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II

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2011

II

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2011 .
3

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II. . .
, .
. .. , 2011. 48 .

,
,
-

.. ( ,
. . ). ,

.
, ,
. , *,
, ,
,
,
.


.
10.1. ,
PV;
PT; VT.
10.2.

,

()
, .
,
.
10.3. L = 1
.
. ?
= 750 . .
.
10.4.
L = 1
h = 20. ,
s = 10.
, ?
..
5

10.5. U-
L = 300 ,

h = 110 .
,
h = 40
.

? = 760 . .
10.6.

.
.
t1 = 0
L1 = 3 , t2 = 5
L2 = 5 .
S = 1 2. .
10.7.
S = 2,5 2. ,
t1 = - 3. ,
,
, , F = 7,5 ?
10.8.
V = 4
t = - 3
V = 1,5 3,
t1 = 21 .
C ,
P = 1,96 105 ?
6

10.9. = 768 . .
k = 3
. 3
? .
10.10. V = 300 3,
V1 = 200 3. n = 6
= 35 . .
Po ?
.
10.11. N , ,

V Po P,
V .
10.12. , V1= 3 , V2= 7
V3 = 5 : (P1 = 2 ),
(P2 = 3 ) (P3 = 0,6 )
. ,
. ?
10.13. ,
.
, - .
. ,
? L = 20 .
. .
10.14.
.
,
, -
, L = 85?
.
7

10.15. ,
2h, S,
m.
.
P, - .
.
,
. .
. .
10.16. ,
, .

.
. ,
?
10.17.
. .
,
h = 12 .

= 10 . .
10.18.
m = 64 , ,
. ,
1 = 300 , h = 1
. ,
= 1,5 ?
k = 8,3 102 /.
8

10.19.
,
. , ,
, ,
To. ,
.
T1, 3/4 .
Tx 7/8 ?
To.
10.20.
+ 27
27 ? .
10.21. ,
V = 50 3, ,
t1 = 40C,
t2 = 0C? .
10.22. -
t1 = 0 C t2 = 17 .

m = 0,1.
.
.
.
10.23. ,
.
T.
,
T1,
T?

10.24. ,

T1 = 10 K.
T2 = 40 K,
T3 = 100 K,
. ?
10.25.*
2L ( ) , .
T,
.
,
?
L.
10.26. .
T, ,
P ( ).
3T, ,
4P.
?
10.27. XY2 = X + 2Y
. 22,4
XY2.
.
273 , 2po, po - .
XY2.
10.28.

P = aV, a - .
1 = 200
2 = 400 ?
10

10.29. 0,5 3,
,
2 /.
5 2,

,
.

2 .
580
.
300 . ,
, = 0,1 .
10.30.

V.
()
T VT,
.

10.31. PV -
1-2-3-1
. 3-1 - .
VT
PT.

11

10.32.
1-2-3-1. 3 1

.
T3, 1 2
.
10.33. 20 ,
, 1 V1 = 32
P1 = 4,1 2
V2 = 9 P2 = 15,5 .
,
,

.
10.34. PT-
,
.
, ,
,
Vmax = 16,4 .
1.
.
10.35.*
m ,
.

.
, T,
P,
S?
12

- .

:


NA = 6,02 1023 -1
R = 8,31 /( )
k = 1,38 10-23 /

11.1.
, .

11.2. ,
= 0,5 M, V = 15
N = 1,8 1024 ?
11.3. C
V = 120 3 t1 = 15
t2 = 25C? = 105 .
11.4. C
P 10-10 .
1 3 t = 27C?
11.5.
0 460 /c.

100?
11.6.
150
400 / 500 /. ,

500 / 600 /?

13

11.7. ,
, .
400 /,
500 /. , ,

.
11.8. 1 (N2) 300
= 1.
:
1) ;
2) 13;
3)
;
4) ;
5) :
L ( d2n)-1, d - , n -
( d 3,2 10-8 );
6)
;
7) 12 .
11.9.
1 , (N2)
. ,
. ,
,
10-5 . , 1%
.
11.10. 300 .

10% 20%.
?
14

11.11.*

, ,
S = 1 2,
. V = 1000 3,
Po = 105 , t = 27.

