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Elena Le

Claim: Although Napoleon and Snowball are different in many ways they both resemble one another by taking
charge and showing leadership.
Ed. D. L. Kirkpatrick. 2nd ed. Chicago: St. James Press, 1991. From Literature Resource Center.
No Page: Old Major, a venerable pig on the Jones farm, is regarded as the wise patriarch by the other animals.
He has had a strange dream and calls the other animals together to talk about their condition of misery. Old
Major uses a Hobbesian figure when he declares: ``Let us face it, our lives are miserable, laborious, and short.''
And he also speaks in Marxist terms when he declares that Man is the problem. ``Only get rid of Man, and the
produce of our labor would be our own. Almost overnight we could be rich and free. What then must we do?
Why, work night and day, body and soul, for the overthrow of the human race! That is my message to you,
comrades. Rebellion!''
No Page: Very soon comes the discrediting of co-leader Snowball. Snowball is the idealist, constantly wanting
to consider the welfare of all the animals while Napoleon is the pragmatist, ready to be brutal to achieve his
purposes.

No Page: Very soon, however, under the leadership of Napoleon, the techniques and hypocrisies of tyranny
begin to appear. First, there is a strong emphasis on ceremony and ritual. A regular Sunday morning meeting is
set up where Napoleon gives an inspirational address. Slogans are recited in unison. A favorite is their great
affirmation: ``Four legs goodtwo legs bad!'' When a counter-attack by farmer Jones is beaten off, the great
occasion is proclaimed ``The Battle of the Cowshed,'' and military decorations created including ``Animal
Hero-First Class'' and ``Animal Hero-Second Class.'' Napoleon awards both of these to himself.

No Page: The Seven Commandments``unalterable law''are revised one by one to suit Napoleon's purposes.
Also the democratic meetings are changed to assemblies where Napoleon issues his orders.

No Page: The most blatant and most effective techniques used by Napoleon are the show trials, the abject
confessions, and the summary executions.

No Page: At the end of the novel the common animals realize what they have never been able to understand: the
pigs are the same as their human masters were. Instead of gaining freedom they have only exchanged one set of
masters for another. The vision with which they began has been corrupted. They have experienced a kind of rite
of passage to sad knowledgeevents have come full circle and the common animals now know the irony of
expectations.
"Overview: Animal Farm." Characters in 20th-Century Literature. Laurie Lanzen Harris. Detroit: Gale, 1990.
Literature Resource Center. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

No Page: Snowball assumes primary control of the collective and institutes various organizational and
educational reforms. However, when he presents an impressive plan for construction of a windmill to provide
electrical power, Napoleon, with the aid of dogs he has secretly trained, overthrows his fellow pig and assumes
absolute dictatorship.
Glover, Beaird. "Animal Farm." Masterplots, Fourth Edition (2010): 1-3. Literary Reference Center. Web. 22
Feb. 2016.
No Page: Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer develop Majors teachings into a system called Animalism. The
rebellion comes quickly and suddenly after Jones was drinking in town. When he returns home, the animals run
him and the other humans off the farm. The animals can hardly believe their good fortune. Napoleon leads them
back to the barn, where everyone is served extra food to celebrate.
No Page: Napoleon and Snowball oppose each other at every juncture at which decisions are made. Snowball
begins committees for the adults while Napoleon takes puppies away from their parents, to educate them and to
keep them in a special loft of the barn where no one else is allowed to go.
No Page: Jones and other humans attempt to take back Animal Farm but they are unsuccessful. In the battle,
Snowball leads the forces and is wounded by a shotgun. Snowball manages to rid Jones of his gun, and Boxer
kicks a boy. This is named the Battle of the Cowshed and is a success for the animals.

