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ARCHITECTURE OF THE KAZAKHSTAN

OF THE 20-th CENTURY


(The Development of architectural-artistic forms)
by Konstantin I.Samoilov

2004

Dedicate to my mother

Marina N. SAMOILOVA
(Aleksandrova-Bolshikh)

()

()

..

( - )

ARCHITECTURE OF THE KAZAKHSTAN


OF THE 20-CENTURY
(Development of architectural-artistic forms)
by K.I.Samoilov

-
-
2004

85.113(2)
17
72.01-72.036(574)

17

..

( - ).
ARCHITECTURE OF THE KAZAKHSTAN OF THE 20-CENTURY
(Development of architectural-artistic forms)
-: -, 2004. 930 .: .
ISBN 9965-576-17-3

-
,
,
. , ,
. , , ,
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- ,
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, .
For the first time analyzed the process of development and peculiarity of architectural-artistic
forms in the Kazakhstan architecture of the 20-century. Concentrate of the attention on various lines of
this development. Regarded in that light consider series ancient and medieval architectural works,
architecture of the 19-certury and of the first years of the 21-century.
The most valuable illustrations displaying about 2700 architectural works and vast bibliographical
list make the monograph a unique encyclopedic edition.
For architects, art-critics and historians.

:
- -

- -

:
..
..
..

4902000000
00(05)-03

ISBN 9965-576-17-3

85.113(2)

.., 2004

...

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133

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3.3. 1930- 1940- .

154

3.4. 1940- 1950- .

218

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318

4.

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337

4.2. 1950- 1960- .

340

4.3. 1970- 1980-

425

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5.1. I ...

627

5.2. ..

630

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835

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. .

.
3.
I
4.

. . .
.
. . .

.
.

5.

II

.
,

6.

XII-XIII

.
.
.

,
,

.
.
7.

XIV

.
.
.

8.

9.

XV

XVI

.
.

.
,

,
.
.

10.

XVIII

40
2.

I -

2.1.

I
I

,
,
.

.
(

. 2.1-1).

,
,

[26; 763].

.
,

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,
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1860-

),

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-

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.
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. 2.1-2).

).

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.
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-

41

2.1-1

42

2.1-2

43
.

. 2.1-2).

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,

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1916

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2.2.

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30

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(
).

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(XVIII- I

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.

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44

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45

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. 30

46

2.2-2

47

2.2-3

48

2.2-4

49

2.2-5

50

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51

2.2-7

52
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54

2.2-9

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.

. 2.2-10).

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.

[422,

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56

2.2-10

57

2.2-11

58
,
-

XIX

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-

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[233, .12].
.
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59

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60

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64
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.)

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65

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66

2.2-16

67

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68
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).

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69

2.2-18

70

2.2-19

71

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. 2.2-20).
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.

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.)

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2.2-21).

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.

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. 2.2-22).
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72

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73

2.2-21

74

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75

2.2-23

76
.
.

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(1848 .)

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XIX . [331,

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[173,

201].
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77

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78

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79
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80

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.,

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. 2.3-5).
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,
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83

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84

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85

2.3-5

86
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.
.

87

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88

2.3-7

89

2.3-8

90

2.3-9

91
.

(1909 .,
,

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-

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.

. 2.3-12).

(1916 .)

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.

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.

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-

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(1905 .)

. .

.
.

92

2.3-10

93

2.3-11

94

2.3-12

95

,
-

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,
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,

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,
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,
(

. 2.3-14).
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.
.

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.
,

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.
(

. 2.3-15).
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.
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).

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.
.

.
.

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-

,
(1907 .,
(1902 .,
.

.
.

).

,
.

96

2.3-13

97

2.3-14

98

2.3-15

99

2.3-16

100
.

.
.
(
.

2 (

. 2.3-17).

. 2.3-16).

. 2.3-18).
.
.
,
,

.
.
(1918 .)

.
-

.
,

(1911 .)

.
.
.

.
(
-

. 2.3-19).
.

.
.

(1909 .)
.

9
.

.
(

[595].

.
.

.
.
.

,
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.
1905-1906

.
(

.
.

. 1.3-3).

.
,
,

[752,

.178].

,
,

.
.

101

2.3-17

102

2.3-18

103

2.3-19

104
.

,
,

.
,

(
-

.,
. 2.3-20).
.

,
.

,
,

:
,
.

,
[422,

.129].
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
-

XII

XVIII
1971 . [594,
.

.;
.133])
,

1909 .;

.
XIV-XV

.;

.;

,
.
.
.

.
.

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.

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(1901-1905

. 2.3-21).

.)
.

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.
.
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,
,

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,

,
.

(1902 .)

.
.

(1903

.)

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
,

105

2.3-20

106

2.3-21

107

(1906 .)

.
.
.

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.

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.

(
.

. 2.3-22).
(1912-1915

.)

.
.
.

.
.

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,

,
.
.

(1903

.).

.
.

(1906 .)

.
.
.

(1905 .)
.

-1

.
.

(1907

.).

.
.
(1903 .)

.
.

.
(

. 2.3-23).
.

(1907 .)

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.
.
.

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.

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.

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.,

)
,

(1914-1918
,

,
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,
(

. 2.3-24).
.

,
,

108

2.3-22

109

2.3-23

110

2.3-24

111
.

(1919 .)
.

.
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.

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-

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(

. 2.3-25).

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.

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,

,
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(1903 .)
.

.
.

.
.
.

(1912 .).

112

2.3-25

113
.

.
.

.
.
.

(1903 .)
.
.
. 2.3-26).

(1907 .)

,
,

,
.

.
,

[173, . 208].
.

(1912 .)
,

.
.

.
.
.

.
,

(1901

.)

.
.
.

.
.

,
.

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,

.
(

. 2.3-27).
.

(1901-1905

.)

.
,
.
.

.
.

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.
.

(1905 .)

.
.

.
.
.

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114

2.3-26

115

2.3-27

116
.
.

(1909-1911

.)

,
,

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.
-

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,

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. 2.3-28).
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.
.
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(
(1905-1908

.
.

. 2.3-29).
.)

.
.

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.

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,

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.

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.

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.
,

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,

117

2.3-28

118

2.3-29

119
.
.

.
,

.
.
.

(1900-1901

.)
.
,

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.

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-

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.

.)
.
.

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(

. 2.3-30).
.

(1906 .)
.

,
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,
;

[291, .10].
.
.

.
.

.
,

.
.

.
.

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(1905-

120

2.3-30

121

2.3-31

122

2.3-32

123

2.3-33

124
1910

.)

.
.

.
.
.
.
,

(1901-1906
.

. 2.3-31).

.)

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,
.

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.

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(1903 .)

(1901-1904

.).

.
,
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
(1906 .)

.
.

.
.

(1907 .)

.
,
.

.
(

. 2.3-32).
.

.,

(1915

)
.

.
.
.
.

.
(1911

,
.

.)

.
.
,
.

,
.
(

. 2.3-33).

2.4.

125
VIII

.
,

.
.

,
,

.
,

,
-

.
,

.
,

.
.
,
,

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,
-

,
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,
,

.
,

,
.

.
,

.
,

.
:

,
,

,
.

.
,

.
,
.

126

2.4-1

127

2.4-2

128
-

,
,

,
,

.
.,
. 2.4-1; 2.4-2).:
(

,
,

),

.
-

),

),

),
(

,
-

),

XIX

XVIII
,

.
.
XIX

.
,
,

,
.

.
,

,
,
-

.
.

.
.

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.

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129

2.4-3

130

2.4-4

131

2.4-5

132
,

.
.
.
-

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.
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,
,

.
,

),

),

),

),

,
,

. 2.4-3; 2.4-4; 2.4-5).

.
.

XIX
.
***

,
-

1.

2.

3.

,
,
.

4.

XI

.,

.
5.

XI

,
,

.
6.

XI

.,
.

7.

XI

.
8.

XI
.

133

3.

3.1.

.
1920

.
.

1924-1925
1925 .
-

1930 .
(

.
.

),

.
. 3.1-1).

),

.
1936

1929 .
.

,
.

1921

.
,

.
1921 .

.
,
,

.
(1921-1925
.

.)

,
,
,

1925 .

.
(.

),
.

,
.

.
,

.
.
.

1927 .
1931

,
,

1930

1929

[122].
.

1935 .

1932 . 24,8%
1920 .

8,5% 1927 . [299,


3,6
, ,

1936 .
:
.336].
,

134

3.1-1

135

,
1936 .

6,64%
,

.
.

40%

[8,

.41,42].

.97],

[354,

,
,

,
[481, .6].

,
-

.
,

.
,

1942 .
[67,

.213].

.
:
.

.
.
,

[313;

354;

414].
-

).
.

,
,
,

[439,
,

(
)

.
1950-

[441, .109];
.29-30].

,
.
,

,
[577,

.85-86]:

1950-

1930.

.,

1930-

1940-

.,

.
: 1920-
1940-

136
3.2.

1920-

1930-

,
.

.
,

. 3.2-1).

,
,

[702,

.589].
,

(
.

,
.

. .),
.

,
.

.
(

).

.
[411, .50].

).
,

. 3.2-2).

.
.
.

.
,
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. 3.2-2).

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176
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3.3-41

211

3.3-42

212

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3.3-43

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3.3-44

215
.

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.).

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216

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217

3.3-46

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[101, .60].

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[95,

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.104].
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. 3.4-1).
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220

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227

3.4-7

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8).

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229

3.4-8

230

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231
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232

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233

3.4-11

234

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235

3.4-12

236

3.4-13

237
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,

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,

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(
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.,

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. 3.4-13).
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;

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[594,
.

1970-

.297].
.

.
(1949 .)

.
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238

3.4-14

239

3.4-15

240
.

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,

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1980-

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3.4-18; 3.4-19; 3.4-20; 3.4-21).
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.
,
.

,
:

.
.
.

.
.
.

,
.

241

3.4-16

242

3.4-17

243

3.4-18

244

3.4-19

245

3.4-20

246

3.4-21

247
.

(1948 .,

. .

)
.

,
.
.

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.

.
.

.
.

(1950 .,

.
.

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.
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(1948-1952 .,
).
.

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.

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.

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.

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.

1990-

.
.

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.

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,

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.

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.

248

(1954 .,

.
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.
.

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.
(1953-

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1954

.)

.
,

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22).

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,

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)

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249

3.4-22

250

3.4-23

251

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,
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,

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.

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.

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,
. 3.4-23).
.

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;

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,

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,

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.

(1948 .,

;
[437, .70].
)

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.
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.
(

,
. 3.4-24).

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-

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.

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.

(
. 3.4-13; 3.4-18),
(1954 .,
. .
)

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.

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.
,

252

3.4-24

253

3.4-25

254
.

. 3.4-25).

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,

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.

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.

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.
.
.
.

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.
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(
. 3.4-26).
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. .
.

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,

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.

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,

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.

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,
.

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.
.
.
.
27).

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.
.

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.

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.

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.

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,

.
.
.

,
1970-

.
. 3.4-28).

255

3.4-26

256

3.4-27

257

3.4-28

258
.

(1955

.,

,
,

.
,

.
.
.

.
.

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.

);

.
.

.
.

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.

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.
.

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.
.
.

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.

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,
.

,
, .

. 3.4-29).

,
,

,
,

[99].
.

(1954 .)

,
.

.
,

.
.

(1954 .,

)
.

.
.
,

.
,

259

3.4-29

260

3.4-30

261
,

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.

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.

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.,

. 3.4-30).
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.

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,

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.,

. 3.4-32).
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.
)

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.

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,

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.
.

262

3.4-31

263

3.4-32

264
.

(1953-1954

.)

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(1953-1954

.,

),

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,

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,

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.
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-

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,

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.
,

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.

(1954 .).
.

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(1954 .).

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,

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.
.

265

3.4-33

266

3.4-34

267

3.4-35

268

,
. 3.4-35).

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.

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.,

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.

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-

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.

. 3.4-37).

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.

269

3.4-36

270

3.4-37

271

3.4-38

272
,

.
.

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.
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38).

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.

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(3.4-39).
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,

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.

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.
.
.

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,

.,

.
.

3.4-40).
.

).

273

3.4-39

274

3.4-40

275

3.4-41

276
.

.
.

.
,
.

.
.

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.
,
. 3.4-41).

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.

)
,

(1950-1954

.,

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,
,

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.

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).

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.

,
(

).
,

.
,

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.

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.

,
(

.
.,

. 3.4-42).
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. .

(1954

)
,

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.

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,

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,

.
.

(1953 .)

,
.
.
.
.

.
.

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.
.

.,

.
.

(1955
.

277

3.4-42

278

3.4-43

279
,

,
.

,
.

.
.
.

(1943-1945
,

(3.4-43).

. .
).

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.

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.
.

. .

.
.

. 3.4-44).

,
.
.

,
.

. []

;
,
,

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.69].

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.
[99].
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, .
. .
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.,

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,

1950).

.
,

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.

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,

,
),
).

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(

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(

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,

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.

)
.

,
.

.
.
.

280

3.4-44

281

3.4-45

282
,
(

. 3.4-45).

:
,
,

[439].

,
,
,

,
,
[767,
.230-231].
,

.
(1952 .,
.
.
.

,
.

,
.

,
[],
.
,

. .

.
.
,

.
(
-

. 3.4-46).
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.

)
-

.
,
.
.
.
.
,
.

.
46; 3.4-47).

,
(

. 3.4-

.
,

.
,

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.

,
.

.
.

(1950 .,

. .
.

).

.
.
(

.
. 3.4-47).

,
.

.
.

.
.

,
.
.

.
.

283

3.4-46

284

3.4-47

285
,

.
,
.
(1950 .,

. .

, .

, .

).

,
.

,
,

,
.
(

. 3.4-48).
,
.

(1954 .,

.
,

).

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.

.
.

.
. 3.4-49).

(
(
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.,

, .

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,

).
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.

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.

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,

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,
.
.

,
.

. 3.4-49).

.
.

.
,

.
.

,
,

.
,

.
.

