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Introduction

In all kinds of sports today, coaches and players are always looking for

something that will give them a leg up. One of the oldest of these is in the sport

of baseball. Baseball has been popular in America for well over a hundred years,

and people have never stopped asking the question: Is the weight of the bat or

the swing speed of the bat more effective when hitting a baseball?

Many years ago, famous batters would do anything to get the heaviest bat

possible, even hammering nails into the bat to increase the mass. (Russel)

However, more recently, baseball players have started to prefer a lighter bat to

increase swing speed. With a faster swing, many batters believe that can

generate more energy when hitting the baseball, resulting in a farther hit.

Figuring out whether bat mass or swing speed results in a farther batted ball can

greatly impact how a baseball player chooses their bat.

When knowing whether mass or swing speed is more important,

professional baseball players can make the necessary adjustment to improve

their game. If mass is more effective, players may begin to use heaver bats. If

swing speed is more effective, players can focus their attention on improving

their swing so that it gets faster. While baseball is the obvious application with

this information, there can be other aspects that can be improved. In other sports

like golf, players can use this information to see if they can hit the ball farther

down the fairway.

Hitting a baseball can depend on many factors. Temperature, wind, and

where the ball is hit by the bat can all affect how far the baseball travels after

Feld - Schultz

being hit. For this experiment however, mass and swing speed were tested to

see which of the two generated a farther distance on the baseball. These factors

can be easily changed, and both of these factors directly affect the force on a

batted baseball. A twenty-eight ounce, twenty-nine ounce, and thirty ounce bats

were used. These bats were pulled back by a spring to 50, 70, and 90 to

create different swing speeds. These bats hit a baseball off of a tee the spot hit

on the ball was kept constant and the distance that the baseball went was

measured in feet with a tape measure. A two-sample DOE was conducted to see,

out of the factors mass and swing speed, which factors was more significant in

changing batted ball distance. The factor with the bigger effect would be deemed

the more important factor in hitting baseballs. This factor will be found with the

p=mv

and

1

KE= mv 2 display

2

that momentum and kinetic energy can be found using mass and velocity, and

can therefore be used to help solve the problem.

Feld - Schultz

Review of Literature

The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether bat speed or

bat weight has the greatest effect on the distance of a batted baseball. These

factors have the greatest effect on the distance when hitting a baseball.

Bats are produced in many different fashions. In high school and college

leagues, most bats are aluminum based with a 2 5/8 in. diameter. What

fluctuates with these bats, however, is the mass. The mass of the bat is important

to consider when hitting because in the equation of momentum, mass multiplied

by velocity is equal to the total momentum

p=mv

Conversion). As the mass of the bat increases, the momentum would also

increase, resulting in the ball being hit harder.

Similar to the bats mass, the swing speed of the bat greatly affects

the distance the baseball travels. The bats velocity was based on how far the

swing arm was pulled back. The farther back the spring was pulled, the more

time the bat has to accelerate, thus allowing the bat to have more speed when it

comes in contact with the baseball. The velocity also played a role in the

momentum as shown in the equation mass multiplied by velocity equals

momentum ( p=mv ). Identical to the bats mass, as the swing speed

increases, the momentum will also increase. Because the equation is just mass

times velocity, science would prove that both factors would have equal effects of

the batted balls momentum. However, it is not that simple. As the mass of the

Feld - Schultz

bat decreases, it would be easier for the batter to swing the bat, resulting in a

higher swing velocity (Russell). This suggests that one of these factors is more

important than the other since the mass impacts the velocity.

An experiment discussed by Daniel Russell, affiliated with Penn St.

University, was found in Physics of Sports developed by Florida St. University

and conducted the effect of bat mass on its batted ball. The experiment used only

changed the mass of the bats used to hit the baseball. The experiment resulted

in determining that a higher bat mass will increase its batted ball velocity. The

result in a higher batted ball velocity is a larger distance traveled as shown in the

equation velocity multiplied by time is equal to distance ( d=vt ). It has been

clearly displayed that the mass of the bat is directly related to the distance

because of this proven higher batted ball velocity. The experiment relates to

determining whether bat mass or bat velocity is more effective because both

experiments changed the mass of the bats used to hit the ball.