No Page: Then Napoleons puppies come forth, now as large and treacherous dogs, and they drive Snowball off
the farm. Napoleon establishes himself as leader, with the pack of dogs reinforcing his position. He says there
will be no more meetings and no more debates. He and other pigs will decide everything. Three weeks later,
Napoleon uses Snowballs plans for the windmill and issues the order that work on the windmill is to begin.
John T Gillespie and Corinne J. Naden. Detroit: Gale, 1997. From Literature Resource Center.
No Page: Two of the pigs take charge of putting Major's vision into reality. One is Snowball, who is in tune with
the Major's beliefs. With the other leader pig, Napoleon, Snowball takes charge of sorting out the details of
Major's vision. He is the perfect complement to Major because he is able to organize and put the plan into
practical operation. He sets up classes so that the animals can learn to read and write; he wants them all to be
informed so that they will be better able to manage their lives after the revolution.
No Page: Napoleon is a mean-looking boar who doesn't talk much. His quiet manner makes the other animals
think he has great depth, which he does not, and that Snowball, because he talks too much, is shallow. That,
also, is untrue. Like Snowball, however, Napoleon does share Major's vision and plan and is willing to work to
see the revolution succeed. The main difference is that Napoleon has his own agenda for a successful
revolution. Whereas Snowball wants good for all, Napoleon concentrates on the advantages he can gain for
himself; and whereas Snowball plans activities out in the open, Napoleon plots secretly, as when he covertly
trains the dogs.
No Page: Napoleon and Snowball, the pigs who are primarily responsible for this elaboration of ideas into
doctrine, represent Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky, respectively. Some of the novel's details slip a bit from a
strict representation of reality, as Orwell found it necessary to compress some events and change some
chronologies in order to make his story work. For instance, Snowball's original plans for building the windmill
correspond to Lenin's plans for the electrification of Russia; however, though this plan was not the point on
which the Stalin/Trotsky conflict turned, the ultimate result was the same as that between Napoleon and

Snowball: Trotsky was driven from the country under a death warrant; he was reported to be hiding in various
enemy states; he was held responsible for everything that went wrong under the Stalinist regime; and,
ultimately, his supporters were violently purged from the ranks of the Communist Party.
No Page: Old Major, the prize boar who first passes on his ideas about animal oppression by the humans and the
future Rebellion of the animals, is commonly thought to represent either Karl Marx, one of the authors of the
1848 Communist Manifesto, or Vladimir Lenin, who adapted Marx's ideas to the Russian Revolution.
No Page: Napoleon and Snowball, the pigs who are primarily responsible for this elaboration of ideas into
doctrine, represent Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky, respectively. Some of the novel's details slip a bit from a
strict representation of reality, as Orwell found it necessary to compress some events and change some
chronologies in order to make his story work.
No Page: Snowball's original plans for building the windmill correspond to Lenin's plans for the electrification
of Russia; however, though this plan was not the point on which the Stalin/Trotsky conflict turned, the ultimate
result was the same as that between Napoleon and Snowball: Trotsky was driven from the country under a death
warrant; he was reported to be hiding in various enemy states; he was held responsible for everything that went
wrong under the Stalinist regime; and, ultimately, his supporters were violently purged from the ranks of the
Communist Party.
No Page: The neighboring farmers, Mr. Pilkington of Foxwood and Mr. Frederick of Pinchfield, who are
described as being on permanently bad terms, represent the leaders of England and Germany respectively.
No Page: It is thus that much more shocking when Squealer (who, as Napoleon's mouthpiece, might be said to
correspond to Pravda, the Soviet propagandist press) announces that the deal Napoleon had been working out to
sell some timber to Pilkington has instead been changed so that the deal will be made with Frederick.
No Page: A series of meetings were held between the leaders of the various nations, and one particular
conference held in Teheran after the war began the eruption into detente, or discord, which resulted in the
protracted Cold War. This conference is represented in the novel by the meeting between the pigs and the
humans at the end, at which a quarrel breaks out over cheating at cards.
No Page: Despite this discordant note, however, the final lines of the novel reveal the greatest shock of all. As
the other animals watch through the windows, they notice: Twelve voices were shouting in anger, and they were
all alike. No question, now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs? The creatures outside looked from pig
to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which.
No Page: These lines are crucial to a full understanding of the novel. Orwell does not claim here that
Napoleon/Stalin is worse than the humans, and thus that the animals would be better off under benign human
control. In fact he points to an ultimate identity between the pigs and the humans, between Stalin and the
leaders of the free nations, an idea which would have been considered heresy by both sides.
Merriam Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1995. From Literature
Resource Center.
No Page: The book concerns a group of barnyard animals who overthrow and chase off their exploitative human
masters and set up an egalitarian society of their own. Eventually the animals' intelligent and power-loving
leaders, the pigs, subvert the revolution and form a dictatorship even more oppressive and heartless than that of
their former human masters.
Meyers, Jeffrey, and Isaac Rosenfeld. "Chapter 10: ANIMAL FARM: Part 65: Isaac Rosenfeld, Nation." George
Orwell (0-415-15923-7) (1997): 201-204. Literary Reference Center. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

