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Csibridge manual on how the program run per AASHTO LRFD 2014.

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Csibridge manual on how the program run per AASHTO LRFD 2014.

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AASHTO 2014

CSiBridge 2015

Bridge Superstructure Design

AASHTO 2014

March 2015

Copyright

Copyright Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2015

All rights reserved.

The CSI Logo and CSiBridge are registered trademarks of Computers & Structures,

Inc. Watch & LearnTM is a trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and

Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a

registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

The computer program CSiBridge and all associated documentation are proprietary and

copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures,

Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form,

without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly

prohibited.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any

means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written

permission of the publisher.

Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers & Structures, Inc.

www.csiamerica.com

info@csiamerica.com (for general information)

support@csiamerica.com (for technical support)

DISCLAIMER

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER

ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR

IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY

OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.

THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL

DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC

ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN

ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT

ADDRESSED.

THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY

A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST

INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL

RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1

Introduction

1.1

Organization

1-1

1.2

Recommended Reading/Practice

1-2

2.1

2-1

2.2

2-3

2.3

2-5

3.1

3-1

3.2

3-2

3.3

3-3

3-4

3.4

3.5

3.6

3-4

3-4

3-4

3-5

3.4.2 Shear or Moment Check

3-5

3-6

3-6

3.5.2 Shear or Moment Check

3-6

3-6

3-7

4.1

4-4

4.2

Check Type

4-4

4.3

Station Range

4-6

4.4

Design Parameters

4-6

4.5

Demand Sets

4-18

4.6

4-18

5.1

5.2

ii

with AASHTO LFRD

3.3.3 Forces Read Directly from Girders

3.3.4 Uniformly Distribution to Girders

5-2

5.1.2 Algorithm

5.1.3 Stress Design Example

5-2

5-2

5-2

5-5

5.2.2 Variables

5.2.3 Design Process

5-5

5-5

5-6

Contents

5.3

5.4

5-7

5-10

5-15

5.3.1

5.3.2

5.3.3

5.3.4

5.3.5

5-15

5-15

5-17

5-18

5-24

Capacity Parameters

Variables

Design Process

Algorithm

Shear Design Example

5-31

5.4.2 Demand Parameters

5-31

5-31

6.1

Stress Design

6-2

6.2

Shear Design

6-3

6.2.1 Variables

6.2.2 Design Process

6.2.3 Algorithms

6-4

6-5

6-6

6.3

5.2.4 Algorithm

5.2.5 Flexure Design Example

Flexure Design

6-10

6.3.1 Variables

6.3.2 Design Process

6.3.3 Algorithms

6-10

6-11

6-12

7.1

Stress Design

7-1

7.2

Shear Design

7-2

7.2.1

7.2.2

7.2.3

7.2.4

7-3

7-5

7-5

7-9

7.3

Variables

Design Process

Algorithms

Shear Design Example

Flexure Design

7-14

iii

7.3.1

7.3.2

7.3.3

7.3.4

8.2

Section Properties

8-1

8.1.2 Plastic Moments

8.1.3 Section Classification and Factors

8-1

8-3

8-7

Demand Sets

8-11

8.2.2 Demand Flange Lateral Bending

Stress f1

8.2.3 Depth of the Web in Compression

8-12

8-13

8-14

8-15

8.3.1 Flexure

8.3.2 Shear

8-15

8-22

8.4

8-24

8.5

8-26

8.6

8-27

8.6.2 Non-staged (Steel I Comp Construct

Non-staged)

8.6.3 Slab Status vs Unbraced Length

8.6.4 Flexure

8.6.5 Shear

8-27

8-27

8-28

8-28

8-30

Section Optimization

8-33

8.3

8.7

9.1

iv

7-15

7-16

7-16

7-20

8.1

Variables

Design Process

Algorithms

Flexure Capacity Design Example

Section Properties

9-1

Contents

9.2

9-1

9-2

9-7

Demand Sets

9-9

9.2.2 Demand Flange Lateral Bending

Stress f1

9.2.3 Depth of the Web in Compression

9-11

9-12

9-13

9.3.1 Flexure

9.3.2 Shear

9-13

9-16

9.4

9-19

9.5

9-20

9.6

9-22

9.6.1

9.6.2

9.6.3

9.6.4

9.6.5

9-22

9-22

9-22

9-23

9-27

9.3

9.7

10

9.1.2 Plastic Moments

9.1.3 Section Classification and Factors

Non-staged (Steel-U Comp Construct NonStgd)

Slab Status vs Unbraced Length

Flexure

Shear

Section Optimization

9-10

9-30

10.1 Description of Example Model

10-2

10-3

10-3

10-5

10-6

11

11.1 Display Results as a Plot

11.1.1 Additional Display Examples

11-2

11-7

11-8

11.4 Verification

Bibliography

vi

11-1

11-11

Chapter 1

Introduction

As the ultimate versatile, integrated tool for modeling, analysis, and design of

bridge structures, CSiBridge can apply appropriate code-specific design processes to concrete box girder bridge design, design when the superstructure includes Precast Concrete Box bridges with a composite slab and steel I-beam or

U-tub bridges with composite slabs. The ease with which these tasks can be accomplished makes CSiBridge the most productive bridge design package in the

industry.

Design using CSiBridge is based on load patterns, load cases, load combinations and design requests. The design output can then be displayed graphically

and printed using a customized reporting format.

It should be noted that the design of bridge superstructure is a complex subject

and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. CSiBridge is a tool to

help the user with that process. Only the aspects of design documented in this

manual are automated by the CSiBridge design capabilities. The user must

check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by

CSiBridge.

1.1

Organization

This manual is designed to help you become productive using CSiBridge design in accordance with the available codes when modeling concrete box girder

1-1

bridges and precast concrete girder bridges. Chapter 2 describes code-specific

design prerequisites. Chapter 3 describes Live Load Distribution Factors.

Chapter 4 describes defining the design request, which includes the design request name, a bridge object name (i.e., the bridge model), check type (i.e., the

type of design), station range (i.e., portion of the bridge to be designed), design

parameters (i.e., overwrites for default parameters) and demand sets (i.e., loading combinations). Chapter 5 identifies code-specific algorithms used by

CSiBridge in completing concrete box girder bridges. Chapter 6 provides codespecific algorithms used by CSiBridge in completing concrete box and multicell box girder bridges. Chapter 7 describes code-speicifc design parameters for

precast I and U girder. Chapter 8 explains how to design and optimize a steel Ibeam bridge with composite slab. Chapter 9 describes how to design and optimize a steel U-beam bridge with composite slab. Chapter 10 describes how to

run a Design Request using an example that applies the AASHTO LRFD code,

and Chapter 11 describes design output for the example in Chapter 10, which

can be presented graphically as plots, in data tables, and in reports generated

using the Advanced Report Writer feature.

1.2

Recommended Reading/Practice

It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applicable Watch & Learn Series tutorials, which are found on our web site,

http://www.csiamerica.com, before attempting to design a concrete box girder

or precast concrete bridge using CSiBridge. Additional information can be

found in the on-line Help facility available from within the softwares main

menu.

1-2

Recommended Reading/Practice

Chapter 2

Define Loads and Load Combinations

This chapter describes the steps that are necessary to define the loads and load

combinations that the user intends to use in the design of the bridge superstructure. The user may define the load combinations manually or have CSiBridge

automatically generate the code generated load combinations. The appropriate

design code may be selected using the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Preference command.

When the code generated load combinations are going to be used, it is important for users to define the load pattern type in accordance with the applicable code. The load pattern type can be defined using the Loads > Load Patterns command. The user options for defining the load pattern types are summarized in the Tables 2-1 and 2-2 for the AASHTO LRFD code.

2.1

Tables 2-1 and 2-2 show the permanent and transient load pattern types that

can be defined in CSiBridge. The tables also show the AASHTO abbreviation

and the load pattern descriptions. Users may choose any name to identify a

load pattern type.

2-1

Table 2-1 PERMANENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTO-LRFD Code

CSiBridge

Load Pattern Type

AASHTO

Reference

CREEP

CR

DOWNDRAG

DD

Downdrag force

DEAD

DC

SUPERDEAD

DW

and utilities

BRAKING

BR

HORIZ. EARTH PR

EH

LOCKED IN

EL

construction process

EARTH SURCHARGE

ES

VERT. EARTH PR

EV

PRESTRESS

PS

Table 2-2 TRANSIENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTO LRFD Design Code

CSiBridge

AASHTO

Load Pattern Type

Reference

Description of Load Pattern

BRAKING

BR

CENTRIFUGAL

CE

VEHICLE COLLISION

CT

VESSEL COLLISION

CV

QUAKE

EQ

Earthquake

FRICTION

FR

Friction effects

ICE

IC

Ice loads

IM

BRIDGE LL

LL

LL SURCHARGE

LS

PEDESTRIAN LL

PL

SETTLEMENT

SE

TEMP GRADIENT

TG

TEMPERATURE

TU

STEAM FLOW

WA

WINDLIVE LOAD

WL

WIND

WS

2-2

2.2

The code generated design load combinations make use of the load pattern

types noted in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. Table 2-3 shows the load factors and combinations that are required in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD code.

Table 2-3 Load Combinations and Load Factors Used in the AASHTO LRFD Code

DC

DD

DW

EH

EV

ES

EL

PS

CR

SH

LL

IM

CE

BR

PL

LS

LL

IM

CE

WA

WS

WL

FR

TU

TU

SE

EQ

IC

CT

CV

1.75

1.00

1.00

0.5/

1.20

TG

SE

Str II

1.35

1.00

1.00

0.5/

1.20

TG

SE

Str III

1.00

1.40

1.00

0.5/

1.20

TG

SE

Str IV

1.00

1.00

0.5/

1.20

Str V

1.35

1.00

0.40

1.00

1.00

0.5/

1.20

TG

SE

Load

Combo

Limit

State

Str I

Ext Ev I

1.00

EQ

1.00

1.00

1.00

Ext Ev

II

1.00

0.5

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Serv I

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.30

1.00

1.00

1.00/

1.20

TG

SE

Serv II

1.00

1.30

1.00

1.00

1.00/

1.20

Serv III

1.00

0.80

1.00

1.00

1.00/

1.20

TG

SE

Serv IV

1.00

1.00

0.70

1.00

1.00/

1.20

1.00

Fatigue

I-LL, IM

& CE

Only

0.875

/1.75

Fatigue

II-LL, IM

1.00

2-3

Table 2-4 shows the maximum and minimum factors for the permanent loads

in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD code.

Table 2-4 Load Factors for Permanent Loads,

Type of Load

DC: Components and Attachments

DC: Strength IV only

Load Factor

Maximum

Minimum

1.25

1.50

0.90

0.90

1.40

1.05

1.25

0.25

0.30

0.35

1.50

0.65

Active

At-Rest

AEP for Anchored Walls

1.50

1.35

1.35

0.90

0.90

N/A

1.00

1.00

DD: Downdrag

Piles, Tomlinson Method

Piles, Method

Drilled Shafts, ONeill and Reese (1999) Method

Overall Stability

Retaining Walls and Abutments

Rigid Buried Structure

Rigid Frames

Flexible Buried Structures other than Metal Box

Culverts

Flexible Metal Box Culverts

ES: Earth Surcharge

1.00

N/A

1.35

1.00

1.30

0.90

1.35

0.90

1.95

0.90

1.50

0.90

1.50

0.75

Table 2-5 Load Factors for Permanent Loads due to Superimposed Deformations,

P,

PS

CR, SH

Superstructures, Segmental

Concrete Substructures supporting Segmental Superstructures

Bridge Component

1.0

DC

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

Using Ig

Using Ieffective

2-4

Table 2-5 Load Factors for Permanent Loads due to Superimposed Deformations,

P,

Bridge Component

Steel Substructures

PS

CR, SH

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Two combinations for each permanent load pattern are required because of the

maximum and minimum factors. When the default load combinations are used,

CSiBridge automatically creates both load combinations (one for the maximum

and one for the minimum factor), and then automatically creates a third combination that represents an enveloped combination of the max/min combos.

2.3

Default design load combinations can be activated using the Design/Rating >

Load Combinations > Add Default command. Users can set the load combinations by selecting the Bridge option. Users may select the desired limit

states and load cases using the Code Generated Load Combinations for Bridge

Design form. The form shown in Figure 2-1 illustrates the options when the

AASHTO LRFD code has been selected for design.

2-5

AASHTO LRFD

After the desired limit states and load cases have been selected, CSiBridge will

generate all of the code-required load combinations. These can be viewed using the Home > Display > Show Tables command or by using the

Show/Modify button on the Define Combinations form, which is shown in

Figure 2-2.

2-6

The load combinations denoted as Str-I1, Str-I2, and so forth refer to Strength I

load combinations. The load case StrIGroup1 is the name given to enveloped

load combination of all of the Strength I combinations. Enveloped load combinations will allow for some efficiency later when the bridge design requests are

defined (see Chapter 4).

2-7

Chapter 3

Live Load Distribution

This chapter describes the algorithms used by CSiBridge to determine the live

load distribution factors used to assign live load demands to individual girders.

An explanation is given with respect to how the distribution factors are applied

in a shear, stress, and moment check.

The live load distribution factors derived using the code-based Method 2 described in Section 3.1 of this manual are applicable only to superstructures of

the following types: precast I- or U-girders with composite slabs, steel I-girders

with composite slabs, and multi-cell concrete box girders. These deck section

types may also have the live loads distributed based on Methods 1, 3 or 4 described in Section 3.1 of this manual.

Legend:

Girder = beam + tributary area of composite slab

Section Cut = all girders present in the cross-section at the cut location

LLD = Live Load Distribution

3.1

CSiBridge gives the user a choice of four methods to address distribution of

live load to individual girders.

Method 1 The LLD factors are specified directly by the user.

3-1

Method 2 CSiBridge calculates the LLD factors by following procedures outlined in AASHTO LRFD Section 4.6.2.2.

Method 3 CSiBridge reads the calculated live load demands directly from individual girders (available only for Area models).

Method 4 CSiBridge distributes the live load uniformly to all girders.

It is important to note that to obtain relevant results, the definition of a Moving

Load case must be adjusted depending on which method is selected.

When the LLD factors are user specified or specified in accordance with the

code (Method 1 or 2), only one lane with a MultiLane Scale Factor = 1

should be loaded into a Moving Load cases included in the demand set combinations.

When CSiBridge reads the LLD factors directly from individual girders

(Method 3, applicable to area and solid models only) or when CSiBridge applies the LLD factors uniformly (Method 4), multiple traffic lanes with relevant Multilane Scale Factors should be loaded in accordance with code requirements.

3.2

At every section cut, the following geometric information is evaluated to determine the LLD factors.

span lengththe length of span for which moment or shear is being calculated

the number of girders

girder designationthe first and last girder are designated as exterior girders

and the other girders are classified as interior girders

roadway widthmeasured as the distance between curbs/barriers; medians

are ignored

3-2

overhangconsists of the horizontal distance from the centerline of the exterior web of the left exterior beam at deck level to the interior edge of the curb

or traffic barrier

the beamsincludes the area, moment of inertia, torsion constant, center of

gravity

the thickness of the composite slab t1 and the thickness of concrete slab

haunch t2

the tributary area of the composite slabwhich is bounded at the interior

girder by the midway distances to neighboring girders and at the exterior

girder; includes the entire overhang on one side, and is bounded by the midway distances to neighboring girder on the other side

Youngs modulus for both the slab and the beamsangle of skew support.

CSiBridge then evaluates the longitudinal stiffness parameter, Kg, in accordance with AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2 (eq. 4.6.2.2.1-1). The center of gravity of

the composite slab measured from the bottom of the beam is calculated as the

sum of the beam depth, thickness of the concrete slab haunch t2, and one-half

the thickness of the composite slab t1. Spacing of the girders is calculated as

the average distance between the centerlines of neighboring girders.

CSiBridge then verifies that the selected LLD factors are compatible with the

type of model: spine, area, or solid. If the LLD factors are read by CSiBridge

directly from the individual girders, the model type must be area or solid. This

is the case because with the spine model option, CSiBridge models the entire

cross section as one frame element and there is no way to extract forces on individual girders. All other model types and LLD factor method permutations

are allowed.

3.3

The application of live load distribution factors varies, depending on which

method has been selected: user specified; in accordance with code; directly

from individual girders; or uniformly distributed onto all girders.

3-3

When this method is selected, CSiBridge reads the girder designations (i.e., exterior and interior) and assigns live load distribution factors to the individual

girders accordingly.

LRFD

When this method is selected, CSiBridge considers the data input by the user

for truck wheel spacing, minimum distance from wheel to curb/barrier and

multiple presence factor for one loaded lane.

Depending on the section type, CSiBridge validates several section parameters

against requirements specified in the code (AASHTO LRFD Tables 4.6.2.2.2b1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1 and 4.6.2.2.3b-1). When any of the parameter values are outside the range required by the code, the section cut is excluded from

the Design Request.

At every section cut, CSiBridge then evaluates the live load distribution factors

for moment and shear for exterior and interior girders using formulas specified

in the code (AASHTO LRFD Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1

and 4.6.2.2.3b-1). After evaluation, the LLD factor values are assigned to individual girders based on their designation (exterior, interior). The same value

equal to the average of the LLD factors calculated for the left and right girders

is assigned to both exterior girders. Similarly, all interior girders use the same

LLD factors equal to the average of the LLD factors of all of the individual interior girders.

When this method is selected, CSiBridge sets the live load distribution factor

for all girders to 1.

When this method is selected, the live load distribution factor is equal to 1/n

where n is the number of girders in the section. All girders have identical LLD

3-4

(shear, moment).

3.4

When the method for determining the live load distribution factors is userspecified, code-specified, or uniformly distributed (Methods 1, 2 or 4),

CSiBridge generates virtual load combination for every valid section cut selected for design. The virtual combinations are used during a stress check and

check of the shear and moment to calculate the forces on the girders. After

those forces have been calculated, the virtual combinations are deleted. The

process is repeated for all section cuts selected for design.

Four virtual COMBO cases are generated for each COMBO that the user has

specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4). The program analyzes the design type of each load case present in the user specified COMBO and multiplies all non-moving load case types by 1/ n (where n is the number of girders)

and the moving load case type by the section cut values of the LLD factors (exterior moment, exterior shear, interior moment and interior shear LLD factors).

This ensures that dead load is shared evenly by all girders, while live load is

distributed based on the LLD factors.

The program then completes a stress check and a check of the shear and the

moment for each section cut selected for design.

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points

are read from CSiBridge for every virtual COMBO generated. To ensure that

live load demands are shared equally irrespective of lane eccentricity by all

girders, CSiBridge uses averaging when calculating the girder stresses. It calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial and M3 moment demands on

all the beams in the entire section cut and dividing the demands by the number

of girders. Similarly, P and M3 forces in the composite slab are integrated and

stresses are calculated in the individual tributary areas of the slab by dividing

the total slab demand by the number of girders.

3-5

When stresses are read from analysis into design, the stresses are multiplied by

n (where n is number of girders) to make up for the reduction applied in the

Virtual Combinations.

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the entire section cut forces are read from

CSiBridge for every Virtual COMBO generated. The forces are assigned to individual girders based on their designation. (Forces from two virtual Combinationsone for shear and one for momentgenerated for exterior beam are assigned to both exterior beams, and similarly, Virtual Combinations for interior

beams are assigned to interior beams.)

3.5

When the method for determining the live load distribution is based on forces

read directly from the girders, the method varies based on which Design Check

has been specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points

are read from CSiBridge for every COMBO specified in the Design Request.

CSiBridge calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial, M3 and M2

moment demands on the beam at the center of gravity of the beam. Similarly P,

M3 and M2 demands in the composite slab are integrated at the center of gravity of the slab tributary area.

At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder forces are read from CSiBridge

for every COMBO specified in the Design Request. CSiBridge calculates the

demands on a girder by integrating axial, M3 and M2 moment demands on the

girder at the center of gravity of the girder.

3-6

3.6

The AASHTO LRFD Specifications allow the use of advanced methods of

analysis to determine the live load distribution factors. However, for typical

bridges, the specifications list equations to calculate the distribution factors for

different types of bridge superstructures. The types of superstructures covered

by these equations are described in AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.1-1. From

this table, bridges with concrete decks supported on precast concrete I or bulbtee girders are designated as cross-section K. Other tables in AASHTO

LRFD 4.6.2.2.2 list the distribution factors for interior and exterior girders including cross-section K.

The distribution factor equations are largely based on work conducted in the

NCHRP Project 12-26 and have been verified to give accurate results compared to 3-dimensional bridge analysis and field measurements. The multiple

presence factors are already included in the distribution factor equations except

when the tables call for the use of the lever rule. In these cases, the computations need to account for the multiple presence factors. The user is providing

those as part of the Design Request definition together with wheel spacing,

curb to wheel distance and lane width.

Notice that the distribution factor tables include a column with the heading

range of applicability. The ranges of applicability listed for each equation are

based on the range for each parameter used in the study leading to the development of the equation. When any of the parameters exceeds the listed value in

the range of applicability column, CSiBridge reports the incompliance and

excludes the section from design.

AASHTO LRFD Article 4.6.2.2.2d of the specifications states: In beam-slab

bridge cross-sections with diaphragms or cross-frames, the distribution factor

for the exterior beam shall not be taken less than that which would be obtained

by assuming that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section.

This provision was added to the specifications because the original study that

developed the distribution factor equations did not consider intermediate diaphragms. Application of this provision requires the presence of a sufficient

number of intermediate diaphragms whose stiffness is adequate to force the

cross section to act as a rigid section. For prestressed girders, different jurisdictions use different types and numbers of intermediate diaphragms. Depending

on the number and stiffness of the intermediate diaphragms, the provisions of

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

3-7

AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2.2d may not be applicable. If the user specifies option

Yes in the Diaphragms Present option the program follows the procedure

outlined in the provision AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2.2d.

