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A TASTE OF MATHEMATICS

A T ASTE O F M ATHEMATICS A IME– T – O N LES M ATH

AIME–TON LES MATH EMATIQUES

´

Volume / Tome VII

THE MURRAY KLAMKIN PROBLEMS

CANADIAN COLLECTION — Part 1.

Edited by

Andy Liu

University of Alberta

and

Bruce Shawyer

Memorial University of Newfoundland

Published by the Canadian Mathematical Society, Ottawa, Ontario and produced by the CMS ATOM Office, St. John’s, NL

Publi´e par la Soci´et´e math´ematique du Canada, Ottawa (Ontario) et produit par le Bureau ATOM de la SMC, St. John’s, NL

Printed in Canada by / imprim´e au Canada par The University of Toronto Press Incorporated

ISBN 0-919558-16-X

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information or retrieval system now known or to be invented, without permission in writing from the publisher: The Canadian Mathematical Society, 577 King Edward Avenue, P.O. Box 450, Station A, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada, except so far as may be allowed by law.

Tous droits r´eserv´es. Aucune partie de cet ouvrage ne peut ˆetre reproduite ou utilis´ee par quelque proc´ed´e ou quelque fa¸con que ce soit, y compris les m´ethodes ´electroniques ou m´ecaniques, les enregistrements ou les syst`emes de mise en m´emoire et d’information, sans l’accord pr´ealable ´ecrit de l’´editeur, la Soci´et´e math´ematique du Canada, 577, rue King-Edward, C.P. 450, succursale A, Ottawa (Ontario) K1N 6N5, Canada, sauf dans les limites prescrites par la loi.

c 2005

Canadian Mathematical Society / Soci´et´e math´ematique du Canada

A TASTE OF MATHEMATICS

A T ASTE O F M ATHEMATICS A IME– T – O N LES M ATH

AIME–TON LES MATH EMATIQUES

´

Volume / Tome VII

THE MURRAY KLAMKIN PROBLEMS

CANADIAN COLLECTION — Part 1.

Edited by

Andy Liu

University of Alberta

and

Bruce Shawyer

Memorial University of Newfoundland

The ATOM series

The booklets in the series, A Taste of Mathematics, are published by the Canadian Mathematical Society (CMS). They are designed as enrichment materials for high school students with an interest in and aptitude for mathematics. Some booklets in the series will also cover the materials useful for mathematical competitions at national and international levels.

La collection ATOM

Publi´es par la Soci´et´e math´ematique du Canada (SMC), les livrets de la collection Aime-t-on les math´ematiques (ATOM) sont destin´es au perfectionnement des ´etudiants du cycle secondaire qui manifestent un int´erˆet et des aptitudes pour les math´ematiques. Certains livrets de la collection ATOM servent ´egalement de mat´eriel de pr´eparation aux concours de math´ematiques sur l’´echiquier national et international.

Editorial Board / Conseil de r´edaction

Editor-in-Chief / R´edacteur-en-chef

Bruce Shawyer

Memorial University of Newfoundland / Universit´e Memorial de Terre-Neuve

Associate Editors / R´edacteurs associ´es

Edward J. Barbeau

University of Toronto / Universit´e de Toronto

Malgorzata Dubiel

Simon Fraser University / Universit´e Simon Fraser

Joseph Khoury

University of Ottawa / Universit´e d’Ottawa

Antony Thompson

Dalhousie University / Universit´e Dalhousie

Managing Editor / R´edacteur-g´erant Graham P. Wright

University of Ottawa / Universit´e d’Ottawa

iv

Table of Contents

Preface

1

1 Quickies

2

2 Combinatorics and Number Theory

27

3 Functions and Polynomials

39

4 Expressions and Identities

51

v

QUICKIES

Murray Klamkin was famous for his Quickies, problems that had quick and neat solutions. We present all the Quickies published in CRUX MATHEMATICORUM, with some slight editing by Bruce Shawyer.

PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

The problems have been selected by Andy Liu and arranged into sets according to topic.