Page 202: Led by two pigs, Napoleon (Stalin), more or less in the background, and Snowball (Trotsky, with a
soupon of Leninfor simplicitys sake, Vladimir Ilyitch is left out of the picture, entering it only as a dybbuk
who shares with Marx old Majors identity, and with Trotsky, Snowballs) the animals institute a regime free of
Man, based on collective ownership, socialized production, equality, etc.
Page 202: The pigs, who are the most intelligent animals, form a bureaucracy which does not at first enjoy
many privileges, this development being held over until the factional dispute over the rate of industrialization
and the strategy of World Revolution begins, Snowball-Trotsky is exiled, and Napoleon-Stalin comes to power.
Page 203: There are only two motives operating in the parable (which is already an oversimplification to the
point of falsity, if we take the parable as intended); one of them, a good one, Snowballs, is defeated, and the
only other, the bad one, Napoleons, succeeds, presumably because history belongs to the most unscrupulous
Brockington, Jr., William S. "Animal Farm." Masterplots II: Juvenile & Young Adult Fiction Series (1991): 1-2.
Literary Reference Center. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
No Page: Snowball, a young boar whose intellectual and oratorical skills make him a candidate for the
leadership of Animal Farm. Napoleon, another young boar, whose skill at power politics leaves him as dictator
of Animal Farm
No Page: Napoleon becomes the dictator of Animal Farm. Under Napoleon, the commune is no longer
permitted to discuss or to debate; it must simply follow orders. Squealer, the propagandist, constantly rewrites
history to reflect new realities.
No Page: The all-powerful Napoleon carries a whip, the symbol of human oppression, as his badge of authority.
Propaganda also makes Napoleon into the only hope for the animals in their fight against human outsiders.
Indeed, after the Battle of the Windmill, in which Animal Farm is attacked by humans who are driven off by the
courage of the animals, Napoleon is made to appear as the primary reason for the victory.
Joyce Moss and George Wilson. Vol. 4: World War II to the Affluent Fifties (1940-1950s). Detroit: Gale, 1997.
From Literature Resource Center.
No Page: Led by the pigs, who are highly intelligent, the animals plan their revolt. Two boars in particular
emerge as the leadersNapoleon, a large, fierce-looking Berkshire boar, and Snowball, who is inventive and
eloquent, if somewhat less intimidating.
No Page: The fundamental problem at Animal Farm is the constant rift between its two leaders, Napoleon and
Snowball. When Snowball comes up with the idea of building a windmill, and therefore improving the quality
of life on the farm, Napoleon does everything he can to disparage it.
No Page: In Snowball's absence, Napoleon seizes absolute power, and things begin to deteriorate at a rapid rate.
Snowball is declared a traitor to Animal Farm, and it is announced that there will be no more debates. Squealer,
the propaganda pig, explains that construction of the windmill will begin as soon as possible, that it only
seemed like Napoleon was against the idea, when in fact he was cunningly rooting out the traitor Snowball.
No Page: When a group of pigs take issue with Napoleon's leadership, they are murdered by Napoleon's dogs.
This sets off a series of massacres, in which animals of every kind make one improbable confession of sedition
after another and each is slain on the spot, until the barn is filled with corpses.
Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1995. From Literature Resource Center.

