 2011].
372
.: 2008.
320

, .

, , [Siderits 2007, p. 209] . ,

. , . ,
empty logic
, , [Cheng 1991].
- .

,
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-
,
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[ 1900]. , ,
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[ 1956]. , . , :
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[ 1956].

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321

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! , , ,
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322

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, ,
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[ 2004, . 3].
, - - .
,
,
, . . ,
VII ., , . . , /
, , , . ,
[Loizzo 2006,
p. 13].
, , , , , ,
. / . .

, ,

-, .
, ,

323

( ) , . , ,
, , , ,
.
,
, .
,
374
,

.
, ,
(tshad-ma), .
tshad-ma rig-pa gtan tshigsrig-pa, .

(tshad-ma). ,
,
. -375 , -.
,
, ( ), ( ), ( ),
. , : , , , () , .
XIX XX .
. , .
, . , .
XX . .
, ,
, , , , , .
, ,
. , [374

- .:
2011, . 4154.
375
.
324

1959]. , , ( ), .
, , -
, :
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. , , , ,
. [Lipman 1992, p. 27].
, , -, ,
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, .
-, , . .,
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325

: (tshul gsum)

, (phyogs chos), (rjes khyab) , (ldog khyab). (, ) [ 2011, . 85].
(, ) -
[ , . 88]. (, ) [ , . 93].
, .

: , , , , , 376. (rtog-pa), , , - , , ,
, , . rtog-pa
, .
.
, , , , . .
,
, . .
, , , , ,
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
, [Kaba Paltseg 1992, p. 5].
,
, [ 1999, p. 1242]. , , , , , , ,
376

.
326

. . , , , . , , . , ,
, .
, , . :
, [Dhargyey Geshe Ngawang 1974, p. 26].
, ,
,
, , - . . ,
, (400480),
(480540), (600660), , , (630700), (720780), (740800),
(725783), (740795), (750810), (9501000), (X .), (XI .), (XI XII .),
(11271225) [Dreyfus 1997, p. XVI].
, , ,
.
. (Cha-pa chos-kyi sengge, 11091169), (. 1073 .), .
, . (bsdus grwa .
), ( , ), , (Sa-skya pandita kun-dga rgyal-mtshan, 11821251), ,
(tshad-ma rigs-gter).
, . ,
, ,
, , .

, , . , .
,
327

, , 1220- . [.: Van der Kuijp 1993, p.


279],
. ,
[Jackson 1983].
.
. . ,
, , , ,
.

. ,
(bka gdams gsar-ma), , ,
. , - ,
[ 2006, . 11; 2004].
.
, ,
,
[Grub mtha;
2005; 2004]. ,
, /-.

? , , (grub mtha). , .
, ,
(stong-pa-nyid), .
, , ?
,
, , ,
, , -
328

. , . ,
, , , . , . [ 2011, . 21].
, (shes rab-kyi pha-rol-tu
phyin-pa), . , ,
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, , .
, , , ,
.

, , ,
, , , . ,
, , . , , , , ,
, , (sgro dogs). , (rjes dpag tshad ma)
(mngon sum tshad ma). , , .
.
, , ,
,
[.: 2008; Rnam grol lag bcangs 2003]. , , ,
[bLa-ma mchod-pa 2003, p. 38], ,
,
.
, , , ,

329

, .
, . . . ,
,
, , . , , [ 2004].
.
, , ,
,
. , , , (dgag bya),
. .
,
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.
(sde bdun) , , (sDe-bdun la
jug-pai sgo don gnyer yid-kyi mun-sel ).
.
(13851438) , (sDe-bdun yid-kyi munsel). , ( -)
(Tshad-ma rigs rgyan).
- (Jam dbyangs bzhad-pa, 16481721).
,
(bLo-rig-gi rnam-gzhag nyung-gsal legs-bzhad gser-gyi phreng-mdzes zhes-bya-ba
bzhugs-so) , , , ,
, .
4.5. -
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.
,
330

, , -, , -,
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(; bSgom-rim bar-pa). , (). . , , . , , , (). , , , . , - XIV [The Dalai Lama 2001].
: !
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[Ibid. P. 10].
331

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.: IBP 2005 p. 7397; 117124.


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332

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336

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, 610-
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(Lam rim bde lam) - ; 7) , 338

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.
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chen mo. , (dmar khrid): . , , 2.4.1.1.1.3383 : , .
, , (sbyor chos), (skyabs yul), (tshogs zhing) . . [Pha-bong-kha-pa
2003, p. 112 ].

, , . -
: (dmar khrid) ( ), (Lam rim jam dpal zhal lung) - ; 8) (Lam rim myur lam)
; 9) (Lam rim legs gsung nying khu)
; 10) (Lam gtso rnam gsum) ; 11)
(Yon tan gzhir gyur ma ; 12) : (rTogs brjod mdun legs ma); 13) (Lam rim bdud rtsi snying po) ;
14) (Lho rgyud lam rim); 15) (Zhwa dmar lam
rim) , ; 16)
; 17) (Lam rim rnam grol lag bcangs)
; 18) (Lam rim bring poi sa bcad)
.
383
, ,
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339

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rim rnam sgrol lag bcangs
, Lam rim chen mo . , , ,
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340


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sbyong), .
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9].
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384

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341

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342

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344



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347


2010 (IIII ):
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., . . . . . .: , 2010.
2012 (. IV): - / . (.), . ., ., ., . . . . .: -, 2012.
2009 , . -2009: (25 5 2009 ., . ) / . .
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