Another experiment also discussed by Russell, which was also found in

Physics of Sports, conducted an experiment on the effect of a bats swing

velocity on its batted ball. The experiment changed the swing velocity using a

bat of the same mass each trial to determine the batted ball velocity. The

experiments results display that a higher swing speed resulted in a higher batted

ball velocity. This would allow for a larger distance traveled using the equation

velocity multiplied by time equals distance (Elert). The experiment is similar to

determining whether swing velocity or bat mass is more effective toward the

batted balls distance because both experiments change the bats swing velocity.

4

Feld - Schultz

Both of the previous experiments were closely related to each other in

determining the same factors. They compare well to the experiment to be further

conducted, but have some differences also. While both swing velocity and bat

mass were changed, the previous two experiments find the batted ball velocity,

while the experiment conducted measured the distance the ball traveled. While

this seems like a large difference, it is far from that. The batted ball velocity

determines the distance that a ball can travel, so these experiments have

displayed important information to help understand the physics of changing mass

and velocity, and help to make predictions of what could happen when the same

factors are changed.

Feld - Schultz

Problem Statement

Problem:

To determine whether bat speed or bat weight have a greater effect on

batted ball distance.

Hypothesis:

If the swing speed and bat weight are fluctuated throughout an

experiment, then the swing speed of the bat will have the greatest effect on the

distance of the ball.

Data Measured:

The independent variables in the planned experiment are baseball bat

weight, and bat speed. The dependent variable will be the distance that a

baseball is hit off of a tee. The swing speed will be measured in feet per second,

and the bat weight will be measured in ounces (28, 29, 30). The intended

statistical analysis planned for the experiment is a two-factor DOE.

Feld - Schultz

Experimental Design

Materials:

Baseball (5 oz.)

28 oz. Baseball bat

29 oz. Baseball bat

30 oz. Baseball bat

Tape measure

(5) Wood 2x4

(3) Light Bungee Cords

Extension Spring

(25) 2 Screws

Electrical Screwdriver

Door Hinge

Adjustable Baseball Tee

Protractor

Procedure:

1. Assemble the swinging mechanism, refer to Appendix A.

2. Label each combination of weight and velocity and randomize the order to run

the trials, keeping 1, 4, and 7 for the standards.

3. Strap the desired bat to the swinging mechanism using bungee cords.

4. Place a ball on a baseball tee.

5. Line up the mechanism so the bats barrel will hit the ball off the tee in a

straight line as shown in the diagram.

6. Using a protractor, pull the lever arm back to the desired angle to produce the

desired velocity and release it so the bat hits the ball.

7. Use the tape measure to measure the distance the ball traveled, record in data

table.

8. Repeat steps 2-6 for each trial. Run the experiment five times.

Diagram:

Sprin

g

Bat

Baseb

all

Adjustabl

e

Frame

Door

Hinge

Feld - Schultz

Data and Observations

Data:

Table 1

Independent Variables

Mass (ounces)

(-)

Standard

(+)

(-)

Standard

(+)

28 oz

29oz

30oz

50

70

90

Table one shows the factors tested in the experiment. The mass of bats

are displayed in ounces. 28, 29, and 30 ounces are the most common masses in

baseball, which is why they were tested. For swing speed, the degree that the

swing arm on the machine was pulled back is displayed. The degrees used

generated different speeds of the bat.

Table 2

Experimental Data

DOE

Distance (Feet)

(+,+)

(+,-)

(-,+)

(-,-)

10.80

7.50

10.15

6.75

9.60

6.85

8.40

6.70

10.15

6.70

10.75

7.90

9.60

7.90

9.35

7.55

11.25

9.30

9.20

6.80

Average

10.28

7.65

9.57

7.14

Table 2 shows the distance in feet the ball was hit in each of the trials. The

first (+) or (-) determines which mass was used, and the second (+) or (-)

determines how far the bat was pulled back.

Feld - Schultz

Observations:

Table 3

Observations

Trial

Standard (Run 1)

(-, +)

(+ , -)

Standard

(+ , +)

(- , -)

Standard

Standard (Run 2)

(+ , +)

(+ , -)

Standard

(- , -)

(- , +)

Standard

Standard (Run 3)

(+ , -)

(- , -)

Standard

(- , +)

(+ , +)

Standard

Standard (Run 4)

(+ , +)

(- , -)

Standard

(+ , -)

(- , +)

Standard

Standard (Run 5)

(+ , +)

(- , -)

Standard

(+ , -)

(- , +)