No Page: Napoleon Fictional character, a pig who usurps power and becomes dictator over the other animals in
Animal Farm, by George Orwell.
No Page: Snowball Fictional character, a pig who is one of the leaders of the revolt in Animal Farm, George
Orwell's allegorical tale about the early history of Soviet Russia. Most critics agree that Snowball represents
Leon Trotsky.
Ed. D. L. Kirkpatrick. 2nd ed. Chicago: St. James Press, 1991. FromLiterature Resource Center.
No Page: It was, however, generally recognized that the pigs were the cleverest of the animals, so the work of
organizing for the Rebellion fell naturally to them, especially to three who took over leadership: Napoleon and
Snowball, the two boars of the farm, and Squealer. These three elaborated Old Major's teaching into a complete
system of thought: Animalism.
No Page: Very soon, however, under the leadership of Napoleon, the techniques and hypocricies of tyranny
begin to appear. First, there is a strong emphasis on ceremony and ritual. A regular Sunday morning meeting is
set up where Napoleon gives an inspirational address.
No Page: When a counter-attack by farmer Jones is beaten off, the great occasion is proclaimed ``The Battle of
the Cowshed,'' and military decorations created including ``Animal Hero-First Class'' and ``Animal HeroSecond Class.'' Napoleon awards both of these to himself.
No Page: So the technique of the ``big lie'' and contrived evidence results in Snowball's being driven out of
Animal Farm, leaving Napoleon in sole command. And the discredited Snowball is blamed whenever problems
arise.
No Page: The Seven Commandments``unalterable law''are revised one by one to suit Napoleon's purposes.
Also the democratic meetings are changed to assemblies where Napoleon issues his orders. The workers are
often puzzled but they absorb everything they are told and thus become perfect subjects for manipulation.
No Page: The most blatant and most effective techniques used by Napoleon are the show trials, the abject
confessions, and the summary executions.
Ed. Diane Telgen and Kevin Hile. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 1998. From Literature Resource Center.
No Page: Soon after the revolt of the animals, Napoleon takes nine puppies from their mothers to "educate"
them. The puppies end up being his personal bodyguards and secret police force. He grows increasingly
removed from the other animals, dining alone and being addressed as "our Leader, Comrade Napoleon." Like
Joseph Stalin, the Soviet leader who had negotiated with England while making a secret deal with Hitler,
Napoleon negotiates with one of Jones's neighbors, Mr. Pilkington, while making a secret agreement with Mr.
Frederick, another one of Jones's neighbors.
No Page: Stalin had a reputation for arranging the death of anyone who stood in his way and, after Napoleon
chases his former friend Snowball off the farm, has countless animals killed who confess to being Snowball's
allies. Near the end of the novel, he stands on two legs, just like the men he had previously denounced, and
announces that Animal Farm's name will revert back to Manor Farm. His name is reminiscent of the historical
Napoleon, who became the all-powerful, autocratic Emperor of the French. Like his French counterpart,
Napoleon seems to embody the idea that with power comes corruption.
No Page: A "young boar" who, with Napoleon and Squealer, helps to codify Old Major's ideas into the
commandments of Animalism. Orwell describes him as "quicker in speech and more inventive" than Napoleon.
He is the one who organizes the animals into various committees: "the Egg Production Committee for the hens,
the Clean Tails League for the cows the Whiter Wool Movement for the sheep, and various others...." He also

plans the defense of the farm against the humans which proves useful when Jones and his friends try to retake
the farm.
No Page: Snowball shows his expert use of military strategy during the attackwhich becomes known as the
Battle of the Cowshedand is later awarded a medal. Snowball also comes up with the idea of building a
windmill to produce electricity. He represents the historical figure of Leon Trotsky and, like Trotsky who was
exiled from Russia by his former partner Stalin, Snowball is eventually run off the farm by Napoleon. After he
is gone, Napoleon uses him as a scapegoat, blaming him for everything that goes wrong on the farm. In an
allegory of the bloody purge trials that took place in the Soviet Union during the 1930s, the animals confess to
scheming in various ways with Snowball for the downfall of the other pigs.
Glover, Beaird. "Animal Farm." Masterplots, Fourth Edition (2010): 1-3. Literary Reference Center. Web. 23
Feb. 2016.
No Page: The flag raised by the animals, with hoof and horn, is similar to the Russian flag of hammer and
sickle. Napoleon is generally likened to Stalin, and the countenance and actions of Snowball are thought to
resemble those of Leon Trotsky.
No Page: The name Snowball recalls Trotskys white hair and beard, and possibly, too, that he crumbled under
Stalins opposition. The event in which Snowball is chased away from the farm is similar to the expulsion of
Trotsky from Russia in 1929.
No Page: Moreover, reading the book strictly to find reference to Russian history misses an important point:
Orwell said the book is intended as a satire on dictatorship in general. The name of the ruling pig,
Napoleon, is a reminder that there have been dictators outside Russia. Not Stalin in particular, but
totalitarianism is the enemy Orwell exposes.
Franks, Carol. "Animal Farm." MagillS Survey Of World Literature, Revised Edition (2009): 1-2. Literary
Reference Center. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
No Page: Though the humans have been overthrown, it is not harmony but a lengthy power struggle that
follows.
In this power struggle, essentially between the two young boars Snowball and Napoleon, one sees at first a sort
of idealism, especially in Snowball, who speaks of a system that sounds much like Orwells particular vision of
democratic Socialism. The animals begin by renaming Manor Farm as Animal Farm and by putting into print
their seven commandments, designed primarily to identify their tenets and to discourage human vices among
themselves.
No Page: Gradually, the pigs begin claiming the privileges of an elite ruling class. They eat better than the other
animals, they work less, and they claim more political privileges in making major decisions. The outcome of the
power struggle between Snowball and Napoleon is that Napoleon and his trained dogs drive Snowball into
hiding. Snowball becomes in exile a sort of political scapegoat, a precursor to Emmanuel Goldstein in Nineteen
Eighty-Four. Napoleon, now the totalitarian ruler of Animal Farm, rewrites history, convincing the other
animals that Snowball was really the cause of all their problems and that he, Napoleon, is the solution to them.
No Page: Under Napoleons rule, Animal Farm declines steadily. As the pigs break the commandments, they
rewrite them to conform to the new order. The sheep bleat foolish slogans on Napoleons behalf. Napoleons
emissary, Squealer, a persuasive political speaker, convinces the increasingly oppressed animals that nothing
has changed, that the commandments are as they always were, that history remains as it always was, that they
are not doing more work and reaping fewer benefits.