P = 103 ? ,
P << Po,
, .
11.12.*

,

1, 2.
2
,
. 1 .
11.13. 3 3, ,
5 .
, 1 1
3,7 1010
-
(
).

300 .
11.14. , 1 1 3
.
.
11.15. ,
R = 5 ,
V = 7,9 /.
= 0,9 , = 270 .
.

15

11.16.
r V,
. , ,

.

, .
11.17.
, ,
1=700 .
= 300 .

.
11.18.* 3 1 3
102 ,
- 105.
, ,
1,5 /3. 27.
11.19. , ,
= 2 /3 = 150 27.
13 ?
11.20.
, ( ):
= 78 %, = 21 %, = 1 %.
11.21.
?
C C ( ): X = 73%, Y = 25%,
Z = 2%.

16


.
12.1.
.
Q = 5 . ,
.
= 103 /( ).
= 29 /.
12.2.
, T1 = 250 K
T2 = 680 K A = 400 ?
12.3.
m = 3 t = 0. ,
t = 100.
o = 1,3 /3.
12.4. V = 190 3
T = 323 K.
T = 100 K.
m = 120 , S = 50 c2.
P = 0,1 M.
12.5. = 100

t1 = 22. Q = 12,5
t2 = 27.
?

17

12.6.
m = 7
t1 = 10C t2 = 25C?
CV = 21 /( ).
12.7.
= 0,5 T = 300 .

Q = 13,2 ? CV = 21 /( ).
12.8. V = 11,2
P = 1 .
,
? CV = 21 /( ).
12.9. S = 250 2
m = 10 ,
= 12,5 .
t1 = 25 t2 = 625 C?
?
P = 1 .
12.10.
t = 0. m = 58 . ,
,
, 1 %.
= 29 /.
12.11.
To = 300 K
,
.
, ,
Q = 1500 ,
, .
18

12.12.

. ,
, ,
.
12.13. , V1 = 0,013,
P1 = 0,1 T1 = 300 K.
T2 = 320 K,
T3 = 350 K.
,
1 3.
12.14. C 1-2,
2-3.
A. P2/P3
2 3 k.
, 3
1.

12.15. 1-2-3
,
.
.
12 = 3 .
?
12.16.
, . V1 = 500
m1 = 1,68 P1 = 3 105 ,
V2 = 250 m2 = 1,2
P2 = 5 105 .
, ?
19

12.17.*
,

.
.
.
, .
.
?
CV.
12.18.*
.
, - ,

. ,
, .
?
.
CV = 5R/2.
12.19.

,
. ,
.
= 50 ,
2.
.
F = 10 H.
.
, ?
20

12.20. ,
, .
1 = 4 , .

Q = 1,65 .
= 10 .
F = 3 .
, S = 25 2,
.
12.21. ,
m
S . .
.
Q.
, ,
.
.
12.22. ,
S = 23 2, = 1
.
h = 30 . = 50
,
. ,
,
n (n = 1,5). = 100 .
12.23.

.
,
. ,
, , .
21

12.24.* ,
: V = P.
P1 P2. ,
C V,
Q.
.
12.25. m

T = V2,
. ,
V1 V2.
?
,
CV .
12.26.

,
, .
,
, .
, ,
.
.
12.27.*
S .
, ,
.
. F.

, -.

22

12.28*. ,
PV2 = const?
, CV .
12.29.*

.
C ,
h = 100 .
12.30.*
.
,
,
. ,

T = 5 K , .
= 720 /. ,
, , .

. .
12.31.
T1.
T2,
T3.
, .
,
.
?
23

12.32.
: 1-2-3-1
1-3-4-1.
.
?

12.33.
, .

,
T1 = 273 K,
T3 = 400 K?
T1 V1 = 5 , T3
V3 = 6 ,
Vo = 10 .
12.34.

. C
,
: V2/V1 = n.
,
: P2/P3 = m.
,
.
,
,
T1 CV.
12.35. ,
, V2/V1 = n = 8
.
24

12.36.
,

V
3 = 8.
V1
1-2 , 2-3 , 3-1 .
.
12.37.
1 2,
.
2 1,
.
3 V
1. 1 2,
?
12.38.

. ,
,
1-2, 2-3
3-1.