Standard

Observation

Normal trial, ran according to plan

Bat hit the tee during trial

Ran according to plan

Ran according to plan

Rolled into a divet in the ground

Veered off to the left

Ball had backspin, rolled differently

Ran according to plan

Ran according to plan

Ran according to plan

Ball veered to the right

Machine moved when hitting the ball

Took a weird hop, distance was less

Ran according to plan

Bat hit the tee during trial

Took a weird hop, distance was less

Ball veered to the left

Ball had backspin

Took a weird hop, distance was less

Rolled off to the right due to different contact

Ran according to plan

Ran according to plan

Machine hopped, could've impacted the swing

Bat hit the tee during trial

Ran according to plan

Ball veered to the right

Ran according to plan

Ran according to plan

Bat hit the tee during trial

Rolled in a divet, allowing for farther distance

Machine moved after hitting the ball

Ran according to plan

Rolled in a divet

Ball took a weird hop

Ran according to plan

Feld - Schultz

Table 3 shows the observations taken after each trial. Some of the trials hit

the ground strange and that could have affected the distance of some of the

trials.

Diagram:

1.

Bungee Cords

Bat

Spring

Baseball

Tee

2.

3.

Figure 1 shows three pictures of a sample trial. The bat was pulled back to

the appropriate angle, and then released. The ball was then measured with a

tape measure to see the final distance.

Feld - Schultz

In the experiment, data was collected to see how far the baseball went

when hit with different masses of bats and swing speeds. The distance of each

trial was collected using a tape measure. Five trials for each combination of bat

mass and swing speed were conducted, while fifteen standard trials were

conducted. The number of trials was to identify any outliers and to make the

averages of the data more accurate. The order of the trials was randomized in

order to eliminate any possible bias that would result in inaccurate data. Also,

each trial was conducted in the exact same fashion so that if there were any

lurking variables, all of the trials would be exposed to them.

Table 4

Effect of Mass

Effect of Mass

(-)

(+)

9.57

10.28

7.14

7.65

Ave: 8.36

Ave: 8.97

Table 4 displays the effect of mass on the distance of the baseball. The

averages of the low and high trials were found in order to produce the total effect.

As it can be observed, the averages were similar; indicating mass may not have

had a large effect.

Feld - Schultz

11

10.5

10

9.5

Distance (feet)

8.97

9

8.36

8.5

8

7.5

7

-1

1

Mass

This figure displays the effect of mass on the distance of the baseball. At

the negative value of mass, the average distance was 8.36 feet, while the high

value of mass produced an average distance of 8.97 feet. The high value did

produce a further distance as expected although there was not much of a

difference, as the total effect of mass was 0.61, found by subtracting the low

value from the high value. This means that on average, as the mass of the bat

grew from low to high, the balls distance increased by a factor of 0.61 feet. The

ball most likely went farther during the high trial of mass since the ball was hit

with a greater momentum and kinetic energy due to the equations

and

p=mv

1

KE= mv 2 , where it can be observed that as mass (m) increases, so

2

will momentum (p) and kinetic energy (KE). When the ball has more momentum

and kinetic energy, it would have the tendency to travel farther.

Feld - Schultz

Table 5

Effect of Swing Speed

Effect of Swing Speed

(-)

(+)

7.65

10.28

7.14

9.57

Ave: 7.40

Ave: 9.93

Table 5 displays the effect of swing speed on the distance of the baseball.

The averages of the low and high trials were found in order to produce the total

effect. As it can be observed, the averages were quite different; suggesting that

swing speed may have had a significant effect on distance.

11

10.5

9.93

10

9.5

Distance (feet)

9

8.5

8

7.4

7.5

7

-1

1

Swing Speed

This figure displays the effect of swing speed on the distance of the

baseball. At the negative value of swing speed, the average distance was 7.4

feet, while the high value produced an average distance of 9.93 feet. The high

Feld - Schultz

value of swing speed produced a much further distance for the ball, as expected.

The total effect of swing speed was 2.53, found by subtracting the low value from

the high value. This value means that on average, as the swing speed increased,

the distance of the ball increased by a factor of 2.53 feet. This suggests that the

swing speed may have a significant effect on the distance. The swing speed

most likely hit the ball farther at the high trial because the equations

and

p=mv

1

2

KE= mv suggest that momentum (p) and kinetic energy (KE)

2

increased as the swing speed (v) increased. Again, when the ball has a higher

momentum and kinetic energy, it would have the tendency to travel father.