For this example, one deep reinforced concrete diaphragm is located at the

midspan of each span. The stiffness of the diaphragm was deemed sufficient to

force the cross-section to act as a rigid section; therefore, the provisions of

AASHTO LRFD S4.6.2.2.2d apply.

Required information:

AASHTO Type I-Beam (28/72)

Noncomposite beam area, Ag

Noncomposite beam moment of inertia, Ig

Deck slab thickness, ts

Span length, L

Girder spacing, S

Modulus of elasticity of the beam, EB

Modulus of elasticity of the deck, ED

C.G. to top of the basic beam

C.G. to bottom of the basic beam

1.

3-8

= 1,085 in2

= 733,320 in4

= 8 in.

= 110 ft.

= 9 ft.-8 in.

= 4,696 ksi

= 3,834 ksi

= 35.62 in.

= 36.38 in.

Calculate n, the modular ratio between the beam and the deck.

= EB ED

2.

Calculate eg, the distance between the center of gravity of the noncomposite beam and the deck. Ignore the thickness of the haunch in determining eg

eg = NAYT + t s 2 = 35.62 + 8 2 = 39.62 in.

3.

Kg = n I + Aeg2 (4.6.2.2.1-1)

2

= 1.225 733 320 + 1 085 ( 39.62 ) =

2 984 704 in 4

4.

beam with two or more design lanes loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table S4.6.2.2.2b-1.

DM = 0.075 + ( S 9.5 )

0.6

( S L )0.2 ( K g

0.6

12.0 Lt s 3

0.1

3

= 0.796 lane

5.

0.1

(eq. 1)

for moment may be applied for bridge skews greater than 30 degrees.

The bridge in this example is skewed 20 degrees, and therefore, no skew

correction factor for moment is allowed.

Calculate the moment distribution factor for an interior beam with one

design lane loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1.

DM = 0.06 + ( S 14 )

0.4

( S L )0.3 ( K g

= 0.06 + ( 9.667 14 )

0.4

12.0 Lt s 3

0.1

3

12 (100 )( 8 )

= 0.542 lane

0.1

(eq. 2)

3-9

Notice that the distribution factor calculated above for a single lane loaded already includes the 1.2 multiple presence factor for a single lane,

therefore, this value may be used for the service and strength limit states.

However, multiple presence factors should not be used for the fatigue

limit state. Therefore, the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for the single

lane is required to be removed from the value calculated above to determine the factor used for the fatigue limit state.

6.

In accordance with AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2.3c, a skew correction factor

for support shear at the obtuse corner must be applied to the distribution

factor of all skewed bridges. The value of the correction factor is calculated using AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3c-1.

0.3

tan

3

0.3

tan 20

= 1.047

7.

Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with two or

more design lanes loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.2 + ( S 12 ) ( S 35 )

= 0.929 lane

Apply the skew correction factor:

DV = 1.047 ( 0.929 ) = 0.973 lane

8.

Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with one design lane loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.

DV = 0.36 + ( S 25.0 )

= 0.36 + ( 9.667 25.0 )

3 - 10

(eq. 4)

= 0.747 lane

Apply the skew correction factor:

DV = 1.047 ( 0.747 )

= 0.782 lane

9.

(eq. 5)

From (1) and (2), the service and strength limit state moment distribution

factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.796 and 0.542 lane.

Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.796 lane.

From (4) and (5), the service and strength limit state shear distribution

factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.973 and 0.782 lane.

Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.973 lane.

10.

Exterior girder

11.

Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with two

or more design lanes using AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

DM = eDVinterior

e

= 0.77 + de 9.1

where de is the distance from the centerline of the exterior girder to the

inside face of the curb or barrier.

e

DM = 0.97(0.796)

12.

= 0.772 lane

(eq. (7)

Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with one

design lane using the lever rule in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

3 - 11

1.344 wheels 2

= 0.672 lane

(eq. 8)

Notice that this value does not include the multiple presence factor,

therefore, it is adequate for use with the fatigue limit state. For service

and strength limit states, the multiple presence factor for a single lane

loaded needs to be included.

DM = 0.672 (1.2 )

= 0.806 lane

13.

Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with two or

more design lanes loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1.

DV = eDVinterior

3 - 12

where:

e = 0.6 + de 10

= 0.6 + 1.83 10

= 0.783

DV = 0.783 ( 0.973 )

= 0.762 lane

14.

(eq. 10)

Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with one

design lane loaded using the lever rule in accordance with AASHTO

LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1. This value will be the same as the moment

distribution factor with the skew correction factor applied.

DV

= 1.047 ( 0.806 )

= 0.845 lane

for the calculation of the distribution factors for exterior girders when the

girders are connected with relatively stiff cross-frames that force the

cross-section to act as a rigid section. As indicated in the introduction,

these provisions are applied to this example; the calculations are shown

below.

15.

4.6.2.2.2d)

The multiple presence factor, m, is applied to the reaction of the exterior

beam (AASHTO LRFD Table 3.6.1.1.2-1)

m1 = 1.20

m2 = 1.00

m3 = 0.85

R

= N L N b + X ext

( e) x

(4.6.2.2.2d-1)

where:

3 - 13

e

the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (ft.)

= horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to each girder (ft.)

Xext = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern to the exterior girder (ft.) See Figure 1 for dimensions.

One lane loaded (only the leftmost lane applied):

2

2

2

R = 1 6 + 24.167 ( 21) 2 ( ( 24.1672 ) + (14.52 ) + ( 4.8332 ) )

= 0.1667 + 0.310

= 0.477 (Fatigue)

Add the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for a single lane:

R = 1.2 ( 0.477 )

= 0.572 (Strength)

Two lanes loaded:

2

2

2

R = 2 6 + 24.167 ( 21 + 9 ) 2 ( ( 24.1672 ) + (14.52 ) + ( 4.8332 ) )

= 0.333 + 0.443

= 0.776

Add the multiple presence factor of 1.0 for two lanes loaded:

R = 1.0 ( 0.776 )

= 0.776 (Strength)

3 - 14

R =

2

2

2

3 6 + 24.167 ( 21 + 9 3 ) 2 ( ( 24.1672 ) + (14.52 ) + ( 4.8332 ) )

= 0.5 + 0.399

= 0.899

Add the multiple presence factor of 0.85 for three or more lanes loaded:

R = 0.85 ( 0.899 )

= 0.764 (Strength)

These values do not control over the distribution factors summarized in

Design Step 16.

16.

From (7) and (9), the service and strength limit state moment distribution

factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.772 and 0.806

lane. Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.806 lane.

From (10) and (12), the service and strength limit state shear distribution

factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.762 and 0.845

lane. Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.845 lane.

Table 3-1 Summary of Service and Strength Limit State Distribution Factors -AASHTO LRFD

Moment

interior

beams

Moment

exterior

beams

Shear

interior

beams

Shear

exterior

beams

0.796

0.772

0.973

0.762

0.542

0.806

0.782

0.845

NA

0.776

NA

0.776

NA

0.572

NA

0.572

Design Value

0.796

0.806

0.973

0.845

Value reported by

CSiBridge

0.796

0.807

0.973

0.845

Load Case

Tables in 4.6.2.2.2

Additional check for rigidly

connected girders

3 - 15

Chapter 4

Define a Bridge Design Request

This chapter describes the Bridge Design Request, which is defined using the

Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Design Requests command.

Each Bridge Design Request is unique and specifies which bridge object is to

be designed, the type of check to be performed (e.g., concrete box stress, precast composite stress, and so on), the station range (i.e., the particular zone or

portion of the bridge that is to be designed), the design parameters (i.e., parameters that may be used to overwrite the default values automatically set by the

program) and demand sets (i.e., the load combination[s] to be considered).

Multiple Bridge Design Requests may be defined for the same bridge object.

Before defining a design request, the applicable code should be specified using

the Design/Rating > Superstructure > Preferences command. Currently, the

AASHTO STD 2002, AASHTO LRFD 2007, AASHTO LRFD 2012,

CAN/CSA S6, EN 1992, and Indian IRC codes are available for the design of a

concrete box girder; the AASHTO 2007 LRFD, AASHTO LRFD 2012,

AASHTO LRFD 2014, CAN/CSA S6, EN 1992, and Indian IRC codes are

available for the design of a Precast I or U Beam with Composite Slab; the

AASHTO LFRD 2007, AASHTO LRFD 2012, AASHTO LRFD 2014,

CAN/CSA S6, and EN 1992-1-1 are available for Steel I-Beam with Composite Slab superstructures; and the AASHTO LRFD 2012 and AASHTO LRFD

2014 are available for a U tub bridge with a composite slab.

4-1

Figure 4-1 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for

a concrete box girder bridge, and the check type is concrete box stress. Figure

4-2 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for a

Composite I or U girder bridge and the check type is precast composite stress.

Figure 4-3 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for

a Steel I-Beam bridge and the check type is composite strength.

Request - Concrete Box

Girder Bridges

4-2

Request - Composite I or

U Girder Bridges

Request Steel I Beam

with Composite Slab

4-3

4.1

Each Bridge Design Request must have unique name. Any name can be used.

If multiple Bridge Objects are used to define a bridge model, select the bridge

object to be designed for the Design Request. If a bridge model contains only a

single bridge object, the name of that bridge object will be the only item available from the Bridge Object drop-down list.

4.2

Check Type

The Check Type refers to the type of design to be performed and the available

options depend on the type of bridge deck being modeled.

For a Concrete Box Girder bridge, CSiBridge provides the following check

type options:

AASHTO STD 2002

Concrete Box Stress

AASHTO LRFD

Concrete Box Stress

Concrete Box Flexure

Concrete Box Shear and Torsion

Concrete Box Principal

CAN/CSA S6, and EN 1992-1-1 and IRC: 112

Concrete Box Stress

Concrete Box Flexure

Concrete Box Shear

For Multi-Cell Concrete Box Girder bridge, CSiBridge provides the following

check type options:

4-4

Concrete Box Stress

Concrete Box Flexure

Concrete Box Shear

For bridge models with precast I or U Beams with Composite Slabs,

CSiBridge provides three check type options, as follows:

AASHTO LRFD, CAN/CSA S6, EN 1992-1-1, and IRC: 112

Precast Comp Stress

Precast Comp Shear

Precast Comp Flexure

For bridge models with steel I-beam with composite slab superstructures,

CSiBridge provides the following check type option:

AASHTO LRFD

EN 1994-2:2005

Steel Comp Ultimate

Steel Comp Service Stresses

Steel Comp Service Rebar

Steel Comp Constructability Staged

Check Type

4-5

For bridge models with steel U-tub with composite slab superstructures,

CSiBridge provides the following check type option:

AASHTO LRFD

The bold type denotes the name that appears in the check type drop-down list.

A detailed description of the design algorithm can be found in Chapter 5 for

concrete box girder bridges, in Chapter 6 for multi-cell box girder bridges, in

Chapter 7 for precast I or U beam with composite slabs, and in Chapter 8 for

steel I-beam with composite slab.

4.3

Station Range

The station range refers to the particular zone or portion of the bridge that is to

be designed. The user may choose the entire length of the bridge, or specify

specific zones using station ranges. Multiple zones (i.e., station ranges) may be

specified as part of a single design request.

When defining a station range, the user specifies the Location Type, which determines if the superstructure forces are to be considered before or at a station

point. The user may choose the location type as before the point, after the

point, or both.

4.4

Design Parameters

Design parameters are overwrites that can be used to change the default values

set automatically by the program. The parameters are specific to each code,

4-6

Station Range

deck type, and check type. Figure 4-4 shows the Superstructure Design Request Parameters form.

Table 4-1 shows the parameters for concrete box girder bridges. Table 4-2

shows the parameters for multi-cell concrete box bridges. Table 4-3 shows the

parameters applicable when the superstructure has a deck that includes precast

I or U girders with composite slabs. Table 4-4 shows the parameters applicable

when the superstructure has a deck that includes steel I-beams.

Table 4-1 Design Request Parameters for Concrete Box Girders

AASHTO STD 2002

Concrete Box Stress

stress limits

Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit

Multiplier on sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit,

given in the units specified

The tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or

ksi units for f c and the resulting tension limit

Design Parameters

4-7

AASHTO LRFD

Concrete Box Stress

Concrete Box Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier

on f c to calculate the compression stress limit

Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier

on sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the

units specified

Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit

factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c

and the resulting tension limit

Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor

that multiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored

resistance for light-weight concrete

Include Resal (Hunching-girder) shear effects Yes or No.

Specifies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the applied shear, in

variable depth members shall or shall not be considered

when determining the design factored shear force in accordance with Article 5.8.6.2.

Concrete Box Shear Rebar Material - A previously defined

rebar material label that will be used to determine the area

of shear rebar required

Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material - A previously defined

rebar material that will be used to determine the area of longitudinal torsional rebar required

Concrete Box

Flexure

Concrete Box Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box

Principal

CAN/CSA S6

Concrete Box Stress

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The

tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi

units for f c and the resulting tension limit

4-8

Design Parameters

Clause 8.4.6)

Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause

8.4.6)

Cracking Strength Factor Multiplies sqrt( f c ) to obtain

cracking strength

EpsilonX Negative Limit -- Longitudinal negative strain limit

(see Clause 8.9.3.8)

EpsilonX Positive Limit -- Longitudinal positive strain limit

(see Clause 8.9.3.8)

Tab slab rebar cover Distance from the outside face of the

top slab to the centerline of the exterior closed transverse

torsion reinforcement

Web rebar cover Distance from the outside face of the web

to the centerline of the exterior closed transverse torsion reinforcement

Bottom Slab rebar cover Distance from the outside face of

the bottoms lab to the centerline of the exterior closed transverse torsion reinforcement

Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material

label that will be used to determine the required area of

transverse rebar in the girder

Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined rebar

material that will be used to determine the required area of

longitudinal rebar in the girder

Concrete Box

Flexure

Clause 8.4.6)

Phi Pt p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause

8.4.6)

Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see

CSA Clause 8.4.6)

Eurocode EN 1992

Concrete Box Stress

Tension limit Multiplier on fc k to calculate the tension

stress limit

Gamma C for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing

steel.

Gamma C for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing

steel.

Angle Theta The angle between the concrete compression

strut and the beam axis perpendicular to the shear force.

Design Parameters

4-9

The value must be between 21.8 degrees and 45 degrees.

Factor for PT Duct Diameter Factor that multiplies posttensioning duct diameter when evaluating the nominal web

thickness in accordance with section 6.2.3(6) of the code.

Typical values 0.5 to 1.2.

Factor for PT Transmission Length Factor for the transmission length of the post tensioning used in shear resistance equation 6.4 of the code. Typical value 1.0 for post

tensioning.

Inner Arm Method The method used to calculate the inner

lever arm z of the section (integer).

Inner Arm Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the section to get the lower limit of the inner lever arm z of the section.

Effective Depth Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the

section to get the lower limit of the effective depth to the tensile reinforcement d of the section.

Type of Section Type of section for shear design.

Determining Factor Nu1 Method that will be used to calculate the 1 factor.

Factor Nu1 1 factor

Determining Factor AlphaCW Method that will be used to

calculate the cw factor.

Factor AlphaCW cw factor

Factor Fywk Multiplier of vertical shear rebar characteristic

yield strength to obtain a stress limit in shear rebar used in

6.10.aN. Typical value 0.8 to 1.0.

Shear Rebar Material A previously defined material label

that will be used to determine the required area of transverse

rebar in the girder.

Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined material

that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder.

Concrete Box

Flexure

Gamma c for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing

steel.

Gamma c for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing steel.

PT pre-strain Factor to estimate pre-strain in the posttensioning. Multiplies fpk to obtain the stress in the tendons

after losses. Typical value between 0.4 and 0.9.

4 - 10

Design Parameters

AASHTO LRFD

Multi-Cell Concrete

Box Stress

that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units Multiplier on sqrt ( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit,

given in the units specified

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The

tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi

units for f c and the resulting tension limit

Multi-Cell Concrete

Box Shear

that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that multiplies nominal shear resistance to

obtain factored resistance for light-weight concrete

Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default

Value = -0.4x10-3, Typical value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3

Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement - in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default

Value = 6.0x10-3, Typical value(s): 6.0x10-3

PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1;

Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1;

Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0

Specifies which method for shear design will be used either Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance with 5.8.3.4.2 or Vci Vcw method in accordance with

5.8.3.4.3. Currently only the MCFT option is available.

A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to

determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.

A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

Multi-Cell Concrete

Box Flexure

that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

CAN/CSA S6

Design Parameters

4 - 11

Multi-Cell Concrete

Box Stress

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The

tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi

units for f c and the resulting tension limit

Multi-Cell Concrete

Box Shear

accordance with CSA Clause 1.4.2.2, Table 1.1 for the average daily traffic and average daily truck traffic volumes for

which the structure is designed

Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA

Clause 8.4.6)

Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause

8.4.6)

Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see

CSA Clause 8.4.6)

Cracking Strength Factor -- Multiplies sqrt( f c ) to obtain

cracking strength

EpsilonX Negative Limit -- Longitudinal negative strain limit

(see Clause 8.9.3.8)

EpsilonX Positive Limit -- Longitudinal positive strain limit

(see Clause 8.9.3.8)

Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material

that will be used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder

Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined rebar

material that will be used to determine the required area of

longitudinal rebar in the girder

Multi-Cell Concrete

Box Flexure

accordance with CSA Clause 1.4.2.2, Table 1.1 for the average daily traffic and average daily truck traffic volumes for

which the structure is designed

Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA

Clause 8.4.6)

Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause

8.4.6)

Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see

CSA Clause 8.4.6)

Eurocode EN 1992

Multi-Cell Concrete

Box Stress

4 - 12

Design Parameters

Tension limit Multiplier on fc k to calculate the tension

stress limit

Multi-Cell Concrete

Box Shear

Gamma C for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing

steel.

Gamma C for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing

steel.

Angle Theta The angle between the concrete compression

strut and the beam axis perpendicular to the shear force.

The value must be between 21.8 degrees and 45 degrees.

Factor for PT Duct Diameter Factor that multiplies posttensioning duct diameter when evaluating the nominal web

thickness in accordance with section 6.2.3(6) of the code.

Typical values 0.5 to 1.2.

Factor for PT Transmission Length Factor for the transmission length of the post tensioning used in shear resistance equation 6.4 of the code. Typical value 1.0 for post

tensioning.

Inner Arm Method The method used to calculate the inner

lever arm z of the section (integer).

Inner Arm Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the section to get the lower limit of the inner lever arm z of the section.

Effective Depth Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the

section to get the lower limit of the effective depth to the tensile reinforcement d of the section.

Type of Section Type of section for shear design.

Determining Factor Nu1 Method that will be used to calculate the 1 factor.

Factor Nu1 1 factor

Determining Factor AlphaCW Method that will be used to

calculate the cw factor.

Factor AlphaCW cw factor

Factor Fywk Multiplier of vertical shear rebar characteristic

yield strength to obtain a stress limit in shear rebar used in

6.10.aN. Typical value 0.8 to 1.0.

Shear Rebar Material A previously defined material label

that will be used to determine the required area of transverse

rebar in the girder.

Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined material

that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder.

Design Parameters

4 - 13

Multi-Cell Concrete

Box Flexure

Gamma c for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing

steel.

Gamma c for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing steel.

PT pre-strain Factor to estimate pre-strain in the posttensioning. Multiplies fpk to obtain the stress in the tendons

after losses. Typical value between 0.4 and 0.9.

AASHTO LRFD

Precast Comp

Stress

Precast Comp Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Precast Comp Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier

on fc to calculate the compression stress limit

Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier

on sqrt(fc) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the

units specified

factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for fc

and the resulting tension limit

Precast Comp

Shear

and tension stress limits

PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that multiplies nominal

shear resistance to obtain factored resistance for light-weight

concrete

Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default

Value = -0.4x10-3, Typical value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3

4 - 14

Design Parameters

Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement - in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10-3, Typical value(s): 6.0x10-3

PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1;

Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0

Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1;

Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0

Specifies what method for shear design will be used - either

Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance

with 5.8.3.4.2 or Vci Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3

Currently only the MCFT option is available.

A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to

determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder

A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

Precast Comp

Flexure

Precast Comp Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

CAN/CSA S6

Precast Comp

Stress

on fc to calculate the compression stress limit

Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit

factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for fc

and the resulting tension limit

Precast Comp

Shear

accordance with CSA Clause 1.4.2.2, Table 1.1 for the average daily traffic and average daily truck traffic volumes for

which the structure is designed

Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA

Clause 8.4.6)

Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause

8.4.6)

Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see

CSA Clause 8.4.6)

Cracking Strength Factor -- Multiplies sqrt( f c ) to obtain

cracking strength

EpsilonX Negative Limit -- Longitudinal negative strain limit

(see Clause 8.9.3.8)

EpsilonX Positive Limit -- Longitudinal positive strain limit (see

Clause 8.9.3.8)

Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material

label that will be used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.

Design Parameters

4 - 15

Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar n the girder

Precast Comp

Flexure

accordance with CSA Clause 1.4.2.2, Table 1.1 for the average daily traffic and average daily truck traffic volumes for

which the structure is designed

Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA

Clause 8.4.6)

Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause

8.4.6)

Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see

CSA Clause 8.4.6)

Eurocode EN 1992

Precast Comp

Stress

Tension limit Multiplier on fc k to calculate the tension stress

limit

Precast Comp

Shear

Gamma C for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing

steel.

Gamma C for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing steel.

Angle Theta The angle between the concrete compression

strut and the beam axis perpendicular to the shear force. The

value must be between 21.8 degrees and 45 degrees.

Factor for PT Transmission Length Factor for the transmission length of the post tensioning used in shear resistance

equation 6.4 of the code. Typical value 1.0 for post tensioning.

Inner Arm Method The method used to calculate the inner

lever arm z of the section (integer).

Inner Arm Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the section to get the lower limit of the inner lever arm z of the section.

Effective Depth Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the

section to get the lower limit of the effective depth to the tensile reinforcement d of the section.

Type of Section Type of section for shear design.

Determining Factor Nu1 Method that will be used to calculate the 1 factor.