The solutions are as published in CRUX MATHEMATICORUM, with some slight editing by Bruce Shawyer. Solutions from pre-L A T E X editions were coded by students at Memorial University of Newfoundland, funded by the Canadian Mathematical Society. Special thanks are due to Karelyn Davis, Alyson Ford, Don Hender, Shawna Gammon, Paul Marshall, Shannon Sullivan and Rebecca White.

These problems exhibit the special talents of Murray Klamkin. They cover a very wide range of topics, and show a great deal of insight into what is possible in there areas. They demonstrate that Murray Klamin was a problem setter par excellence. We are very greatful to have known him and to have been inspired by him.

Problem numbers and references are to [year : page number] are as in CRUX MATHEMATICORUM. When a problem number is followed by a star , this means that the problem was proposed without a solution.

Andy Liu Department of Mathematics University of Alberta Edmonton Alberta

Bruce Shawyer Department of Mathematics Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John’s Newfoundland and Labrador

1

Problems posed by Murray Klamkin.

Unless otherwise stated, these problems were proposed by Murray Klamkin alone.

Quickies

Part 1

1—54

Combinatorics and Number Theory

Part 1

429, 1456, 2054, 1863, 1027, 969, 1561, 2034, 1752, 1434. Vectors and Matrices

Part 4

1200, 1721, 1482, 1693, 2005, 398, 1314, 3024, 1207, 1242. Functions and Polynomials

Part 1

299, 254, 1423, 2014, 1110, 1283. Expressions and Identities.

Part 1

1304, 287, 1594, 1522, 830, 1996, 1362. Numerical Approximations

Part 4

1003, 1213, 1371. Algebraic Inequalities.

Part 2

347, 1642, 2615, 1703, 1734, 1445, 2064, 2095, 2044, 1652, 1742, 1674, 1774, 323, 805, 1394, 2734, 2839, 1662. Trigonometric Inequalities.

Part 3

1414, 908, 1352, 1712, 1542, 1613, 1503, 2084, 1332, 1801, 1271, 1060, 958, 1962. Geometric Inequalities.

Part 4

1165, 1473, 1574, 1764, 1296, 506, 1131, 1985, 1945. The Triangle.

Part 3

1872, 1605, 1385, 2848, 210, 1076, 1532, 2618. Cevian Lines.

Part 4

2614, 548, 485, 2613, 1621, 1631. Central Symmetry.

Part 3

1062, 1348, 1513. Conic Sections.

Part 2

2616, 1975, 1935, 1405, 520. Solid Geometry.

Part 2

375, 1784, 1553, 1581, 330, 478, 2617, 1261. Higher Dimensions.

Part 2

2651, 224, 1086, 1465, 2733, 2024, 1793. Calculus.

Part 4

1178, 1494, 1322, 1147, 273. Problems dedicated to Murray Klamkin

Part 4

1241, 2619, 2620, 2621 Klamkin Problems of September 2005 K–01 through K–15

Part 4

2

1

Quickies

1.

Determine the extreme values of r 1 /h 1 + r 2 /h 2 + r 3 /h 3 + r 4 /h 4 where h 1 , h 2 ,

and r 1 , r 2 , r 3 , r 4 are the

corresponding signed perpendicular distances from any point in the space of T to the faces.

2. Determine the minimum value of the product

h 3 , h 4 are the four altitudes of a given tetrahedron T

P = (1 + x 1 + y 1 )(1 + x 2 + y 2 )

(1 + x n + y n )

where x i , y i 0, and x 1 x 2

3. Prove that if F (x, y, z) is a concave function of x, y, z, then {F (x, y, z)} 2 is

a convex function of x, y, z.

4. If a, b, c are sides of a given triangle of perimeter p, determine the maximum

values of

.x n = y 1 y 2

y n = a n .

(i)

(a b) 2 + (b c) 2 + (c a) 2 ,

(ii)

|a b| + |b c| + |c a|,

(iii) |a b||b c| + |b c||c a| + |c a||a b|.

5. If A, B, C are three dihedral angles of a trihedral angle, show that sin A, sin B,

sin C satisfy the triangle inequality.

6. Are there any integral solutions (x, y, z) of the Diophantine equation

(x y z) 3 = 27xyz

other than (a, a, a) or such that xyz = 0?