= 20%.

, , ,
, = 25 .
12.39. ,
. ,
.
. .

25

12.40.*
,
. 1-2
, 3-1 , 2-3

.

.
12.41.*
Q = 2 .
(.. )
:
- t = 100 C, t = 0 C;
t = 16 C, t = - 10 C
Q ,
Q ,
?
12.42.
,
t1 = - 23,
, q = 0,1
= 1 ?
t2 = 57,
= 0,8.
?
12.43.* ,
,
(P ~ ), n . ,

(P ~ T) .
.
, .
26

12.44.*
, 1-2-3-1.
1-2 u

n, 2-3 n
, 3-1 u
n.
, , 1-2
k = 4 .

. .
.

:

= 4,2 /( )

= 2,1 /( )

= 330 /
r = 2260 /
13.1. 100
0,5 15.
150 ,
100C.
17C. .
125,7 /( K),
- 836 /( K) - 460 /( K).
13.2. ,
C = 1670 / t1 = 20C
m = 100 t2 = - 8C. ,
.
27

13.3. , 250 15oC,


20 .
5oC. C ?
.
13.4. , 12 ,
, 5oC.
,
. , ,
,
.
13.5. ,
m = 1000
? C,

= 40% , .
q = 2 108 /.
R = 6400 , g = 10 /2.
13.6. m = 66 ,
, t1 = 32,4C.
tx,
= 1,9 /
t = 17,8C?
13.7.
= 5 .

, ,
= 84% .
(
),
T = 25 .

28

13.8.* ,
"",
t1 = 140C.
= 30 , T1 = 5
. ""

= 30 ,
T2 = 3 . t2
, "".

.
t = 20C.
13.9. , m1 = 120
t1 = 20C, m2 = 200
t2 = 100C. C = 5

= 40C.
. ,
?
c = 840 /( K).
13.10. , ,
.
. 1 = 10
t1 = 20oC t2 = 70oC. C
2 = 83 .
.
t = 232C,

= 58,5 /.
.
13.11. ,
10C, . 10
. ?

29

13.12. = 1
t1 = 0C m = 3,6 ,
t = 20C.
,
,
Q = 840 /.
13.13. m = 10 ,
t = - 10C.
,
Q = 20 M? .
13.14. (m1 = 500 )
(m2 = 54,4 ) t1 = 0C.
m3 = 6,6 t2 = 100C.

?
.
13.15. 40
0C. -
. ,
.
, 0C.
13.16. -
t = 108C .

?
.
13.17. ,

t = 100C, V =1,65 3/.
30

13.18. ,
, do = 2,5 . ,
t1 = 150.
t2 = 50.

-6 -1
= 9 10 .
13.19.
S = 10 2, ,
t = 20?
= 1,7 10-5 -1,
= 1,2 1011 /2.
13.20.
0. to = 0
. ,
0 100, V = 3 3.
, ,
= 1,8 10-4 -1,
= 8 10-6 -1.
13.21.
0
h.
S. h
2S ,
S.

to,
t1.
?

.
.
31

. .
. .
14.1. .
.
? ?
14.2.
. .
, ?
14.3.

. .
, ) ?
) ?
14.4*.
- .
?
14.5.
18C, 10C.
P(18C) = 2,07 , P(10C) = 1,23 .
14.6. 16
55%. ,
8C?
P(16C) = 1,81 , P(8C) = 1,06 .
14.7. 20
60%. C
,
8C?
P(20C) = 2,33 , P(8C) = 1,06 .
32

14.8. V1 = 2 f1 = 40%. V2 = 6
f2 = 30%.
,
f = 75%?
.
14.9. C
.
f1 = 20% V1 = 2 3.
f2 = 10%
V2 = 1 3. , ,
V3 = 2,5 3.
?
14.10. , V = 100 3,
t = 30oC
f = 30%. ,
m = 1 ?
P(30o) = 4,24 .
14.11. V = 15 ,
, m = 5 ,
.
t = 100.
14.12. V = 40 3 20C
f1 = 20%.

f2 = 50%?
20C
-3
3
= 17,3 10 / .