Table 6

Interaction Effect of Mass and Swing Speed

Mass

(-)

(+)

Line segment

(+)

9.57

10.8

solid

Swing Speed

Line segment

(-)

7.14

7.65

dotted

Table 6 displays the interaction effect of mass and swing speed on the

distance of the baseball. The averages of the low and high trials for both mass

and swing speed together are shown. The larger the difference of the slopes for

the mass and swing speed, the larger the interaction effect will be.

Feld - Schultz

10.8

11

10.5

10

9.57

9.5

Distance (feet)

9

Mass

8.5

Swing Speed

7.65

7.57.14

7

-1

1

Mass

Figure 4 shows the interaction effect of mass and swing speed on the

distance of the baseball. The lines have a somewhat similar slope, but not too

large, which suggests that there may be a small interaction effect. Despite this,

the lines do not intersect, also suggesting that the interaction effect would be

small. The slope of the line of mass minus the slope of the of the line of swing

speed all divided by two produced the interaction effect of 0.1.

Table 7

Standard Trials

Standards

7.50

7.65

7.55

7.70

7.50

7.90

7.90

7.80

8.30

8.10

8.30

7.70

8.25

7.90

7.70

Table 7 shows the distance of the baseballs of the standard trials. For the

standard trials, the 29 ounce bat and the 70 swing angle. The farthest trial for

the standards was 8.25 feet, and the least far trial for the standards was 7.50

feet. This gives a range of standards of 0.75 feet. This will be important in

determining which effects are significant in this experiment.

Feld - Schultz

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

Figure 5 displays the scatter plot of the standard trials. The range of

standards was found to be 0.75 feet.

-3

-2

-1

This figure shows the dot plot of effects. It includes the effects of swing

speed (S), mass (M), and the interaction of mass and swing speed (MS). The

range of standards was 0.75. This range was doubled to determine whether the

effects were significant, as shown by two vertical lines on the dot plot. The only

effect deemed significant was swing speed, noted by S, because it was greater

than twice the range of standards.

Feld - Schultz

Y =GA +

This figure displays the prediction equation that used every effect in the

experiment. GA represents the grand average, M represents the effect of mass,

S represents the effect of swing speed, MS represents the interaction effect, and

N represents noise. Noise is an immeasurable factor that can affect the outcome

of the experiment. The fractions were multiplied by 1 or -1 depending upon

whether that factor was high or low for that trial. In this equation, the (+,+) trial

was run. This equation is used to predict the values of future experiments. A

sample equation can be found in Appendix B.

Y =GA +

( S2 1)+ N

The figure above displays the parsimonious equation which only takes the

significant factors into account. The only significant factor in the experiment was

swing speed, represented by S. GA represents the grand average, and N

represents noise. The swing speed factor was multiplied by one because in this

trial, the high value of swing speed was used. A sample equation can be found in

Appendix B.

Feld - Schultz

Conclusion

The purpose of this experiment was to see whether bat mass or the

swing speed of a bat is more effective when hitting a baseball. The original

hypothesis was that if baseballs were hit off a tee by different bat masses

and speeds, the speeds would have a higher effect. This hypothesis was

accepted. On each trial, a baseball was hit using three different masses,

28, 29, and 30 ounces, of a bat. The bats were pulled back to three

different angles, 50, 70, and 90. The farther the bat was pulled back,

the faster the swing speeds would be. Once the bat was released and hit

the baseball, the distance of the baseball was measured using a tape

measure. On average, as bat speed was increased, it had the greatest

effect on increasing the difference of the batted ball.

The batted ball on average went a greater distance when hit with

the highest mass and higher swing speed. The effect of swing speed was

the only significant effect in this experiment. The effect of mass was 0.61

while the effect of swing speed was 2.53. This can most easily be

A

F=(M ) ) where F represents force, M

back at a greater angle for the higher trials, it results in a higher

acceleration. This equation shows that when both acceleration and mass

are high, it results in a greater force on the baseball. The higher force

would then result in a farther batted ball. Though mass and acceleration

Feld - Schultz

are equally in important in determining force, swing speed had a greater

effect on the distance of the baseball. The equation

KE= ( M )(V )

explains why the swing speed was more effective. In this equation, KE

represents kinetic energy, M represents mass, and V represents velocity.

Since velocity is squared in this equation and mass is not, a change in

velocity changes the kinetic energy on the batted ball more than a change

in mass does.