7. Does the Diophantine equation

(x y z)(x y + z)(x + y z) = 8xyz

have an infinite number of relatively prime solutions?

8. It is an easy result using calculus that if a polynomial P (x) is divisible by its derivative P (x), then P (x) must be of the form a(x r) n . Starting from the known result that

=

P

(x)

P(x)

1

x r i

where the sum is over all the zeros r i of P (x) counting multiplicities, give a non-calculus proof of the above result.

9. Solve the simultaneous equations

x 2 (y + z) = 1,

y 2 (z + x) = 8,

z 2 (x + y) = 13.

3

10. Determine the area of a triangle of sides a, b, c and semiperimeter s if

(s b)(s c) =

a

h

,

(s c)(s a) =

b

k

,

(s a)(s b) = c l

,

where h, k, l are consistent given constants.

11. Prove that

3(x 2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x)(xy 2 + yz 2 + zx 2 ) xyz(x + y + z) 2

where x, y, z 0.

12. Determine all integral solutions of the Diophantine equation

(x 8 + y 8 + z 8 ) = 2(x 16 + y 16 + z 16 ).

13. Determine all the roots of the quintic equation

31x 5 + 165x 4 + 310x 3 + 330x 2 + 155x + 33 = 0.

14. If F (x) and G(x) are polynomials with integer coefficients such that

F (k)/G(k) is an integer for k = 1, 2, 3,

15. Given that ABCDEF is a skew hexagon such that each pair of opposite sides

are equal and parallel. Prove that the midpoints of the six sides are coplanar.

16. If a, b, c, d are the lengths of sides of a quadrilateral, show that

., prove that G(x) divides F (x).

a

(4 + a) ,

b

(4 + b) ,

c

(4 + c) ,

d

(4 + d) ,

are possible lengths of sides of another quadrilateral.

17. Determine the maximum value of the sum of the cosines of the six dihedral

angles of a tetrahedron.

18. Which is larger

( 2 1) 1/3

3

or

1/9

3

2/9 +

3

4/9?

3

19. Prove that

c 3 × min a b + c + a , a + b

b

c

b

+ a (a + b + c)

c

1

a + 1

b + 1

c

where a, b, c are sides of a triangle.

20. Let ω = e iπ/13 . Express 1ω as a polynomial in ω with integral coefficients.

21. Determine all integral solutions of the simultaneous Diophantine equations

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2w 2 and x 4 + y 4 + z 4 = 2w 4 .

1

4

22. Prove that if the line joining the incentre to the centroid of a triangle

is parallel to one of the sides of the triangle, then the sides are in arithmetic progression and, conversely, if the sides of a triangle are in arithmetic progression then the line joining the incentre to the centroid is parallel to one of the sides of the triangle.

23. Determine integral solutions of the Diophantine equation

x

y + y z

+ z w

x

+ y

y

+ z

z + w

+ w w

x + x = 0

(joint problem with Emeric Deutsch, Polytechnic University of Brooklyn).

24. For x, y, z > 0, prove that

(i) 1 +

(x + 1) 1 + x(x + 2) x

1

1

,

(ii) [(x + y)(x + z)] x [(y + z)(y + x)] y [(z + x)(z + y)] z [4xy] x [4yz] y [4zx] z .

25. If ABCD is a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle, prove that the four lines

joining each vertex to the nine point centre of the triangle formed by the other three vertices are concurrent.

26. How many six digit perfect squares are there each having the property that

if each digit is increased by one, the resulting number is also a perfect square?

27. Let V i W i , i = 1, 2, 3, 4, denote four cevians of a tetrahedron V 1 V 2 V 3 V 4 which

are concurrent at an interior point P of the tetrahedron. Prove that

PW 1 + PW 2 + PW 3 + PW 4 max V i W i longest edge.

28. Determine the radius r of a circle inscribed in a given quadrilateral if the

lengths of successive tangents from the vertices of the quadrilateral to the circle are a, a, b, b, c, c, d, d, respectively.