Factor Nu1 1 factor

4 - 16

Design Parameters

Determining Factor AlphaCW Method that will be used to

calculate the cw factor.

Factor AlphaCW cw factor

Factor Fywk Multiplier of vertical shear rebar characteristic

yield strength to obtain a stress limit in shear rebar used in

6.10.aN. Typical value 0.8 to 1.0.

Shear Rebar Material A previously defined material label

that will be used to determine the required area of transverse

rebar in the girder.

Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined material

that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal

rebar in the girder.

Precast Comp

Flexure

Gamma c for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing

steel.

Gamma c for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing steel.

PT pre-strain Factor to estimate pre-strain in the posttensioning. Multiplies fpk to obtain the stress in the tendons after losses. Typical value between 0.4 and 0.9.

AASHTO LRFD

Steel I-Beam Strength

Resistance factor Phi for shear

Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners?

Use Stage Analysis load case to determine stresses on composite section?

Multiplies short term modular ratio (Es/Ec) to obtain long-term

modular ratio

Use AASHTO, Appendix A to determine resistance in negative moment regions?

Shored Construction?

Does concrete slab resist tension?

Multiplies short term modular ratio (Es/Ec) to obtain long-term

modular ratio

Design Parameters

4 - 17

Steel-I Comp Fatigue

fatigue

Steel I Comp

Construct Stgd

Resistance factor Phi for shear

Resistance factor Phi for Concrete in Tension

Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners?

Concrete modulus of rupture factor in accordance with

AASHTO LRFD Section 5.4.2.6, factor that multiplies sqrt of

f'c to obtain modulus of rupture, default value 0.24 (ksi) or

0.63 (MPa), must be > 0

The modulus of rupture factor may be specified using either

MPa or ksi units

Steel I Comp

Construct Non Stgd

Resistance factor Phi for shear

Resistance factor Phi for Concrete in Tension

Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners?

Concrete modulus of rupture factor in accordance with

AASHTO LRFD Section 5.4.2.6, factor that multiplies sqrt of

f'c to obtain modulus of rupture, default value 0.24 (ksi) or

0.63 (MPa), must be > 0

The modulus of rupture factor may be specified using either

MPa or ksi units

4.5

Demand Sets

A demand set name is required for each load combination that is to be considered in a design request. The load combinations may be selected from a list of

user defined or default load combinations that are program determined (see

Chapter 2).

4.6

When the superstructure has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with

composite slabs or multi-cell boxes, Live Load Distribution Factors can be

specified. LLD factors are described in Chapter 3.

4 - 18

Demand Sets

Chapter 5

Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms applied in accordance with the AASHTO

LRFD 2014 (AASHTO LRFD) for design and stress check of the superstructure of a concrete box type bridge deck section.

When interim revisions of the codes are published by the relevant authorities,

and (when applicable) they are subsequently incorporated into CSiBridge, the

program gives the user an option to select what type of interims shall be used

for the design. The interims can be selected by clicking on the Code Preferences button.

In CSiBridge, when distributing loads for concrete box design, the section is

always treated as one beam; all load demands (permanent and transient) are

distributed evenly to the webs for stress and flexure and proportionally to the

slope of the web for shear. Torsion effects are always considered and assigned

to the outer webs and the top and bottom slabs.

With respect to shear and torsion check, in accordance with AASHTO Article

5.8.6, torsion is considered.

The user has an option to select No Interims or YYYY Interims on the

Bridge Design Preferences form. The form can be opened by clicking the Code

Preferences button.

5-1

The revisions published in the 2015 interims were incorporated into the Flexure Design.

5.1

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0

The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor

FactorCompLim f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical values: 0.4 to

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain the compression

limit.

FactorTensLim

FactorTensLim to obtain the tension limit.

f c is multiplied by the

5.1.2 Algorithm

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the

bottom fiber: extreme left, Bridge Layout Line, and extreme right. The stresses

assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and both bending

moments (M2 and M3).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set (Chapter 4). If the demand set

contains live load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at

each of the evaluation points.

Extremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Section 5.2.1).

5-2

Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-1

Figure 5-1 AASHTO LRFD Stress Design, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII48

=

0.150 kcf

Concrete unit weight, w c

Concrete strength at 28 days, f c =

5.0 ksi

Design span

=

95.0 ft

Prestressing strands: in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation

Area of one strand

=

0.153 in2

=

270.0 ksi

Ultimate strength f pu

=

0.9 ksi

Yield strength f py

=

243 ksi

f pu

=

28500 ksi

Modulus of elasticity, E p

5-3

AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Reinforcing bars:

yield strength, f y

Section Properties

A

= area of cross-section of beam

h

= overall depth of precast beam

I

= moment of inertia about centroid of the beam

y b ,y t = distance from centroid to the extreme

bottom (top) fiber of the beam

=

826 in2

=

39 in

= 170812 in4

=

P

= 856.51 kip

M3

= 897.599 kip-in

Top fiber stress =

P M

856.51 897.599

top = 3 ytop =

19.5 =

0.9344 ksi

A I

826

170812

5-4

60.0 ksi

19.5 in

P M

856.51 897.599

bot = + 3 ybot =

+

19.5 =

1.139 ksi

A

I

826

170812

Stresses reported by CSiBridge:

top fiber stress envelope

= 0.9345 ksi

bottom fiber stress envelope

= 1.13945 ksi

5.2

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0

The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain

factored resistance.

5.2.2 Variables

A PS

AS

A slab

b slab

out to out

b webeq

dP

Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons

dS

the tension zone

f ps

f pu

of all tendons in the tensile zone)

5-5

f py

tendons in the tensile zone)

fy

Mn

Mr

t slabeq

Stress block factor, as specified in AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim Section 5.7.2.2.

The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on the approximate stress distribution specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by

an equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block of 1 over a

zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme compression

fiber. If the AASHTO LRFD 2015 interim is selected the factor 1 is taken as

0.85 for specified compressive strengths not exceeding 10.0 ksi. For specified

concrete compressive strengths exceeding 10.0ksi, 1 is reduced at rate of 0.02

for each 1.0ksi of strength in excess of 10.0ksi, except that 1 is not taken less

than 0.75. For AASHTO LRFD no interim the 1 is always taken as 0.85 independent of concrete compressive strength. The factor The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor 1 is taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi,

1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi,

except that 1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

5-6

The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Paragraph 5.7.3.2. The resistance is evaluated for bending about horizontal axis 3

only. Separate capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The

capacity is based on bonded tendons and mild steel located in the tension zone

as defined in the Bridge Object. Tendons and mild steel reinforcement located

in the compression zone are not considered. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a section, stressed or not, have f pe (effective stress after loses) larger

than 0.5 f pu (specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and

superelevation have been applied. This is consistent with the demands being

reported in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the

flange (slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

5.2.4 Algorithm

At each section:

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model

units to N, mm.

The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on the slab area and slab

width, assuming a rectangular shape.

tslabeq =

Aslab

bslab

The equivalent web thickness is evaluated as the summation of all web horizontal thicknesses.

bwebeq =

nweb

web

5.7.2.2 based on section f c

For AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim

5-7

else 1 = 0.85

10

0.02; 0.75

1.0

1 = 0.85

5.7.2.2 based on section f c

f 28

If f c > 28 MPa, =

then 1 max 0.85 c

0.05; 0.65 ;

7

else 1 =0.85.

The tendon and rebar location, area, and material are read. Only bonded tendons are processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons and rebar are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they resistnegative or positive. A tendon or rebar is considered to resist a positive moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression

stress block and is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located

outside of the bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress

block extends over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a

straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from

the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to

the neutral axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

5-8

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressing tendons, d P

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension rebar, d s

The distance c between the neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated

in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

c=

APS f PU + As f s

1 f c1bslab + kAPS

f pu

dp

stress in mild reinforcement f s can be taken as equal to f y . The limit on ratio

c/d s is calculated depending on what kind of code and its interim are specified in the Bridge Design Preferences form as shown in the table below:

Code

No Interims

with 2013 Interims or

later

0.6

0.003

0.003 +

where the compression control strain limit is per AASHTO LRFD 2013

Interims table C5.7.2.1-1

When the limit is not satisfied the stress in mild reinforcement f s is reduced

to satisfy the requirement of Section 5.7.2.1.

The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if

the section is a T-section or rectangular section.

5-9

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c=

f pu

1 f c 1bwebeq + kAPS

y pt

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1).

c

=

fPS fPU 1 k

dp

LRFD eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1).

c tslabeq

c

c

=

M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 + 1 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq 1

;

2

2

2

else

c

c

=

M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 .

2

2

M r = M n

Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and

the controlling demand set name is recorded.

Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48, as shown in Figure 5-3.

Concrete unit weight, w c

=

Concrete strength at 28 days, f c =

Design span

=

5 - 10

0.150 kcf

5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)

95.0 ft

Area of one strand

=

0.153 in2

=

270.0 ksi

Ultimate strength f pu

=

0.9 ksi

Yield strength f py

= 243 ksi

f pu

= 28 500 ksi

Modulus of elasticity, E p

Reinforcing bar yield strength, f y

60.0 ksi

Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

5 - 11

Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Section Properties

A

= area of cross-section of beam

h

= overall depth of precast beam

I

= moment of inertia about centroid of the beam

y b , y t = distance from centroid to the extreme

bottom (top) fiber of the beam

=

826 in2

=

39 in

= 170812 in4

=

19.5 in

P

= 856.51 kip

M3

= 897.599 kip-in

The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on the slab area and slab

width, assuming a rectangular shape.

tslabeq

=

Aslab 48 5.5

=

= 5.5in

bslab

48

The equivalent web thickness is evaluated as the summation of all web horizontal thicknesses.

5 - 12

bwebeq =

nweb

web

= 5 + 5 = 10 in

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they

resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and

is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the

bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends

over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme

compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral

axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

) 4.437 in 2

sum of the tendon areas, APTbottom

= 0.153 ( 6 + 23

=

Value reported by CSiBridge = 4.437 in2

distance from the center of gravity of the tendons to the extreme com23 2 + 6 4

=

pression fiber, yPTbottom =

39

36.586 in

23 + 6

Value reported by CSiBridge = 19.5 + 17.0862 = 36.586 in

Value reported by CSiBridge = 270 kip

f py

243

k= 2 1.04

= 0.28

= 2 1.04

f pu

270

The 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD

5.7.2.2 based on section f c .

5 - 13

f 28

=

1 max 0.85 c

0.05;0.65

7

34.473 28

=

max 0.85

0.05;0.65 =

0.80376

7

The distance c between the neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated

in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

c=

APT f pu

0.85 f c1bslab + kAPT

f pu

y pt

4.437 270

=

6.91in

270

0.85 5 0.8037 48 + 0.28 4.437 36.586

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 6.919 in (not reported)

The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if

the section is a T-section or a rectangular section.

If c1 > tslabeq 6.91 0.80376

T-section.

Value reported by CSiBridge, section = T-section

with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

=

c

=

f pu

0.85 f c1bwebeq + kAPT

y pt

4.437 270 0.85 5(48 10)5.5

= 7.149 in

270

0.85 5 0.8037 10 + 0.28 4.437 36.586

Average stress in prestressing steel f ps is calculated in accordance with

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1).

5 - 14

7.149

c

f ps = f pu 1 k

=270 1 0.28

=255.23 ksi

36.586

y pt

LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1).

c tslabeq

c

=

M n APT f ps yPT 1 + 0.85 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq 1

2

2

2

7.149 0.80376

=

4.437 255.228 36.586

+

2

0.85 5 ( 48 10 ) 5.5

2

2

= 38287.42 kip-in

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 38287.721 kip-in (not reported)

Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying M n by .

Mr =

M n =

1.0 38287.42 =

38287.42 kip-in

5.3

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value: 0.7 to 0.9. The

nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by the

resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

PhiC (Lightweight) Resistance Factor for light-weight concrete; Default Value = 0.7, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of light-weight

concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

5 - 15

Include Resal (haunched girder) Shear Effect Typical value: Yes. Specifies

whether the component of inclined flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth members shall or shall not be

considered when determining the design factored shear force.

Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material label that will be

used to determine the area of shear rebar required.

Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material

label that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal torsional

rebar.

5.3.2 Variables

A

AO

Area enclosed by the shear flow path, including the area of holes, if any

Al

Avsweb

Avtweb

Minimum horizontal gross width of the web (not adjusted for ducts)

bv

Minimum effective horizontal width of the web adjusted for the presence of ducts

be

Minimum effective normal width of the shear flow path adjusted to account for the presence of ducts

dv

extreme compression fiber to the center of gravity of the tensile PT)

CGtop, CGbot Distance from the center of gravity of the section to the top and

bottom fiber

5 - 16

ph

chords of the space truss resisting torsion

t

Minimum normal gross width of the web (not adjusted for ducts) =

b cos ( web )

tv

web

web

The shear resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Paragraph 5.8.6 (Shear and Torsion for Segmental Box Girder Bridges). The procedure is not applicable to discontinuity regions and applies only to sections

where it is reasonable to assume that plane sections remain plane after loading.

The user should select for design only those sections that comply with the preceding assumptions by defining appropriate station ranges in the Bridge Design

Request (see Chapter 4).

If the option to consider real effects is activated, the component of the inclined

flexural compression or tension in the direction of the demand shear in variable

depth members is considered when determining the design section shear force

(AASHTO LRFD Paragraph 5.8.6.1).

The section design shear force is distributed into individual webs assuming that

the vertical shear that is carried by a web decreases with increased inclination

of the web from vertical. Section torsion moments are assigned to external

webs and slabs.

The rebar area and ratio are calculated using measurements normal to the web.

Thus, vertical shear forces are divided by cos(alpha_web). The rebar area calculated is the actual, normal cross-section of the bars. The rebar ratio is calculated using the normal width of the web, t web = b web cos(alpha_web).

5 - 17

5.8.6.1 of the code. In determining the web or flange effective thickness, b e ,

one-half of the diameter of the ducts is subtracted. All defined tendons in a section, stressed or not, are assumed to be grouted. Each tendon at a section is

checked for presence in the web or flange, and the minimum controlling effective web and flange thicknesses are evaluated.

The tendon duct is considered as having effect on the web or flange effective

thickness even if only part of the duct is within the element boundaries. In such

cases, the entire one-half of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the element thickness.

If several tendon ducts overlap in one flange or web (when projected on the

horizontal axis for flange, or when projected on vertical axis for the web), the

diameters of ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the effective thickness. In the web, the effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bottom

of each duct; in the flange, the effective thickness is evaluated at the left and

right sides of the duct.

The Shear and Torsion Design is completed first on a per web basis. Rebar

needed for individual webs is then summed and reported for the entire section.

The D/C ratio is calculated for each web. Then the shear area of all webs is

summed and the entire section D/C is calculated. Therefore, the controlling

section D/C does not necessarily match the controlling web D/C (in

other words, other webs can make up the capacity for a weak web).

5.3.4 Algorithm

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model

units to N, mm.

If the option to consider resal effects is activated, the component of the inclined flexural compression or tension in the direction of the demand shear in

variable depth members is evaluated as follows:

yslab top2 yslab top1

slab top =

arctan

Stat2 Stat1

5 - 18

slab bot =

arctan

Stat2 Stat1

where

yslab top2 , yslab top1 vertical coordinate of the center of gravity of the top

slab at stations 1 and 2. The y origin is assumed to be at the top

of the section and the + direction is up.

Stat1 , Stat2 stations of adjacent sections. When the section being

analyzed is Before, the current section station is Stat 2 ; when

the section being analyzed is After, the current section station

is Stat 1 . Therefore, the statement Stat1 < Stat2 is always valid.

P M

=

Pslab top Aslab top u u 3 dslab top

I3

A

P M

=

Pslab bot Aslab bot u + u 3 dslab bot

I3

A

where dslab top , dslab bot are distances from the center of gravity of the

section to the center of gravity of the slab (positive).

The magnitudes of vertical components of slab normal forces are determined

as follows:

Presal bot = Pslab bot tan slab bot

On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand

values are evaluated.

Location

Shear

and

Torsion

Outer Web

V uweb

abs(Vu 2 + Presal top + Presal bot )

cos web

T uweb

Abs(T u )

Inner Web

V uweb

abs(Vu 2 + Presal top + Presal bot )

cos web

T uweb

0

5 - 19

Check

where web =

cos ( | web |)

nweb

1

cos ( | web |)

Evaluate dv bv be tv

If b v 0, then

D

WebPassFlag

0; Avt=

0; Avs=

2; Avt=

2

= 2,= 0; Avs=

web

web

flag

flag

C

proceed to report web results

Evaluate design

f c min(

f c :

f c , 8.3 MPa)

bot =

P M3

P M3

CGtop tens= max ( top , bot )

+

CGbot top =

A I 33

A I 33

=

|P|

A

1+

,

0.166 f c

where K < 2.

Evaluate V c per web (shear capacity of concrete):

=

Vcweb 0.1663K f c bv dv .

5 - 20

Vsweb =

Vuweb Vcweb

.

else Avsweb =

Vsweb

.

f y dv

else Avswebflag = 1.

Evaluate the nominal capacities:

Vsweb = Avsweb f y dv

V=

Vcweb + Vsweb

nweb

D

C sweb

Vuweb

=

.

bv dv f c

Tcr = 0.166 K f c 2 A0 be .

Evaluate torsion rebar:

1

If Tuweb < Tcr , then:

3

Avtflag = 0

Avtweb = 0

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 21

Al = 0

else:

Avtflag = 1

Avtweb =

Al =

Tuweb

A0 2 f y

Tuweb ph

A0 2 f ylong

Evaluate the combined shear and torsion D/C for the web:

D

C tweb

Vuweb

T

+ uweb

b d

2 A0 be

= v v

.

1.25 f c

D

D

If

> , then Ratio Flag = 0;

C sweb C tweb

else

Ratio Flag = 1

D

D

D

= max , .

C

C sweb C tweb

If

D

> 1, then Web Pass Flag = 1;

C

else

Web Pass Flag = 0.

5 - 22

Assign web rebar flags where the rebar flag convention is:

Flag = 0 rebar governed by minimum code requirement

Flag = 1 rebar governed by demand

Flag = 2 rebar not calculated since the web b v < 0

Flag = 3 rebar not calculated since the web is not part of the shear flow

path for torsion

Evaluate entire section values:

V

= V

= V

=A

=A

Vcsection =

cweb

Vssection

sweb

Vnsection

nweb

Avssection

vsweb

Avtsection

vtweb

Alsection = Al

nweb

1

D

=

C ssection

tv

Vuweb

bv dv

nweb

1

tv

f c

| Vu |

D

=

C s sec tion

nweb

1

t v dv

f c

and

| Vu |

D

=

C tsection

nweb

1

t v dv

1.25 f c

| Tu |

2 A0 be

.

5 - 23

D

D

If

, then Ratio Flag = 0 else Ratio Flag = 1

>

C ssection C tsection

D

D

,

= max

.

C

C ssection C tsection

If

D

> 1, then Section Pass Flag = 1;

C

else

Section Pass Flag = 0.

Assign section design flags where flag convention is:

Flag = 0 Section Passed all code checks

Flag = 1 Section D/C > 1

Flag = 2 Section b e < 0 (section invalid)

Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48, as shown in Figure 5-5.

5 - 24

Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

=

0.9

=

0.150 kcf

Concrete unit weight, w c

=

1.0

=

5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)

Concrete strength at 28 days, f c

Design span

=

95.0 ft

Prestressing strands: in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation

Area of one strand

=

0.153 in2

= 270.0 ksi

Ultimate strength fpu

=

0.9

Yield strength fpy

= 243 ksi

fpu

= 28500 ksi

Modulus of elasticity, Ep

Reinforcing bars: yield strength, fy

Section Properties

A

= area of cross-section of beam

h

= overall depth of precast beam

I

= moment of inertia about

centroid of the beam

yb,yt = distance from centroid to the

extreme bottom (top) fiber of

the beam

Aslabtop= Aslabbot = 485.5

=

=

=

826 in2 (~532902 mm2)

39 in (~990.6 mm)

= 264 in2 (~170322 mm2)

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 25

Ao

Ph

= 2 (48 5 + 39 5.5)

= 153 in (~3886.2 mm)

P

= 800 kip (~ 3560 E+03 N)

M3 = 7541 kip-in (~ 852 E+06 Nmm)

V2 = 33 kip (~ 148.3 E+03 N)

T

= 4560 kip-in (515.2 E+06 Nmm)

AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model

units to N, mm.

On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand

values are evaluated.

Outer Web

Location

Shear and

Torsion

Check

5 - 26

Vuweb

abs(Vu 2 + Presal top + Presal bot )

cos web

Tuweb

=

abs(148.3E + 03 + 0 + 0) 1

= 74151.9 N

cos0

Inner Web

Vuweb

Tuweb

Abs(Tu)=515.2E+06

N/A

0

N/A

where

=

web

cos ( | web |)

=

cos

(| web |)

1

nweb

cos ( | 0 |)

= 0.5

2

cos ( | 0 |)

1

= min(127,127,139.7,139.7)

= 127mm

Evaluate the effective web width and normal thickness:

Since the web is vertical, bv = tv = 127 mm.

Evaluate the effective depth:

Since M3 < 0 then

=

dv max(0.8h, ybot + yPTtop )

= max(0.8 990.6,495.3 + 419.1) = 914.4mm

f c :

Evaluate design

f c min

f c ,8.3MPa min (=

=

=

34.473,8.3MPa ) 5.871

Calculate the extreme fiber stress

P M3

3560E + 03 852 E + 06

bot = +

CGbot =

+

495.3 =

12.616 MPa.

A I 33

532902

71097322269

P M3

3560E + 03 852 E + 06

0.745MPa

top =

CGtop =

495.3 =

A I 33

532902

71097322269

tens =

max(top , bot ) =

max(12.61, 0.745) =

0.745MPa

If tens > 0.5 f c , then K = 1 false;

5 - 27

| 3560E + 03 |

|P|

532902

A

else K =

1+

=

1+

=

2.8

0.166

5.871

0.166 f c

Evaluate Vc per web (shear capacity of concrete; AASHTO LRFD 5.8.6.5-3):

V=

0.1663K f c b=

0.1663 2 1.0 5.871 127 914.4

cweb

v dv

= 226781N.