.
)

286

3.4-48

287

3.4-49

288
,

,
[44, .96].

(1952 .,

. .
.

.
. 3.4-49).

,
.

(1949 .,
.

).
.

)
,
.

,
(

. 3.4-50).

.
.

(1944-1945

.,

).

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,

,
,
-

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[44, .40]
,
,
,
.39],

.
,

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.

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.

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,

. 3.4-

50; 3.4-51).

.
.

(1953 .)

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
(

. 3.4-52).

,
(

,
. 3.4-53).

,
,

.
.

.
.

,
.

289

3.4-50

290

3.4-51

291

3.4-52

292

3.4-53

293
.

.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
(1944-1945

.,

.
.

).
,

(
,

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.
.

(1952 .,

.
,

.
.
(

. 3.4-54).
(1951 .,

. .

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
(

. 3.4-55).
.

(1951 .,

.
-

.
.

.
.

,
-

.
.

.
.

.
,

.
.
.

.
-

.
.
,

(1955 .,

294

3.4-54

295

3.4-55

296

3.4-56

297
.
.

.
(
. 3.4-56).
(1948 .,
.
:
,
,

.
.
.
,

.
:

.
.
.

.
.

,
.
,

.
-

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.

(1953 .,

. .
.

, .

, .

).

.
.
.

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.

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.

.
(

. 3.4-57).
(1953 .,
.
.
.

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-

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.

.
.
,

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

,
[437,

:
,

[]
,
,

.48].

,
,

1950.

298

3.4-57

299

3.4-58

300
.
(

(1954 .),

. 3.4-58),

.
(1950

.,

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
,

.
.

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.
.

(1944 .,

. .

, .

).

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.

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.
(

. 3.4-59).
.

.
.
.
.
.
,

,
,

.
.

.
.
.
.,

(1954
.

.
.
.

.
,

.
.

.
,

.
.
.

.
.

3.4-60).

1954

.,

(1951-

).

.
.

301

3.4-59

302

3.4-60

303

.
-

,
.

.
,

,
.
.
.
-

.
.
. 3.4-61).

,
,

.
-

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,

,
,

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.

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.

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.

,
.

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.
(1951-1954 .,
. .
(1939-1954 .,
30-

. 3.4-62).

:
)
.

, .
. 3.3-9).
,

).

,
1950-

,
,

.
.

,
.
(

. 3.4-

63).
,
.
(

(1948-1954

. -

. .

,
-

),

. 3.3-45).

.
.
.

, .

:
.

. 3.4-64).

,
-

[96, .130].
(1945 .,

).
.
,

,
[437, .41].

,
.

304

3.4-61

305

3.4-62

306

3.4-63

307

3.4-64

308

3.4-65

309
.

,
.
.

. 3.4-65).
(1950 .)

.
(
.

,
.
,

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.
.
,
.

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,

(1949-1950

.,

).
,

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.

(
.

. 3.4-66).

.
,

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.
.

.
. 3.4-67).

(
,

.
.
.

.
.
,

.
,

.
.
,

.
. 3.4-68).

(1949 .,

).
.

.
,
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
,
.

.
,
,

310

3.4-66

311

3.4-67

312

3.4-68

313

3.4-69

314

3.4-70

315

3.4-71

316

3.4-72

317
.

.
.
.

.
,
.

.
(

. 3.4-69).
,

.
.

.
.

.
-

.
.

,
.

.
. 3.4-70; 3.4-71).

.
,

(1954
,

.,

).

.
.

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.

(1951-1952

.,

. .

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

(1950 .,

.
.
(

. 3.4-72).

).

318
3.5.

1930-

1920-

,
,
.

,
,

,
,

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,

. .).
,

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,

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).

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,

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.

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.

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-

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.

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,

1930,
-

(
-

),

1920-
. 3.5-1; 3.5-2; 3.5-3):

(
(

,
).

),
),
-

.
.

1930,

,
(

1940.

,
.
.

,
.

-,

319

3.5-1

320

3.5-2

321

3.5-3

322
.

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,

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.
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.

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,

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.

323

3.5-4

324

3.5-5

325

3.5-6

326

3.5-7

327

3.5-8

328

3.5-9

329
,
,

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,

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,

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,

19409):

(
(
(

,
,

,
,

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-

1930-
. 3.5-4; 3.5-5; 3.5-6; 3.5-7; 3.5-8; 3.5),
),
,
,
,
),

,
,
,
).

.
-

.
1950-

1940-
,

.
,

,
,

,
.
,

330

3.5-10

331

3.5-11

332

3.5-12

333

3.5-13

334

3.5-14

335
,

.
,

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,
.

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,
,

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,

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,

1940-

13; 3.5-14):

1950(
,

),
),

(
),

,
,

),

. 3.5-10; 3.5-11; 3.5-12; 3.5,


(
,
(
,
-

,
,

,
).
-

.
.
***

,
-

336
1.

,
1920-

1940-

1930-

1940-

19301950-

.
2.

1920-
.

1930-

3.

.
1920-

4.
.

1930.

5.

,
1940-

1950-

6.

1920-
.

1930-

.
.

7.

,
1920-
1940.

1930-
.

1930-

.,
1940-

1950-

.
1930-
.

1940-

8.

.,

,
.

1920-
1940-

1930

19301950.

1940-

1940

1930-
.

1920-

9.

.,

1930.
1940.

1930-
1950.
1950-

1940-

1940-

.
.

,
,
1940-

1930-

,
,
1930-

1940-

1950

10.
1940-

1950-

1930-
1930-

,
1940-

1930-
,

1940.

1920-
1940.

1930-

1940-

11.
,

1920-
1940.

1930-
12.

1930-

1920-

1930-

.
.

1930-

1940-

1930- -

1940-

.,
1940-

1950.
1940-

1950-

.
.

1940,
.

1950,

337
4.

4.1.

),
(

. 4.1-1).

19501960-

1950-

.
.
,

1950-

40,2%

[8,

1956 .

.51].

.
.

,
.
.
.
.
.

.
,
-

1958 .

.
326,

1960 .

881,

1965 . 1521,
[181,
.267-268].

,
,

[153,

.682],
.
,

.
.

1960-

.
1960 .

4-5
.

13, 23 50%
71,3% [101,

21%
,

14%

.5].

1958
,

, 40%,
,

1961
1968

39%,

2,6, 3,4, 22,7


.

338

4.1-1

339
-

.
-

1961 .

.
-

.
.

,
80%

1965 .

,
[181,

.295-

296].
,
.
86%

31,4% [8, .121].

.
94,5%
1970 . [101,

1958

1965 .

.62].
,

1958-1960

464 .

II-335
(

1968

I-464
I-335 15,3% [172,

72,1%
.73]).

1960.
,

,
.

1970

.
1970,
,

.
7-9

1970-147

-,
.
69,

[181, .147].

:
,

,
,
,

[153, .618].

.
.
-

1966-1975

80 % [8,

.176].

.
-

1970-

1973 .

.
,

1978 .

.
,

340
1980-

:
,
-158/9,

1984 .

,
-

[181,
(

.152].
)

,
,

.
.

,
60-

80-

80-

[570,

.398].

1950- 1960-

1970- 1980-

4.2.

1950- 1960,

1960-

.
,
(1959

.)

,
.
.
.

,
.

.
.
.
.

.
(

. .

, .

. 4.2-1).
.
).

, .

.
,

,
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

,
.

341

4.2-1

342

4.2-2

343
.
.
.

,
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
(

. 4.2-2).

.
.

.
,
.

.
.
.

. 4.2-3).

).

(1962-1963

.,

.
.

,
.

,
.

.
.

(
.

. 4.2-4).

,
,

.
.
.

344

4.2-3

345

4.2-4

346

4.2-5

347
.
.

.
.

. .
.

.
,

.
,

.
.

.
. 4.2-5).

(
.

.
.

,
.

.
.

.
.
(

. 4.2-6).
.
.

.
.

.
.
,

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

. 4.2-7).
.

.
,

.
,

.
.

,
.
.

,
,

.
,

,
,

348

4.2-6

349

4.2-7

350
-

,
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
,

. 4.2-8).
.

(1960 .)

,
.
.

.
,
,

.
,

.
.
.
.
,

(
,

,
.

.
.

,
.

. 4.2-9).

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
(

. 4.2-10).
.

(1956 .,

)
.

.
.

.
.
,

.
.

.
.
(

.
.

.
. 4.2-11).

351

4.2-8

352

4.2-9

353

4.2-10

354

4.2-11

355

(1957 .).
.
,

.
,

,
.

,
.
.

.
,

.
.
(

. 4.2-12).

.)

(1958
.

.
.
.

,
.
.
.

.
.

(1967 .)

.
.

.
.

(1961 .)

.
,
.

,
.

.
.

.
.

,
.

.
(1957 .,

. .

,
,

.
.

.
.

.
(

. 4.2-13).
.

(1957-1958

.
.

.,

356

4.2-12

357

4.2-13

358

4.2-14

359
.

.
,

,
,

.
.

.
.

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.
.
,
.
.

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-

. 4.2-14).
,

,
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,
. []

,
,

,
,
:

[437,

.75-76].

,
.
,

,
[181, .107].
.
.

(1959 .,
.

.
,

.
.

.
,

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,
.

.
.
,

.
.
.

,
,

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.

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-

. 4.2-15).
.
.

(1948-1957

,
,

.,

360

4.2-15

361

4.2-16

362
.
.
.
.

.
.

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.

.
(

. 4.2-16).

.
-

[354,

:
;

.143, 314-315].

, .

.
,

,
,

.
.170].

[70,
,

,
,

. 4.2-14).
,

,
[181, .102-105].
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

,
.

.
.
,

363

4.2-17

364
,

.
.

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-

(1954-1957

.,

. 4.2-17).

,
.

,
.
.

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.
,

,
.
,

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-

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.

,
,

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. 4.2-18).

.
.

(1958

.)

.
.

. 4.2-19).
.

, .

(1955-1959

)
.

.,
.
.

.
.

.
.

365

4.2-18

366

4.2-19

367
-

[512,

.88].
,
.

.
.

,
,
.

.
,

,
. 4.2-20).

.
.
.

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,
.

. 4.2-21).
,
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,
.

.
.

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(1968 .,

. 4.2-22).
.
,

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.

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(1967 .,

. 4.2-23).
)
.

.
.
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.
,

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.

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,

(1963 .,
.

.
.

.
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.
.

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,

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,
,

368

4.2-20

369

4.2-21

370

4.2-22

371

4.2-23

372

4.2-24

373
.
,
.

,
[172,

.86].
,

.
(

. 4.2-24).
2-8
(1964-1967

.,

, .

, .

.
-

).

.
,

.
3-8

,
.
.

.
.

.
.

,
(

. 4.2-25).
.
,

.
.

.
.

(1969

.).

,
(
.

. 4.2-26).
. .
, .

.
.

(1968-1969
)

.,

.
.

.
,

,
.
. 4.2-27).

374

4.2-25

375

4.2-26

376

4.2-27

377
.
.
.

(
.

(1963 .,

. 4.3-83).

1970-80.

, .
)

.
,
2-8

.
.
.

(
.

. 4.2-28).

1,

.
,
.

.
.

,
,

.
.

(1964
. 4.2-29).

.,

.
.
.
.

.
.
,

.
. . .

.
.

.
.

. .

.
.

.
.

. . .

,
.

.
.
.

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.,

, .

(
. .

)
, .

378

4.2-28

379

4.2-29

380
.
,

.
.

)
.
.

,
.

. 4.2-30).

.
.

,
,

.
.

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.

.
-

.
.

,
.

.
.

. 4.2-31).
.

(1961 .)

,
,

.
,

(
.

.
.

.
.

,
.

.
.

).

(
.

(
. 4.2-32).
,
.
.

,
.

.
.

.
,

381

4.2-30

382

4.2-31

383

4.2-32

384
,

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
,
.

,
,

.
(

. .

,
. 4.2-33).
.

.
,

.
.

.
.

.
-

.
.

.
.

.
(

. 3.3-15),
.

(1961 .)

.
,

.
.
(

(1960-1962
.
-

)
.

.,

. 4.2-34).
. .
,

.
.

(
.

(1957-1960

.,

)
.

.
.

2-5

,
[767, .261].
(1957-1960 .,
.

.)
,

)
.

.
.
,

385

4.2-33

386

4.2-34

387

4.2-35

388
,
(

. 4.2-35).
.
,
2-7

.
.
,

.
.

.
.

.
-

.
,
,

,
.
.

,
,

. 4.2-

36).

.
.

,
.

,
.
.

.
.

3-7
.
.

)
.

(1968 .,

,
,

3-6

,
.

.
.

.
.

. 4.2-37).

2-5
.
-

2-5
.

389

4.2-36

390

4.2-37

391

.
.
(3

(2

,
.

.
.
.
.
(

,
. 4.2-38).

,
.

(1968
,

.,

)
.

,
.
,
2-5

,
3-11

.
.

3-10
.

.
,
.
.

.
-

.
.

4-9

.
-

.
2-5

.
.

.
,

.
.

.
(

. 4.2-39).
.
.

. .

),

.
.

. 4.2-40).

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

392

4.2-38

393

4.2-39

394

4.2-40

395

4.2-41

396
.
,

.
,

. 4.2-41).

.,

. .

(1968
.

)
.

.
.
.

3-7

.
,

(1965 .,

.
.

.
. 4.2-42).
2-4

(
.
,
.
.

.
.
.
.
,
.

.
.
,

2-4

.
2-6

.
,

2-7

2-7

,
.

. 4.2-43).
.

.
,
.
2-5

,
.

.
.

,
.
.

.
.

.
,

.
.

. 4.2-44).
,

.
-

(1957 .).

.
.

397

4.2-42

398

4.2-43

399

4.2-44

400
.
.

(1964 .).

.
.

.
,
.
.
.

. .

.
,

. 4.2-45).
.

.
.
.

,
.

.
.

.
.

(1958 .)

.
.
.
,
.

(
(1957 .)

. 4.2-46).