No Page: The final decay of Animal Farm results from the pigs engaging in all the human evils about which old
Major had forewarned them. The pigs become psychologically and even physically indistinguishable from the
humans. The pigs wear clothing, sleep in beds, drink alcohol, walk on two legs, wage wars, engage in trade, and
destroy their own kind. Ultimately, despite old Majors vision, nothing has changed. The pigs and their dogs
have become bureaucrats and tyrants: neither pigs nor dogs produced any food by their own labour.
Pearce, Robert. "Animal Farm." History Today 55.8 (n.d.): 47-53. Literary Reference Center. Web. 23 Feb.
2016.
No Page: Many parallels between Russian history and the revolution at Manor Farm are unmistakable. Clearly
Old Major represents Marx, Napoleon is Stalin, Snowball is Trotsky, Pilkington is Britain, Frederick Germany,
the dogs are the OGPU/NKVD. The battle of the cowshed represents the Allied invasion of 1918, the battle of
the windmill is the Nazi invasion of 1941, while the windmill itself represents the Five Year Plans. Orwell had
merely changed the chronological order of events, to meet the needs of symmetry of plot.
No Page: When in chapter eight Orwell wrote that, during the battle of the windmill, 'all the animals, except
Napoleon, flung themselves flat on their bellies' he had changed an earlier proof version ('all the animals
including Napoleon') because he had received reliable information, from Joseph Czapaski, ironically a Polish
survivor of the Gulag, that Stalin bravely stayed in Moscow during the German advance.
No Page: Yet, in fact, the parallels are problematical. Some commentators have judged that Lenin was part of
the Old Major character, some that he was part of Napoleon or Snowball, but in reality Lenin was omitted.
Orwell believed that Lenin 'would have come to resemble Stalin if he had happened to survive' (though he
changed his mind later), and therefore was a disposable figure. But this renders Animal Farm almost Hamlet
without the prince.
No Page: It has been suggested that Napoleon's upright stance at the battle of the windmill probably indicated
collusion with the invaders. Snowball's insistence on literacy classes has been taken to indicate that Orwell was
a Trotskyite, which he expressly denied. Squealer has been wrongly identified with Vladimir Mayakovski, the
Stalinist versifier who in fact is represented by Minimus in the book. So who is Squealer?
No Page: The problem here is simply that Orwell had to spell out the moral, for, as he wrote in the
introduction to the Ukrainian edition, if the book 'does not speak for itself, it is a failure'. Theoverwhelming maj
ority of readers carry away from Animal Farm the conviction that the animals,
except the pigs, are innocent dupes.
No Page: In particular Boxer, the Stakhanovite carthorse, is universally regarded asthe book's hero, a character
whose pathos has led him to be seen as an equine Little Nell. Are we supposed to condemn him for failing to
stand up to Napoleon? The fact is that he simply does not have the brains to do so.
May, Charles E. Animal Farm. Masterplots II: British & Commonwealth Fiction Serios (1987): 1-3. Literary
Reference Center. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
No Page: The central irony of the fable is that although the animals initially rebel against the humans because of
behavior which humans usually call beastly, the animals themselves, as the work progresses, become more
and more like humans that is, more and more base and beastly.
No Page: What is most demoniacally human about the pigs is their use of language not only to manipulate the
immediate behavior of the animals through propaganda, emotive language, and meaningless doubletalk but also
to manipulate history, and thus challenge the nature of actuality itself. This manipulation, however, is only one
primary means of the pigs control; another, equally important, is the threat of brute force as manifested by
Napoleons pack of vicious trained dogs.