Evaluate Vs per web (shear force that is left to be carried by the rebar):

Vsweb =

=

= 144392 N.

0.9

else Avsweb =

Vsweb

.

f y dv

=

Avsweb 0.35

=

t fy

0.35 127

= 0.10745mm 2 / mm and Aswebflag = 0;

413.68

else Avswebflag = 1.

Evaluate the nominal capacities:

Vn web = Vcweb + Vsweb = 226781 + 40645 = 267426 N

5 - 28

Vuweb

74151.9

D

0.9= 0.1208

=

=

C sweb bv dv f c 127 914.4 5.871

T=

0.166 K f c 2 A0=

be 0.166 2 5.871 2 929353 127

cr

= 460 147 419 Nmm

Evaluate the torsion rebar:

1

1

If Tuweb < Tcr =

> 515.2E6 < 0.9 460E6 false, then:

3

3

Avtflag = 1

=

Avtweb

=

Al

Tuweb

515.2E6

=

= 0.7444mm 2 / mm

A0 2 f y 0.9 929352 2 413.68

Tuweb ph

515.2E6 3886.2

=

= 2893mm 2

A0 2 f ylong 0.9 929352 2 413.68

Evaluate the combined shear and torsion D/C for the web:

Vuweb

T

74151.9

515.2E6

+ uweb

+

bv dv 2 A0 be 0.9 127 914.4 0.9 2 929352 127

D

=

=

1.25 5.871

C tweb

1.25 f c

= 0.427.

D

D

If

> , then Ratio Flag = 0 false;

C sweb C tweb

else

5 - 29

D

D

D

= max =

=

( 0.1208, 0.427 ) 0.427.

, max

C

C sweb C tweb

If

D

> 1, then Web Pass Flag =1 true;

C

else

Web Pass Flag = 0.

Assign web rebar flags where rebar flag convention is:

Flag = 0 rebar governed by minimum code requirement

Flag = 1 rebar governed by demand => true

Flag = 2 rebar not calculated since web bv< 0

Flag = 3 rebar not calculated since the web is not part of the shear flow

path for torsion.

Evaluate the entire section values:

=

2 40645 =

81290 N

V =

2 267 426 =

534852 N

=

V =

=

2 0.10 745 =

0.2149 mm / mm

A =

=

2 0.7444887 =

1.48898mm / mm

A =

Vcsection =

Vcweb =

2 226 781 =

453562 N

Vssection

Vnsection

Avssection

Avtsection

sweb

nweb

vsweb

vtweb

Alsection= A=

2893mm 2

l

D

=

C ssection

5 - 30

nweb

1

tv

Vuweb

bv dv

nweb

1

f c

tv

| Vu |

148.3E3

nweb

1 t v dv 0.9

D

=

=

C ssection

f c

127 914.4

=

2

5.871

0.1208

and

| Vu |

D

=

C tsection

nweb

1

t v dv

| Tu |

2 A0 be

1.25 f c

148.3E3

515.2E6

0.9

2

929352 127

0.9 1 127 914.4

= = 0.427.

1.25 5.871

D

D

If

, then Ratio Flag = 0 false;

>

C ssection C tsection

D

D

( 0.1208,0.427 ) 0.427.

,

= max =

=

max

C

C ssection C tsection

If

D

> 1, then SectionPassFlag = 1 true;

C

else

Section Pass Flag = 0.

Assign the section design flags where the flag convention is:

Flag = 0 Section Passed all code checks true

Flag = 1 Section D/C >1

Flag = 2 Section be < 0 (section invalid)

5 - 31

5.4

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0.

The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.

FactorCompLim f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical values: 0.4 to

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain the compression

limit.

FactorTensLim

FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit.

f c is multiplied by the

FactorCompLim Percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service

design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand compressive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one compression limit.

FactorTensLim Percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;

Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand tensile stresses are

divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the controlling stress can be

selected and compared against one tension limit.

5 - 32

Chapter 6

Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

This chapter describes the algorithms used by CSiBridge for design checks

when the superstructure has a deck that includes cast-in-place multi-cell concrete box design and uses the Approximate Method of Analysis, as described in

the AASHTO LRFD 2014 (AASHTO LRFD) code.

When interim revisions of the codes are published by the relevant authorities,

and (when applicable) they are subsequently incorporated into CSiBridge, the

program gives the user an option to select what type of interims shall be used

for the design. The interims can be selected by clicking on the Code Preferences button.

For MulticellConcBox design in CSiBridge, each web and its tributary slabs

are designed separately. Moments and shears due to live load are distributed to

individual webs in accordance with the factors specified in AASHTO LRFD

Articles 4.6.2.2.2 and 4.6.2.2.3 of the code. To control if the section is designed

as a whole-width structure in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Article

4.6.2.2.1 of the code, select Yes for the Diaphragms Present option. When

CSiBridge calculates the Live Load Distribution (LLD) factors, the section and

span qualification criteria stated in AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2 are verified and

non-compliant sections are not designed.

Stress Design

6-1

With respect to shear and torsion check, in accordance with AASHTO LRFD

Article 5.8.3.4.2 of the code, torsion is ignored.

The user has an option to select No Interims or YYYY Interims on the

Bridge Design Preferences form. The form can be opened by clicking the Code

Preferences button.

The revisions published in the 2015 interims were incorporated into the Flexure Design.

6.1

Stress Design

The following parameters are considered during stress design:

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0. The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.

FactorCompLim f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical values: 0.4 to

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit.

FactorTensLim

f 'c

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the top slab and

three points at the bottom fiber of the bottom slab: the left corner, the centerline web and the right corner of the relevant slab tributary area. The location is

labeled in the output plots and tables. See Chapter 9, Section 9.1.1.

Concrete strength f c is read at every point, and compression and tension limits

are evaluated using the FactorCompLim - f c multiplier and FactorTensLim f 'c multiplier.

The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and either both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on

which method for determining LLD factors have been specified in the Design

Request (see Chapters 3 and 4).

6-2

Stress Design

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set (Chapter 4). Extremes are found

for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the preceding parameters.

6.2

Shear Design

The following parameters are considered during shear design:

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The

nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by the

resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

PhiC (Lightweight) Resistance Factor for light-weight concrete; Default Value = 0.7, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of light-weight

concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

Check Sub Type Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear design will be used: either Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.3.4.2; or the Vci/Vcw method in

accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.3.4.3. Currently only the MCFT

option is available.

Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 0.4x103,

Typical value(s): 0 to 0.4x103.

Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x103, Typical value: 6.0x103.

PhiC for N u Resistance Factor used in AASHTO LRFD Equation 5.8.3.5-1;

Default Value = 1.0, Typical values: 0.75 to 1.0.

Phif for M u Resistance Factor used in AASHTO LRFD Equation 5.8.3.5-1;

Default Value = 0.9, Typical values: 0.9 to 1.0.

Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material label that will be

used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.

Shear Design

6-3

will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder.

6.2.1 Variables

6-4

Ac

Aps

Avl

Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the member at the section under consideration

AVS

AVS min

accordance with AASHTO LRFD Equation 5.8.2.5

Section 5.7.3.2.2. Varies for positive and negative moment.

bv

accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.2.9

dgirder

dPTbot

Distance from the top of the top slab to the center of gravity of the

tendons in the bottom of the precast beam

dv

Ec

Ep

Es

f pu

Shear Design

Mu

Nu

Vp

Component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force; if Vp has the same sign as Vu, the component is resisting the applied shear.

Vu

V2 c

V2Tot

V

The shear resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD paragraph 5.8.3.4.2 (derived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure assumes that the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over

an area b v wide and d v deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses

(defined by angle and shown as D) remains constant over d v , and that the

shear strength of the section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress

conditions at just one location in the web. For design, the user should select only those sections that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate

station ranges in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

Shear Design

6-5

The effective web width is taken as the minimum web width, measured parallel

to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces

as a result of flexure. In determining the effective web width at a particular level, one-quarter the diameter of grouted ducts at that level is subtracted from the

web width.

All defined tendons in a section, stressed or not, are assumed to be grouted.

Each tendon at a section is checked for presence in the web, and the minimum

controlling effective web thicknesses are evaluated.

The tendon duct is considered to have an effect on the web effective thickness

even if only part of the duct is within the web boundaries. In such cases, the entire one-quarter of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the element

thickness.

If several tendon ducts overlap in one web (when projected on the vertical axis), the diameters of the ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the effective thickness. The effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bottom

of each duct.

Shear design is completed on a per-web basis. Please refer to Chapter 3 for a

description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

6.2.3 Algorithms

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model units

to N, mm.

For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes, a

new force demand set is generated. The new force demand set is built up from

the maximum tension values of P and the maximum absolute values of V2 and

M3 of the two StepTypes (Max and Min) present in the envelope COMBO

case. The StepType of this new force demand set is named ABS and the signs

of the P, V2 and M3 are preserved. The ABS case follows the industry practice

where sections are designed for extreme shear and moments that are not necessarily corresponding to the same design vehicle position. The section cut is designed for all three StepTypes in the COMBOMax, Min and ABSand the

controlling StepType is reported.

6-6

Shear Design

In cases where the demand moment Mu < Vu Vp dv , two new force demand

sets are generated where Mupos

= Vu Vp dvneg . The acro= Vu Vp dvpos and Muneg

nyms -CodeMinMuPos and -CodeMinMuNeg are added to the end of the

StepType name. The signs of the P and V2 are preserved.

The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

Vp =

V2 c V2Tot

ngirders

The depth of the equivalent stress block a for both positive and negative moment is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Equation 5.7.3.1.1.

Effective shear depth is evaluated.

If M u > 0, then

=

dv max ( 0.72 dgirder , 0.9 dPTbot , dPTbot 0.5 a ) .

If M u < 0, then

=

dv max 0.72 dgirder ,0.9 (dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ),(dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ) 0.5 a .

The demand/capacity ratio (D/C) is calculated based on the maximum permissible shear capacity at a section in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section

5.8.3.2-2.

Vu

Vp

V

D

=

C 0.25 f 'c b dv

snumerator =

Mu

dV

Adjust denominator values as follows.

Shear Design

6-7

snumerator

E p Aps

s

.

Avl =

Es

If snumerator <0, then sdenominator = E p Aps + Es Avl + Ec Ac

Evaluate (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4).

s = snumerator

sdenominator

Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face of

the section.

If

Nu

> 0.52 f 'c , then s = 2 s .

Agirder

Check against the limit on the strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate how

much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit.

=

s max( s , sLimitNeg ) and =

min( s , sLimitPos )

s

Evaluate the angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

18 29 + 3500 s 45

transmit tension and shear, as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

=

4.8

1 + 750 s

Evaluate the nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the concrete (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-3).

=

Vc 0.083

6-8

Shear Design

f 'c b d v

VS =

Vu

Vp Vc

s

Vs

.

1

tan

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

f y dv

If Vu > 0.5 s Vc + Vp , then AVSmin =

0.083 f 'c b

in accordfy

If VS < 0, then AVS = AVSmin ; else AVS = max( AVSmin , AVS ).

Recalculate V s in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4).

VS = AVS f y dv

1

.

tan

Evaluate the longitudinal rebar on the flexure tension side in accordance with

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.5-1).

Vu

VU

VP 0.5 min VS ,

MU

S

NU

1

A=

E p Aps

SLreq

d + 0.5 +

tan

f

P

v

fy

AVL = max( AVL , ASLreq )

Assign longitudinal rebar to the top or bottom side of the girder based on the

moment sign.

If MU < 0, then AVLCompSlabU = AVL and AVLBeamBotFlange = 0,

else AVLCompSlabU = 0 and AVLBeamBotFlange = AVL .

Shear Design

6-9

6.3

Flexure Design

The following parameter is used in the design of flexure:

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored

resistance

6.3.1 Variables

A PS

AS

Aslab

LRFD 5.7.3.2.2

bslab

measured from out to out

bwebeq

dP

prestressing tendons in the tension zone

dS

rebar in the tension zone

f ps

f pu

Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average of all tendons in the tensile zone)

f py

all tendons are in the tensile zone)

fy

6 - 10

Flexure Design

Mn

Mr

tslabeq

Stress block factor, as specified in AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim Section 5.7.2.2.

The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on the approximate stress distribution specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an

equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block of 1 over a zone

bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to

the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme compression fiber. If

the AASHTO LRFD 2015 interim is selected the factor 1 is taken as 0.85 for

specified compressive strengths not exceeding 10.0 ksi. For specified concrete

compressive strengths exceeding 10.0ksi, 1 is reduced at rate of 0.02 for each

1.0ksi of strength in excess of 10.0ksi, except that 1 is not taken less than

0.75. For AASHTO LRFD no interim the 1 is always taken as 0.85 independent of concrete compressive strength. The distance c is measured perpendicular

to the neutral axis. The factor 1 is taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi, 1 is reduced at a rate

of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi, except that 1 is not to

be taken to be less than 0.65.

The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Paragraph 5.7.3.2. The resistance is evaluated for bending about horizontal axis 3

only. Separate capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based on bonded tendons and mild steel located in the tension zone as

defined in the Bridge Object. Tendons and mild steel reinforcement located in

Flexure Design

6 - 11

the compression zone are not considered. It is assumed that all defined tendons

in a section, stressed or not, have f pe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5

f pu (specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for

the flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and

superelevation have been applied. This is consistent with the demands being

reported in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the

flange (slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

6.3.3 Algorithms

At each section:

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model units

to N, mm.

The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on the tributary slab area and

the slab width assuming a rectangular shape.

tslabeq =

Aslab

bslab

5.7.2.2 based on section f c

For AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim

> 10.0, 1 = 0.85

else 1 = 0.85

1 = 0.85

6 - 12

Flexure Design

10

0.02; 0.75

1.0

based on section f c .

f 28

If f c > 28 MPa,=

then 1 max 0.85 c

0.05; 0.65 ;

7

else 1 =0.85.

The tendon and rebar location, area, and material are read. Only bonded tendons are processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons and rebar are split into two groups depending on the sign of moment

they resistnegative or positive. A tendon or rebar is considered to resist a

positive moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress

block and is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside

of the bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line

located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme

compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

sum of the tendon areas, A PS

center of gravity of the tendons, d P

specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu

constant k (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

f py

=

k 2 1.04

f pu

sum of tension rebar areas, A s

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension

rebar, d s

Flexure Design

6 - 13

Positive moment resistance first it is assumed that the equivalent compression stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neutral axis and

the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq.

5.7.3.1.1-4)

APS f PU + As f s

c=

1 f c1bslab + kAPS

f pu

dp

stress in mild reinforcement f s can be taken as equal to f y . The limit on ratio

c/d s is calculated depending on what kind of code and its interim are specified

in the Bridge Design Preferences form as shown in the table below:

Code

No Interims

with 2013 Interims or

later

0.6

0.003

0.003 +

where the compression control strain limit is per AASHTO LRFD 2013 Interims table C5.7.2.1-1

When the limit is not satisfied the stress in mild reinforcement f s is reduced to

satisfy the requirement of Section 5.7.2.1.

The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if the

section is a T-section or rectangular section.

If c1 > tslabeq , the section is a T-section.

If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance with

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c=

6 - 14

Flexure Design

f pu

1 f c 1bwebeq + kAPS

y pt

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1).

=

fPS fPU 1 k

d

p

LRFD eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1).

If the section is a T-section, then

c tslabeq

c

c

=

M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 + 1 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq 1

2

2

2

else

c

c

=

M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 .

2

2

Mr = M n

Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and

the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The process for evaluating negative moment resistance is analogous.

Flexure Design

6 - 15

Chapter 7

Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms used by CSiBridge for design and stress

check when the superstructure has a deck that includes precast I or U girders

with composite slabs in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2014 (AASHTO

LRFD) code.

When interim revisions of the codes are published by the relevant authorities,

and (when applicable) they are subsequently incorporated into CSiBridge, the

program gives the user an option to select what type of interims shall be used

for the design. The interims can be selected by clicking on the Code Preferences button.

The user has an option to select No Interims or YYYY Interims on the

Bridge Design Preferences form. The form can be opened by clicking the Code

Preferences button.

The revisions published in the 2015 interims were incorporated into the Flexure Design.

7.1

Stress Design

The following parameters are considered during stress design:

Stress Design

7-1

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0. The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.

FactorCompLim f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical values: 0.4 to

0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit.

FactorTensLim

f'c

is multiplied by the

The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the composite slab:

the left corner, the centerline beam and the right corner of the composite slab

tributary area. The locations of stress output points at the slab bottom fiber and

the beam top and bottom fibers depend on the type of precast beam present in

the section cut. The locations are labeled in the output plots and tables.

Concrete strength f c is read at every point and compression and tension limits

are evaluated using the FactorCompLim f c multiplier and FactorTensLim

f ' c multiplier.

The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and either both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on

which method for determining the LLD factor has been specified in the Design

Request (see Chapters 3 and 4).

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set (Chapter 4). Extremes are found

for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The stress limits are evaluated by applying the preceding Parameters.

7.2

Shear Design

The following parameters are considered during shear design:

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The

nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by the

resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

7-2

Shear Design

PhiC (Lightweight) Resistance Factor for light-weight concrete; Default Value = 0.7, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of light-weight

concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

Check Sub Type Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear design will be used: Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance

with AASHTO LRFD section 5.8.3.4.2; or the Vci/Vcw method in accordance

with AASHTO LRFD section 5.8.3.4.3. Currently, only the MCFT option is

available.

Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO LRFD section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 0.4x10-3,

Typical value(s): 0 to 0.4x10-3.

Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO LRFD section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10-3, Typical

value(s): 6.0x10-3.

PhiC for Nu Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1 of the code; Default

Value = 1.0, Typical values: 0.75 to 1.0.

Phif for Mu Resistance Factor used in AASHTO LRFD equation 5.8.3.5-1;

Default Value = 0.9, Typical values: 0.9 to 1.0.

Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material label that will be

used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.

Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material label that

will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

7.2.1

Variables

a

LRFD section 5.7.3.2.2. Varies for positive and negative moment.

Ac

A ps

A VS

Shear Design

7-3

7-4

A VSmin

accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.2.5)

A vl

Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the member at the section under consideration

dv

5.8.2.9

d girder

d compslab

d PTBot

Distance from the top of the composite slab to the center of gravity

of the tendons in the bottom of the precast beam

Ec

Ep

Es

f pu

Mu

Nu

V 2c

V 2tot

Vp

Component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force; if V p has the same sign as V u , the component is resisting the applied shear.

Vu

Factored shear demand per girder, excluding the force in the tendons

Shear Design

tension reinforcement as specified in the Design Request

7.2.2

Design Process

The shear resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD paragraph 5.8.3.4.2 (derived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure assumes that the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over

an area b v wide and d v deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses

(defined by angle and shown as D) remains constant over d v , and that the

shear strength of the section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress

conditions at just one location in the web. The user should select for design only those sections that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate

station ranges in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

It is assumed that the precast beams are pre-tensioned, and therefore, no ducts

are present in webs. The effective web width is taken as the minimum web

width, measured parallel to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces as a result of flexure.

Shear design is completed on a per-girder basis. Please refer to Chapter 3 for a

description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

7.2.3

Algorithms

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model

units to N, mm.

For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes,

two new force demand sets are generated. The new force demand sets are

built up from the maximum tension values of P and the maximum and minimum values of V2 and minimum values of M3 of the two StepTypes (Max

and Min) present in the envelope COMBO case. The StepType of these new

Shear Design

7-5

force demand sets are named MaxM3MinV2 and MinM3MaxV2, respectively. The signs of all force components are preserved. The two new cases are

added to comply with industry practice where sections are designed for extreme shear and moments that are not necessarily corresponding to the same

design vehicle position. The section cut is designed for all four StepTypes in

the COMBOMax, Min, MaxM3MinV2, and MinM3MaxV2and the controlling StepType is reported.

In cases where the demand moment Mu < Vu Vp dv , two new force demand

sets are generated where Mupos

= Vu Vp dvpos and Muneg =

Vu Vp dvnneg . The

acronyms -CodeMinMuPos and -CodeMinMuNeg are added to the end

of the StepType name. The signs of the P and V2 are preserved. The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force,

positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

Vp =

V2 c V2tot

ngirders

Depth of equivalent stress block a for both positive and negative moment is

evaluated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1).

Effective shear depth is evaluated.

=

dv max ( 0.72 dgirder ,0.9 dPTbot , dPTbot 0.5 a ) .

If M u > 0, then

If M u < 0, then

=

dv max 0.72 dgirder ,0.9 ( dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ) , ( dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ) 0.5 a .

The demand/capacity (D/C) ratio is calculated based on the maximum permissible shear capacity at a section in accordance with AASHTO LRFD

5.8.3.2-2.

Vu

Vp

V

D

=

C 0.25 f 'c b dv

7-6

Shear Design

snumerator =

Mu

dV

Adjust denominator values as follows

If sdenominator =

Avl =

snumerator

E p Aps

s

Es

Evaluate (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4):

s = snumerator

sdenominator

Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face

of the section.

If

Nu

> 0.52 f 'c , then s = 2 s .

Agirder

reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate

how much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit.

=

s max ( s , sLimitNeg ) and =

s min ( s , sLimitPos )

Evaluate the angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

18 29 + 3500 s 45

Shear Design

7-7

transmit tension and shear, as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

4.8

1 + 750 s

AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-3.

=

Vc 0.083

f 'c b d v

VS =

Vu

Vp Vc

s

else AVS =

Vs

1

f y dv

tan

If Vu > 0.5 s Vc + Vp , then AVSmin =

0.083 f 'c b

in accordfy

If VS < 0 , then AVS = AVSmin , else AVS = max( AVSmin , AVS ).