,
.
.

.
.

(1960-1964

.).

.
.
.

.,

(1957-1961

. 4.2-47).

.
,

.
.
,

1-3

.
,

.
.

.
.
.

. .
,

.
.

.
.

(1957-1962
)

.,

401

4.2-45

402

4.2-46

403

4.2-47

404

,
[]

,
[172, .84].

(1959 .,
.

.
.

.
,

,
,

. .
(

. 4.2-48).
.
,

.
-

.
,

2-5
,

.
.

. 4.2-49).

,
.

.
.

.
.

4.2-50).
.
(1964
3-5

.,

.
.

.
(

. 4.2-51).
.

.
.

.
.

,
.
.75].

.
,

[172,
.

,
.

.
.

,
52).

,
,

. 4.2-

405

4.2-48

406

4.2-49

407

4.2-50

408

4.2-51

409

4.2-52

410
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

,
.
.

,
.

. 4.2-53).

.
.

,
.

(1969 .),
. 4.2-54).
.
-

.
.

.
.

,
,
(

. 4.2-55).
. .

.
,

.
2-7

.
.

(1967 .)

.
.
.
,
.

.
.
.

,
.
(
.

(
,

)
.

2-11

. 4.2-56).

.
-

.
.

(1969 .,

,
.

)
.

.
.
,

411

4.2-53

412

4.2-54

413

4.2-55

414

4.2-56

415

4.2-57

416
.
,

. 4.2-57).
.

.
,

.
.

2-5
.

.
.
.

(
(1961 .,

)
,

).

2-5
(

)
(

.
.

)
.

,
[172,

,
.234]

.84; 181,

,
.

,
,
,

),

(
[],

[767,

.282-283].

,
.

.
. 4.2-48),

(1969 .,

),

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

,
-

9)

. 4.2-58).

.
.
.

.
.

,
.
.

(1969 .).

2-4

.
.

417

4.2-58

418

4.2-59

419
.
(
,
,

(1967 .)
.

(1964 .,

. 4.2-59).
-

.
.
-

.
.

.
.
.

.
,

.
.

.
.

.
,

(1967 .).
.

(1966 .,
)

,
.

.
,

.
,

.
.

,
.

.
,

. 4.2-60).
.
,

.
.

. . .
)

(1969 .,

, .

.
.

.
(

. 4.2-61).
.

.
.

, .

. .

,
.

.
.

,
.

(1969 .)

420

4.2-60

421

4.2-61

422

4.2-62

423

4.2-63

424

4.2-64

425
.

.
(

. 4.2-62).

.
.

(1959-1964
.

).

.,

,
.

.
.

,
.

.
,

.
(1961 .,

.
(1961 .,

.
.

).

,
(

. 4.2-63).
.

. .

(1967 .,

,
-

.
.
.

,
.

,
,

,
-

(1967 .).
.
,

.
.
(

4.3.

. 4.2-64).

1970- 1980

1960-

1970-

,
,
[274,

[572,

,
,

,
,

.31],

[196,

.19].

,
,

.34].

[570,

.390].

,
,
.

426
-

1930

.
.

, .

, .
(

)
. 4.2-16),

1940-

1950,
(1981 .,

.
,

.
,

1950-

.
,

.
,
.

.
.

.
.

(1983 . .(
. 3.2-10)
.

1930-

.
.
.

.
,

(
. 4.3-1).
(1973 .,
. .
.

.
1950-

.(

. 4.2-14).

,
.

(1985

.,

,
.
.

.
,

.
,

.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
,

.
,
-

1-4

,
(

. 4.3-2).
.
,

(1983 . .
.

.
,

.
.

,
,


[179,
,
,

.
,
-

.2] (

. 4.2-14).
,

427

4.3-1

428

4.3-2

429
-

.
.
.

,
(

. 4.3-3).
.

),

.
(

,
.

.
.

,
,

.
(

)
.

(
,

.
.

).
,

,
,
.

.
(

. 4.3-4).
.

)
,

.
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

(1971 .)
.

.
.

.
(

4.2-63).
.

.
,

.
.
,
.

,
-

.
.

430

4.3-3

431

4.3-4

432

4.3-5

433
.

.
,

,
.
:

. 4.3-5).

(1984

.,

,
,

.
.

,
.
[240,

.3].

.
.
.

,
,

.
,

,
.

.
.

.
,

,
.

. 4.3-6).

.
,

,
,
[]

:
,

[240,

.3].
4-5
.,

,
,

(1981

).
.
.

.
,

.
,

(1982 .)

.
.

.
-

. 4.3-7).

2-3

.
.

.
.

.
.

2-5

2-5

.
,
.
.

434

4.3-6

435

4.3-7

436
,
.
.
2-7
,

(1989 .)

.
.

.
.

3-9

.
.

.
-

.
.
(

. 4.3-8).
.

(1982 . (
.

).

4.2-29)
,
,

.
,

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
,

.
.
.
-

,
.
,

.
.

.
,
.

.
.

.
.
,

(
.
,

. 4.3-9).
,

.
.
,

,
,

,
.

.
.

437

4.3-8

438

4.3-9

439

.
.

2-9
.
(

. 4.3-10).
,

.
.
.

1-3

1-5

.
,

.
.

6-7

.
.
.

1-2

8-9

7-9

3-

.
,

7-9

,
(

.
. 4.3-11).

.
.
.

2-5

,
.

,
.
.

,
.

12-14
,

,
.

11-14

2-5
,

-1

.
3-8

.
.

3-7
.
.

,
.

.
.

.
-

.
. 4.3-12).

.
,

.
-

.
.

.
.

.
,

.
,

440

4.3-10

441

4.3-11

442

4.3-12

443
.
.

(1982 .,

.
,

.
.
,

.
.

.
. 4.3-13).

(
.

.
.
.

4-7
:

.
.

,
-

.
,

-2
,

4.3-14).
(
)
.

(1967-1970

.,

. .

,
,

.
-

,
.

)
,

.
,

,
.

,
.

.
,

.
.

,
.
. 4.3-15).

, .

. .

[]

[].
.

,
,
.
[573,

[]
[769,

,
,

.45].
,

.
,

.48].

,
.

444

4.3-13

445

4.3-14

446

4.3-15

447
[153,
.

.629].

,
.
.
[274,
.

(1972 .,
.

.34].

,
.
,

.
,
,

.
-

(
. 4.3-16).
(1960 .,
. .

).
.
.

.
.
.

).
.
.

.
.
,

.
.
.

.
(

. 4.3-17).
.

.
.

)
(

.
(

. 4.3-15).
(

),

.
,

.
-

.
.
.

(1985

.,

).

.
.

.
,
,

,
.

448

4.3-16

449

4.3-17

450

4.3-18

451

.
,
. 4.3-18).

(
.

.
(1982-1989

.)

2-4

.
4.2-57).

,
.

(1985 .

.
.
.

,
.

.
,

.
,

. 4.3-19).

V-

.
V-

.
,

.
.

,
,
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

,
(

. 4.3-20).

-1

,
(1975

.,

).

,
.

(1982 .)

.
.

,
.
.
.

)
,

.
,

(1973 .,

,
.

452

4.3-19

453

4.3-20

454

4.3-21

455
.
.

.
.

. 4.3-21).
(1985 .,

2-6

,
.

,
,

.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
3-5

,
.

.
.

,
(

. 4.3-22).

.
.
4-8

.
.
.

4-7
.

.
.

.
,

.
.
.

,
.

3-9

.
.
.

)
.

,
.
.

)
.

.
.

.
.

)
.

3-5
.
4.3-23).

456

4.3-22

457

4.3-23

458
.
,

3-6

.
.
.

.
.

4-6

.
.

.
.

2-4

.
3-5

.
.

(
-

. 4.3-24).
.

(1981 .,

,
,

.
(

. 4.3-25).

[179,

,
-

.4].

,
,
,

:
[]

[559, .336].

(1972 .,

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
,

.
,

. 4.3-26).
(1987 .,
,

.
.

,
.

,
.

.
.

.
.
,

.
.

.
.

459

4.3-24

460

4.3-25

461

4.3-26

462

.
.
.

.
.
.

1-4
.

.
1-4

(1981 .,

,
.

,
. 4.3-27).

(
,

.
,

)
,

,
.
.

.
,

.
.

.
.

.
(1969 .,

).

.
,

,
.

[],

.
.

-
,

7 [509,

,
.44].

(1981 .,

, .

.
16

3-9

.
(

,
. 4.3-28).
:

10-

,
,
,

,
.

463

4.3-27

464

4.3-28

465
,

.
,

16-

14

.
:

,
(

[509, .44-45].
(1981 .)
,

.
.

.
.

.
.

3-7

,
.

.
.

.
.

2-5

.
.

2-4
(

. 4.3-29).

(1989 .),

.
,

.
.

.
,
(
(1973 .,

. 4.2-15)
, .

. .

.
.

.
.

.
,

.
,

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.

(1983 .)
,

.
(

. 4.3-30).

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.
.

1-3

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.

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.

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.
.

1-

466

4.3-29

467

4.3-30

468
.
.
.

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.

4-9

.
.

.
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-

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.
. 4.3-

31).
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,

)
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, .

. .

. 4.3-32).
. 28
, .
,

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,
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[744, .111].
.

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,
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).
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(

. 4.3-33).
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.

.
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)
.

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.

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(

. 4.3-34).
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)
,

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.

469

4.3-31

470

4.3-32

471

4.3-33

472

4.3-34

473

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. 4.3-37).
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4.3-35

475

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476

4.3-37

477
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.

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. 4.3-

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.

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.

485

4.3-43

486

4.3-44

487

4.3-45

488
-

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.

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.

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)

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.

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)
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.

489

4.3-46

490

4.3-47

491

4.3-48

492
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(1982 .,
.

).

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(

. 4.3-48).

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495

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496

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,

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,

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.

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.
(

. 4.3-52).

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497

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498

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499

4.3-54

500
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. 4.3-56).
.

2-8

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.

501

4.3-55

502

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503

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504
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)

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3-5

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2-6

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505

4.3-58

506

4.3-59

507

4.3-60

508
.

. 4.3-60).
.

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.

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.
.

).

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,
.

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.
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.,

)
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3-10

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.

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. 4.3-62).

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510

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6

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.

[181, .161].
.

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.
.

)
,
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. 4.3-64).

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.

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.
.

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.

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.
(

. 4.3-65).
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.

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(1971 .)

2-4

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.

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.

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.
.

512

4.3-63

513

4.3-64

514

4.3-65

515

4.3-66

516
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.

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.

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.

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(1982 .,

)
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. 4.3-67).
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.

1-6
.

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,

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518

4.3-68

519

4.3-69

520
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.
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)
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(1978 .)
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,

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.

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521

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522

4.3-71

523

4.3-72

524
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1-5

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.

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525

4.3-73

526

4.3-74

527

4.3-75

528

16

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4-10

2-5

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2-8

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,

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.
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2-4

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. 4.3-77).

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,

529

4.3-76

530

4.3-77

531
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3-9

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532

4.3-78

533

4.3-79

534

4.3-80

535

4.3-81

536
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. 4.3-81).

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, .

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(1972
)
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.
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.

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.,

).

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-

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-

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,
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.
.
.

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,

).
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)

.
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.
.

537

4.3-82

538

4.3-83

539

4.3-84

540
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541

4.3-85

542

4.3-86

543

4.3-87

544

4.3-88

545

.
.
3-4

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.
.
.
.
.

. 4.3-89).

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.)

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.

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.

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.,

.
.

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. 4.3-90).

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.

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,

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. .
(
. 3.4-28).
.

),

.
(
(

. 4.3-91).
,
.
.

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,

.
(1978 .)

.
,

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.
.
.

(1974 .)
.

. 4.3-92).

.
.

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.

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.
-

.
.

.
.
(

. 4.3-93).

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,

546

4.3-89

547

4.3-90

548

4.3-91

549

4.3-92

550

4.3-93

551
.

.
.

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.

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.

. 4.3-94).
.
-

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.

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.)

.
.

4.3-95).
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6
,

(1986 .,
.

.
,

. 4.3-95).

.
(

. 4.3-64)
.
.

[251,
. .

.5].
)
2-9

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.

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. 4.3-97).
.

).

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,

552

4.3-94

553

4.3-95

554

4.3-96

555

4.3-97

556

4.3-98

557
,

.
.
.

.
.

.
(

. 4.3-98).

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.

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.

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.

(1981 .)

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.
.

.
.
.

,
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. 4.3-99).
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,
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.

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.

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.
.

.
.

. 4.3-100).

.
.
. 4.3-101).

.
,

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.

7-9

,
.

.
.

. 4.3-102; 4.3-103).
,

-2 (

. 4.3-104).
.
.

(1983 .)

,
.
.

,
.

558

4.3-99

559

4.3-100

560

4.3-101

561

4.3-102

562

4.3-103

563

4.3-104

564

4.3-105

565
.

.
.

. 4.3-

105).
.
(

, 1981 .).
.

2-4
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.

,
.
.
,

3-7
.

).

3-7
.

(1976 .,

. 4.3-106).

.
,
.

5-7
.
.

,
.

.
.

).

.
.

.
.
.
,
,

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(

(1977 .,

. 4.3-107).

.
.

,
.

7-9

.
.

,
.
.

2-6

,
.

7-9
.

. 4.3-108).

.
9

,
.

.
,
,

,
7

566

4.3-106

567

4.3-107

568

4.3-108

569

4.3-109

570
.

.
, 6-7-8-9
,

.
.

.
.
,

.
(

. 4.3-109).

.
.
,

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

,
.

.
,
.

(1981

.,

.
,

.
,
.

. 4.3-110).
.

.
,

.
.

.
.

2-5

,
.
.

3-5

.
.

.
,

.
.

. 4.3-111).

.
,

(1974 .,

.
.

.
.

.
.

. 4.2-57)

.
,

571

4.3-110

572

4.3-111

573

4.3-112

574
.

.
.
.

,
.

.
.

. 4.3-112).

.
.
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,

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.
.