29. Determine the four roots of the equation x 4 + 16x 12 = 0.

30. Prove that the smallest regular n–gon which can be inscribed in a given

regular n–gon is one whose vertices are the mid-points of the sides of the given regular n–gon.

31. If 31 1995 divides a 2 + b 2 , prove that 31 1996 divides ab.

32. Determine the minimum value of

S = (a + 1) 2 + 2(b 2) 2 + (c + 3) 2 + (b + 1) 2 + 2(c 2) 2

+ (d + 3) 2 ) +

(c + 1) 2

+ 2(d 2) 2 + (a + 3) 2 + (d + 1) 2 + 2(a 2) 2 + (b + 3) 2

where a, b, c, d are any real numbers.

33. A set of 500 real numbers is such that any number in the set is greater than

one-fifth the sum of all the other numbers in the set. Determine the least number

of negative numbers in the set.

5

34. Prove that

a + b + c b 2 + c 2 a 2 + c 2 + a 2 b 2 + a 2 + b 2 c 2 ,

where a, b, c are sides of a non-obtuse triangle.

35. Determine the extreme values of the area of a triangle ABC given the lengths

of the two altitudes h a , h b and the side BC = a.

36. Determine the maximum area of a triangle ABC given the perimeter p and

the angle A.

37. Determine the minimum value of

a 2 + a 3 + a 4 + a 5

a

1

1/2

where the sum is cyclic over the positive numbers a 1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4 , a 5 .

38. ABCD and AB C D are any two parallelograms in a plane with A opposite

to C and C . Prove that BB , CC and DD are possible sides of a triangle.

39. Determine the maximum value of

S

=

4(a 4 + b 4 + c 4

+ d 4 ) (a 2 bc + b 2 cd + c 2 da + d 2 ab) (a 2 b + b 2 c + c 2 d + d 2 a) ,

where 1 a, b, c, d 0.

40. If a, b, c, d are > 0, prove or disprove the two inequalities:

(i)

(ii)

41. Determine all the points P (x, y, z), if any, such that all the points of tangency

of the enveloping (tangent) cone from P to the ellipsoid x 2 b > c), are coplanar.

42. Determine whether or not there exists a set of 777 distinct positive integers

such that for every seven of them, their product is divisible by their sum.

43. If R is any non-negative rational approximation to 5, determine an always

better rational approximation.

44. A sphere of radius R is tangent to each of three concurrent mutually

orthogonal lines. Determine the distance D between the point of concurrence

and the centre of the sphere.

45. If P (x, y, z, t) is a polynomial in x, y, z, t such that P (x, y, z, t) = 0 for all

real x, y, z, t satisfying x 2 +y 2 +z 2 t 2 = 0, prove that P (x, y, z, t) is divisible by

= 1 (a >

c

+ bc

ab

d

+ cd

a

+ da

b

a + b + c + d,

a 2 b + b 2 c + c 2 d + d 2 a

abc + bcd + cda + dab.

a

2

+ y 2

b

2

+ z 2

c

2

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 t 2 .

6

46. From a variable point P on a diameter AB of a given circle of radius r, two

segments P Q and P R are drawn terminating on the circle such that the angles

QP A and RP B are equal to a given angle θ. Determine the maximum length of the chord QR.

47. Using that

(rs)!

s!(r!)

s is an integer, where r, s are positive integers, prove that

(rst)!

t!(s!) t

(r!) ts is an integer for positive integers r, s, t.

48. Determine the range of tan(x + y)

tan x

given that

sin y

=

2 sin(2x + y) .

49. A, B, C are acute angles such that sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2 C = 2. Prove that

A + B + C < 180 .

50. Determine the maximum and minimum values of

a 2 cos 2 θ + b 2 sin 2 θ + a 2 sin 2 θ + b 2 cos 2 θ ,

where a and b are given constants.

51. Determine the range of values of tan 3x for x in [0, 2π].

tan x

52. How large can the sum of the angles of a spherical right triangle be?

53. Let ABC be a spherical triangle whose mid-points of the sides are A , B ,

and C . If B C is a quadrant π , find the maximum value of A B + A C .