Recalculate Vs in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4).

VS = AVS f y dv

1

tan

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.5-1).

7-8

Shear Design

Vu

VU

VP 0.5 min VS ,

MU

S

NU

1

A=

E p Aps

SLreq

d + 0.5 +

tan

f

P

v

fy

AVL = max( AVL , ASLreq )

Assign longitudinal rebar to the top or bottom side of the girder based on

moment sign.

If M U < 0 , then AVLCompSlabU = AVL and AVLBeamBotFlange = 0;

else AVLCompSlabU = 0 and AVLBeamBotFlange = AVL .

7.2.4

The girder spacing is 9'-8". The girder type is AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72inch-deep, 42-inch-wide top flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO

28/72 Girders). The concrete deck is 8 inches thick, with the haunch thickness

assumed = 0.

Materials

Concrete strength

=

6 ksi,

Prestressed girders 28-day strength, f c

Girder final elastic modulus, E c

= 4,415 ksi

Deck slab: 4.0 ksi, Deck slab elastic modulus, E s = 3,834 ksi

Shear Design

7-9

60 ksi

=

0.153 in2

Strand area, A ps

=

243 ksi

Steel yield strength, f py

=

270 ksi

Steel ultimate strength, f pu

= 28,500 ksi

Prestressing steel modulus, E p

Basic beam section properties

Depth

Thickness of web

Area, A g

7 - 10

Shear Design

=

=

=

72 in.

8 in.

1,085 in2

tension side of the member (bordered

at mid depth of the beam + slab height)

Moment of inertia, Ig

N.A. to top, y t

N.A. to bottom, y b

P/S force eccentricity e

=

551 in2

= 733,320 in4

=

35.62 in.

=

36.38 in.

=

31.380 in.

width of the concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width. For the interior beam, the b slab = 9'-8" = 116 in.

Demands at interior girder Section 2 = station 10,

after girder Section 2, V u = 319.1 kip; M u = 3678 kip-ft

The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:

Vp =

V2c V2tot

V p = 0 since no inclined tendons are present.

ngirders

Depth of equivalent stress block a for both positive and negative moment is

evaluated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1).

Effective shear depth is evaluated:

Since M u > 0, then (for calculation of the depth of the compression

block, refer to the Flexure example in Section 7.3 of this manual)

=

dv max ( 0.72 dgirder , 0.9 dPTbot , dPTbot 0.5 a )

= max ( 0.72 80", 0.9 75", 75" 0.5 5.314 0.85 )

( 57.6",67.5",72.74") 72.74"

=

d v max

=

Value reported by CSiBridge = 72.74"

Check if Mu < Vu Vp dv

M=

3,678 12

= 44,136 kip-in > ( 319 0 ) 72.74

= 23,204 kip-in

u

Shear Design

7 - 11

D/C is calculated based on the maximum permissible shear capacity at a section in accordance with AASHTO LRFD 5.8.3.2-2.

Vu

319

Vp

0

V

D

0.9

= =

= 0.406

C 0.25 f 'c b dv 0.25 6 8 72.74

Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.406

Evaluate the numerator and denominator of (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.4.24)

snumerator =

Mu

dV

3678 12

=

+ 0.5 0 + 319 0 6.73 0.7 270 =346.2 kip

72.74

sdenominator = E p Aps + Es Avl = 28500 ksi 6.73 in 2 = 191805 kip

If sdenominator =

snumerator

E p Aps

s

is not applicable.

Avl =

Es

If snumerator < 0, then

sdenominator = E p Aps + Es Avl + Ec Ac

= 28500 6.73 + 4415 551.4= 26 263 461 kip

346.2

s = snumerator =

=1.318E-4

sdenominator 2626346

Value reported by CSiBridge = 1.318E-4

Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face

of the section.

7 - 12

Shear Design

If

Nu

> 0.52 f 'c , then s = 2 s ; this is not applicable since N u = 0.

Agirder

Check against the limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement as specified in the Design Request, and recalculate Avl.

s =max ( s , sLimitPos ) =max ( 1.318E-4, 1.318E-4 4 ) =1.318E-4

Evaluate angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

Value reported by CSiBridge = 28.5 deg

Evaluate factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit

tension and shear as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

4.8

4.8

=

= 5.3265

1 + 750 s 1 + 750 1.318E-4

Value reported by CSiBridge = 5.3267

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-3).

=

Vc 0.0316 f 'c b dv

= 0.0316 5.32 1.0 6 8 72.74

= 239.92 kip

Value reported by CSiBridge = 240.00 kip

Evaluate how much shear demand is left to be carried by rebar:

VS =

Vu

Vp Vc =

319

0 239.6 = 114.8 kip

0.9

If VS < 0, then AVS = 0; else

Shear Design

7 - 13

=

AVS

Vs

114.8

=

= 1.43E-2 in 2 /in

1

1

f y dv

60 72.74

tan

tan 28.5

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

If Vu > 0.5 s Vc + Vp > 319.1 kip > 0.5 239.6 =

AVS min

=

= = 0.01032in 2 /in

fy

60

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.2.5-1)

If VS < 0 , then AVS = =

=

( AVS min , AVS ) 1.43E-2in 2 /2

Value reported by CSiBridge = 1.43E-2in2/in

Recalculate Vs in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4).

1

1

= 0.0143 60 72.74

= 114.9 kip

tan

tan 28.5

Value reported by CSiBridge = 114.6 kip

VS = AVS f y dv

AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.5-1:

Vu

VU

VP 0.5 min VS ,

MU

S

S

NU

1

A=

E p Aps

SLreq

d + 0.5 +

f

tan

f

P

v

y

319

0 0.5 114.9

3678 12

1

0

0.9

=

+ 0.5

+

28500 6.73

=

3176.3 in 2

1.0

tan 28.5

72.74 0.9

60

Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.00 in2 no additional longitudinal rebar is required in the beam bottom flange.

7.3

Flexure Design

The following parameter is used in the design of flexure:

7 - 14

Flexure Design

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0. The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance

7.3.1

Variables

A PS

AS

A slab

LRFD 5.7.3.2.2.

b slab

measured from out to out

b webeq

dP

prestressing tendons in the tension zone

dS

rebar in the tension zone

f ps

f pu

Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average of all tendons in the tensile zone)

f py

all tendons in the tensile zone)

fy

Mn

Mr

Flexure Design

7 - 15

t slabeq

1

7.3.2

Stress block factor, as specified in AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim Section 5.7.2.2.

Design Process

The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on the approximate stress distribution specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by

an equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block of 1 over a

zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme compression

fiber. If the AASHTO LRFD 2015 interim is selected the factor 1 is taken as

0.85 for specified compressive strengths not exceeding 10.0 ksi. For specified

concrete compressive strengths exceeding 10.0ksi, 1 is reduced at rate of 0.02

for each 1.0ksi of strength in excess of 10.0ksi, except that 1 is not taken less

than 0.75. For AASHTO LRFD no interim the 1 is always taken as 0.85 independent of concrete compressive strength. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor 1 is taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths

not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi, 1 is reduced at

a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi, except that 1 is

not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD paragraph 5.7.3.2. The resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal

axis 3. Separate capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The

capacity is based on bonded tendons and mild steel located in the tension zone

as defined in the Bridge Object. Tendons and mild steel reinforcement located

in the compression zone are not considered. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a section, stressed or not, have f pe (effective stress after loses) larger

than 0.5 f pu (specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

7 - 16

Flexure Design

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and

superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported

in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange

(slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

7.3.3

Algorithms

At each section:

All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model

units to N, mm.

The 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD

5.7.2.2 based on section f c

For AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim

else 1 = 0.85

10

0.02; 0.75

1.0

1 = 0.85

5.7.2.2 based on section fc.

f 28

0.05; 0.65 ;

If f c > 28 MPa, =

then 1 max 0.85 c

7

else 1 = 0.85.

The tendon and rebar location, area and material are read. Only bonded tendons are processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.

Tendons and rebar are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they resistnegative or positive. A tendon or rebar is considered to resist a positive moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression

stress block, and it is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression

Flexure Design

7 - 17

stress block extends over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section

and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c

from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

f py

=

k 2 1.04

f pu

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension rebar, d s

Positive moment resistance First it is assumed that the equivalent compression stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neutral axis

and the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD

eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

APS f PU + As f s

c=

1 f c1bslab + kAPS

f pu

dp

stress in mild reinforcement fs can be taken as equal to fy. The limit on ratio

c/ds is calculated depending on what kind of code and its interim are specified in the Bridge Design Preferences form as shown in the table below:

Code

7 - 18

Flexure Design

with 2013 Interims or

No Interims

later

0.6

0.003

0.003 +

Ratio limit

where the compression control strain limit is per AASHTO LRFD 2013

Interims table C5.7.2.1-1

When the limit is not satisfied the stress in mild reinforcement f s is reduced

to satisfy the requirement of Section 5.7.2.1.The distance c is compared to

the slab thickness. If the distance to the neutral axis c is larger than the composite slab thickness, the distance c is re-evaluated. For this calculation, the

beam flange width and area are converted to their equivalents in slab concrete by multiplying the beam flange width by the modular ratio between the

precast girder concrete and the slab concrete. The web width in the equation

for c is substituted for the effective converted girder flange width. The distance c is recalculated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c=

f pu

1 f c 1bwebeq + kAPS

y pt

If the calculated value of c exceeds the sum of the deck thickness and the

equivalent precast girder flange thickness, the program assumes the neutral

axis is below the flange of the precast girder and recalculates c. The term

1 ( ) in the calculation is broken into two terms, one refers to the

contribution of the deck to the composite section flange and the second refers

to the contribution of the precast girder flange to the composite girder flange.

Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with

AASHTO LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-1.

=

fPS fPU 1 k

dp

LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1.

Flexure Design

7 - 19

c tslabeq

c

c

=

M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 + 1 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq 1

;

2

2

2

2

else

c

c

=

M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1

2

2

Mr = M n

Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and

the controlling demand set name is recorded.

The process for evaluating negative moment resistance is analogous, except

that calculation of positive moment resistance is not applicable.

7.3.4

Girder spacing: 9'-8"

Girder type: AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72 inches deep, 42-inch-wide top

flange, and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO 28/72 Girders)

Concrete deck: 8 inches thick, haunch thickness assumed = 0

7 - 20

Flexure Design

Materials

Concrete strength

=

6 ksi,

Prestressed girders 28-day strength, fc

Girder final elastic modulus, E c

=

4,696 ksi

Deck slab

=

4.0 ksi,

=

3,834 ksi

Deck slab elastic modulus, E s

=

60 ksi

Reinforcing steel yield strength, f y

Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270

=

0.153 in2

Strand area, A ps

Flexure Design

7 - 21

Steel ultimate strength, f pu

Prestressing steel modulus, E p

=

=

=

243 ksi

270 ksi

28,500 ksi

Depth

Thickness of web

Area, A g

Moment of inertia, I g

N.A. to top, y t

N.A. to bottom, y b

P/S force eccentricity e

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

72 in.

8 in.

1,085 in2

733,320 in4

35.62 in.

36.38 in.

31.380 in.

flange width of the concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width.

For the interior beam, the b slab = 9'-8" = 116 in.

Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they

resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive moment

when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the bottom

fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends over a

zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme compression

fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.

For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is

determined:

7 - 22

APTbottom =

44 0.153 =

6.732 in 2

Value reported by CSiBridge = 6.732 in2

12 2 + 12 4 + 10 6 + 6 8 + 4 10

yPTbottom = ( 72 + 8 )

= 75 in

12 + 12 + 10 + 6 + 4

Value reported by CSiBridge = 270 kip

Flexure Design

f py

243

k= 2 1.04

= 0.28

= 2 1.04

f

270

pu

1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD

5.7.2.2 based on the composite slab f c

1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strength not exceeding 4.0 ksi. If

f c > 4 ksi, then 1 shall be reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of

strength in excess of 4.0 ksi. Since fc = 4 ksi, 1 = 0.85.

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 0.85 (not reported)

The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in

accordance with AASHTO LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-4.

c=

APTbottom f pu

0.85 f c 1 bslab + k APTbottom

f pu

yPTbottom

6.732 * 270

= 5.314 in

270

0.85 4 0.85 116 + 0.28 6.732

75

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 5.314 in

the c needs to be re-evaluated to include the precast beam flange in the

equivalent compression block.

Since c = 5.314 in < 8 in, the c is valid.

Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with

AASHTO LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-1.

c

5.314

f ps = f pu 1 k

= 270 1 0.28

= 264.64 ksi

75

yPTbottom

LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1.

Flexure Design

7 - 23

c

5.314 0.85

2

2

= 129593.17

=

12 10 799.4 kip-ft

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 107 99 kip-ft (not reported)

Mr =

M n =

0.9 10 799.4 =

9719.5 kip-ft

7 - 24

Flexure Design

Chapter 8

Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

This chapter describes the algorithms CSiBridge applies when designing steel

I-beam with composite slab superstructures in accordance with, the AASHTO

LRFD 2014 (AASHTO LRFD).

8.1

Section Properties

8.1.1.1

with AASHTO LRFD Section D6.2.2 using the following user-defined input,

which is part of the Design Request (see Chapter 4 for more information about

Design Request).

Mdnc = The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that

represents the moment caused by the factored permanent load applied

before the concrete deck has hardened or is made composite.

Mdc =

The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that

represents the moment caused by the remainder of the factored permanent load (applied to the composite section).

8- 1

Fyt =

M dnc M dc M AD

+

+

S NC

SLT

SST

M y = M dnc + M dc + M AD

where

SNC =

SLT =

SST =

My is taken as the lesser value calculated for the compression flange, Myc,

or the tension flange, Myt. The positive My is calculated only once based

on Mdnc and Mdc demands specified by the user in the Design Request. It

should be noted that the My calculated in the procedure described here is

used by the program only to determine Mnpos for a compact section in

positive bending in a continuous span, where the nominal flexural resistance may be controlled by My in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD

eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3).

M n 1.3 Rh M y

8.1.1.2

For composite sections in negative flexure, the procedure described for positive

yield moment is followed, except that the composite section for both short-term

and long-term moments consists of the steel section and the longitudinal reinforcement within the tributary width of the concrete deck. Thus, SST and SLT are

the same value. Also, Myt is taken with respect to either the tension flange or

the longitudinal reinforcement, whichever yields first.

The negative My is calculated only once based on the Mdnc and Mdc demands

specified by the user in the Design Request. It should be noted that the My calculated in the procedure described here is used by the program solely to determine the limiting slenderness ratio for a compact web corresponding to 2Dcp /tw

in (AASHTO LRFD eq. A6.2.1-2).

8-2

Section Properties

=

pw( Dcp )

E

Fyc

Dcp

rw

Mp

Dc

0.09

0.54

Rh M y

and web plastification factors in (AASHTO LRFD eqs. A.6.2.2-4 and A6.2.25).

Rh M yc

R pc = 1 1

Mp

w pw( Dc )

rw pw( Dc )

M p

Mp

M yc M yc

Rh M yt

R pt = 1 1

Mp

w pw( Dc )

rw pw( Dc )

M p M p

M yt M yt

8.1.2.1

The positive plastic moment, Mp, is calculated as the moment of the plastic

forces about the plastic neutral axis. Plastic forces in the steel portions of a

cross-section are calculated using the yield strengths of the flanges, the web,

and reinforcing steel, as appropriate. Plastic forces in the concrete portions of

the cross-section that are in compression are based on a rectangular stress block

with the magnitude of the compressive stress equal to 0.85 fc. Concrete in tension is neglected. The position of the plastic neutral axis is determined by the

equilibrium condition that there is no net axial force.

The plastic moment of a composite section in positive flexure is determined by:

Calculating the element forces and using them to determine if the plastic neutral axis is in the web, top flange, or concrete deck

Calculating the location of the plastic neutral axis within the element determined in the first step

Calculating Mp.

Section Properties

8-3

Equations for the various potential locations of the plastic neutral axis (PNA)

are given in Table 8-1.

Table 8-1 Calculation of PNA and M p for Sections in Positive Flexure

Case

PNA

In Web

D P Pc Ps Prt Prb

=

+ 1

Y t

Pw

2

Pt + Pw

2

Pw 2 (

P c + P s + P rb + P n

=

M

Y + D Y ) + [ Ps ds + Prt drt + Prb d rb + Pc dc + Pt dt ]

p

2D

t P + Pt Ps Prt Prb

=

+ 1

Y c w

Pc

2

Pt + Pw + Pc

2

P

c 2

Ps + Prb + Pn

=

M

Y + ( tc Y ) + [ Ps ds + Pn dn + Prb d rb + Pw dw + Pt dt ]

p

2tc

II

In Top

Flange

III

Concrete

Deck

Below

Prb

Pt + P w + Pc

crb

Ps + Prb + Pn

t2

IV

Concrete

Deck at

Prb

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb

crb

Ps + Pn

ts

Concrete

Deck

Above

Prb and

Below

Prt

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb

crt

Ps + Pn

ts

VI

Concrete

Deck at

Prt

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Pn

crt

Ps

ts

8-4

Y and M p

Condition

Section Properties

P + Pw + Pt Prt Prb

Y = ( ts ) c

Ps

2

Y Ps

M=

p

2t s

Y = crb

Y 2 Ps

M=

+ [ Prt drt + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]

p

2t s

P + Pc + Pw + Pt Prt

Y = ( t s ) rb

Ps

Y 2 Ps

M=

p

2t s

Y = crt

Y 2 Ps

M=

+ [ Prb drb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]

p

2t s

Case

PNA

VII

Concrete

Deck

Above

Prt

Y and M p

Condition

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Prt <

crt

Ps

ts

P + Pc + Pw + Pt + Prt

Y = ( t s ) rb

Ps

Y 2 Ps

M=

p

2t s

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 6.10.7.3)

Dp 0.42Dt

where Dp is the distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of

the composite section at the plastic moment, and Dt is the total depth of the

composite section. At the section where the ductility requirement is not satisfied, the plastic moment of a composite section in positive flexure is set to zero.

bs

Art

ts

Crt

Arb

Prt

Crb

Ps

Prb

bc

tc

tw

Pc

PNA

PNA

Y

Y

PNA

Pw

Pt

tt

CASE I

CASES III-VII

CASE II

bt

Figure 8-1 Plastic Neutral Axis Cases -- Positive Flexure

8.1.2.2

an analogous procedure. Equations for the two cases most likely to occur in

Section Properties

8-5

practice are given in Table 8-2. The plastic moment of a noncomposite section

is calculated by eliminating the terms pertaining to the concrete deck and longitudinal reinforcement from the equations in Tables 8-1 and 8-2 for composite

sections.

Table 8-2 Calculation of PNA and Mp for Sections in Negative Flexure

Case

PNA

Condition

Y and Mp

In Web

D P Pt Prt Prb

Y c

=

+ 1

2

P

w

Pc + Pw Pt + Prb + Pn

2

Pw 2 (

M

=

Y + D Y ) + [ Pn dn + Prb drb + Pt dt + Pd

p

l l]

2D

II

In Top

Flange

t P Pc Prt Prb

Y l w

=

+ 1

Pt

2

Pc + Pw + Pt Prb + Pn

2

Pt 2

M

=

Y + ( tl Y ) + [ Pn dn + Prb drb + Pw dw + Pc dc ]

p

2tl

Art

Arb

Prt

Prb

ts

bc

tt

tw

Pt

Y

PNA

Pw

Pc

tc

bc

CASE I

CASE V

in which

Prt = Fyrt Art

Ps = 0.85 fc bsts

8-6

PNA

Y

Section Properties

CASE II

Pc = Fycbctc

Pw = Fyw Dtw

Pt = Fyt bttt

In the equations for Mp given in Tables 8-1 and 8-2, d is the distance from an

element force to the plastic neutral axis. Element forces act at (a) mid-thickness

for the flanges and the concrete deck, (b) mid-depth of the web, and (c) center

of reinforcement. All element forces, dimensions, and distances are taken as

positive. The conditions are checked in the order listed in Tables 8-1 and 8-2.

8.1.3.1

The program determines if the section can be qualified as compact based on the

following criteria:

the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,

the web satisfies the requirement of AASHTO LRFD Article (6.10.2.1.1),

D

150

tw

2 Dcp

tw

3.76

E

.

Fyc

The program does not verify if the composite section is kinked (chorded) continuous or horizontally curved.

8.1.3.2

of the AASHTO LRFD Edition based on the following criteria:

the Design Request Parameter Use Appendix A? is set to Yes (see Chapter

4 for more information about setting parameters in the Design Request),

Section Properties

8-7

the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,

the web satisfies the noncompact slenderness limit,

2 Dc

E

< 5.7

tw

Fyc

I yc

I yt

0.3.

The program does not verify if the composite section is kinked (chorded) continuous or horizontally curved.

8.1.3.3

For rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections, and built-up sections with a

higher-strength steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Otherwise the hybrid factor is taken as:

Rh =

12 + ( 3 3 )

12 + 2

where

=the smaller of Fyw fn and 1.0

2 Dn t w

A fn

Dn = the distance from the elastic neutral axis of the cross-section to

the inside face of bottom flange

Fn = fy of the bottom flange

8-8

Section Properties

8.1.3.4

For rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections, and built-up sections with a

higher-strength steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Otherwise the hybrid factor is taken as:

Rh =

12 + ( 3 3 )

12 + 2

where

=

2 Dn t w

A fn

Afn = Flange area on the side of the neutral axis corresponding to Dn.

If the top flange controls, then the area of longitudinal rebar in

the slab is included in calculating Afn.

Dn = The larger of the distances from the elastic neutral axis of the

cross-section to the inside face of either flange. For sections

where the neutral axis is at the mid-depth of the web, this distance is from the neutral axis to the inside face of the flange on

the side of the neutral axis where yielding occurs first.

Fn = fy of the controlling flange. When the top flange controls, then

Fn is equal to the largest of the minimum specified yield

strengths of the top flange or the longitudinal rebar in the slab.