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,

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, .

)
,

,
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,
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.

.
(

. 4.3-113).
.

.
.

.
.

)
,

2-6

.
.

.
.

.
.

(1987 .,
.

. .

.
.

.
-

. 4.3-114).
)

.
.

(
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

(1989 .,

. .

),

.
.

,
.

575

4.3-113

576

4.3-114

577

4.3-115

578
.

.
. 4.3-115).

(
.

,
,

.
.
.
.
.
,

.
.

.
(

)
.

.
,

(1983 .)

,
.

.
.

.
.

.
(

. 4.3-116).
.

5-9

2-9

(1980 .,

,
,

.
3-5

.
.

.
,

,
4.3-117).

.
(1982

.,

(1976

).

.
(1989

.,

,
.

.
.

.
.
.

(
.
(

. 4.3-118).
.

.
.

,
.

,
.

.
,

.
.

,
-

,
-

.),

.
.

.
.

.
,

.,

, .
3-13

)
.

(1976
.

3-5

.
.

,
.

579

4.3-116

580

4.3-117

581

4.3-118

582

4.3-119

583
,

,
.

(1972 .,

,
. 4.3-119).

, .

, .

10-12

.
;

.
.

).

.
,

,
,

4.3-120).

.
.

,
,

,
,

[172,

.90].
.

,
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

. 4.3-121).

.
.

.
.
,

.
.

. .

)
.

,
.
2-7

,
.

.
,

.
,

(1978 .,
.

3-9

.
,

,
,

.
6-9

6-9
.
.

.
.

. 4.3-122).
(1978 .,

,
.

584

4.3-120

585

4.3-121

586

4.3-122

587

,
.

4-

,
.
.

. 4.3-123).

,
(

,
,

[]

. .).

. []
,
,

(
,

. .
,

[574,

.4].

,
[274, .34].
:
,

, .

.
,

.
,

[621,

.3].

,
:

,
[94,

[181,

.247].

.51].

. []

,
.

[].

,
[

. .]
.
,

.
[633,

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,

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.
,

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[183, .3].

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4.3-123

589
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.

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.)

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598
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,

610
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. 4.4-1; 4.4-2; 4.4-3; 4.4-4; 4.4-5):

611

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. 4.4-6; 4.4-7; 4.4-8; 4.4-9; 4.4-10; 4.4-11; 4.4-12):

618

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619

4.4-7

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4.4-8

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21
2

,
1991
1992

.
1997
2030.

,
,

[465]
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1997

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)

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.)

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.).

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-

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-

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631
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).
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(1997-1998

. -

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.
,

.
(

6 7
. 5.2-2).

.
Samal towers

(1997 .)

.
.
.
.

(1999 . -

)
.

(1999 . -

,
1

2-4

.
Damir Bank

.
(1999 .)

.
,

(1997 .,

)
.

.
.

(1999 . ,
(

.
.

,
-

. 5.2-3).

(2000 .).

632

5.2-1

633

5.2-2

634

5.2-3

635
.

(1999 .).
.

(1998 .)
.

.
.

(1999 .)

.
,

(
)

(1995 . -

. 5.2-4).

.
.

.
.
,

,
(1997 .,
.-

. .

).

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(1998

. 4.2-60).

(2000

. -

. 5.2-5).

.
)

(1998 . .

(1999 . -

)
.

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)
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. 5.2-6).
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).

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,

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.)

.
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. 5.2-7).

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,

636

5.2-4

637

5.2-5

638

5.2-6

639

5.2-7

640

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.

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-

.)

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,
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(1998 .)

,
(

. 5.2-8).
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(1999

.).

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.

(1997 .,

,
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. 5.2-9).
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(2000 .)

,
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.

K-cell

(1999 . -

)
.

.
.

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.

(1998 . -

)
.

.
.

641

5.2-8

642

5.2-9

643

5.2-10

644
(1999 . -

).
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).

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. 5.2-11).

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(1997

.,

.)

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.

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.
.

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(1998 . -

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.
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. .

)
.

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(

(1999 . -

. 5.2-12).
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645

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646

5.2-12

647

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- ).

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(1995 .)

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.

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-

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. 5.2-14).
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.

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.

(1996

,
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.)

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(1996

.)

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,
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,

(1998 . ,

)
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(1996 .).

648

5.2-13

649

5.2-14

650

5.2-15

651

.
. 5.2-15).

(
.

(1994 .)

. 4.3-33).

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.

(1998 .)

,
.
-

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,

.
.

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(1998 .)

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-

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. 5.2-16).

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).
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- ).
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. 5.2-18).
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(1998 . -

- ).

.
. 5.2-17).

652

5.2-16

653

5.2-17

654

5.2-18

655
.
.

.
.

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)
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. 4.2-62)

.
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(1998 .)

. 5.2-19; 5.2-20).
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.
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.

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.

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. -

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.
(

).
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)
.

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.
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. 5.2-21).
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.

.
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(1998 .)

.
,

.
.
.

(1994 . -

,
.

.
.

.
.

(1998 .)

,
,

.
.

.
.

(2000 . -

656

5.2-19

657

5.2-20

658

5.2-21

659

5.2-22

660
.
,
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.
.
(

. 5.2-22).

(1998 . -

, .
.

. .

.
)

.
(1999 . -

),

,
. 3.3-29).

(1997 . -

,
,
.
(

. 3.3-6).
.

,
Aragosta,
)

(2000 . -

,
(

. 3.2-11).

.
,

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,

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(
.

. 3.3-18),
.

,
. 3.4-33),
(1999 . -

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.

. 5.2-23).
.

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.,

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3
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. 5.2-24).

(2000 .)
.

661

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5.2-24

663

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.

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.

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. .

.
,

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.

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(2000 . -

.
.

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.

.
(
. 5.2-25).
(1998 . -

)
.

,
.

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.

(1998 . -

.
)

.
.

.
(
)

(2000 . -

. 3.2-8).

.
.

.
-

.
.

.
:

.
.
,

[579].

Britta

.
,
(

. 3.4-61).

(1999 . -

.
White Hall
. . .

.
.

(1997 . -

5.2-33).

. 3.2-4;

,
(

,
. 5.2-26).
.

,
,
(1998 . -

.
)
.

.
.
.

Sadu

664

5.2-25

665

5.2-26

666
.

(1999 . -

.
.

.
.
(2000 . -

.
)

,
.

.
(1998 . -

.
Strike
(2000 . (
. 4.3-57).

),

.
Guerlain
)

(1999 . -

.
,

(1999

. -

).

,
).

(1998 . -

. 5.2-27).

(1998 . .
,
.

),

(1996-1998

. -

).

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.

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. (

).
. 5.2-28).
)

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.
).

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).

),
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5.2-27

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5.2-29

670

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. 5.2-29).

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)

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. -

).

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.
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. 5.2-30).
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),
4.3-59).

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,
).

. -

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.

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31).
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,

. -

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.
.

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.
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. -

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(
. 4.2-60)
.

),
,

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.

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5.2-30

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5.2-31

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.

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,

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. -

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.

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. 3.4-57),

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.

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. -

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)

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. 3.3-42)

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. .

),

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. 3.2-5),
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(2000 . . 3.2-4),

(
.

. 3.2-9)

. .

. 3.2-6),

.
,

.
1948 . (

. 5.2-33).

(1999 .)

. 3.4-13),

(2000 . -

.
,

.
(

. 4.2-40),
,

10-15
,

.
,

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,

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.

(1998 . -

)
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(
. 5.2-34).

(
-

. 4.2-63).
)

674

5.2-32

675

5.2-33

676

5.2-34

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(1997 . -

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(1998

.
)

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. 4.2-35),

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,
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),

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(1996 . -

. 3.4-9).

),

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. -

. 5.2-35).
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.
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. ,

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.

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. 4.2-24)
).

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. 5.2-37).

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5.2-35

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680

5.2-37

681

.
.

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. -

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.
.
.

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).
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18-

.
(

. 5.2-38).
Stars-club
).

(1996 .
(1999 . .

)
.
.

(1999

,
,

.
,

.
.

.)

,
.

(2000 .).

.
.

.
,

.
:

,
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Venezia
6
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. 5.2-39).

,
.

. .

.6].
),
,

4-

(1999 .)
.
.

(1997 .,

)
,

.
.
.
:

.
(1997 .)

.
,

682

5.2-38

683

5.2-39

684
.

,
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-2 (1993 .)

3-6

.
,
.
.
,
Cinema City

(1999 .)

. 5.2-40).

(
. 5.2-41).
:

;
, -

.
.

[664, .6].
.

(1998 .)
,

.
.

.
(1998 .,
-

Park Palace

,
.
.
.
.

. 5.2-42).

(2000 .,

).

.
,

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.

,
(1997 .,

.
.

)
,

.
-

,
.
.

.
.

(2000 .,

.
,

,
.

(1995 .,

, .

. 5.2-43).

685

5.2-40

686

5.2-41

687

5.2-42

688

5.2-43

689
.
.

.
3-10

.
,
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. 5.2-34),

.
)

.
.
Studio. 3,5

.
,

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782

5.3-27

783
,

.
.

.
,

(2004 .)
,

,
(

. 5.3-28).

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)
,

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.,

,
,

,
.

,
.

),

,
,

,
(
(

. 4.2-24),

. 4.2-30),

. 5.3-29).
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.

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. 4.3-21).

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, .

.,

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,

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.

. []

,
[223,

.
,
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.

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.
.

,
.
-

.
.

,
,

.
,
(

. 5.3-31).
2003

. 5.2-46).
,

Petroleum
,

,
.

Atlantic

2003 .
4.3-99).

784

5.3-28

785

5.3-29

786

5.3-30

787

5.3-31

788
,
,
.
,

,
.

Zodiak

(2003 . ,
.

,
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,

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. -

.
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,
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. 5.2-38)

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),

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,
.

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. 5.3-32).
2004 .

.
,

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.)

(2004 .),
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(
. 5.3-33).
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.
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.
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,
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,

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,
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.

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.
.
,

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.

.
. 5.3-34).

,
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. 4.2-60),

),

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790

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792
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. 4.3-78)

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.)

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.
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.

. 5.3-36).

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.

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(2001 . -

).
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. -

.
,
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).
.

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,

,
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.

(2001 . -

.
.

.
.

,
Classic

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,
.

Villeroy & Bosh

,
(2001 .,

.
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,
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.

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,

.
.
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. 5.3-37).
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.
. 3.3-23).

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,
.

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,
(

. -

. 3.3-26).
(
. 3.3-14)

(2002 . -

).
.

. 5.2-57).

).

(2002

.
.
.
Grand Cafe

(2002 .)

.
.

.
.
.

(2002 .,

.
.

. -

796

5.3-37

797

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-

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.

.
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. 3.3-17),

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,

.
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.

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. 5.3-38).

. -

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.
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,
.

Guljan
(
. 4.2-8)

.
.
.

.
.

(2001 . -

)
.

(2001 .)

,
.

Zepter

(2001
(

,
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.
(

(2001

. 3.3-27).
.
. .
.

. .

. 3.3-42).
.

(2002 . -

,
.

.
.

Flamingo

(2001 . -

(2001 . -

.
. 4.3-54).
)

.
(

.
. 5.3-39).
Alma Lux
-

,
.

(2003 . -

)
-

.
.
,

.
,

,
.

. 3.3-44; 3.4-27; 4.3-99).


.

(2003 . -

).

.
.
Halyk Bank
2003 .
,

.
(

. 5.3-52)

799

5.3-39

800

5.3-40

801
,

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.

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,

).
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).

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.

.
(

. 4.2-59)

(2003 . -

.
(2003

. 5.3-40).
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.

. -

),

(2002 .).

,
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.
(

.
.

,
.
.

(2003 .,

. .

)
.

.
Dickens

.
.

(2002 . -

.
.

.
(2001 . -

. 4.2-10)

.
.
.

(2002 . -

.
(

.
-

. 5.3-41).
2001 .

(2003

.).

(2003 . -

).

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,

!,

.
.

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,

.
.

(2003 .)

(2003 .)

.
,

802

5.3-41

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5.3-42

804
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Guinness Pub

. -

.
)
,
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,
.
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.
,
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Bellagio

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,

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.),

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. 5.3-42).

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,

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),
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).
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(2003 . -

National

(2003 .)

.
,

. 5.3-43).

(
,

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Credo

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.
.

(
(2003 .)
.

.
,
Red Castle Pub

(2003 .)
-

(2003 . -

. 4.3-117)

)
.
The New Tavern

.
.

(2004 .)
(2002 .)

,
(2004 .).

.
,

,
.

(2003 .).

(
5.3-44).

San Siro bar

. 5.3-56).
,

(2002 .,

),
.

,
XIX
,

.
(
2003 .
(

. 5.3-45).
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.
. 4.2-58)

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.
),

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.

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.).
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. -

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.
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(2003 . )

).

. 5.3-46).
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.

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.
-

).
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2003 .

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.

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.,

. 4.2-54)
.

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,

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.
.

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.
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.

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, .

),

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.
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,
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.
.

809

5.3-46

810

5.3-47

811
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. 5.3-47).
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(
.

,
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,
.
2002

(2003 . -

. 5.3-55).

).

. (

Venus

(2003 . -

,
.
)

(2003 . -

.
.

,
)

Dent Lux

(2003 . .
Black & White
.

).
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. -

)
.

,
.

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(2003 . -

)
(

5.2-26).
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.
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)
.
,

. 5.3-48).
,

(2002 . -

XVIII

.
(2002 . -

,
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.

)
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).

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(2004

. -

,
.

Dream Club

.
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)
-

.
.

(2002 . -

)
.

, .

(2003 . -

New Island

.
.

.
(

),
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2003 .
,
,

.
(2003

. -

.
,

.
,

,
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. 5.3-49).

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)
,

812

5.3-48

813

5.3-49

814
.

Dinamo

.
.
Macho

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.

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,
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.)

Kinder Land

,
.
.

(2003

,
.

(2003 .)
.

,
(2003 . -

,
.

.
2004 .