33

14.13. t1 = 10C
f1 = 60%. k = 3 t2 = 100C?
10C
-3
3
= 9,4 10 / .
14.14. ,
m, V T
P.
Po. 1,
- 2. .
14.15.
. ,
, :
1) (V = V)?
2) (V V)?
3) (V V.)?
14.16.
.
1, 2 3 1, 2 3
.
.
14.17. PV-

, Po Vo .

1.

34

14.18.
20C 1,
100C
60 ?
20C 17,5 ..
14.19.
. n
.
,
.
.
14.20.
.
S, .
,
,
.
.
?
14.21. , ,

.
, .
2 ,
1,5 .

, .

.
35

14.22. ,
V = 1 , .
m1 = 1 ,
m2 = 2 .
100C?
14.23. ,
V = 1 , .
m1 = 0,1 ,
m2 = 0,5 .
100C?
14.24. ,
V = 1 , .
m1 = 0,5 ,
m2 = 0,5 .
100C?
14.25.
.
P = 1 t = 7 . C
= 1 .
, .
V = 10 /.
14.26.
T.
A. ?
14.27. V1 = 20
t = 100C. ,

V2 = 10 ? ,
, .
36

14.28.
t = 100 V = 15 .
, = 200 .
?
14.29.
S = 100 2 m = 18
. M = 18
t = 0C. ?
P = 105 .
.


20 = 7,2 10-2 /.
15.1.
4 ?
= 0,04 /.
15.2.

.
.
,
3 ? = 0,04 /.
15.3. 34
, .
,
. .

, 32 ,
5 /?
37

15.4.
2 . 40 1,9 .

?
15.5. C m = 20
. a = 3 .

? ?
15.6. C (),
d = 1, .
h,
. .
15.7. m = 10

.
d = 10-4 .
?
15.8.
,
d = 0,2 ?
15.9. .

?
15.10.
r = 0,5 . ,
,
2 ?
38

15.11. ,
0,5 , .
2 .
?
15.12.
, ,
2 4 .
,
1 , .
15.13. ,
L, h.
, .
, .
15.14.
.
h.
?

H. :
1) H h; 2) H = h; 3) 0 H h;
4) H = 0;
5) H 0 (
).

39


________________________________________


10.3.

h = 25

10.4.

Po = 375 mm Hg

x = 10
(T L T2 L1 )
10.6. V = 1 2
S = 106 c3
T2 T1
F
10.7. T2 = T1(
+ 1) = 351 K = 78oC
SPo
PToV1
10.8. N =
= 675
PoVo T1
k 3
10.9. P3 = Po(
) = 324 ..
1 k
V
10.10. Po = P6(1 + 1 )6 = 750 ..
V
P
log( o )
P
10.11. N =
V
log(1
)
V
10.12. = 2
10.5.

10.13. = 1,36
10.14. L : L = 80 : 5
40

10.15. x =
10.16.

PSh
mg

VB
VH

1,9

h
- 1) = 2 /2
x
MkH ( H
H
10.18. T2 = T1
+
mR
h
7
10.19. = ( + 1)
4
10.20.
= 256 /3

10.17. a = g(

10.21.

h)

= 487 K

m = 8,2

10.22. V = 1,33

1
10.23.
=2
1

2 3
20

=3
=
9
1 2 2 3 1 3

9
10.25. T = To
8
10.26. mN : mH = 14

10.24.

= 0,5
V2
T2
10.28.
=
=
V1
T1
10.27.

0,5
2

10.32. 3 = 2
1
10.33.* Tmax 490 K
10.29. L

41

10.34. m

16 ; V1 = 12,3

10.35.* F = (m 2RT 1)/(PS 22) = 9m 2RT/2PS,


1 2 H2O H2
- .
11.6.

= 183

11.7. V = 453 /c
11.10. N = 5 1024
PV
11.11.* =
240 c = 4 .
Po S 2 RT
11.12.* 1 = 2
11.13.

11.15. n = R2V
11.16*. F
11.17. n

1
2
P
kT

4 r2PV

1,5 1026 c-1

3RT

58,5

11.18. m = 10-21 ,
r = 10-7
NA
P
11.19. n =
( 2 - ) = 6,8 1018 -3, 1 2
( 2
RT
1)
.
11.20.
29 /
11.21.