8.1.3.5

For rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections, and built-up sections with a

higher-strength steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Otherwise the hybrid factor is taken as:

Rh =

12 + ( 3 3 )

12 + 2

where

Section Properties

8-9

2 Dn t w

A fn

Afn = Flange area on the side of the neutral axis corresponding to Dn.

Dn = The larger of the distances from the elastic neutral axis of the

cross-section to the inside face of either flange. For sections

where the neutral axis is at the mid-depth of the web, this distance is from the neutral axis to the inside face of the flange on

the side of the neutral axis where yielding occurs first.

Fn = fy of the controlling flange.

8.1.3.6

LRFD Article 6.10.2.1 or for composite sections in positive flexure, the Rb factor is taken as equal to 1.0. For composite sections in negative flexure, the Rb

factor is taken as:

awc

2 Dc

rw 1.0

Rb =

1

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.10.2)

where

rw =

5.7

awc =

E

Fyc

2 Dc t w

b fc t fc

When the user specifies the Design Request parameter Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners? as yes, the Rb factor is set to 1.0 (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying Design Request parameters).

8 - 10

Section Properties

8.1.3.7

The program assumes that the top flange is continuously braced for all Design

Requests, except for Constructability. For more information about flange lateral bracing in a Constructability Design Request, see Section 8.6 of this manual.

The unbraced length Lb for the bottom flange is equal to the distance between

the nearest downstation and upstation qualifying cross diaphragms or span end

as defined in the Bridge Object [the preceding sentence needs to be clarified].

Some of the diaphragm types available in CSiBridge may not necessarily provide restraint to the bottom flange. The program assumes that the following diaphragm qualifies as providing lateral restraint to the bottom flange: single

beam, all types of chords and braces except V braces without bottom beams.

The program calculates demands and capacities pertaining to a given section

cut at a given station without considering section transition within the unbraced

length. It does not search for the highest demands vs. the smallest resistance Fnc

within the unbraced length as the code suggests. It is also setting the value of

the moment gradient modifier equal to 1.0. It is the responsibility of the user to

pay special attention to the section transition within the unbraced length and to

follow the guidelines in AASHTO LRFD C6.10.8.2.3.

8.2

Demand Sets

Demand Set combos (at least one is required) are user-defined combinations

based on LRFD combinations (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying Demand Sets). The demands from all specified demand combos are enveloped and used to calculate D/C ratios. The way the demands are used depends on if the design parameter "Use Stage Analysis? is set to Yes or No.

If Use Stage Analysis? = Yes, the program reads the stresses on beams and

slabs directly from the section cut results. The program assumes that the effects

of the staging of loads applied to non-composite versus composite sections, as

well as the concrete slab material time dependent properties, were captured by

using the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case available in CSiBridge.

Note that the Design Request for staged constructability check (Steel-I Comp

Construct Stgd) allows only Nonlinear Staged Construction load cases to be

used as Demand Sets.

Demand Sets

8 - 11

If Use Stage Analysis? = No, the program decomposes load cases present in

every demand set combo to three Bridge Design Action categories: noncomposite, composite long term, and composite short term. The program uses

the load case Bridge Design Action parameter to assign the load cases to the

appropriate categories. A default Bridge Design Action parameter is assigned

to a load case based on its Design Type. However, the parameter can be overwritten: click the Analysis > Load Cases > {Type} > New command to display the Load Case Data {Type} form; click the Design button next to the

Load case type dropdown list; under the heading Bridge Design Action, select

the User Defined option and select a value from the list. The assigned Bridge

Designed Action values are handled by the program in the following manner:

Table 8-3 Bridge Design Action

Bridge Design Action Value

Specified by the User

the Design Algorithm

Non-Composite

Non-Composite

Long-Term Composite

Long-Term Composite

Short-Term Composite

Short-Term Composite

Staged

Non-Composite

Other

Non-Composite

Evaluation of the flange stress, fbu, calculated without consideration of flange

lateral bending is dependent on setting the Design Request parameter Use

Stage Analysis?

If the Use Stage Analysis? = No, then

fbu =

P

Acomp

M NC M LTC M STC

+

+

Ssteel

SLTC

SSTC

where MNC is the demand moment on the non-composite section, MLTC is the

demand moment on the long-term composite section, and MSTC is the demand

moment on the short-term composite section.

8 - 12

Demand Sets

The short-term section modulus for positive moment is calculated by transforming the concrete deck using the steel-to-concrete modular ratio. The longterm section modulus for positive moment is calculated using a modular ratio

factored by n, where n is specified in the Design Parameter as the Modular

ratio long-term multiplier. The effect of compression reinforcement is ignored. For negative moment, the concrete deck is assumed cracked and is not

included in the section modulus calculations while tension reinforcement is accounted for.

If Use Stage Analysis? = Yes, then the fbu stresses on each flange are read directly from the section cut results. The program assumes that the effects of the

staging of loads applied to non-composite versus composite sections, as well as

the concrete slab material time dependent properties, were captured by using

the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case available in CSiBridge.

In the Strength Design Check, the program verifies the sign of the stress in the

composite slab, and if stress is positive (tension), the program assumes that the

entire section cut demand moment is carried by the steel section only. This is to

reflect the fact that the concrete in the composite slab is cracked and does not

contribute to the resistance of the section. Flange stress ff , used in the Service

Design Check, is evaluated in the same manner as stress fbu, with one exception. When the Steel Service Design Request parameter Does concrete slab resist tension? is set to Yes, the program uses section properties based on a

transformed section that assumes the concrete slab to be fully effective in both

tension and compression.

In the Constructability checks, the program proceeds based on the status of the

concrete slab. When no slab is present or the slab is non-composite, the fbu

stresses on each flange are read directly from the section cut results. When the

slab status is composite, the program verifies the sign of the stress in the composite slab, and if stress is positive (tension), the program assumes that the entire section cut demand moment is carried by the steel section only. This is to

reflect the fact that the concrete in the composite slab is cracked and does not

contribute to the resistance of the section.

The flange lateral bending stress fl is evaluated only when all of the following

conditions are met:

Demand Sets

8 - 13

Steel Girders has been selected for the deck section type (Components >

Superstructure Item > Deck Sections command) and the Girder Modeling

In Area Object Models Model Girders Using Area Objects option is set to

Yes on the Define Bridge Section Data Steel Girder form.

The bridge object is modeled using Area Objects. This option can be set using the Bridge > Update command to display the Update Bridge Structural

Model form; then select the Update as Area Object Model option.

The Design Parameter Use Stage Analysis is set to Yes

Set the Live Load Distribution to Girders method to Use Forces Directly

from CSiBridge on the Bridge Design Request Superstructure {Code}

form, which displays when the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design >

Design Requests command is used (see Chapter 3 for more information

about Live Load Distribution). Since there is no live load used in the Constructability design, request this setting does not apply in that case.

In all other cases, the flange lateral bending stress is set to zero. The fl stresses

on each flange are read directly from the section cut results.

For composite sections in positive flexure, the depth of the web in compression

is computed using the following equation:

fc

=

Dc

d t fc 0

fc + ft

where

8 - 14

Demand Sets

DC1, the permanent load acting on the noncomposite section; DC2, the

permanent load acting on the long-term composite section; DW, the wearing surface load; and LL+IM; acting on their respective sections. fc is taken

as negative when the stress is in compression. Flange lateral bending is disregarded in this calculation.

ft = Sum of the tension-flange stresses caused by the different loads. Flange lateral bending is disregarded in this calculation.

For composite sections in negative flexure, Dc is computed for the section consisting of the steel girder plus the longitudinal reinforcement, with the exception of the following. For composite sections in negative flexure at the Service

Design Check Request where the concrete deck is considered effective in tension for computing flexural stresses on the composite section (Design Parameter Does concrete slab resist tension? = Yes), Dc is computed from AASHTO

LRFD Eq. D 6.3.1-1. For this case, the stresses fc and ft are switched, the signs

shown in the stress diagram are reversed, tfc is the thickness of the bottom

flange, and Dc instead extends from the neutral axis down to the top of the bottom flange.

8.3

The Strength Design Check calculates at every section cut positive flexural

capacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. It then compares the

capacities against the envelope of demands specified in the Design Request.

8.3.1 Flexure

8.3.1.1

If Dp 0.1 Dt, then Mn = Mp; otherwise

Dp

=

M n M p 1.07 0.7

Dt

Strength Design Request

8 - 15

Mn 1.3RhMy

where Rh is a hybrid factor for the section in positive flexure.

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

1

Mu + 3 f1S xt

f

DoverC = max

, l

f Mn

0.6 Fyf

8.3.1.2

Fnc = RbRhFyc

Fnt = RhFyt

1

fbu + 3 f1 fbu

f

DoverC = max

,

, l

f Fnt f Fnc 0.6 Fyf

8.3.1.3

AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.8.2.2 is taken as:

If f pf, then Fnc = RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.2-1)

Otherwise

Fyr f pf

Fnc = 1 1

Rb Rh Fyc

Rh Fyc rf pf

in which

8 - 16

(6.10.8.2.2-2)

b fc

f =

2t fc

(6.10.8.2.2-3)

0.38

pf =

E

Fyc

(6.10.8.2.2-4)

0.56

rf =

E

Fyr

(6.10.8.2.2-5)

the cross-section, including residual stress effects, but not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the smaller of

0.7Fyc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5 Fyc.

The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange Fnc(LTB) as

specified in AASHTO LRFD Article (6.10.8.2.3) is taken as follows:

If Lb Lp, then Fnc = RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.3-1)

Fyr Lb L p

Fnc= Cb 1 1

Rh Fyc Lr L p

Rb Rh Fyc Rb Rh Fyc

(6.10.8.2.3-2)

(6.10.8.2.3-3)

in which

Lb = unbraced length,

L p = 1.0rt

E

,

Fyc

Lr = rt

E

Fyr

Fcr =

Cb Rb 2 E

Lb

r

t

(6.10.8.2.3-8)

8 - 17

rt =

b fc

(6.10.8.2.3-9)

1 Dc t w

12 1 +

3 b fc t fc

the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling

resistance:

The nominal flexural resistance of the top tension flange is taken as:

f Rh Fyf

(6.10.8.1.3-1)

1

fbu + 3 f1

fbu

f

DoverC = max

,

, 1

f Fm f Rh Fyf 0.6 Fyc

8.3.1.4

Sections that satisfy the following requirement qualify as compact web sections:

2 Dcp

tw

pw( Dcp )

where

=

pw( Dcp )

5.7

rw =

8 - 18

E

Fyc

Dcp

Mp

Dc

0.09

0.54

Rh M y

E

Fyc

Dc

Dcp

R pc =

R pt =

Mp

M yc

Mp

M yt

Sections that do not satisfy the requirement for compact web sections, but for

which the web slenderness satisfies the following requirement:

w < rw

2D

w = c

tw

where

5.7

rw =

E

Fyc

Rh M yc

R pc = 1 1

Mp

w pw( Dc )

tw pw( Dc )

M p

Mp

M yc M yc

Rh M yt

R pt = 1 1

Mp

w pw( Dc )

rw pw( Dc )

M p M p

M yt M yt

where

8 - 19

D

pw( Dc ) = pw( Dc p ) c

Dcp

rw

AASHTO LRFD Article A6.3.2 is taken as:

If f pf , then M nc = R pc M yc

F S pf

Otherwise M nc = 1 1 yr xc f

R pc M yc rf pf

R pc M yc

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.2-2)

in which

b fc

f =

2t fc

0.38

pf =

E

Fyc

0.95

rf =

Ekc

Fyr

4

D

tw

SapObject.SapModel.PropFrame.GetNameList; PropType argument)

kc = 0.76

The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange MncLTB as

specified in AASHTO LRFD Article A6.3.3 is taken as Mnc = RpcMyc:

If Lb L p , then M nc = R pc M yc .

If L p < Lb Lr , then

8 - 20

Fyr S xc Lb L p

M nc= Cb 1 1

R pc M yc Lr L p

R pc M yc R pc M yc

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-2)

If Lb > Lr , then=

M nc Fcr S xc R pc M yc

in which

Lb = unbraced length,

L p = 1.0rt

=

Lr 1.95rt

E

Fyc

E

Fyr

Fyr S xc h

1 + 1 + 6.76

S xc h

E J

J

=

Fcr

C b 2 E

( Lb rt )

3

Dt 3 b fc t ft

J =w +

3

3

rt =

1 + 0.078

J

S xc h

t fc

1 0.63

b fc

b fc

1 Dc t w

12 1 +

3 b fc t fc

( Lb rt )

b ft t 3ft

+

3

t ft

1 0.63

b ft

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-10)

the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling

resistance:

8 - 21

The nominal flexural resistance of the top tension flange is taken as:

f R pt M yt

1

Mu + 3 f1S xc

Mu

f

, 1

DoverC = max

,

f M nc

f R pt M yt 0.6 Fyc

8.3.2 Shear

When processing the Design Request from the Design module, the program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and classifies all web panels

as unstiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is

not sufficient to resist the demand specified in the Design Request, the program

recommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a Demand over Capacity

ratio equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported in the result table under the column heading d0req.

In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffeners locations and the program recalculates the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified

in AASHTO LRFD section 6.10.9.1e. It should be noted that stiffeners are not

modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does

not affect the magnitude of the demands.

8.3.2.1

Vn = CVp

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

that is determined as follows:

8 - 22

If

D

Ek

1.12

, then C = 1.0.

tw

Fyw

If 1.12

Ek D

Ek

1.12

, then C =

< 1.40

D

Fyw t w

Fyw

tw

Ek

.

Fyw

If

D

Ek

1.57 Ek

, then C =

> 1.40

,

2

tw

Fyw

D Fyw

t

w

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-6)

in which k= 5 +

8.3.2.2

5

dc

D

The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel and with the section at

the section cut proportioned such that:

2 Dt w

2.5

( b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

is taken as

0.87 (1 C )

Vn Vp C +

=

2

do

1+

where

do = transverse stiffener spacing.

8 - 23

0.87 (1 C )

Vn Vp C +

=

2

do

do

1

+

+

D

D

8.3.2.3

Vn = Vcr = CVp

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

DoverC =

8.4

Vu

.

vVn

The Service Design Check calculates at every section cut stresses ff at the top

steel flange of the composite section and the bottom steel flange of the composite section and compares them against limits specified in AASHTO LRFD

Section 6.10.4.2.2.

For the top steel flange of composite sections:

DoverC =

ff

0.95 Rh Fyf

fl

2 .

DoverC =

0.95 Rh Fyf

ff +

8 - 24

fl

2 .

DoverC =

0.80 Rh Fyf

ff +

The flange stresses are derived in the same way as fbu stress demands (see Section 8.2.1 of this manual). The user has an option to specify if the concrete slab

resists tension or not by setting the Does concrete slab resist tension? Design

Request parameter. It is the responsibility of the user to verify if the slab qualifies, in accordance with Does concrete slab resist tension? Section 6.10.4.2.1,

to resist tension.

For compact composite sections in positive flexure used in shored construction,

the longitudinal compressive stress in the concrete deck, determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.1.1d, is checked against 0.6 f c .

DoverC = fdeck/0.6 f c

Except for composite sections in positive flexure in which the web satisfies the

requirement of AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.2.1.1, all section cuts are checked

against the following requirement:

DoverC =

fc

Fcrw

where:

fc

= Compression-flange stress at the section under consideration due to demand loads calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending.

Fcrw = Nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs without longitudinal stiffeners determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9

Fcrw =

0.9 Ek

D

t

w

k

8 - 25

k=

( Dc

D)

where

Dc = Depth of the web in compression in the elastic range determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article D6.3.1.

When both edges of the web are in compression, k is taken as 7.2.

The highest Demand over Capacity ratio together with controlling equation is

reported for each section cut.

8.5

Web Fatigue Design Request is used to calculate the Demand over Capacity ratio as defined in AASHTO LRFD Section 6.10.5.3 Special Fatigue Requirement for Webs. The requirement is applicable to interior panels of webs with

transverse stiffeners. When processing the Design Request from the Design

module, the program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and

classifies all web panels as unstiffened. Therefore, when the Design Request is

completed from the Design module, the Design Result Status table shows the

message text No stiffeners defined use optimization form to define stiffeners.

In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffener locations, and then the program

can recalculate the Web Fatigue Request. In that case the program classifies the

web panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria

specified in AASHTO LRFD Section 6.10.9.1. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not affect the magnitude of the demands.

DoverC = Vu Vcr

where

Vu = Shear in the web at the section under consideration due to demand specified in the Design Request demand set combos. If the live load distribution to girders method Use Factor Specified by Design Code is select8 - 26

ed in the Design Request, the program adjusts for the multiple presence

factor to account for the fact that fatigue load occupies only one lane

(AASHTO LRFD Section 3.6.1.4.3b) and multiple presence factors shall

not be applied when checking for the fatigue limit state (AASHTO

LRFD Section 3.6.1.1.2).

Vcr = Shear-buckling resistance determined from AASHTO LRFD eq.

6.10.9.3.3-1 (see Section 8.3.2.3 of this manual)

8.6

This request enables the user to verify the superstructure during construction

using a Nonlinear Staged Construction load case. The use of nonlinear staged

analysis allows the user to define multiple snapshots of the structure during

construction where parts of the bridge deck may be at various completion stages. The user can control which stages the program will include in the calculations of controlling demand over capacity ratios.

For each section cut specified in the Design Request, the constructability design check loops through the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case output

steps that correspond to Output Labels specified in the Demand Set. At each

step the program determines the status of the concrete slab at the girder section

cut. The slab status can be non present, present non-composite, or composite.

The Staged Constructability Design Check accepts Area Object models. The

Staged Constructability Design Check cannot be run on Solid or Spine models.

This request enables the user to verify Demand over Capacity ratios during

construction without the need to define and analyze a Nonlinear Staged Construction load case. For each section cut specified in the Design Request the

Constructability Design Check loops through all combos specified in the Demand Set list. At each combo the program assumes the status of the concrete

slab as specified by the user in the Slab Status column. The slab status can be

non-composite or composite and applies to all the section cuts.

8 - 27

Structural Model Options available in the Update Bridge Structural Model

form (Bridge > Update > Structural Model Options option).

On the basis of the slab status, the program calculates corresponding positive

flexural capacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. Next the program compares the capacities against demands specified in the Demand Set by

calculating the Demand over Capacity ratio. The controlling Demand Set and

Output Label on a girder basis are reported for every section cut.

When the slab status is composite, the program assumes that the top flange is

continuously braced. When slab status in not present or non-composite, the

program treats both flanges as discretely braced. It should be noted that the

program does not verify the presence of diaphragms at a particular output step.

It assumes that anytime a steel beam is activated at a given section cut that the

unbraced length Lb for the bottom flange is equal to the distance between the

nearest downstation and the upstation qualifying cross diaphragms or span ends

as defined in the Bridge Object. The program assumes the same Lb for the top

flange. In other words the unbraced length Lb is based on the cross diaphragms

that qualify as providing restraint to the bottom flange. Some of the diaphragm

types available in CSiBridge may not necessarily provide restraint to the top

flange. It is the users responsibility to provide top flange temporary bracing at

the diaphragm locations before slabs acting compositely.

8.6.4 Flexure

8.6.4.1

1

D

= max

,

,

,

f Rh Fyctop

C

F

f Rh Fytbot

f

nc

top

f

crw

top

where Fnctop is the nominal flexural resistance of the discretely braced top

flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.8.2 (also see

Section 8.3.1.3 of this manual) and Fcrwtop is the nominal bendbuckling re-

8 - 28

sistance for webs specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs

without longitudinal stiffeners.

Fcrw =

0.9 Ek

D

t

w

where

k=

9

Dc

8.6.4.2

fbucomp fbutens + flbot

fbucomp

,

,

D C = max

AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners

(also see Section 8.6.4.1 of this manual).

8.6.4.3

1

D C = max

,

,

,

f Rh Fycbot

f Fncbot

f Fcrwbot f Rh Fyttop

where Fncbot is the nominal flexural resistance of the discretely braced bottom

flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.8.2 (also see

Section 8.3.1.3 of this manual) and Fcrwbot is nominal bend-buckling resistance

8 - 29

for webs specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners (also see Section 8.6.4.1 of this manual).

8.6.4.4

1

f

f

D C = max

,

,

, butens , deck

f Rh Fycbot

f Fncbot

f Fcrwbot f Rh Fyttop t fr

where Fncbot is the nominal flexural resistance of the discretely braced bottom

flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.8.2 (also see

Section 8.3.1.3 of this manual), Fcrwbot is the nominal bendbuckling resistance

for webs specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners (also see Section 8.6.4.1 of this manual), and fdeck is the demand tensile stress in the deck and fr is the modulus of rupture of concrete as

determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.4.2.6.

8.6.5 Shear

When processing the Design Request from the Design module, the program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and classifies all web panels

as unstiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is

not sufficient to resist the demand specified in the Design Request and the controlling D over C ratio is occurring at a step when the slab status is composite,

the program recommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a Demand

over Capacity ratio equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported

in the result table under the column heading d0req.

In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffener locations and then the program

can recalculate the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web

panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified in Section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not

modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does

not affect the magnitude of the demands. Adding stiffeners also does not increase capacity of sections cuts where the concrete slab status is other than

composite.

8 - 30

8.6.5.1

V=

V=

CVP

n

cr

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

DoverC =

8.6.5.2

Vu

vVn

Composite Section

The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs is taken as:

Vn = CVp

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

that is determined as follows:

If

D

Ek

, then C = 1.0.

1.12

tw

Fyw

If 1.12

Ek D

Ek

1.12

, then C =

< 1.40

D

Fyw t w

Fyw

tw

Ek

.