.
,

. 5.3-50).
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(2001 .,

,
-

,
.

.
.

.
,

.
1998 . (

. 5.2-35).

(2003 .
. 4.2-42),

,
(

),
,

. 5.3-50).
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.
-

,
(Soccer bar) Golden Aztek

(2003 .

).
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.
-

Azteka

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,
,

.
,

.
.

(2003 . -

)
.

)
.

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Interdent

(2002 . -

. -

,
(2003 . -

.
.

Fhloston Paradise

815

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816

5.3-51

817
-

(2003

. ,

)
,

.
,

. 5.3-51).

-plus-

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(
. 5.2-6).

.
(2003 . -

,
,

.
,
.

. 5.3-40).
.

(2002 . -

(2003 . -

.
.
(2003
. 4.2-15).

,
. -

. -

Alta Moda

(2003

(
,

. 5.3-52).

:
,

Plaza

.
-

(2002 . -

Seul

,
,

.
(

. 5.3-52).
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,
.

,
.

.
(

(2002 . . 3.4-17),

),

Ginza (2003 . .
(
. 4.2,

)
4).
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.
.
,

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Thai

(2002 . -

Zen

).
.

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(2003 . (
. 5.3-53).

,
.

.
.
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.

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. -

.
.

Karagoz

(2002 .

818

5.3-52

819

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.

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(2001 . -

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.
.

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,

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4.3-75)

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.

.
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,
(

,
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. 3.4-11)

(2003 . (

. 5.3-54).
(

),

(2002 . -

.
.
.

48).

(
. 5.3(2001 . -

),
.

,
Abdi
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. 5.2-25)

.
. 5.3-50; 5.3-56),
. 5.3-57).
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(

(
. 5.3-46)

(2002 . -

.
Habanos
(2002 . .
(2002 . -

.
.
),

Galileo
. .

San Siro bar


(2002 . ,
-

Dega optical

(2002 . -

)
,

.
(2002 . -

. 5.2-22),

.
)
)
Fair Play
(

.
)
(

. 4.2-55)

.
.

.
(

.
(2002 . .

. 5.3-55).
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.
,

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Visit
)

(2002 . ,

.
.

)
.

,
.

Dega optical
.

(2002 . -

,
.
(2002
)

. -

.
).

(2002
,

.
. -

822

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823

5.3-56

824

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826
.
)

Arsenal

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,
.

(2002 . (
. 5.3-56).

).

.
,

2003 .).
)

(
(2003 .)

. 5.3-57).

(2004 .).
.

,
(2003 .)

,
.

(2003 .),
(

,
.

(2002 .).

,
-

.
(

. 5.3-58).

5.4.

.
I

.
-

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,

,
,

1992-1998

.
1990.
, 1998 .

1961 .

, 1961-1992

,
,

.
,

,
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,

.
,

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. 2.3-2)

,
.

.
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. 2.3-28),

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.
.

.
. 2.3-24)

. 2.3-29).

(
. 2.3-30),
. 2.3-31).

827
,

,
.
1920,

1930.

,
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. 3.2-2).

.
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1930-

1940-

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.

. 3.3-24).

,
.
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1940-

1950-

3.4-5)
,
.

.
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3.4-8).
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16),
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. 3.4-

. 3.4-22).
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.
.

. 3.4-35),
.

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828

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.
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. 4.3-41),

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.

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.
1997

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.

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. []
,

,
.
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,

. 5.4-3).

(1998 .)
,

Kiso

.
.

(Abstract Symbolism)
,
,
,
.
.

,
.
(1930 .)

(Metabolic City Linear Zoning).


.
[379, .113]:
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ARCHITECTURE OF THE KAZAKHSTAN OF THE 20-CENTURY
(Development of architectural-artistic forms)
BRIFE SUMMARY
Architecture of Kazakhstan is represented by specific phenomenon. The republic is situated in the
center of Euro-Asian continent and its territory and poli-ethnic population was multiply involved in major
political and economic cataclysms within centuries-old history, alternating by periods of relatively even
development. It was naturally reflected on the environment formation. Moreover, every time this process
was corrected considering different levels stability of natural climate and engineering geological
conditions of different areas, availability of local and delivered construction materials, production
resources development levels, economics specifics, morals and manner of people, period of residence in
the present area and administrative territorial divisions formed and dissolved public authorities.
XX century plays specific role in Kazakh architecture development, as in contrast with the
previous centuries multi-directed social collisions within historically short period change each other and
are entailed by quick changes of way of life and ideology on public and local levels, accompanied by
incommensurable territory construction development previous centuries, including available settlements
and newly developed areas. Specific historical feature is that all these processes ran within basic
invariability of national border within the century. The originality of the period allows by means of
combined analysis to define specifics of interactions characterized by different stability level and
availability of unique requirements of forming in their local interpretation, and to review adaptation of
introduced architectural and artistic conceptions to peculiar conditions of different areas of the present
region and to ideology of the population, accordingly to the specific regional features corresponding to
architectural artistic forms development.
Large territory of Kazakhstan comprises parts of number of natural climate regions with multinational population living in different level of compactness, including local people and migrants issues
who were resettled different period on these lands. Since antiquity and in Middle Ages poli-atnic culture
assimilation was developed due to natural and climate factors, controlled corresponding types of
management, morals and manners and architectural forms. Politically stimulated process of traditional
forms of management liquidation accompanied by numerous waves of inter and ex-territorial migration
defined cultural sub-regional collusion of the second half of XIX century and basic part of XX century.
Originality of the process was enforced by ethnic and general social political interpretation of cultural
interaction, created potential of particular leveling and blurring of cultural sub-regional borders. The
social processes of the last quarter of XX century are characterized by gradual crystallization of global
territorial domination of cultural regional Eurasian phenomena, where availability of bright sub-regional
features sublimates development of regional cultural connections.
Architectural cultural forms depending on factors are used in different compositions with each
others. Their variety considering not only peculiarity of separate components but also new inter-forming
deference, comprises collection, which can be structured by any way with definite level of conditional
character. Grouping of architectural artistic forms, which existed different periods of architecture
development in Kazakhstan are dominated in plastic construction of theme forms deferential variety,
which allows to review evolution of its continents.
HISTORICAL ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
The basic architectural forms reached our eyes more or less safe from ancient and Middle Ages
are chronologically fixed from the time of architecture origin to the end of XVIII century which form the
following ensemble.
Ancient period is indicative by architectural forms designed by natural forms and structures made
from crude or particular treated different sized stones. Large stones are basically located vertically single
situated or by groups. Their forms and location is defined by different associative rows. Square, accurate
and round laying are made from fine and middle size stones singly and in combination with timbered
pole structures, ramble, turf and skinning layers. Land and clay embankment created solid and coreless,
covered, semi-covered and open structures. Semi-processed and unprocessed surfaces are particularly
covered by colored, low-relief and color-relief. An accent of architectural decision with basically lack of
significant plastic details is evident in volumetric planning decisions.
VI-X centuries period is characterized by architectural forms connected with development of
different types bricklaying. The walls of the structures have different forms and have tired articulation,
embrasures are crowned by arks, semi-spherical and spherical-conical domes have small raise. There
are truncated coned and hip crowns, thus, basically in tower. There is combination of plastered and
unplastered surfaces and separate details used. By the end of the present period there are structures, in
which different figured brickwork is accompanied by mountings from glassing and terracotta tiles.
Undeveloped ports are crowned by small turrets with close lamps.

889
XI century architecture is characterized by use of multi-absorbed bays, round rosettes, frames,
notched sashes, half and three-quartered columns with cubic spherical caps in building elevation, which
are used in combination with simple terracotta fancy and shaped tiles in form of fragment and complete
lining. There are ribbed coned domes on simple and multi-angled bowls. Facades are flanked by threequartered towers with tiered detailing. Portal-domical structures are formed by the end of XII XIII
centuries. The walls are divided by scoops and settings, free or filled by glazing tiles. The plane of work is
carried out particular or complete by different manner of figured works and by multicolored bricks. There
is domes lining over the main structure by glazing tiles. Arched cover of bays and embrasures have
lancet and rear semi-circular form. Three-quartered columns are constructed by figured bases. There are
structures from large processed stones with simple plastics of facades. By the end of XIV century there
are single large structures with fine-detailed plastics accompanied by complete poli-chromic lining with
subject to epigraphy reflection. Domes lined by glazing tiles or bricks with enamel have smooth and
sometimes crimped surface. Combination of glazing bricks and multi-colored mosaic in lining is evident in
XV century. In combination with portal decisions cone formed domes start being used. By beginning of
XVIII there are structures with high elliptic and spherical coned domes appeared on four eight angled
and round basis of different height. Domes lining by ceramic tiles includes medallions and plastered
drawings. For XVIII century structures from processed (sometimes bright) and rear unprocessed are
indicative. Different sized bays, pylons, scoops, ledges and different forms of figured works are used.
Ashlaring and figured works from ordinary and shaped brick with application of archivolts, stages,
settings, pylons and scoops.
After number of evolution stages among various types of mobile houses the dominating place
was occupied by yurta, which architectural decision was made by XIX and was developed from
monochromic basic bearing walls roofs structure, relief painted door, mono poli-chromic banded or
patterned fixing elements and wall barriers as well as monochromic external cover with patterned
applicative settings and poli-chromic fancy floor.
ARCHITECTURE OF XIX BEGINNING OF XX CENTURIES
The present period includes two phases, including XIX century and first two decades of XX
century.
In XIX century domical structures with sphero-conical and ellipse forms with simple brickwork and
rectangular embrasures are developed. Some structures initially had or later got inexact geometric
volume configuration. There are structures with one or number of domes on high cubic or prism like basis,
as well as structures with truncated folded pyramid form. In their plastic figure there are one or twoparticle coronas. Very popular figured work from burnt and adobe bricks in portal dome structures.
There are different masonry patterns, arches and frame arcades, bays of different forms in numerous
compositions, notched covers and figured brackets, developed eaves used. There are single examples of
terracotta tiles and glazing bricks used in fillets and settings. Arch covers of bays and embrasures have
lancet, square, bow-shaped and semi-circular and parabolic form.
Sub regionally there are domestic and domeless structures from processed limestone coquina
blocks. The structures surfaces have painted and relief painted complete or element wise poli-chromic
decoration. Walls and under dome bowls are decorated with concentration of joints painting, or separated
by scoops, pilasters, eaves and framed and pedestal girths. Bays and embrasures have horizontal, semicircular or gentle crown. The domes of sphero-cone and helmet forms are used with concentrated or
undressed bowl, and sometimes without it. Multiform of figured stipples and framed elements and details
are distinguished.
New classic architectural forms are characterized by samples of numerous walls and pilasters
rustication of the first floors, with developed joints with concentrated locks, ordinary and figured moldings
with arch, poliline, semi-circular and triangular pediments and semi-pediments, balustrades, complicated
profiled eaves with denticles and volute corbels, medallions and volutes. There are columns and pilasters
of large and small Doric and Tuscan writs are used, including smooth and balustrade pedestal
parapets, friezes with triglyphs and modulon, smooth and double three fascination architrave, panels,
complex profiled archivolts and aprons.
From brick architectural style the most actively used are rusticated scoops and casings, wedge
shaped plates, figured corbels and denticle of different sizes, figured works of different types from
ordinary and moulded bricks, double and tree pieces and arched girths, complicated contour benders.
Russian Style was reflected in the elements carried out from ordinary face brick and moulded
bricks, plastering and modeling wooden entailes. There are carinate archivolts, pediments, benders,
kokoshniks, profiled columns and pilasters, arched benders, complicated configurative and simple panels,
tier corbels and denticles, developed platbands and settings, prepared in open figured works or in the
structure of plastered walls. Entails of many-tier eaves, platbands, shatters, columns and fences,
complete or fragmental, ordinary or figured joints are combine with wooden and plastered walls surfaces.
There are double or four pitches roofs, hipped roofs and bulbous domes.