Knowing what can hit a baseball farther can apply, obviously, to

baseball itself. Baseball players have forever tried to figure out the best

way to hit a baseball successfully. Many players favor a heavier bat, while

others sacrifice the weight to improve their swing speed. Though baseball

is the most obvious application of this experiment, it is not the only one.

Other sports such as golf also apply. Different masses and swing speeds

of clubs can affect how far a ball is hit.

In this experiment, swing speed was found to be the greater factor

when compared to mass. In sports such as baseball and golf, athletes can

use this information to improve their game. Though increased mass can

increase force and thus distance, swing speed was proven to be more

effective in this experiment. Many baseball players can work to improve

their swing speed to develop their game. Using a lighter bat can make it

easier to get a faster swing, so even though the mass decreases, it can

increase the swing speed enough to actually increase the force put on the

baseball.

Feld - Schultz

Design flaws and errors of the experiment were vast because it was

such a difficult area to research. The first of many was the fact that the bat

may not have been pulled back to the exact desired angle each time. This

error would affect the swing speed, as if the bat was pulled to a different

angle, the speed would increase or decrease by a slight amount. Another

flaw in the experiment was the fact that the bats age and usage varied.

One bat was made around five years ago while the other two were made

around three years ago. Two bats were also used more frequently, while

one had barely been used before. This could have affected the experiment

because as bats are used more, their hitting ability becomes weakened. A

third error in the experiment was the weight distribution in the bats. Two

bats weights were more evenly distributed while the other was top heavy.

More mass at the end of the bad could have increased the balls distance.

The final error in the experiment was the fact that the bat may not have hit

the ball on the same tee position. After a trial, the tee may have moved,

causing the next trial to hit the tee or hit the top of the ball. The distance

could have been affected from this difference in angle that the bat

impacted the ball.

This experiment could be expanded in the future to test other

factors and the possible effects they would have on the distance of

baseballs. Mass and swing speeds were used for this experiment because

those factors were the easiest to change. Other factors like torque and

moment of inertia could have significant effects on the distance of a

Feld - Schultz

baseball. Torque could be tested by increasing the lever arm, or simply the

length of the bat. Moment of inertia could be tested by changing where the

ball is hit by the bat. For example, if a ball is hit by the end of the bat, it

could have a different distance than a ball that was hit by the inside of the

bat. If this experiment was conducted again, other factors would be

included in the testing. Also, more trials would be conducted so that the

averages of the trials would be more accurate and the effects of the

factors would be clearer.

Feld - Schultz

Appendix A

The following is instructions for creating the swing mechanism that was

used in this experiment.

Materials:

(5) Wooden 2x4

Extension Spring

(3) Bungee Cord

(2) Hook Screws

Door Hinge

(25) 2 Screw

Procedure:

1. Construct a frame using wooden 2x4s and screws. If off balance, add

support beams to both sides of frame.

2. Screw the door hinge so that one side is on the frame.

3. Screw another wood beam to the door hinge that will act as a swinging

arm so that it can be pulled back and has room to swing.

4. Drill a hook into the frame and another hook into the swinging arm a short

enough distance to be able to attach a spring.

5. Attach the spring to both hooks so that when the swinging arm is pulled

back and released, it will go in a swinging motion.

6. Attach the bat for desired trial to the swinging arm using the bungee cords.

Appendix B

Y =8.66 +

Feld - Schultz

Y = 10.41

This is the sample equation used to predict the value of the (+,+) trial. The

result was found to be 10.41, which closely matches the result of the actual (+,+)

trial average, which was 10.8.

( 2.5321)+ N

Y =8.66 +

Y =9.925

This is the sample equation used to predict the high value of the

significant factor of swing speed. As observed, the result was 9.925, which

almost exactly matches the result of the actual average of the high value of swing

speed; which was 9.93. For the (+,+) trial average however, the parsimonious

equation is not as accurate as the prediction equation which was 10.41.

Works Cited

Feld - Schultz

"Momentum and Its Conversion." Momentum. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2015.

<http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/momentum/u4l1a.cfm>.

Russel, Danie A. "Bat Weight, Swing Speed and Ball Velocity." Bat Weight,

Swing Speed and Ball Velocity. Penn State University, 27 Mar. 2008. Web.

17 Apr. 2015. <http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/bats/batw8.html>.

Elert, Glenn. "Equations of Motion." - The Physics Hypertextbook. The Physics

HyperTextbook, n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2015. <http://physics.info/motionequations/>.

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