Welsh, James M. "Animal Farm." MagillS Guide To Science Fiction & Fantasy Literature (1996): 1-2. Literary
Reference Center. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
No Page: Snowball is a brilliant debater and a visionary who wants to modernize the farm by building a
windmill that will provide electrification. Two parties are formed, supporting Snowball and the three-day
week and Napoleon and the full manger. Meanwhile, the pigs reserve special privileges for themselves, such
as consuming milk and apples that are not shared with the others.
No Page: Napoleon raises nine pups to become his guard dogs. After they have grown, his palace guard drives
Snowball into exile, clearing the way for Napoleons dictatorship. Napoleon simplifies the Seven
Commandments into one slogan: Four legs good, two legs bad. With the help of Squealer, his propagandist,
Napoleon discredits Snowballs bravery and leadership in the Battle of the Cowshed and claims as his own the
scheme to build a windmill. Every subsequent misfortune is then blamed on Snowball.
No Page: Thereafter, the animals work like slaves, with Napoleon as the tyrant in charge. Gradually the pigs
take on more human traits and move into the farmhouse. Before long, they begin sleeping in beds and
consuming alcohol. Napoleon organizes a purge, sets his dogs on four dissenting pigs who question his
command, and has them bear false witness against the absent Snowball. He then has the dogs kill them,
violating one of the Seven Commandments, which are slyly emended to cover the contingencies of Napoleons
rule and his desires for creature comforts.
No Page: Napoleon enters into a political pact with one neighboring farmer, Pilkington, against the other,
Frederick, whose men invade Animal Farm with guns and blow up the windmill. Working to rebuild the
windmill, the brave workhorse Boxer collapses. He is sent heartlessly to the glue factory by Napoleon, who
could have allowed Boxer simply to retire. All the principles of the rebellion eventually are corrupted and
overturned. Finally, the pigs begin to walk on their hind legs, and all the Seven Commandments ultimately are
reduced to a single one: All Animals Are Equal, but Some Animals Are More Equal than Others. The pigs
become indistinguishable from the men who own the neighboring farms, and the animals are no better off than
they were under human control.
No Page: Snowball with the help of his propagandist, Squealer. Napoleon organizes a counterrevolution with
the help of his guard dogs (the state police or palace guards, in terms of the allegory) and drives Snowball into
exile (as happened with Trotsky), then plays one neighbor, Frederick (Hitler), against the other, Pilkington (a
Churchillian Tory), paralleling the events of World War II.
No Page: Ultimately, the democratic principles of Animalism as defined by old Major are redefined as the
totalitarian principles of Napoleon, and the Seven Commandments are changed to accommodate Napoleons
reign of terror, particularly the two words added at the end of one central commandment to make it read, No
animal shall kill another animal without cause.
Brockington, Jr., William S. "Animal Farm." Masterplots II: Juvenile & Young Adult Fiction Series (1991): 1-2.
Literary Reference Center. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
No Page: The animals work more for less, and the pigs enjoy the fruits of the labors. Animal Farm becomes
Manor Farm with merely a new name and new masters. When the hardest-working animal, Boxer, can no longer
perform, he is sold to the glue factory. The animals have been deceived, but because of their naivet, they have
accepted their status. By the end of Animal Farm, the pigs walk upright and are indistinguishable from humans
No Page: When neighboring farmers visit Animal Farm to see the prosperity, they are amazed at the success.
Sadly, only the pigs are prosperous, and their prosperity has come at the expense of the other animals. The
revised slogan reflects this reality: All Animals Are Equal, but Some Animals Are More Equal than Others.

No Page: In Animal Farm, Napoleon is certainly the most equal of all. He is cynical, brutal, and above all
pragmatic. Once in power, he will do whatever is necessary to keep his position. The propaganda and lies, the
whip, and the vicious dogs are all part of the corruption of the dream. Ultimately, the animals have even less
than before; and the new ruling class looks and acts like Mr. Jones and his men.
No Page: Snowball represented Leon Trotsky; Napoleon, Joseph Stalin; the dogs, the secret police; Squealer,
the expedient lie; and Boxer, the loyal worker. Just as the Russian Revolution had broken out spontaneously
with the result of hunger and suffering during World War I, so did the Rebellion on Manor Farm. Sadly, the new
Soviet state/Animal Farm that began as a dream quickly became, in the hands of evil men like Stalin/Napoleon,
repressive and brutal. To Orwell, the totalitarianism of the Communists was no better than the absolutism of the
czars.