890
Eastern style reflected in lancet and horseshoe arches and bays, double colored and ordinary
walls rustication, pilasters, platbands and archivolts, ribbed and smooth lancet and long bulbous domes.
There are high coned and hipped roofs are used together with fine-detailed eaves, window sills and
pilasters. In single examples there are entails of multi-colored tier corbels, forming single multy tiered
roofs with elevated corners of structures with rectangular and multi-angled plan. Such elements are also
used in combination with conical domes, embrasures and bays as well as fine detailed relief painted ports
with figured parapet merlots. Plastics peculiar to modern was reflected in tree central, horseshoe and
multiplied arches, large bays and embrasures, rusticated scoops, pilasters and archivolts, arched girths,
many-tire eaves, complicated tongs with vasoneurosis and obelisks, cartouches, developed platbands
and figured laying out. There are single samples of Strict Modern.
Architectural forms of the early XX century in general form the following rows. Kazakh
Yurta was developed from architectural forms elaborated by middle of XIX century and being used within
the period.
Forms similar to Russian Style wooden carved many-tiered eaves, pediments, platbands,
pediments, shutters, columns and fences are used with ordinary and figured walls joints. Roofs are used
of double and four ramp and in some times hip-roofs and carinate roofs. There are entails used in
combination with plastered smooth and rusticated walls where pilasters and scoops are used including
multi-formed panels and drawbars, double and three placed girths, developed platbands and settings.
Different pitched roofs have smooth and scaly surface, domes are carried out in ordinary and ribbed,
lancet and bulbous forms. It is widely use of figured spires on fine-detailed basis in the corner or on the
ridge of the roofs.
Modelling details in combination with plastered walls include simple and figured plates,
complicated profiled and simple platbands with pediments, triangular and carinate pediments. Pilasters
and scoops have many-tired articulation, their face surface have flutes. Window sills are joined by double
or three-placed girths.
Some open type structures from ordinary and adobe bricks have girths from figured works and
sometimes accented eaves and embrasures setting. In sub regions there are isolated construction of the
same type from large limestone coquina blocks. Active plastics formed by profile complicated smooth
and fluted pilasters, girths, settings, single and figured friezes is accompanied by color-relieved designs,
particular or completely covered these elements. In separate cases there are figured cover of pilasters
and friezes. Peculiarity of these plastics in some structures on the basis of association resulted in
formation of such definitions as bargee or modern.
Adobe bricks structures with domes, cone and sphero-conic and semi-ellipsoid forms basically
have no accented eaves, scoops and setting on basis. Bays and embrasures are carried out from
ordinary brick and have semi-spherical and lancet forms of the roofs without bowl. Walls plastics is
developed on the basis of combination of pilasters, scoops, bays, simple and multi-detailed eaves with
denticles. Angle towers have round or square crossing. There are figured benders and multi-detailed
dome lights for towers roofs. Embrasures and bays have form of lancet and bow-shaped arches with
smooth or rusticated choice of archivolts. In some cases the domes are covered by figured spires.
Figured works are carried out from ordinary and moulded bricks in combination with girths from patterned
terracotta plates.
In sub regions there are architectural forms of construction from large lam-stone coquina blocks,
crowned by helmed-shaped domes with figured spire. Their surface are divided by simple girths and
scoops, framing square, box or narrow lancet bays. Color relief patterns completely or particularly cover
the walls and domes surfaces. In some cases there are figured friezes.
Architectural forms peculiar to brick style are represented by figured brickworks from ordinary
and moulded brick, by simple and complicated rustication of scoops, pilasters, platbands and archivolts,
many-tired eaves with graded corbels and arch girths, ordinary or drawn panels. Embrasures and manygraded bays have form of lancet or semi-circular arches. There are complicated benders and parapets
with figured covers. Box crowns and hip-roofs are used rarely.
Architectural forms peculiar to neoclassicism are represented by pilasters and three-quarter
columns interpreted differently by Doric, Tuscan, Ionic ordinary and complete Orders. There are
developed platbands and pediments with different forms pediments, many-tired level and roof eaves,
semi-circular windows, high walls scoops rustication, as well as figured benders. In some cases there are
torispherical crowns and poli-elliptical domes with different forms and sizes spires.
Modernist style is represented by complicated forms of eaves and benders, three-centered arches and
bays, figured panels on pilasters and window-sills, simple and complicated rustications of scoops,
developed volute corbels, various spire-type cover of parapets, benders and torispherical crowns.
Sometimes there is figured works from face brick is used.

891
ARCHITECTURE OF FIRST HALF OF XX CENTURY
This period is chronologically structured in three phases: 1920s first halt of 1930s, second half
of 1930s and beginning of 1940s, half of 1940s and half of 1950s.
Combination of architectural forms in 1920s and first half of 1930s includes the following.
Yurts are actively used for accommodation and utility structures, in traditional ready-made option
(in the cattle-breeding areas), as well in stationary type (in suburbs, villages by plants). Architecural forms
of yurts are not changed in comparison with the previous period. There are pilot impacts to contract
temporary houses for settling nomads in form of yurta-shaped houses, which repeat architectural forms of
traditional winter stationary house of shoshal, or interpret cylinder coned form of yurta in combination
with other corresponding construction material, plastics.
In settlements and rural construction loghouse is still the most popular. Basically it is clay-walled
hut with wooden entails on eaves and plantbands in simplified Neorussian style. Among motives of
shutters patterns there are basically geometric figures and sometimes Kazakh ornamental pattern.
Peculiarity is reflected in availability of single examples of classic orders use, where in
combination with Doric columns there is figuration of frieze. Patterns configuration is close to Muiz
motive in Kazakh ornamental pattern. Rear construction in Brick Style are differ by the level of saturation
by figured brickwork from ordinary and moulded bricks. Some separate structure in Eastern Kazakhstan
develop theme of architectural forms from Buddha Memorial Architecture. Some mausoleum in Easter
part of the country are more saturated by fine-detailed entails on stone and richen by polichrimic paints.
National style search is developed in the direction of new architectural decision introduction
characterized by detailed citing of popular middle-aged structures from different parts of the country, or
general interpretation of their forms on the level of Eastern Motives.
The most bright example is represented by constructivism introduction. Thus at the beginning of
the period it was represented by one-floor parallelepiped-type structures with smooth walls, relatively big
windows, deep galleries on particularly used crowns. By the end of the present period these are buildings
with complicated joined volumes with different floors number, transparent and semi-open galleries of the
fist floors, ribbon windows or complete stained-glass windows, long windows, semi-cylinder risalits.
The most popular architectural form of this period is connected with simplified classics (scoops,
pilasters, settings, double three-placed eaves, etc.). The are used in combination with dynamic
volumetric spatial compositions of many-floors blocks, and with one-height and sometimes
symmetrically compounded volumes.
Architectural forms of the second half of 1930s and beginning of 1940s are represented
by the following.
Single examples of constructivism demonstrate combination of parallelepiped one-height volumes
with smooth stones, with long or double tire windows.
Elements of Simplified Classics are used isolated and in different combinations. Besides there
are groups differing by domination of some elements. By-floor girths and eaves, which have one,-double
or three place decision and are places over plinth, window sills of the first and second floors, ceiling of the
first floor. Scoops and pilons, which have basically double or three-place option occupy the whole or half
of pier and join both floors in two-floor buildings, or two top floors in three-floor buildings, where scoops
are extended in their volumes obtaining the form of pilon. Sometimes scoops have flutes, walls surface
are smooth or with small rustication, simple or partitioned girths, eaves and settings are used. Largerusticated corner scoops are basically used without combination wish smooth ordinary scoops, which very
rear located together with rusticated ones; basically dummy joint is high, there are ground floors and
architrave., developed eave, simple and rusticated platbands. Pilasters and columns are made with tile
capitals and capital-free columns are used in combination with each other and separately. Smooth square
and fluted columns usually form four or five column porticos; the same porticos but dummy porticos
(basically if risalites) are forms by pilasters. Entablature is basically finished under attic floor and has wall
fronton, or risen over developed crown eave in the other part of the building. In attic are single pilasters
are modified into joint. Underwindow girths occupy all inter-pilaster area or form window-sill. Some
windows have platbands with pediments. Pilasters and columns with developed capital have smooth and
rusticated surface with square cross-section, sometimes there are corners or bays. Capital is basically
cubical, it is made by one or double placed girths and is a separate element or a pilaster side of
entablature. Pilasters are transparent or divided by inter-floor girths. Columns form porticos or are
situated in porticos bays. There are developed crowned eaves, complicated profile settings, platbands
and girths; some pediments are used.
Elements of different classic orders are used isolated and in complex, and in pure or combined
form. There are separated details (wooden, plastering and moulding) used in different combinations,
where developed complicated profile eaves on volute corbels, pediments on complicated corbels with
pediments or without them, balconies, domes, developed window-sills, archivolt planbands and settings
are used, including simple ground floor and developed inter-floors girths, fine-rusticated walls and
pilasters.

892
Order columns and pilasters with classical and simplified interpretation are divided into number of
groups, differ by their types and interpretation of orders.
Rectangular pilasters interpretation of Doric Order have developed basis and capital with
smooth, patterned or figured echinus. They are basically used as transparent for two floors, and rear in
coupled one-floor option in form of sham portico on the developed inter-floor girth, thus basically it is
smooth, and in all options frieze in portico is divided by triglyphs and smooth metopes. Considerable
rustication of corners, fine rustication of walls are used, as well as wall window sills balustrades,
developed platbands and window sills, simple pediments and triangular and lancet front. Simplified
interpretation of Doric Order is also connected with utilization of smoothbore semi-, three-quarter and
complete columns or without capitals, or with frequent use of one, double and three-placed tires and disktype capitals, which sometimes represent pilaster side of smooth double or three-faces architrave. The
columns are located separately, in pair with general architrave or paired. Developed bases are supported
by pedestals, complicated ground floor or inter-floor girths. Sometimes columns are combined with pared
pilasters or scoops. Over divided or separated girth of architrave there is or no smooth frieze. Developed
top eave with triangular frontons and high parapet in the area of porticos has denticles. Classic
interpretation of Doric and Tuscan Orders are connected with smooth-bore and rear rusticated or fluted
half, three-quarter or entire columns in arch, straight entire or particular, sham, small or deep porticos, as
well as in portal bays, basis of crowns. Columns are situated separately or by pairs, have basis
development, sometimes pedestals. Corners of two floors buildings and walls of first floors where
columns of small or large orders are situated under inter-floor girth are fine or large rusticated. Developed
eaves with denticles, simple or figured corbels are finished near portals by triangular or high parapets.
Columns neck is situated high or low, thus echinus is reduced and a narrow bar is introduced over it.
Abacus is round or rectangular. There are balustrades between pedestals and balcony slabs, which are
also present in developed window-sills. There are simple or complicated profile platbands, pediments with
triangular or straight pediments, in some cases bas-relief on frieze.
Simplification and classic interpretation of Ionic Order can be met in smooth-bore rectangular
pilasters and round half- and entire columns, ordinary and four-sided capitals, entire and frieze-free
entablatures. Columns in porticos are located in pairs, in loggias solitary, pilasters and half-columns
basically solitary in the middle of pier. There is combination with rusticated scoops and walls of the fist
floors, detailed by inter-floor girth. Windows are made basically without platbands with developed sills,
pediments with triangular front pediments. Balustrades are used in open and wall options.
Corinthian order in classic and simplified interpretation is represented in smooth round, half,
three-quarter and entire columns, square columns, smooth or rectangular pilasters, which are basically
located solitary in porticos or piers. The are combined with triangular and polyline semi-pediments, and
arcades, streight and pilaster sided entablatures. Developed eaves in some rear cases have single or
volute corbels. There are simple windows used with triangular and sometimes with lancet from pediments
on volute corbels. Key-stones of arches and joints sometimes are formed by volute and in piers there are
medallions, rosettes and palmettes.
Combination of Orders in classic and simplified interpretation with pared and solitary columns,
half-columns and pilasters can be found in one-floor and floor-by-floor options. Besides on the first floors
large and small Corinthian and sometimes Tuscan Orders are used, on the tip floors large or small Ion
Orders; floor-by-floor girths are used here including platbands, pediments without from pediments,
developed window sills on volute or rectangular corbels, developed eaves with denticles or volute corbels.
Orders with Fantasy capitals of columns and pilaster are characterized by brutal volutes and
cylinders motives, single-row leaves, many-tired plates, profiled plates, etc. Boles are basically smooth
and fluted, rectangular and sometimes octahedral; there is combination with arcades and portal bays.
Single and developed entablatures are used with simple, complicated profiled eaves with denticle or rear
volute corbels, smooth and rusticated corner and ordinary scoops in one double-layered options,
developed and simple window sills, single pediments with semi-front pediments, rosettes, medallions in
piers and sometimes on frieze.
Interpretation of Eastern Motives and introduction of national patters can be found separately and
in combination with each other. Among motives basically lancet arches and domes. Pattern is included
in wooden entails on platbands, keystones of arches and joints, fantasy or transformed in pattern
Corinthian capitals, parapet merlons, balustrades, archivolts and platbands, friezes, rosettes and eaves.
Half of 1940s half of 1950s are characterized by combined implementation of the next
architectural forms.
Wooden entails are actively used in eaves valances, in simple and developed platbands,
windows shutters, settings, windows frames and fences, columns with figured capitals and figured
facings.
Separate elements of simplified classics are used in different combinations with each others.
Here you can find floor-by-floor drawbars, plinths and under eaves, paired and solitary, smooth scoops
and pilasters with double and three-placed plate, and simplified pyramid or cylinder capitals, simple

893
pediments and with front pediment, semi-pediments, developed eaves with and without denticles, figured
corbels of balconies and eaves, fine and large rustication of wall and corners.
Order decisions are used in classic and simplified interpretation. Doric and Tuscan Orders have
smoothbore pilasters, half-, three-quarter, wall and separate columns in solitary and paired option with
developed basis. They have entasis or are carried out by straight-bore form and are combined with
simple or developed entablature. Frieze is made by smooth with sculpture applications on column axles
or by entire sculpture, eaves are carried out on corbels or without them. Windows have rectangular or
arch form, they can have simple or developed window-sills. There are triangular front pediments and halfpediments, in some cases separated pediments. Developed platbands are used with volute corbels or
without them. Walls have smooth or fine- or large rusticated surface.
Ion Orders interpretation with ordinary capitals and with smooth-bore pilasters, half- or entire
columns of square and round cross-section are used in form of large or small orders with ordinary or
frieze free entablature. The windows are basically carried out without platbands with developed windowsills. Arcades have accented archivolts and medallions in piers.
In interpretation of Ion Order there are smooth and fluted pilasters, half-, three-quarter and entire
round and smooth square columns, which are situated solitary or in pairs. Porticos forms used are
ordinary or in form of loggia. They have triangular front pediments and simple or figured parapets,
ordinary or pilaster sided entablatures. Developed crowned eaves are made in ordinary manner with
figured corbels or denticles. Arcades used are of one- or two-floors with caissoned archivolts, windows
have rectangular or arch forms. Simple and developed window-sills are used, platbands are sometimes
rusticated. Simple pediments sometimes with triangle front pediments have volute corbels. Walls
rustication is found basically on the first floor. Balustrades are used on balconies and on developed
window-sills.
Combination of interpreted orders is found in some cases when in pilasters, half- or entire
columns on one level or by levels Tuscan, Corinthian or Ionic styles are used. Developed entablatures
are used with eaves on figured corbels and denticles, arcades, large and fine walls rustication, used of
corner scoops, platbands with developed window-sills, balustrades of balconies and loggias, accented
simple and arched plates with introduction of keystones, triangle front pediments and high parapets.
ARCHITECTURE OF SECOND HALF OF XX CENTURY
The present period has two phases end of 1950s 1960s and 1970s 1980s.
Architecture of the end of 1950s 1960s is characterized by the following architectural
forms.
Implication of separate simplified details of classic orders includes various combination of semicircular arch bays and embrasures with developed archivolts, pilasters and half-columns with plate or disc
capitals and basis, availability of medallions, developed portal settlings and platbands with pediments and
front pediments, including figured corbels. Complicated profiled ordinary or many-tired inter-floor and
crowned eaves are used, entire or different element wise rustication. In some cases the elements are
carried out by wooden entails.
Pattern order elements with classic, fantasy and girths capitals of columns and pilasters are used
in ordinary, entrance or fitted porticos, developed portal settings. There are developed inter-floor girths
and many-tier eaves with denticle and corbels, developed archivolts of lancet or semi-circular arch bays
and embrasures, walls, windows and balcony loggia arch column fences. Patterned cartouches are
placed in tympanums can be found in panels and medallions. In some cases they are combined with
mascarones.
Monumental decorative panel in form of active element of architectural option of the buildings
are carried out in color and color-relief options from ceramic tiles, mosaic, terracotta tiles, figured-face
tiles works from color bricks, painted relieves and pictures on the basis of multi-color factor layer of wall
panels. Basically they are located on corners, sometimes on centered piers, high sochles and deep
balcony fences. Large pictures occupy close or semi-close building flanks.
High-relief pattern applications are used in form of cartouches, introduction of medallions and
panels, rosettes, settings, eaves. Here you can find complete fill of separate and group of wall panels,
including piers of adjacent logias. Low-relief and multi-color patterns are used in form of modular pattern
on all or some panels of balcony fences or in form of entire cover of wall panels groups.
Lattice fine-module elements with pattern are used in form of separate inter-floor setting from
entire or particular fences of loggias and balconies and in form of one-floor band or multi-floor elements.
They have one-, double and three places elements.
Active plastic of frontward considers large-module option of surfaces, introduction of different
sizes of edges and girths, bays or extension of some floors, and introduction of separate or complex of
balconies and loggias.
Accented pier double or three placed scoops are usually pass to smooth architrave. Window-sills
and piers are carried out in smooth form as well as medallions, cartouches, corrugations and are divided