0,6 /

42


.
12.1. A = 1,43
12.2.

m = 0,22

12.3.

A = 84,5

12.4.

A = 20

12.5.

U = 8450

12.6.

Q = 109

12.7.

V2/V1 4

12.8.

Q = 5600

A = 1715 ; V = 16 3
V
m
12.10. =
RT
45
V
12.11. Tx = To + 4Q/15R = 348 K
12.9.

12.12. Q1/Q2 = 2,5


12.13. A = P1V1(T3 T2)/T1 = 100
A
12.14. T =
R(k 1)
5
12.15. = 12 = 5
3
12.16. = 346 ;
= 3,5 105
43

CV

=2
=4
4CV R

12.18.*
=
3
12.19. Q = 6FH = 30
2Q 5 Fx
12.20. L =
= 30
3( F P1 S )
0,4Q
12.21. x =
SPo mg
1
12.22. Q = (PoS + Mg) (3n + 2)H 5h = 210
2
Q1 4
12.23.
=
Q2 3
QR
R
12.24.
=
; C = CV +
R
2
2
2
( P2
P1 )(CV
)
2
1 m
R
12.25. A =
R(V22 V12); C = CV +
2
2
R
12.26. = CV + = 2R
2
5
FR
12.27.* C = R 2
Mg Po S F
12.28.* C = CV - R
gh
12.29.* T =
1K
CP
1
12.30.* N = = 1

12.17.*

44

. .
A = R(T2 T1)(T3/T2 1)

12.31.
12.32.

2/ 1

= 23/21

12.33.

A = 44

12.34.

= CVT1(1

n
)
m

V
= 1 ( 1 ) 3 = 75 %
V2
58
=
93
RT PV
A1-2 =
(1,5 + 1)
1
2A
T=
= 2,5
3R(1 )
3R T
=12A
q (T2 T1 )
NM =
= 11 ; kx = 2,5
T1 M
n 1
=
4(n 1)

12.35.
12.36.
12.37.
12.38.
12.39.
12.42.
12.43.
12.44.*

k 1
4( k 1)

1
12

. .
.
13.2.

= 0, 5
45

13.3. m 6,8
13.4.

m = 0,75

13.5. M = 400
13.6. tx = 32,5oC
13.7.
13.8.
13.9.

v = 4 10-5 3/
1
t2 = to +
(t1 to) = 208
2
q = 161,3 /

13.10. C = 230 /( )
13.11. t = 60
13.12. N = 416
13.13. m1 = 4,6
13.14.

= 0

m = 35
m
13.16.
= 0,015
m
13.17. 7,3%
13.15.

13.20. Vo = V( 1 + 3 t)/( - 3 ) t 190 3


h (t1 t o )
3
13.21. h = h t;
h =
2
2(1 (t1 t o ))

46

. .
. .
14.5.

f = 59%

14.7.

m = 2,1

14.8.

V = 2,33

14.9.

f = 20%

14.10. f = 63%
14.11. f = 57%
14.12. m = 208
14.13. f = 2,9%
14.14. f = (PV
14.17. m/m =

mRT)/(
/2

2)PoV

= 29/36

14.18. f = 72%
nP PH
PH
PA S Mg
V
T
14.20.
=
Vo To ( PA PH ) Mg
3
P
14.21.
=
4
Po

14.19. N/N =

14.22.

VA
=1
V
47

14.23.
14.24.
14.25.
14.26.
14.27.
14.28.
14.29.

VA
= 0,76
V
VA
= 0,55
V
m = 279
A
m=
RT
A = 1
A
Q=r
= 2600 .
RT
h = 53

15.1.

= 1,6 10-3

15.2.

F = 2,4 10-3 H

15.5.

x = 2,3 ; x

15.6.

h = 2,8

15.7.

F = 2 m/ d2 = 1,44 103 H

15.8.

h = 7,3

15.9.

Q=2

0,1

/ g

15.10. P = 488
15.11. R = 2 / gh = 0,74
15.12. R1 = - 1,6 ; R2 = 1,3
48

C

1.

2.

11

15

4.

. .

21

5.

. .
.

25

3.

. .
6.

30

7.

35

38

49


II. . .

..
-
.
..

2011 .

50