Fyw

8 - 31

If

D

Ek

1.57 Ek

, then C =

> 1.40

,

2

tw

Fyw

D Fyw

t

w

AASHTO LRFD (6.10.9.3.2-6)

in which k= 5 +

5

dc

D

The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel, with the section at the

section cut proportioned such that

2 Dt w

2.5,

( b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

is taken as

0.87 (1 C )

Vn Vp C +

=

2

do

1+

where

do = transverse stiffener spacing.

Otherwise, the nominal shear resistance is taken as follows:

0.87 (1 C )

Vn Vp C +

=

2

do

do

1

+

+

D

D

The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:

V=

V=

CVP

n

cr

8 - 32

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

DoverC =

8.7

Vu

vVn

Section Optimization

After at least one Steel Design Request has been successfully processed,

CSiBridge enables the user to open a Steel Section Optimization module. The

Optimization module allows interactive modification of steel plate sizes and

definition of vertical stiffeners along each girder and span. It recalculates resistance on the fly based on the modified section without the need to unlock

the model and rerun the analysis. It should be noted that in the optimization

process the demands are not recalculated and are based on the current

CSiBridge analysis results.

The Optimization form allows simultaneous display of three versions of section

sizes and associated resistance results. The section plate size versions are As

Analyzed, As Designed, and Current. The section plots use distinct colors

for each version black for As Analyzed, blue for As Designed, and red for

Current. When the Optimization form is initially opened, all three versions are

identical and equal to As Analyzed.

Two graphs are available to display various forces, moments, stresses, and ratios for the As Analyzed or As Designed versions. The values plotted can be

controlled by clicking the Select Series to Plot button. The As Analyzed series are plotted as solid lines and the As Designed series as dashed lines.

To modify steel plate sizes or vertical stiffeners, a new form can be displayed

by clicking on the Modify Section button. After the section modification is

completed, the Current version is shown in red in the elevation and cross section views. After the resistance has been recalculated successfully by clicking

the Recalculate Resistance button, the Current version is designated to As Designed and displayed in blue.

Section Optimization

8 - 33

After the section optimization has been completed, the As Designed plate sizes

and materials can be applied to the analysis bridge object by clicking the OK

button. The button opens a new form that can be used to Unlock the existing

model (in that case all analysis results will be deleted) or save the file under a

new name (New File button). Clicking the Exit button does not apply the new

plate sizes to the bridge object and keeps the model locked. The As Designed

version of the plate sizes will be available the next time the form is opened, and

the Current version is discarded.

8 - 34

Section Optimization

Chapter 9

Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

This chapter describes the algorithms CSiBridge applies when designing steel

U-tub with composite slab superstructures in accordance with the AASHTO

LRFD 2014 (AASHTO LRFD).

9.1

Section Properties

9.1.1

Yield Moments

9.1.1.1

with section D6.2.2 of the code using the following user-defined input, which

is part of the Design Request (see Chapter 4 for more information about Design

Request).

Mdnc = The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that

represents the moment caused by the factored permanent load applied

before the concrete deck has hardened or is made composite.

Mdc =

The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that

represents the moment caused by the remainder of the factored permanent load (applied to the composite section).

9- 1

Fyt =

M dnc M dc M AD

+

+

S NC

SLT

SST

(D6.2.2-1)

M y = M dnc + M dc + M AD

(D6.2.2-2)

where

SNC =

SLT =

SST =

My is taken as the lesser value calculated for the compression flange, Myc, or the

tension flange, Myt. The positive My is calculated only once based on Mdnc and

Mdc demands specified by the user in the Design Request. It should be noted

that the My calculated in the procedure described here is used by the program

only to determine Mnpos for compact sections in positive bending in a continuous span, where the nominal flexural resistance may be controlled by My in accordance with (eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3).

M n 1.3 Rh M y

9.1.1.2

For composite sections in negative flexure, the procedure described for positive

yield moment is followed, except that the composite section for both short-term

and long-term moments consists of the steel section and the longitudinal reinforcement within the tributary width of the concrete deck. Thus, SST and SLT are

the same value. Also, Myt is taken with respect to either the tension flange or

the longitudinal reinforcement, whichever yields first. The negative My is calculated only once based on the Mdnc and Mdc demands specified by the user in

the Design Request.

9.1.2

Plastic Moments

9.1.2.1

The positive plastic moment, Mp, is calculated as the moment of the plastic

forces about the plastic neutral axis. Plastic forces in the steel portions of a

9-2

Section Properties

cross-section are calculated using the yield strengths of the flanges, the web,

and reinforcing steel, as appropriate. Plastic forces in the concrete portions of

the cross-section that are in compression are based on a rectangular stress block

with the magnitude of the compressive stress equal to 0.85 fc. Concrete in tension is neglected. The position of the plastic neutral axis is determined by the

equilibrium condition, where there is no net axial force.

The plastic moment of a composite section in positive flexure is determined by:

Calculating the effective width of bottom flange per 6.11.1.1

Calculating the element forces and using them to determine if the plastic neutral axis is in the web, top flange, or concrete deck;

Calculating the location of the plastic neutral axis within the element determined in the first step;

and

Calculating Mp.

Equations for the various potential locations of the plastic neutral axis (PNA)

are given in Table 9-1.

Table 9-1 Calculation of PNA and M p for Sections in Positive Flexure

Case

PNA

In Web

II

In Top

Flanges

Section Properties

Condition

Y and M p

D P Pc Ps Prt Prb

Y t

=

+ 1

Pw

2

P t + P w P c + P s + P rb +

2

Pw 2 (

Pn

M

=

Y + D Y ) + [ Ps ds + Prt drt + Prb d rb + Pc dc + Pt dt ]

p

2D

t P + Pt Ps Prt Prb

Y c w

=

+ 1

Pc

2

P t + P w + P c Ps + Prb +

Pn

2

Pc 2

=

M

Y + ( tc Y ) + [ Ps ds + Pn dn + Prb d rb + Pw dw + Pt dt ]

p

2t c

9-3

Y and M p

Case

PNA

III

Concrete

Deck

Below

Prb

c

Pt + Pw + Pc rb

t2

IV

Concrete

Deck at

Prb

c

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb rb Ps + Pn

ts

Concrete

Deck

Above

Prb and

Below

Prt

c

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb rt Ps + Pn

ts

VI

Concrete

Deck at

Prt

c

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Pn rt Ps

ts

VII

Concrete

Deck

Above

Prt

9-4

Condition

Ps + Prb + Pn

c

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Prt < rt

ts

Section Properties

Ps

P + Pw + Pt Prt Prb

Y = ( ts ) c

Ps

Y 2 Ps

M=

p

2t s

Y = crb

Y 2 Ps

M=

+ [ Prt drt + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]

p

2t s

P + Pc + Pw + Pt Prt

Y = ( t s ) rb

Ps

2

Y Ps

M=

p

2t s

Y = crt

Y 2 Ps

M=

+ [ Prb drb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]

p

2t s

P + Pc + Pw + Pt + Prt

Y = ( t s ) rb

Ps

Y 2 Ps

M=

p

2t s

Art

Crt

Arb

Prt

Ps

Prb

Crb

PNA

Y

Pc

Y

PNA

PNA

Pw

Pt

CASE I

CASE II

Prt

Ps

Prb

Pc

Pw

Pt

=

=

=

=

=

=

Fyrt Art

0.85 fc bsts

Fyrb Arb

2 Fycbctc

(2 Fyw Dtw)/cos web

Fyt bttt where bt is effective width of bottom flange per 6.11.1.1

Next the section is checked for ductility requirement in accordance with (eq.

6.10.7.3)

Dp 0.42Dt

where,

Dp is the distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the

composite section at the plastic moment.

Dt is the total depth of the composite section.

At the section where the ductility requirement is not satisfied, the plastic moment of a composite section in positive flexure is set to zero.

9.1.2.2

an analogous procedure. Equations for the two cases most likely to occur in

practice are given in Table 9-2. The plastic moment of a noncomposite section

Section Properties

9-5

is calculated by eliminating the terms pertaining to the concrete deck and longitudinal reinforcement from the equations for composite sections.

Table 9-2 Calculation of PNA and Mp for Sections in Negative Flexure

Case

PNA

Condition

Y and Mp

In Web

D P Pt Prt Prb

Y c

=

+ 1

Pw

2

Pc + Pw Pt + Prb + Pn

2

Pw 2 (

M

=

Y + D Y ) + [ Pn dn + Prb drb + Pt dt + Pd

p

l l]

2D

II

In Top

Flange

t P Pc Prt Prb

Y l w

=

+ 1

Pt

2

Pc + Pw + Pt Prb + Pn

2

Pt 2

M

=

Y + ( tl Y ) + [ Pn dn + Prb drb + Pw dw + Pc dc ]

p

2tl

Art

Arb

Prt

Prb

Pt

PNA

Y

Y

PNA

Pw

Pc

CASE I

CASE II

Prt

Ps

Prb

Pc

9-6

=

=

=

=

Fyrt Art

0

Fyrb Arb

Fycbctc where bc is effective width of bottom flange per 6.11.1.1

Section Properties

Pt = 2Fyt bttt

In the equations for Mp, d is the distance from an element force to the plastic

neutral axis. Element forces act at (a) mid-thickness for the flanges and the

concrete deck, (b) mid-depth of the web, and (c) center of reinforcement. All

element forces, dimensions, and distances are taken as positive. The conditions

are checked in the order listed.

9.1.3

9.1.3.1

The program determines if the section can be qualified as compact based on the

following criteria:

the bridge is not horizontally curved

the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,

the web satisfies the requirement of Article (6.11.2.1.2),

D

150

tw

the section satisfies requirements of 6.11.2.3

the box flange is fully effective as specified in 6.11.1.1

the section satisfies web slenderness limit

2 Dcp

tw

3.76

E

.

Fyc

(6.11.6.2.2-1)

The user can control in the design request parameters how the program shall

determine if the bridge is straight or horizontally. If the Determined by program option is selected the algorithm checks for radius of the layout line at

every valid section cut. If the radius is a definite number the bridge is classified

as horizontally curved.

Section Properties

9-7

9.1.3.2

steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Otherwise the hybrid

factor is taken as:

12 + ( 3 3 )

12 + 2

(6.10.1.10.1-1)

2 Dn t w

A fn

(6.10.1.10.1-2)

Rh =

where

Afn = bottom flange area.

Dn = the larger of the distances from the elastic neutral axis of the crosssection to the inside face of either flange. For sections where the neutral axis is at the mid-depth of the web, Dn is the distance from the

neutral axis to the inside face of the flange on the side of the neutral

axis where yielding occurs first.

Fn = fy of the bottom flange.

9.1.3.3

For composite sections in positive flexure, the Rb factor is taken as equal to 1.0.

9.1.3.4

awc

2 Dc

1

Rb =

t rw 1.0

+

1200

300

awc

w

(6.10.1.10.2)

where

rw = 5.7

9-8

Section Properties

E

Fyc

(6.10.1.10.2-4)

awc =

2 Dc t w

b fc t fc

(6.10.1.10.2-5)

When the user specifies the design request parameter Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners? as yes, the Rb factor is set to 1.0 (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying Design Request parameters).

9.2

Demand Sets

Demand Set combos (at least one required) are user-defined combination based

on LRFD combinations (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying

Demand Sets). The demands from all specified demand combos are enveloped

and used to calculate D/C ratios. The way the demands are used depends on if

the parameter "Use Stage Analysis? is set to Yes or No.

If Yes, the program reads the stresses on beams and slabs directly from the

section cut results. The program assumes that the effects of the staging of loads

applied to non-composite versus composite section and the concrete slab material time dependent properties were captured by using the nonlinear stage analysis load case available in CSiBridge.

If Use Stage Analysis? = No, the program decomposes load cases present in

every demand set combo to three Bridge Design Action categories: noncomposite, composite long term, and composite short term. The program uses

the load case Bridge Design Action parameter to assign the load cases to the

appropriate categories. A default Bridge Design Action parameter is assigned

to a load case based on its Design Type. However, the parameter can be

overwritten: click the Analysis > Load Cases > {Type} > New command to

display the Load Case Data {Type} form; click the Design button next to the

Load case type drop down list, under the heading Bridge Design Action select

the User Defined option and select a value from the list. The assigned Bridge

Designed Action values are handled by the program in the following manner:

Table 9-3 Bridge Design Action

Demand Sets

specified by the user

used in the design algorithm

Non-Composite

Non-Composite

9-9

9.2.1

specified by the user

used in the design algorithm

Long-Term Composite

Long-Term Composite

Short-Term Composite

Short-Term Composite

Staged

Non-Composite

Other

Non-Composite

Evaluation of the flange stress, fbu, calculated without consideration of flange

lateral bending is dependent on setting the Use Stage Analysis? design request parameter.

If the Use Stage Analysis? = No, then

fbu =

P

Acomp

M NC M LTC M STC

+

+

Ssteel

SLTC

SSTC

where,

MNC is the demand moment on the noncomposite section.

MLTC is the demand moment on the long-term composite section.

MSTC is the demand moment on the short-term composite section.

The short term section modulus for positive moment is calculated by transforming the concrete deck using steel to concrete modular ratio. The long term

section modulus for positive moment is using a modular ratio factored by n,

where n is specified in the Modular ratio long term multiplier Design Parameter. The effect of compression reinforcement is ignored. For negative moment,

the concrete deck is assumed cracked and is not included in the section modulus calculations, whereas tension reinforcement is taken into account.

The effective width of bottom flange per 6.11.1.1. is used to calculate the

stresses. However, when design request parameter Use Stage Analysis? =

9 - 10

Demand Sets

Yes, then the fbu stresses on both top and bottom flanges are read directly from

the section cut results. In that case the stresses are calculated based on gross

section; the use of effective section properties cannot be accommodated with

this option. Therefore, if the section bottom flange does not satisfy criteria of

6.11.1.1 as being fully effective, the design parameter "Use Stage Analysis?

should be set to No.

When Use Stage Analysis? = Yes, the program assumes that the effects of

the staging of loads applied to non-composite versus composite sections and

the concrete slab material time dependent properties were captured by using the

Nonlinear Staged Construction load case available in CSiBridge. The Modular

ratio long-term multiplier. is not used in this case.

The program verifies the sign of the stress in the composite slab, and if stress is

positive (tension), the program assumes that the entire section cut demand

moment is carried by the steel section only. This is to reflect the fact that the

concrete in the composite slab is cracked and does not contribute to the resistance of the section.

Flange stress ff used in the Service design check is evaluated in the same manner as the stress fbu, with one exception. When the Design Parameter Does

concrete slab resist tension? in the Steel Service Design request is set to

Yes, the program uses section properties based on a transformed section assuming the concrete slab to be fully effective in both tension and compression.

9.2.2

The top flange lateral bending stress fl is evaluated only for constructability design check when slab status is non-composite and when all of the following

conditions are met:

Steel Girders has been selected for the deck section type (Components >

Superstructure Item > Deck Sections command) and the Girder Modeling

In Area Object Models Model Girders Using Area Objects option is set to

Yes on the Define Bridge Section Data Steel Girder form.

The bridge object is modeled using Area Objects. This option can be set using the Bridge > Update command to display the Update Bridge Structural

Model form; then select the Update as Area Object Model option.

Demand Sets

9 - 11

In all other cases, the top flange lateral bending stress is set to zero. The fl

stresses on each top flange are read directly from the section cut results and the

maximum absolute value stress from the two top flanges is reported.

9.2.3

For composite sections in positive flexure, the depth of web in compression is

computed using the following equation:

fc

=

Dc

fc + ft

d t fc 0

(D6.3.1-1)

where,

fc = sum of the compression-flange stresses caused by the different loads, i.e.,

DC1, the permanent load acting on the noncomposite section; DC2, the

permanent load acting on the long-term composite section; DW, the wearing surface load; and LL+IM acting on their respective sections. fc is taken as negative when the stress is in compression. Flange lateral bending

is disregarded in this calculation.

ft = the sum of the tension-flange stresses caused by the different loads.

Flange lateral bending is disregarded in this calculation.

For composite sections in negative flexure, DC is computed for the section consisting of the steel U-tub plus the longitudinal reinforcement, with the excep9 - 12

Demand Sets

tion of the following. For composite sections in negative flexure at the Service

Design Check Request where the concrete deck is considered effective in tension for computing flexural stresses on the composite section (Design Parameter Does concrete slab resist tension? = Yes), DC is computed from (eq. D

6.3.1-1). For this case, the stresses fc and ft are switched, the signs shown in the

stress diagram are reversed, tfc is the thickness of the bottom flange, and DC instead extends from the neutral axis down to the top of the bottom flange.

9.3

The strength design check calculates at every section cut positive flexural capacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. It then compares the capacities against the envelope of demands specified in the design request.

9.3.1

Flexure

9.3.1.1

If Dp 0.1 Dt, then Mn = Mp, otherwise

Dp

=

M n M p 1.07 0.7

Dt

(6.10.7.1.2-2)

Mn 1.3RhMy

where Rh is a hybrid factor for the section in positive flexure.

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

9.3.1.2

9 - 13

Fnc = RbRhFyc

(6.11.7.2.1-1)

Fnt = RhFyt

(6.10.7.2.1-2)

Where

Where =

= 1 3

20

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

9.3.1.3

Negative Flexure

Nominal flexural resistance of continuously braced top flange in tension is taken as:

Fnt = RhFyt

(6.11.8.3)

taken as:

2

= 1

In which:

(6.11.8.2.2-1)

=

nominal axial compression buckling resistance of the flange under compression alone calculated as follows:

If , then:

=

9 - 14

(6.11.8.2.2-2)

If , then:

=

If , then:

0.3

f p

Rh

r

p

0.9

2

(6.11.8.2.2-3)

(6.11.8.2.2-4)

calculated as follows:

If 1.12

= 0.58

then:

(6.11.8.2.2-5)

0.65

If > 1.40

=

=

0.9

2

(6.11.8.2.2-6)

then:

(6.11.8.2.2-7)

0.57

0.95

(6.11.8.2.2-8)

(6.11.8.2.2-9)

(6.11.8.2.2-10)

9 - 15

ks

= 1 3

(6.11.8.2.2-11)

St. Venant torsional shear stress in the flange due to the factored

loads at the section under consideration (ksi)

20

(6.11.8.2.2-12)

yielding, with consideration of residual stress effects, or the

specified minimum yield strength of the web (ksi)

=

=

( 0.3)

4.0

5.34

(6.11.8.2.2-13)

9.3.2

Shear

When processing the design request from the Design module, the program assumes that no vertical stiffeners are present and classifies all web panels as unstiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is not sufficient to resist the demand specified in the design request, the program recommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a demand over capacity ratio

equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported in the result table

under the column heading d0req.

In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffener locations and the program recalculates the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web panels

9 - 16

Section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled

in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not affect

the magnitude of the demands.

9.3.2.1

In the following equations D is taken as depth of the web plate measured along

the slope and each web demand over capacity ratio is calculated based on shear

due to factored loads taken as

=

cos

Where Vu is vertical shear due to the factored loads on one inclined web and

web is the angle of inclination of the web plate to the vertical. The Vui value is

reported in the result tables.

The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs is taken as:

Vn = CVp

(6.10.9.2-1)

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

(6.10.9.2-2)

that is determined as follows:

If

D

Ek

, then C = 1.0.

1.12

tw

Fyw

If 1.12

If

(6.10.9.3.2-4)

1.12

Ek

D

Ek

, then C =

< 1.40

D

Fyw t w

Fyw

tw

D

Ek

1.57 Ek

, then C =

> 1.40

2

tw

Fyw

D Fyw

t

w

Ek

.

Fyw

(6.10.9.3.2-5)

(6.10.9.3.2-6)

9 - 17

in which k= 5 +

9.3.2.2

5

dc

D

(6.10.9.3.2-7)

The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel and with the section at

the section cut proportioned such that

2 Dt w

2.5

( b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

(6.10.9.3.2-1)

is taken as

0.87 (1 C )

Vn Vp C +

=

2

do

1+

(6.10.9.3.2-2)

(6.10.9.3.2-3)

where

do = transverse stiffener spacing.

Otherwise, the nominal shear resistance is taken as follows:

0.87 (1 C )

Vn Vp C +

=

2

d

do

1

+

+ o

D

D

9.3.2.3

(6.10.9.3.2-8)

V=

V=

CVp

n

cr

(6.10.9.3.3-1)

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

9 - 18

(6.10.9.3.3-2)

9.3.2.4

Torsion Effects

For all single box sections, horizontally curved section, and multiple box sections in bridges not satisfying the requirements of Article 6.11.2.3, or with bottom flange that is not fully effective according to the provisions of Article

6.11.1.1 Vui is taken as the sum of the flexural and St. Venant torsional shears.

The St. Venant torsional shear is calculated as:

=

20

=

9.4

The service design check calculates at every section cut stresses ff at top steel

flange of composite section, bottom steel flange of composite section and compares them against limits specified in Section 6.10.4.2.2 of the code.

For the top and bottom steel flange of composite sections:

=

0.95

(6.10.4.2.2-2)

The flange stresses are derived in the same way as fbu stress demands (see Section 9.2 of this manual). The user has an option to specify whether concrete

slab resists tension or not by setting the design request parameter Does concrete slab resist tension?. It is the responsibility of the user to verify if the slab

qualifies per Section 6.10.4.2.1 of the code to resist tension.

For compact composite sections in positive flexure utilized in shored construction, the longitudinal compressive stress in the concrete deck, determined as

specified in Article 6.10.1.1.1d, is checked against 0.6fc.

DoverC = fdeck/0.6fc

9 - 19

Except for composite sections in positive flexure in which the web satisfies the

requirement of Article 6.10.2.1.1, all section cuts are shall checked against the

following requirement:

where:

DoverC =

(6.10.4.2.2-4)

loads calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending

Fcrw - nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs without longitudinal stiffeners

determined as specified in Article 6.10.1.9

=

0.9

(6.10.1.9.1-1)

k=bend buckling coefficient

=

(6.10.1.9.1-2)

where Dc= depth of the web in compression in the elastic range determined as

specified in Article D6.3.1 of the code.