894
by developed window sills and short inter-floor girths and eaves. Eaves are carried out by ordinary or with
introduction of parapets, sometimes with front pediments. Sometimes there are pier bays in combination
with simple setting of some windows.
Lattice large module elements are represented by pier edges in combination with lattice window
top panels. In front of bender windows the edges are located in correspondence with impost sashes
location. In some cases developed edges and panels form groups of extended loggias.
Facades with one-flat decision are formed by relatively even distribution of widows in combination
with smooth surfaces of walls and weak accenting of panels joints and large blocks. Even stained glass
windows are used which occupy the major part of facades. They are situated in one-flat with frieze or
deepened.
Complicated volumetric space option considers used of smooth or folded crowns, mushroom or
cantilever guyed cover in combination with entire windows.
In architecture of 1970s 1980s the following architectural forms are available.
Rear examples of order option include classic interpretations with half-, three-quarter and entire
smooth-bore Corinthian and Ion columns, and arcades and arch windows, developed platbands with
pediments and bow-shaped front pediments, complicated profile eaves on volute corbels and inter-floor
girths and parapets balustrades. Walls of first floors have high and low rustication. Columns with
patterned capitals have octahedral bore and developed basis, there are also gallery balustrades,
complicated profile eaves on figured corbels, developed inter-floor girths and platbands. Wide rectangular
pilasters with patterned capitals there are developed basis, complicated profile eaves and platbands with
patterned girths, denticles or volute corbels; attached balustrades have supports in form of simplified
Corinthian columns with lancet arcade. Simplified interpretations of orders include square columns with
double-placed tiled capitals, scoops, double- and three-placed girths and eaves, as well as simple
platbands and window-sills; weakly salient pilasters have high two-tired capitals and simple tiled bases.
Figured lining is carried from simple and shaped tiles with smooth or relief-patterned surface,
creating different rustications, simple plat bands and settings, ribbed and folded frieze girths, scoops and
pilasters. In buildings lining in the middle XX century there are complicated profile eaves and capitals,
which open or simplified.
Semi-circular, bow-shaped and lancet arches are widely used, as well as developed archivolt
settling. Lancet arches are mostly located floor by floor, semi-circular in many floored arcades. There
are arches bays of rectangular forms. Balconies and loggias fences are basically close, lattice and
combined. Some samples demonstrate undeveloped capitals on the level of imposts or patterned
selection of crowns of different depth, developed key-stones and cantilever imposts.
Accented crowns are formed by large ejection of eaves with wide vertical, bended, fractured and
splayed frieze, which in the last case forms external descent of eave edge. Friezes have smooth, rusted,
ribbed, folded, scaly, coarse or fine yielding surface. Eaves have large ejections basically in perimeter
and only in some facades. Double and three placed scoops, pylons and edges cross frieze sometimes,
passing to the parapet area; they have smooth or low-rusticated surface. There is close fence in
balconies and large stained-glass windows and sometimes are closed by figured large-element lattices.
Detachment of one or two top floors is achieved by console of the whole area and by frequent
edges or figured lattices. Combined option is frequently used. Accenting is intensified by encircling
balcony with close fencing on subjacent floor or by depression of subjacent floor. There is graduated
floors overhang in combination with edges or without them. Developed pylons are closed under corbel or
divides overhanging detail till the eave.
Large portal setting is actively used in all the cases but facade or rarely in some parts. At the
same time there are ordinary windows in settling area, loggias, narrow pylons, ribbed lattices. Portal
frieze is made by smooth and complicated-profiled surface, wide side pylons are rectangular or with splay
internal side.
Prevalence of vertical linear elements in facades composition is formed by means of developed
volumes or framed edges of pier panels and by narrow edges of sunshields. They are situated on walls
surface or on slants and are included in fences structure of balconies or attached lattices. Accented
vertical elements occupy entire faade and sometimes its middle part. Prevalence of horizontal linear
elements is achieved by band-type glazing. For example in ribbon balconies use, which fences have
smooth close and somehow divided surface. The option, which has facade surface articulation and clear
rectangular elements. This option is achieved by active plastic selection of pier, sill and arch styled
sections of the wall, which are crossed by large elements of sun shielding fences, as well as similar
sizes of fencing elements of entire loggias and separating partitions.
Lattices, patterns of which are similar on their drawing to Kazakh pattern occupy the entire
height of the building. At the same time they are located separately in front of windows situated one
after another fenced by group of loggias and balconies or occupy the whole or part of the facade and
modulated by one or multi-elemental fragments. Relief patterned settings of different sizes is formed
from separate fine patterns on fences of balconies and loggias, external edges of pylons, wide plat

895
bands, close walls sections or emphasizes some fragment of faade. In some cases instead of entire
infill of the section there is fragmental location of pattern tiles.
Monumental decorative panels are basically located on close front facades, sometimes in
some separate settings on wall-typed pylons. Polychrome patchwork, ceramic tile settings, decorative
plastering or painted surface in combination with multi-height relieves form geometric patterns, Kazakh
patterns, complicated anecdotal with different level of convention of drawing, schemes of structure
including masterpieces or architectural fantasies.
Active plastic selection is widely used on facade surface and in general. Developed faade
plastics includes large pylons and scoops, perspective portals and settings, figured bay windows and
risalites, large friezes and eaves, grouped arched balconies and extended loggias, large square linings
and accented elements of the basic supporting frames. Windows and doors embrasures have different
sizes and proportions have rectangular form. Complicated form of the structures is created on the level
of plan formation with three or four-rayed straight and curvilinear contour, round, elliptical, arched and
crossed elements of different configurations and with pyramidal-prism selection of separate sections of
the crown. Besides there is passive and active selection of facade plastics. There is popular to combine
plan and volume with active facade plastics. Combination of active and passive plastic selection of
facades with simple and complicated volumes in domes and crowns used. They have smooth, ribbed,
wave-ribbed form and are selected in one- many-tired form. Its surface is smooth, fine-ribbed and scaly.
Yurta-type structures are constructed out from different constructive-decorated materials and in
variable extend accuracy repeat decorative plastics selection of yurta, At the same time the structures
sizes are similar and different from prototype. Use of Kazakh yurta forms in present architectural
selections is very rear.
ARCHITECTURE OF THE END XX XXI CENTURIES
This period is divided into two phases: last decade of XX century and first years of XXI century.
Last years of XX century is characterized by the following architectural forms
combination.
There are single examples of figured lining by large tiles with ordinary or splay edges. They
create different types of rustications and large patterned drawings, simple plat bands and settings, wide
frieze and window sill girths. Structures with face brickworks of different types appear. Many-colored
bricks combination in figured works with separation girths, settings, pilasters, scoops, arches, bays of
lancet and bow forms.
Large hermaphrodite arches are used solitary and in arcade forms forming one and many floors
bays and embrasures. Archivolts have simple or step solution. In some cases arches are carried out with
cantilever or hanging imposts. Walls have smooth, rusticated surfaces or surface with partitioned by
scoops and girths.
Passive plastic facades are very popular, when the surface walls have different complicated
drawings from close and window sections, which exceed considerably sizes of real windows or windows
have only small bay of piers and sill sections. Close and window sections of facades sometimes have
many-color options with different contrast. In some cases one-layer surfaces are separated by small
arches, local bulges, deepening or fractures/ Active plastic facades of simple buildings are widely used.
They include pylons, edges, scoops, different bays, which occupy one or number of floors encircling or
ordinary balconies and loggias of different forms of windows, some of them, single or figured setting of
complicated cross-section. Glazing of loggias, balconies and arches is actively used, which have different
forms. Glazed section are alternated with close or entire glazed windows with morrow and translucent
glasses of different color. Glazed elements are located solitary or by groups.
Many topic plastics of reconstructed first floors sometimes is linked with architectural form of the
building, demonstrated contract option. At the same time the whole first floor or only its part is formed.
Sometimes in one facade decoration different dark sections are used. There are interpretative classic
ordered details can be found including architectural quotations from different epochs and regions and
forms with special mono or poli-associativeness not of architectural character. There are also particular
and complete changes of facade plastics. At the same time architectural forms are completely different,
painting or lining in one or many color option transforming historical features.
It is very popular to use complicated volume-spatial options with joined volumes of different forms
and details. There is complete, particular and fragmental glazing.
Frontons and triangular and curvilinear pincers are actively used, which cover separate sections
of facades. At the same time they are situated solitary and in groups and are part of parapet as well as
continuation of large stained-glass windows, which are used in complete and separated form. Accented
crowns basically have high external slopes over eaves with large ejection, forming attic-story and one or
two garrets. Eaves have ordinary or high edge with sham frieze. Eave have considerable cornice in all or

896
in some facades. It is very popular to use turret crowns of some part of the building with hip-roofs, domes,
arches and one or many sloped crowns of different height and form.
Ordinary or ribbed domes of semi-spherical, three-quarter-spherical, helmet-shaped, spheroconical forms, and hipped roofs, which are used in combination with bowls with different height and sizes.
These forms complete the basic volume of the building as well as some of its parts. Domes and hipped
roofs covers are smooth and scaly. In some cases domes are completely or particular glazed. Sometimes
face layer is formed by glazed or many colors bricks. Corner towers with many-detailed lights are popular
with developed friezes with pincers and figured semi-frontons. Embrasures and many stages bays, which
have form of lancets and semi-circular arches. There are developed scoops and simplified pilasters,
settings and girths. There are smooth options of walls with large multi-color plate and folded stained-glass
windows. In some cases there are many-domed light concrete and brick structures.
Yurta with its architectural forms is constructed in its prefabricated and stationary forms
considering use of traditional wooden and felt materials (at the same time not only pole but plywood
elements are used), including metal skeleton and many-color textile - oil-cloth covers.
Architecture of the first years of XXI years demonstrates use of the following architectural
forms.
Yurta with its architectural forms is constructed in its prefabricated and stationary forms
considering use of traditional wooden and felt materials keeping the old architectural forms.
Dome crowns are used in combination with bowls and without them. Bays and embrasures have
lancet arched forms. Simple scoops and girths are used including developed plat bands.
Complicated plastic selections include pylons and different eaves are used including pilasters and
settings. Window have different configuration and sizes. Different locks of buildings are joined in
complicated manner. In some cases fine-detailed processing of separate elements is used.
Bay windows and loggias have arc form, complete or floor-by-floor glazing. They are combined
with figured pincers, developed eaves and accented high external slopes.
Windows are joint in large stained-glass windows in horizontal and vertical raw. Stained-glass
windows have different sizes and are joined in groups and located in facades. In context with this
simplified and classic interpretation of orders in combination with details and profiles are used. In some
cases architectural selection include tambours and visors, which correspond with other part of facade.