2

54. Let ABC be a triangle with centroid G. Determine the point P in the plane

of ABC such that AP · AG + BP · BG + CP · CG is a minimum and express this

minimum value in terms of the side lengths of ABC.

7

KLAMKIN QUICKIES SOLUTIONS

1. Determine the extreme values of r 1 /h 1 + r 2 /h 2 + r 3 /h 3 + r 4 /h 4 where h 1 , h 2 ,

and r 1 , r 2 , r 3 , r 4 are the

corresponding signed perpendicular distances from any point in the space of T to

the faces.

Solution. If the face areas and volume of the tetrahedron are F 1 , F 2 , F 3 , F 4 , and

h 3 , h 4 are the four altitudes of a given tetrahedron T

V respectively, then

r 1 F 1 + r 2 F 2 + r 3 F 3 + r 4 F 4 = 3V,

and h 1 F 1 = h 2 F 2 = h 3 F 3 = h 4 F 4 = 3V . Now eliminating the F i ’s, we get

r 1 /h 1 + r 2 /h 2 + r 3 /h 3 + r 4 /h 4 = 1

(a constant).

2. Determine the minimum value of the product

P = (1 + x 1 + y 1 )(1 + x 2 + y 2 )

(1 + x n + y n )

where x i , y i 0, and x 1 x 2

Solution. More generally, consider

.x n = y 1 y 2

y n = a n .

P = (1 + x 1 + y 1 + ··· + w 1 )(1 + x 2 + y 2 + ··· + w 2 )

(1 + x n + y n + ··· + w n )

where x i , y i ,

x 1 x 2

x n

=

ξ n ,

y 1 y 2

y n

=

η n ,

, w i 0. Then by H¨older’s inequality,

P 1/n 1 + x

1/n

i

+ y

1/n

i

+

or

In this case ξ = η = a, so

P (1 + ξ + η +

P

(1 + 2a) n .

+

,

w 1 w 2

+ w

ω) n .

.w n

1/n

i

=

ω n ,

and

3. Prove that if F (x, y, z) is a concave function of x, y, z, then {F (x, y, z)} 2 is

a convex function of x, y, z.

Solution. More generally G(F ) is a convex function where G is a convex decreasing function. By convexity of G,

λG{F (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 )}+(1λ)G{F (x 2 , y 2 , z 2 )} ≥ G{λF (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 )+(1λ)F (x 2 , y 2 , z 2 )}.

By concavity of F ,

λF (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 )+(1λ)F (x 2 , y 2 , z 2 ) F ([λx 1 +(1λ)x 2 ], [λy 1 +(1λ)y 2 ],

Finally, since G is decreasing,

λG{F (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 )} + (1 λ)G{F (x 2 , y 2 , z 2 )} ≥

[λz 1 +(1λ)z 2 ]).

G{F ([λx 1 + (1 λ)x 2 ], [λy 1 + (1 λ)y 2 ], [λz 1 + (1 λ)z 2 ])}.

8

More generally and more precisely, we have the following known result: if F (X)

., x n ) and G(y) is a convex decreasing

function of y where y is a real variable and the domain of G contains the range of F , then G{F (X)} is a convex function of X.

is a concave function of X = (x 1 , x 2 ,

4. If a, b, c are sides of a given triangle of perimeter p, determine the maximum values of

(i)

(a b) 2 + (b c) 2 + (c a) 2 ,

(ii)

|a b| + |b c| + |c a|,

(iii)

|a b||b c| + |b c||c a| + |c a||a b|.

Solution. (i) (a b) 2 + (b c) 2

Let c = 0, so that k 1/2. We now show that k = 1/2 suffices. Here,

+ (c a) 2 = 2( a 2 bc) kp 2 .

2( a 2 bc)

1

2

(a + b + c) 2

reduces to

2bc + 2ca + 2ab a 2 b 2 c 2 0.

The LHS is 16 times the square of the area of a triangle of sides a, b, c or

( a + b + c)( a + b c)( a b + c)( a + b + c).

There is equality iff the triangle is degenerate with one side 0.

(ii) |a b| + |b c| + |c a| ≤ kp.