When both edges of the web are in compression, k is taken as 7.2.

The highest demand over capacity ratio together with controlling equation is

reported for each section cut.

9.5

Web Fatigue Design Request is used to calculate the demand over capacity ratio as defined in Section 6.10.5.3 of the code Special Fatigue Requirement for

Webs. The requirement is applicable to interior panels of webs with transverse

stiffeners. When processing the design request from the Design module, the

program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and classifies all

web panels as unstiffened. Therefore when the design request is completed

9 - 20

from the Design module the Design Result Status table shows message text

No stiffeners defined use optimization form to define stiffeners.

In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize

command), the user can specify stiffeners locations and the program recalculates the Web Fatigue Request. In that case the program classifies the web panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified

in Section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not

affect the magnitude of the demands.

In the following equations D is taken as depth of the web plate measured along

the slope and each web demand over capacity ratio is calculated based on shear

due to factored loads taken as

=

cos

Where Vu is vertical shear due to the factored loads on one inclined web and

web is the angle of inclination of the web plate to the vertical. The Vui value is

reported in the result tables.

For all single box sections, horizontally curved section, and multiple box sections in bridges not satisfying the requirements of Article 6.11.2.3, or with bottom flange that is not fully effective according to the provisions of Article

6.11.1.1 Vui is taken as the sum of the flexural and St. Venant torsional shears.

The St. Venant torsional shear is calculated as:

=

=

20

Code is selected in the design request the program adjusts for the multiple

presence factor to account for the fact that fatigue load occupies only one lane

(code Section 3.6.1.4.3b) and multiple presence factors shall not be applied

when checking for fatigue limit state (code Section 3.6.1.1.2).

Vcr = shear-buckling resistance determined from eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1 (see Section

9.3.2.3 of this manual)

Web Fatigue Design Request

9 - 21

DoverC=Vui/Vcr

9.6

9.6.1

(6.10.5.3-1)

This request enables the user to verify the superstructure during construction

by utilizing the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case. The use of nonlinear

staged analysis allows the user to define multiple snapshots of the structure

during construction where parts of the bridge deck may be at various completion stages. The user has a control of which stages the program will include in

the calculations of controlling demand over capacity ratios.

For each section cut specified in the design request the constructability design

check loops through the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case output steps

that correspond to Output Labels specified in the Demand Set. At each step the

program determines the status of the concrete slab at the girder section cut. The

slab status can be non-composite or composite.

The Staged Constructability design check accepts the following Bridge Object

Structural Model Options:

Area Object Model

Solid Object Model

The Staged Constructability design check cannot be run on Spine models.

9.6.2

This request enables the user to verify demand over capacity ratios during construction without the need to define and analyze Nonlinear Staged Construction

load case. For each section cut specified in the design request the constructability design check loops through all combos specified in the Demand Set list. At

each combo the program assumes the status of the concrete slab as specified by

the user in the Slab Status column. The slab status can be non-composite or

composite and applies to all the section cuts.

The Non-Staged Constructability design check accepts all Bridge Object Structural Model Options available in Update Bridge Structural Model form.

(Bridge > Update > Structural Model Options option)

9.6.3

Based on the slab status the program calculates corresponding positive flexural

capacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. Next the program

9 - 22

compares the capacities against demands specified in the Demand Set by calculating the demand over capacity ratio. The controlling Demand Set and Output

Label on girder basis are reported for every section cut.

When slab status is composite the program assumes that both top and bottom

flanges are continuously braced. When slab status in not present or noncomposite the program treats both top flanges as discretely braced. It should be

noted that the program does not verify presence of diaphragms at a particular

output step. It assumes that anytime a steel beam is activated at a given section

cut that the unbraced length Lb for the top flanges is equal to distance between

the nearest downstation and upstation qualifying cross diaphragms or span ends

as defined in the Bridge Object. In other words the unbraced length Lb is based

on the cross diaphragms that qualify as providing restraint to the bottom flange.

Some of the diaphragm types available in CSiBridge may not necessarily provide restraint to the top flanges. It is the user responsibility to provide top

flanges temporary bracing at the diaphragm locations prior to the slab acting

compositely.

9.6.4

Flexure

9.6.4.1

The local buckling resistance of the top compression flange Fnc(FLB) as specified

in Article 6.10.8.2.2 is taken as:

If f pf, then Fnc = RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.2-1)

Otherwise

Fyr f pf

Fnc = 1 1

Rb Rh Fyc

Rh Fyc rf pf

(6.10.8.2.2-2)

in which

f =

b fc

(6.10.8.2.2-3)

2t fc

pf = 0.38

E

Fyc

(6.10.8.2.2-4)

9 - 23

rf = 0.56

Fyr

E

Fyr

(6.10.8.2.2-5)

within the cross-section, including residual stress effects, but

not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the

smaller of 0.7Fyc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5 Fyc

The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the top compression flange Fnc(LTB)

as specified in Article (6.10.8.2.3) is taken as follows:

If Lb Lp, then Fnc = RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.3-1)

Fyr Lb L p

Fnc= Cb 1 1

Rb Rh Fyc Rb Rh Fyc .

Rh Fyc Lr L p

If Lb > Lr, then Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.3-2)

(6.10.8.2.3-3)

in which

E

E

=

=

length, L p 1.0

=

,

Lb unbraced

rt

Lr rt

Fyc

Fyr

Fcr =

rt =

Cb Rb 2 E

Lb

r

t

b fc

1 Dc t w

12 1 +

3 b fc t fc

(6.10.8.2.3-8)

(6.10.8.2.3-9)

The nominal flexural resistance of the top compression flange is taken as the

smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling resistance:

9 - 24

Fnt = RhFyt

(6.10.7.2.1-2)

Where

= 1 3

Where =

20

1

+ + 3

/ = max

,

,

,

,

0.6

AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners.

=

0.9

(6.10.1.9.1-1)

where =

9.6.4.2

Fnctop= RhFyc

(6.11.3.2.-3)

Where

9 - 25

Where =

= 1 3

20

Fntbot = RhFyt

(6.11.3.2.-3)

Where

Where =

= 1 3

20

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as:

9.6.4.3

/ = max

/ = max

+

,

,

0.6

Where Fnctbot is nominal flexural resistance of the continuously braced unstiffened bottom flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article

6.11.8.2.2-1 (also see Section 9.3.1.3 of this manual).

9.6.4.4

=

9 - 26

,

,

Where Fnctbot is nominal flexural resistance of the continuously braced unstiffened bottom flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article

6.11.8.2.2-1 (also see Section 9.3.1.3 of this manual), and

Where =

= 1 3

20

factored loads and A0 is enclosed area within the box section and fdeck is demand tensile stress in the deck and fr is modulus of rupture of concrete as determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.4.2.6

9.6.5

Shear

When processing the design request from the Design module, the program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and classifies all web panels

as unstiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is

not sufficient to resist the demand specified in the design request and the controlling demand over capacity ratio is occurring at step when the slab status is

composite, the program recommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a

demand over apacity ratio equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported in the result table under the column heading d0req.

In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffeners locations and the program recalculates the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified

in Section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not

affect the magnitude of the demands. Adding stiffeners also does not increase

capacity of sections cuts where concrete slab status is other then composite.

In the following equations D is taken as depth of the web plate measured along

the slope and each web demand over capacity ratio is calculated based on shear

due to factored loads taken as

=

cos

9 - 27

Where Vu is vertical shear due to the factored loads on one inclined web and

web is the angle of inclination of the web plate to the vertical. The Vui value is

reported in the result tables.

9.6.5.1

Torsion Effects

For all single box sections, horizontally curved section, and multiple box sections in bridges not satisfying the requirements of Article 6.11.2.3, or with bottom flange that is not fully effective according to the provisions of Article

6.11.1.1 Vui is taken as the sum of the flexural and St. Venant torsional shears.

The St. Venant torsional shear is calculated as:

=

9.6.5.2

20

= =

(6.10.9.3.3-1)

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

(6.10.9.3.3-2)

in which

DoverC =

9.6.5.3

Vu

vVn

Composite Sections

The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs is taken as:

Vn = CVp

(6.10.9.2-1)

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

9 - 28

(6.10.9.2-2)

that is determined as follows:

If

D

Ek

1.12

, then C = 1.0.

tw

Fyw

If 1.12

If

(6.10.9.3.2-4)

Ek

D

Ek

1.12

, then C =

< 1.40

D

Fyw t w

Fyw

tw

D

Ek

1.57 Ek

, then C =

> 1.40

2

tw

Fyw

D Fyw

t

w

in which k= 5 +

5

dc

D

Ek

.

Fyw

(6.10.9.3.2-5)

(6.10.9.3.2-6)

(6.10.9.3.2-7)

The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel and with the section at

the section cut proportioned such that:

2 Dt w

2.5

( b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

(6.10.9.3.2-1)

is taken as

0.87 (1 C )

Vn Vp C +

=

2

do

1+

(6.10.9.3.2-2)

(6.10.9.3.2-3)

where

do = transverse stiffener spacing.

Otherwise, the nominal shear resistance is taken as follows:

9 - 29

0.87 (1 C )

Vn Vp C +

=

2

do

do

1

+

+

D

D

(6.10.9.3.2-8)

The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:

= =

(6.10.9.3.3-1)

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

(6.10.9.3.3-2)

in which

DoverC =

9.7

Vu

vVn

Section Optimization

After at least one Steel Design Request has been successfully processed,

CSiBridge enables the user to open a Steel Section Optimization module. The

Optimization module allows interactive modification of certain steel plate sizes, materials, and definition of vertical stiffeners along each girder and span.

The U tub section plate parameters that are available for modification are:

Top flange thickness, width and material

Webs thickness, material

Bottom flange thickness, material

The program recalculates resistance on the fly based on the modified section

without the need to unlock the model and rerun the analysis. It should be noted

that in the optimization process the demands are not recalculated and are based

on the current CSiBridge analysis results.

9 - 30

Section Optimization

sizes and associated resistance results. The section plate size versions are As

Analyzed, As Designed, and Current. The section plots use distinct colors

for each version black for As Analyzed, blue for As Designed, and red for

Current. When the Optimization form is initially opened, all three versions are

identical and equal to As Analyzed.

Two graphs are available to display various forces, moments, stresses, and ratios for the As Analyzed or As Designed versions. The values plotted can be

controlled by clicking the Select Series to Plot button. The As Analyzed series are plotted as solid lines and the As Designed series as dashed lines.

To modify steel plate sizes or vertical stiffeners, a new form can be displayed

by clicking on the Modify Section button. After the section modification is

completed, the Current version is shown in red in the elevation and cross section views. After the resistance has been recalculated successfully by clicking

the Recalculate Resistance button, the Current version is designated to As Designed and displayed in blue.

After the section optimization has been completed, the As Designed plate sizes

and materials can be applied to the analysis bridge object by clicking the OK

button. The button opens a new form that can be used to Unlock the existing

model (in that case all analysis results will be deleted) or save the file under a

new name (New File button). Clicking the Exit button does not apply the new

plate sizes to the bridge object and keeps the model locked. The As Designed

version of the plate sizes will be available the next time the form is opened, and

the Current version is discarded.

The previously defined stiffeners can be recalled in the Steel Beam Section

Variation form by clicking the Copy/Reset/Recall button in the top menu of

the form. The form can be displayed by clicking on the Modify Section button.

Section Optimization

9 - 31

Chapter 10

Run a Bridge Design Request

This chapter identifies the steps involved in running a Bridge Design Request.

(Chapter 4 explains how to define the Request.) Running the Request applies

the following to the specified Bridge Object:

Program defaults in accordance with the selected codethe Preferences

Type of design to be performedthe check type (Section 4.2.1)

Portion of the bridge to be designedthe station ranges (Section 4.1.3)

Overwrites of the Preferencesthe Design Request parameters (Section

4.1.4)

Load combinationsthe demand sets (Chapter 2)

Live Load Distribution factors, where applicable (Chapter 3)

For this example, the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is applied to the model of a

concrete box-girder bridge shown in Figure 10-1.

It is assumed that the user is familiar with the steps that are necessary to create

a CSiBridge model of a concrete box girder bridge. If additional assistance is

needed to create the model, a 30-minute Watch and Learn video entitled,

Bridge Bridge Information Modeler is available at the CSI website

10 - 1

www.csiamerica.com. The tutorial video guides the user through the creation

of the bridge model referenced in this chapter.

10.1

The example bridge is a two-span prestressed concrete box girder bridge with

the following features:

Abutments: The abutments are skewed by 15 degrees and connected to the

bottom of the box girder only.

Prestress: The concrete box girder bridge is prestressed with four 10-in2

tendons (one in each girder) and a jacking force of 2160 kips per tendon.

Bents: The one interior bent has three 5-foot-square columns.

Deck: The concrete box girder has a nominal depth of 5 feet. The deck has

a parabolic variation in depth from 5 feet at the abutments to a maximum

of 10 feet at the interior bent support.

Spans: The two spans are each approximately 100 feet long.

10 - 2

10.2

Design Preferences

Use the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Preferences command to

select the AASHTO LRFD 2007 design code. The Bridge Design Preferences

form shown in Figure 10-4 displays.

10.3

Load Combinations

For this example, the default design load combinations were activated using the

Design/Rating > Load Combinations > Add Defaults command. After the

Bridge Design option has been selected, the Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form shown in Figure 10-5 displays. The form is used

Design Preferences

10 - 3

to specify the desired limit states. Only the Strength II limit state was selected

for this example. Normally, several limit states would be selected.

The defined load combinations for this example are shown in Figure 10-6.

10 - 4

Load Combinations

The Str-II1, Str-II2 and StrIIGroup1 designations for the load combinations are

specified by the program and indicate that the limit state for the combinations

is Strength Level II.

10.4

After the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Design Request command has been used, the Bridge Design Request form shown in Figure 10-7

displays.

The name given to this example Design Request is FLEX_1, the Check Type

is for Concrete Box Flexure and the Demand Set, DSet1, specifies the combination as StrII (Strength Level II).

10 - 5

The only Design Request Parameter option for a Concrete Box Flexural check

type is for PhiC. A value of 0.9 for PhiC is used.

10.5

After an analysis has been run, the bridge model is ready for a design/check.

Use the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Run Super command to

start the design process. Select the design to be run using the Perform Bridge

Design form shown in Figure 10-8:

The user may select the desired Design Request(s) and click on the Design

Now button. A plot of the bridge model, similar to that shown in Figure 10-9,

will display.

If several Design Requests

have been run, the individual Design Requests can be

selected from the Design

Check options drop-down

list. This plot is described

further in Chapter 11.

check results

10 - 6

Chapter 11

Display Bridge Design Results

Bridge design results can be displayed on screen and as printed output. The

on-screen display can depict the bridge response graphically as a plot or in data

tables. The Advanced Report Writer can be used to create the printed output,

which can include the graphical display as well as the database tables.

This chapter displays the results for the example used in Chapter 10. The model

is a concrete box girder bridge and the code applied is AASHTO LRFD 2007.

Creation of the model is shown in a 30-minute Watch and Learn video on the

CSI website, www.csiamerica.com.

11.1

To view the forces, stresses, and design results graphically, click the Home >

Display > Show Bridge Superstructure Design Results command, which will

display the Bridge Object Response Display form shown in Figure 11-1.

The plot shows the design results for the FLEX_1 Design Request created using

the process described in the preceding chapters. The demand moments are enveloped and shown in the blue region, and the negative capacity moments are

shown with a brown line. If the demand moments do not exceed the capacity

moments, the superstructure may be deemed adequate in response to the flexure

Design Request. Move the mouse pointer onto the demand or capacity plot to

view the values for each nodal point. Move the pointer to the capacity moment

11 - 1

shows agreement with this CSiBridge result is provided in Section 11.4.

Figure 11-1 Plot of flexure check results for the example bridge design model

Use the Home > Display > Show Bridge Forces/Stresses command to select,

on the example form shown in Figure 11-2, the location along the top or bottom

portions of a beam or slab for which stresses are to be displayed. Figures 11-3

through 11-9 illustrate the left, middle, and right portions as they apply to Multicell Concrete Box Sections. Location 1, as an example, refers to the top left selection option while location 5 would refer to the bottom center selection option.

Locations 1, 2, and 3 refer to the top left, top center, and top right selection option while locations 4, 5, and 6 refer to the bottom left, bottom center, and bottom right selection options.

11 - 2

Figure 11-2 Select the location on the beam or slab for which results are to be displayed

4

5

Centerline of the web

Figure 11-3 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Vertical

11- 3

1

Top

slab

cut

4

5

6

Centerline of the web

Figure 11-4 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Sloped

1

Top

slab

cut

4

5

Centerline of the web

5

Centerline of the web

Figure 11-5 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Clipped

11 - 4

1

Top

slab

cut

4

6

Figure 11-6 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders and Radius

4, 5

4

5

Centerline of the web

5

Centerline of the web

Figure 11-7 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Sloped Max

11- 5

5

Centerline of the web

6

Centerline of the web

Figure 11-9 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - AASHTO - PCI - ASBI Standard

11 - 6

11.2

To view design results on screen in tables, click the Home > Display > Show

Tables command, which will display the Choose Tables for Display form

shown in Figure 11-10. Use the options on that form to select which data results

are to be viewed. Multiple selection may be made.

When all selections have been made, click the OK button and a database table

similar to that shown in Figure 11-11 will display. Note the drop-down list in

the upper right-hand corner of the table. That drop-down list will include the

various data tables that match the selections made on the Choose Tables for

Display form. Select from that list to change to a different database table.

11- 7

Figure 11-11 Design database table for AASHTO LRFD 2007 flexure check

The scroll bar along the bottom of the form can be used to scroll to the right to

view additional data columns.

11.3

The File > Report > Create Report command is a single button click output

option but it may not be suitable for bridge structures because of the size of the

document that is generated. Instead, the Advanced Report Writer feature within

CSiBridge is a simple and easy way to produce a custom output report.

To create a custom report that includes input and output, first export the files using one of the File > Export commands: Access; Excel; or Text. When this

command is executed, a form similar to that shown in Figure 11-12 displays.

11 - 8

This important step allows control over the size of the report to be generated.

Export only those tables to be included in the final report. However, it is possible to export larger quantities of data and then use the Advanced Report Writer

to select only specific data sets for individual reports, thus creating multiple

smaller reports. For this example, only the Bridge Data (input) and Concrete

Box Flexure design (output) are exported.

After the data tables have been exported and saved to an appropriate location,

click the File > Report > Advanced Report Writer command to display a

form similar to that show in Figure 11-13. Click the appropriate button (e.g.,

Find existing DB File, Convert Excel File, Convert Text File) and locate the exported data tables. The tables within that Database, Excel, or Text file will be

listed in the List of Tables in Current Database File display box.

11- 9

Select the tables to be included in the report from that display box. The selected

items will then display in the Items Included in Report display box. Use the various options on the form to control the order in which the selected tables appear

in the report as well as the headers (i.e., Section names), page breaks, pictures,

and blanks required for final output in .rft, .txt, or .html format.

After the tables have been selected and the headers, pictures, and other formatting items have been addressed, click the Create Report button to generate the

report. The program will request a filename and the path to be used to store the

report. Figure 11-14 shows an example of the printed output generated by the

Report Writer.

11 - 10

11.4

Verification

As a verification check of the design results, the output at station 1200 is examined. The following output for negative bending has been pulled from the

ConBoxFlexure data table, a portion of which is shown in Figure 11-10:

Demand moment,

Resisting moment,

ResistingNeg (kip-in) =

AreaPTTop (in2)

20.0

Top k factor,

kFactorTop

0.2644444

CDistForNeg (in)

5.1286

266.7879

536981.722

For top k factor, from (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2),

f

k = 2 1.04 PY

fPU

245.1

= 2 1.04

270

Verification

11- 11

c=

0.85 f c 1bwebeq + kAPT

APT fPU

c=

c

fPU

YPT

fPU

YPT

, for a T-section

20.0(270)

= 5.1286 (Results match)

270

0.85(4)(0.85)(360) + 0.26444(20)

114

c

fPS = fPU 1 k

YPT

5.1286

=270 1 0.26444

144

c tslabeq

c

=

M N APT f PS YPT 1 + 0.85 f c ( bSLAB bwebeq ) tslabeq 1

2

2

2

c

=

M N APT f PS YPT 1 , when the box section is not a T-section

2

5.1286(0.85)

M

=

20.0(266.788) 144

=

N

596646.5 kip-in

2

=

= 536981.8 kip-in (Results match)

M R =

M N 0.85(596646.5)

The preceding calculations are a check of the flexure design output. Other design results for concrete box stress, concrete box shear, and concrete box principal have not been included. The user is encouraged to perform a similar check

of these designs and to review Chapters 5, 6, and 7 for a detailed descriptions of

the design algorithms.

11 - 12

Verification

Bibliography

ACI, 2007. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08)

and Commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete Institute, P.O.

Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.

AASHTO, 2007. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Customary

U.S. Units, 4th Edition, 2008 Interim Revision, American Association

of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 444 North Capitol

Street, NW, Suite 249, Washington, D.C. 20001.

AASHTO, 2009. AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge

Design. American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials, 444 North Capital Street, NW Suite 249, Washington, DC 20001.

AASHTO 2012. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications U.S.

Units, 6th Edition, American Association of State High way and

Transportation Officials, 2012.

AASHTO 2014. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications U.S.

Units, 7th Edition, American Association of State High way and

Transportation Officials, 2014

Canadian Standards Association (CSA), 2006. Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code. Canadian Standards Association, 5060 Spectrum Way,

Suite 100, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, L4W 5N6. November.

Bibliography - 1

EN 1994-2:2005, Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures, Part 2: Composite Bridges, European Committee for Standardization, Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels.

Indian Roads Congress (IRC), May 2010: Standard Specifications and Code of

Practice for Road Bridges, Section V, Steel Road Bridges. Kama Koti

Marg, Sector 6, RK Puram, New Delhi- 110 022.

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