Development directions of architectural forms in XX century


Architecture development directions defined in XX century and are represented by the following:
1. National traditional directions (yurta: complex decision)
2. Ustyurto-Mangyshlak sub regional direction (domes and without dome crowns, figured, entails,
and patterned brickworks)
3. Regional brick direction (simple and figured brickworks)
4. Brick style (complex decision)
5. Modern style (complex decision)
6. Neo-Russian style (wooden entails; figured works and stucco moulding)
7. Neo-Russian direction (stucco moulding and wooden entails; complex selection with national
patterns)
8. Eastern Style (complex decision)
9. Eastern direction (Buddhist theme; Middle-Age Central Asian Theme; neo-regional theme;
national theme; neo-regional industrial theme; Easter Asian theme)
10. Neoclassicism (complex decision)
11. Neoclassicism direction (separate details, pilasters of Doric theme; simplified Doric theme;
Classic Doric Theme; Simplified Classic Ionic Theme; Simplified and Classic Corinthian theme;
combination of different orders; fantasy order themes);
12. Simplified Classics (girths; scoops and pilasters; ordinary and figured rustications; pilasters and
columns; developed capital)
13. Constructivism (complex decision)
14. Synthesis of constructivism with simplified classics (complex decision)
15. National neoclassical direction (theme of patterned classic orders; theme of arches with
patterned details; theme of partnered palm-type orders; theme of patterned fantasy orders; theme
of patterned Central Asian columns; Theme of simplified classics with patterns; theme of
patterned classic details)
16. Neo-national direction (theme of traditional yurta shoshala; dome crowns)
17. Industrial- national direction (patterned settings and details; patterned lattices)
18. Industrial-regional direction (fine-modules and large-module sunshields; eastern arches)
19. Industrial neo-classic direction (theme of simplified classics)
20. Industrial decorative direction (different dark panels)

897
21. Industrial-international direction (large and entire stained-glass windows; passive facade plastics;
mushroom-type and parabolic figures)
22. Industrial romantic direction (active facade plastics; theme of horizontal, vertical and complex
joints)
23. Romanic direction (them of portal settings. Theme of developed top floors and developed crowns;
figured lining; theme of active facade plastics; theme of active volumetric plastics; large and
entire stained-glass window; configurationally different bay windows; neo-eastern hip-dome
roofed theme; triangular arched pincers and semi-photons; spires, hipped roofs and dome
crowns)
24. Directions of different dark combinations (change of character color or lining type; accented first
floors; tambours and visors; theme of simplified classics; neoclassical theme; decorativefantastical theme).
Among architectural forms and direction developed within XX century the following forms are not
used by the beginning of the next century: Yustyurt-Mangyshlak Sub regional Direction; Brick Style; NeoRussian Style; Eastern Style; Neoclassic; Constructivism; Synthesis of Constructivism with simplified
Classic; National Neoclassic direction; Neoclassic direction; Industrial-national direction; Industrialregional direction; Industrial-neoclassic direction; Industrial-decorative direction; Industrial-International
direction; Industrial-Romantic direction.
The first years of XXI century tendency of the following architectural forms development was evident:
National-traditional, regional brick, Neo-Russian, Eastern, Neoclassic, Romantic direction, Neo-modern,
different dark combination direction.
At the same time in spite of disappearance of some direction we can foresee their restitution as it
was evident with Modern, stylistic characters of which reflected in sine new constructions of the first years
of the new century. It is also unusual to see complete ignorance of national patterns in new constructions
of the end of the century and beginning of the new one, as they are actively used in yurtas for different
purposes. Paradoxical stability was kept within the last century when in combination with nationaltraditional directions neo-classical motives were used, especially themes of simplified Doric order as well
as variously interpreted generalized and concrete Eastern samples.
At the same time in combination with well-defined originality, there is conservation of some
commonality in directions of Kazakh architectural forms development with the neighboring countries
forms and reflection of global tendency of World Architecture development process.

898

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(
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, 1996.- .194-223.

.:

.
.

279.

. .
.

.
.

, 1978.- 212 .

268.

278.
//

. 9-18.
. //

.-

.-

, 1976.- .52-64.
//
, 1970.-

. 2002. - 4.

. //

.
.:
. .
1. - .:
. .

, 1985.
. 1980. - 8.-

. //

.32-35.
260.
261.

.:
.
//

.
, 1972.- .182-186.
(
:
.

.2,

. 4.

.-

:
.: ARCHITECTURA, 1993.-

.127-131.
280.

. .
.

. //
, 1999. -

.:

.32-40.
281.

. .

282.

. .

. //

.,

., 1962.- .99-110.
. - .:

, 1986.- 288

.
283.
284.
.

285.
286.
287.
,
288.
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1985.

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. .
., 1966.- 160 .
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. .
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. .:
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. .
):
.
.

.-

.:

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.-

.:

, 1962. 71 .
. .:
.

. .

.:

. -

:
.,

912
289.
.: :
290.

. .
.

VIII
.

. .

, 2001.
-

. 1973. - 2.-

. //

.29-30.
291.

. .

I -

. //

. 1989. - 11.- .9-11.


. .
I .:
.
.
.
., 1992.
293.
.
. //
. 2003.
- 1. .12.
294.
1917-1958. /
. .
,
. .
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, . .
, . .
. - .:
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1962.- 348 .
295.
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:
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. - ., 1984.
296.
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.
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.
. - ., 1999.
297.
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1923 .
1939 .:
.
.
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298.
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. - .:
, 1987.- 319 .
299.
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. . .
.
19, 2. - .:
.
, 1953.- .321-359.
300.
. //
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. . .
.
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. - .:
.
, 1973.- .145-173.
301.
.
. /
.
.
. .
. :
.
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, 1981.- 704 .
302.
. .
:
,
(1917-1933):
.
.
.
. ., 2001.
303.
. .
1901-1905
. //
:
. :
. 1994.- .18-24.
304.
.
. //
.
.5
/
.
.
.: .
(
.
.)
. - .:
, 1979.- . 22-31.
305.
.
. //
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1998. - 3.- .21-23.
306.
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. .
.
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.
.
, 1998.- 352 .
307.
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. .
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(
). :
, 2000.- 176 .
308.
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. - .:
, 1985.- 232 .
309.
.
: (
):
.
.
.
. - ., 1981.
310.
. .
.:
, 1975.- 128 .
311.
. .
:
.
.
.
.- ., 1978.
312.
. .
1940-1950 . //
:
. .
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, 1990.- .62-65.
313.
. .
1930-1950.:
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.
.
., 1985.
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. .
40- 50. //
,
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, 1976.- .122-125.
315.
. .
40 - 50. //
,
.5. :
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316.
. .,
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40- 50. //
,
292.

913
:
.

.-

:
. .,

317.

, 1980.- .6-8.
. .
40- 50. //
.

. .

.-

. 1940. - 16.-

. //
319.

,
:

1980.- .8-12.
318.

.3-5.

. .
:

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.
. .,
, 1987.- 303 .
. .,
, 1986.- 319 .
. .
: (
):
.
.
. .
. .

320.
.:
321.
322.

323.
324.

. - ., 1975.
. .

. .,

.-

. .

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.-

., 1989.
.-

.:

, 1968.- 207 .
:(
):

.-

., 1983.
.
., 1965.. .

325.
.:
326.
327.

.:

. //
.9-10.

. 17 /

.
.

.-

., 1981.
. .

.-

.:

, 1986.- 344

.
328.

. .
XVIII

. (

1964.
329.
330.

):

. .
. .
:(

.)

331.
332.

.
.

333.
./
334.
:(
., 1973.
335.
336.

337.

340.
341.
.
342.
343.
344.
. //
54.

. .

.,

.:

. .,
.
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. .
,

, 1977. 184 .
XIX
. ., 1989.
, 1978.- 399 .

.
.-

.-

., 1978.

. .
.-

.:

, 1973.- 183 .

):
:

: (

.. //

):

: (
.
.
.
. - ., 1982.
. .
. //
. 1982. - 2.- .18-22.
. .
. //
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.
, 1935, 1.- .7-14.
. .,
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. .
. - .:
, 1987. - 319 .
. .
:
.
.
. - ., 1982.
. .
.
, 1950.
.
:
.
.
.
. ., 1954.
.
.
.
,
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):

339.

.:

1830-1910

.
. 1989. - 4.- .118-121.
. .
.
. - ., 1985.
. .
-

338.

. .

914
345.
. .
346.

347.
(
348.
349.
.
350.
.
351.
. //
352.

353.

354.
355.

- .:
356.
(
1984.
357.

. /
. .
, . .
,
, . .
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(
), 1980.- 263 .
. .

: (
):
.
.
.
. - ., 1985.
.
. //

). 1984. - 7(569).- .3.


.
. //
. 1984. - 1.- .30-32.
. .
:
.
.
. - ., 1979.
. .
:
.
.
. - ., 1979.
. .
. 1978. - 4.- .46-51.
. .
:
. //
.
. 3.
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, 2001. .278-289.
. .
:
. //
:
.
.
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,
, 1984.- .49-56.
. .
1940-
1950:
. - .:
, 2000. - 378 .
. .
. //
.
, 1996.- .224-269.
. .
:
1960-1980
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.
.
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. - .,
.

? //
;

52.
358.

( .

.)

:(

360.
:
361.

. .,
, 1990.- 237 .
. .
, 1976.- 83 .
. .

.)

. .

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.:
. -

364.

3 (22) /
, 1989. - .48-

.:

. .

1987.
359.

2000.
362.
363.

.
.
. 1985. - 5.- .58-59.
. .

.
. 1984. - 1.. //

. //

. -

.,

.12-13.

. //
, 1996.-

.:

.270-282.
365.

. .,
. .
:
, 1982. 95 .
366.
. .
.
.
. - ., 1973.
367.
.
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368.
.
. //
1978. - 5(410).- .6.
369.
.

). 1990. - 11(721).- .3.


370.
. .
371.

1760-1840

.):

. //
(

).
(

:
..

. //

. 1939.

.:

, 1996.-

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. .
-

2002.

. //
.283-298.
: (
,

915
372.

.
. -

. //
, 1996.-

.:

.299-304.
373.
374.
375.

. .
. .
):
. .

376.

:
377.

..:

, 1967.- 304 .
, 1988. - 208 .
: (
. - ., 1986.
VIIII
.
. - ., 1972.
.
,
);
. . .

. .

.
. //

.(

., 1988.- .38-48.
378.
. .

. (

);

. .

. -

. .

.-

, 2000.

. .
:(

., 1980.
.

.-

):
.:

.
.

. 1955. - 9. - .23-28.
.
. //

.,

. 1979. -

. .
:

387.

.-

., 2001.

. .
:

388.

.-

., 1998.

. .
: (
.

389.

. - ., 1985.
./

.
, 1970.- 304 .
. .
. //

390.

. . .

.-

.:

.-

391.

):

.:

392.

. //
.,

. 1984. - 5. .108-113.
.
:
,

. //
. .

.383.
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384.
. //
385.
2.- .46-47.
386.

.-

1990.- .51-57.
379.
380.
2000. - 184 .
381.
.
.
382.

. .
:(

, 1984.-

.69-73.

total design
.
.
.

):

., 1997.
. .

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./

.
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.:

I
:
, 2001. -

.104-145.
393.
;

394.
.395.
.396.

. .
.
.
.:
. .
., 1987.
. .,

. //
( .

.)

.:
, 1976.-

. .

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100.
397.
398.
399.
.

3 (22) /
, 1989. - .18-24.
. //
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:

./ . .
, . .
. .
. 1928. - 2.- .63-65.
. .
.
. - ., 1972. - 174 .

. 2002. - 5. .96-

:
.-

:
-

, 1971.- 100 .
. //
:

916
400.

. .
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401.

.
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.:

. //

. .
.

.-

., 1992.

402.
.:

, 1980.- 217 .

.:

, 1983.- 256 .

403.
404.
.:
405.
.
406.
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407.
408.

, 1985.- 287 .
. .
.
.
.
.,
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, 1975- 1976

./

.-

, 1979- 1980

./

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, 1981- 1982

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.:

, 2000.
.-

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. .
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. .

409.

):

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.305-322.

, 1996.-

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. .
:

,
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412.
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,
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:
.
.
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, 1990.- .100-104.
413.
. .
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. 1989. - 11.414.
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415.
. .
(
,
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416.
.,
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.
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417.
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-ART.

30:

):

420.
421.
422.

, 1963.
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.):

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:
419.

:
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.
I

, 1978.
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:
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: (I -

.-

, 1981.

. .
-

423.
.

424.
5.
425.

;
427.
428.
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.
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. .
. .,
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. .
..

426.

.:

: (
. - ., 1990.

418.

410.

.:

. .,

.. .

.:

, 1964.- 12 .
.-

, 1996.- 35 .

. .
. 1970. - 1.- .51-54.
. .
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.
( .
.)
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:
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:
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. 1939. . //

3 (22) /
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917
429.

. .
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):

.
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. .

430.

.-

., 1955.

: (
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. .
. .
. .
. .
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):

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431.
432.
433.
434.
:
435.

:
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. .
.
.
,
. .
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. 1986. - 5.- .5-7.


. - .:
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.-

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.436.
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438.

11.-

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.
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, 1973..

:
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.169-169.
,1953.

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.
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441.

. .
.
.
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442.

.2 /
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. .
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. .

.443.
:
444.

.
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. //
( .
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. .

, 1956.- 102 .
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.:

, 1979.- 159

.
445.
:

446.

. .
.
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.
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. .

447.

.
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,
448.
449.

. .
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):
450.

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.16-20.
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.:

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//
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., 2001.
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:
):

451.

(
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.

,
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. .
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.
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):

.:

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452.
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454.
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455.
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.
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:(

.-

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., 1993.
456.
457.

. .
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. .

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918
458.

. .

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.459.

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.
I

,
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,
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,
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VII-

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,
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460.

):

. .

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462.
(
463.
464.

,
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I
):

. .
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. .

465.

.:
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: (
. 1989. - 11.- .6-7.
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).-

.:

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, 1997.
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467.
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468.
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469.
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470.

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473.
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476.
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480.
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485.
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919
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495.
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497.
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.23-

492.

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27.
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(
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XVIII-XIX

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503.
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509.
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(
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521.
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.
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524.

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526.
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528.
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:
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530.
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532.

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533.

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536.

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(
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537.

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535.
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):
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.:
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538.

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540.

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541.
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921
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549.
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. //
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(I -

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XIX

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. //

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930

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III
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.

.
;
;
.

SAMOILOV
KONSTANTIN
IVANOVICH
-

Candidate of Architecture / Ph.D. (Theory and History of Architecture): The Scientific-Research


Institute of Architecture and Urban Planning Theory (Moscow, 1990)
Reader of the Graphic and Architectural History Department of the Kazakh Leading Academy of
Architecture and Civil Engineering;
Writer more than 100 articles on the Theory and History of the Kazakhstans architecture of the
20-th century and series educational materials for architectural-designable specializations of
establishments;
Head of the Architectural workshop of the JSC Autotechnica;
Author and collaborator about 200 designs of dwelling houses, public, transport, industrial,
religious and memorial buildings;
Member of the Union of architects of the USSR;
Member of the Union of architects of the Republic of the Kazakhstan;
Member of the Union of urban plannings of the Republic of the Kazakhstan.

E-mail:
samconiv@rambler.ru
samconiv@yahoo.com

932

.
(1949 ., . .

.
-

, 2004

. . 55,2.
. .
100
.

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, .

, 86
Authors PDF version, 2016