Letting c = 0, k 1. To show that k = 1 suffices, assume that a b c, so that

|a b| + |b c| + |c a| = 2a 2c a + b + c

and there is equality iff c = 0.

(iii) |a b| |b c| + |b c| |c a| + |c a| |a b| ≤ kp 2 .

Letting c = 0, k 1/4.

c = x + y where z y x 0. Our inequality then becomes

To show that k = 1/4 suffices, let a = y + z, b = z + x,

|x y||z y| + |y z||z x| + |z x||x y| ≤ (x + y + z) 2

or

 

x 2 y 2 + z 2

+ yz 3zx + xy x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2yz + 2zx + 2xy

or

2y 2 + 5zx + 1xy + 1yz 0.

There is equality iff x = y = 0 or equivalently, a = b, and c = 0.

9

5. If A, B, C are three dihedral angles of a trihedral angle, show that sin A, sin B,

sin C satisfy the triangle inequality.

Solution. Let a, b, c be the face angles of the trihedral angle opposite to A, B, C respectively. Since

sin a

 

sin b

 

sin c

=

=

sin

A

sin

B

sin C

by the Law of Sines for spherical triangles, it suffices to show that sin b + sin c > sin a, or

1

1

2 sin 2 (b + c) cos 2 (b

1

1

c) > 2 sin 2 a cos 2 a,

for any labelling of the angles. We now use the following properties of a, b, c:

(i) they satisfy the triangle inequality, (ii) 0 < a + b + c < 2π.

Hence, cos 1 2 (b c) > cos 2 a. To complete the proof, we show that

1

1

1

sin 2 (b + c) > sin 2 a.

This follows immediately if b + c π; if b + c > π, then

sin 1 2 (b + c) = sin π

1

2 (b + c) > sin 2 a

1

since π b + c

2

a .

2

>

More generally, if a 1 , a 2 ,

(convex), it then follows by induction over n that

Comment:

, a n

are the sides of a spherical n-gon

sin a 1 + sin a 2 + · · · + sin a n > 2 sin a i ,

i = 1, 2,

, n.

It also follows by induction that

| sin a 1 | + | sin a 2 | + · · · + | sin a n | > | sin(a 1

+ a 2 + ··· + a n )|

for any angles a 1 , a 2 ,

6. Are there any integral solutions (x, y, z) of the Diophantine equation

,

a n .

(x y z) 3 = 27xyz

other than (a, a, a) or such that xyz = 0?

Solution. Let x = u 3 , y = v 3 , z = w 3 , so that u 3 v 3 w 3 = 3uvw or equivalently

(u v w)((u + v) 2 + (u + w) 2

+ (v w) 2 ) = 0.

Hence an infinite class of non-trivial solutions is given by

x

= (v + w) 3 ,

y = v 3 ,

z = w 3 .

Whether or not there are any other solutions is an open problem.

10

7. Does the Diophantine equation

(x y z)(x y + z)(x + y z) = 8xyz

have an infinite number of relatively prime solutions?

Solution. By inspection, we have the trivial solutions

and permutations thereof. equations

x y z = 2 yz,

(x, y, z) = (±1, ±1, 0)

For other solutions, note that each of the three

x y + z = 2 xz,

x + y z = 2 xy

is satisfied by x solutions

=

y + z.

Consequently, we also have the infinite set of

y = m 2 ,

z = n 2 ,

x = (m + n) 2

where (m, n) = 1.

It is an open problem whether or not there are any other infinite sets of relatively prime solutions.

8. It is an easy result using calculus that if a polynomial P (x) is divisible by its derivative P (x), then P (x) must be of the form a(x r) n . Starting from the known result that

=

P

(x)

P(x)

1

x r i

where the sum is over all the zeros r i of P (x) counting multiplicities, give a non-calculus proof of the above result.

Solution. Since P (x) is of degree one less than that of P (x),

P

(x)

a(x r) = x r i

1

1

P(x) =

.

Now letting x any r i it follows that r = r i . Hence all the zeros of P (x) must be the same.

9. Solve the simultaneous equations

x 2 (y + z) = 1,

y 2 (z + x) = 8,

z 2 (x + y) = 13.

Solution. More generally we can replace the constants 1, 8, 13 by a 3 , b 3 , c 3 , respectively. Then by addition of the three equations and by multiplication of the three equations, we respectively get

x 2 y = a 3 + b 3 + c 3 ,

(xyz) 2 2xyz

+ x 2 y = (abc) 3 ,

11

where the sums are symmetric over x, y, z. Hence,

2t 3 + t 2 (a 3 + b 3 + c 3 ) = (abc) 3

(1)

where t = xyz. In terms of t, the original equations can be rewritten as

a

3

1

1

z = 0,

tx y

1

x

b

3

+ ty

1

z = 0,

1

1

y +

c

tz = 0.

3

x

These latter homogeneous equations are consistent since the eliminant is equation (1). Solving the last two equations for y and z, we get

y

=

x(b 1 c 1 1) , c 1 + 1

z = x(b 1 c 1 2) b 1 + 1

where b 1 = b 3 /t, c 1 = c 3 /t. On substituting back in x 2 (y + z) = a 3 , we obtain x 3 and then x, y, z.

10. Determine the area of a triangle of sides a, b, c and semiperimeter s if

(s b)(s c) = a/h,

(s c)(s a) = b/k,

(s a)(s b) = c/l,

where h, k, l, are consistent given constants.

Solution.

h =

a

1

1

(s c) ,

(s b)(s c) =

(s b) +

1

(s c)

1

(s a)

+

+

1

(s

a) ,

1

(s

.

k =

l =

b)

Hence, h, k, l must satisfy the triangle inequality. Letting 2s = h+k +l, it follows by addition that

and then

s a =

s =

1

(s h) ,

1

(s a) +

s b =

1 1

(s b) +

(s c)

1 1

(s k) ,

s c =

(s l)

.

Adding the latter three equations, we get

s =

1

(s h) +

1

(s k)

+

1

(s l)

.

Finally, the area of the triangle is given by

∆ = {s(s a)(s b)(s c)} 1/2 =

1

(s h) +

1

(s k) +

1

(s l)

(s h)(s k)(s l)

1/2

.

12

11. Prove that

3(x 2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x)(xy 2 + yz 2 + zx 2 ) xyz(x + y + z) 2

where x, y, z 0.

Solution. By Cauchy’s inequality

(x 2 y + y 2 z = z 2 x)(zx 2 + xy 2 + yz 2 ) (x 2 yz + y 2 zx + z 2 xy) 2 .

Hence it suffices to show that

(x 3/2 + y 3/2 + z 3/2

3

2 (x + y + z)

3

3

.

But this follows immediately from the power mean inequality. There is equality iff x = y = z.

12. Determine all integral solutions of the Diophantine equation

(x 8 + y 8 + z 8 ) = 2(x 16 + y 16 + z 16 ).

Solution. More generally one can find all integral solutions of

(x 2n + y 2n + z 2n ) 2 = 2(x 4n + y 4n + z 4n ),

(2)

where n is a positive integer provided Fermat’s equation x n + y n = z n does not have any integer solutions for particular values of n > 2 chosen.

Equation (2) can be rewritten as

(x n + y n + z n )(y n + z n x n )(z n + x n y n )(x n + y n z n ) = 0.

(3)

The trivial solutions occur for (x, y, z) = (±a, a, 0) and permutations thereof.

For n = 1, any factor of the left hand side of (3) can be zero.

For n = 2, (x, y, z) can be ± the sides of any integral right triangle (2mn, m 2 n 2 , m 2 + n 2 ) in any order.

Since Fermat’s equation is at least known not to have any non-trivial solutions for all n > 2 and < 100 and integral multiples thereof, there are not any non-trivial solutions for at least these cases.

13. Determine all the roots of the quintic equation

31x 5 + 165x 4 + 310x 3 + 330x 2 + 155x + 33 = 0.

Solution. Since the equation can be rewritten as (x 1) 5 = 32(x + 1) 5 ,

x 1

x + 1

= 2ω r ,

r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4

13

where ω is a primitive 5th root of unity. Hence,

x =

1