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physics magazine with problems and solutions ti si also contains theory na dti is publishing in india it is for high school level.its name is phyisc for you.

© All Rights Reserved

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508 просмотров89 страницphysics magazine with problems and solutions ti si also contains theory na dti is publishing in india it is for high school level.its name is phyisc for you.

© All Rights Reserved

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Vol. XXI

No. 2

February 2013

Corporate Office:

Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional area,

Gurgaon -122 003 (HR), Tel : 0124-4951200

Regd. Office

406, Taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital,

Ring Road, New Delhi - 110029.

e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

Editor

: Anil Ahlawat (BE, MBA)

Hony. Advisor

: Dr. S. Malhotra

Director, Delhi Public School,

Faridabad (HR)

Contents

Full Length JEE Advanced Practice Paper : 2013 6

Examiners Mind

17

20

Interview

24

25

29

Class XII

36

42

Brain Map

48

51

59

any Indian scientists are working in NASA and many reputed universities

and laboratories in USA, England and Europe including CERN. One works

there, gets a lot of experience and settles there because of better facilities for

working. In Darmstadt, Germany, GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research,

is being upgraded, to become Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR).

FAIR will feature a double-ring synchrotron with a circumference of 1100 metres

connected to the existing facility at GSI. We are very much involved in this work,

not for just working there but as a partner. We have a variable Energy Cyclotron

Centre Salt-Lake, Calcutta. Our scientists have ample experience in this field.

Our scientists are making advanced components for FAIR as India is also a

partner in this venture. This facility is more powerful than even the one at cern,

in Geneva The large Hadron Collider which is trying to detect the Higgs Boson

or God particle. Although the energy of the particles attained in FAIR, is much

lower than that of the Geneva facility, the intensity attained will be higher than

that of any other facility. To create heavy particles by collision, one needs very

high energy. This is the reason why there is a race for making more and more

powerful cyclotrons. Energy is a very important factor. If energy is less, one

cannot do the experiments that are done by very powerful accelerators. With

the available energy, if one can make a very intense beam, the measurements

made will be more reliable in the given energy range. The new detector can

also detect collisions of the order of 10 million per second whereas the other

ones can detect 10,000 collisions per second. If the collisions are more, more

the new particles produced and less the error of determination. Both energy

and intensity are important. These facilities can also be used for irradiation and

other uses ranging from agriculture to atomic physics.

We wish all the scientists working with FAIR a very bright future. The work

done by every scientist in every cormer of the world is for the benefit of the

whole humanity.

Anil Ahlawat,

Editor

for Practise

NEET 2013 MBBS Practice Paper

Class XI

Owned, Printed and Published by Mahabir Singh from 406, Taj Apartment,

New Delhi - 29 and printed by Personal Graphics and Advertisers (P) Ltd., Okhla

Industrial Area, Phase-II, New Delhi. Readers are adviced to make appropriate thorough

enquiries before acting upon any advertisements published in this magazine. Focus/

Infocus features are marketing incentives MTG does not vouch or subscribe to the claims

and representations made by advertisers. All disputes are subject to Delhi jurisdiction

only.

Editor : Anil Ahlawat

Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.

All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is prohibited.

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physics

SECTION - I

Straight Objective Type

This section contains 6 multiple choice questions numbered

1 to 6. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d), out

of which ONLY ONE is correct.

1. Two cylinders of same cross-section and length

L but made of two material of densities d1 and

d2 are cemented together to form a cylinder of

length 2L. The combination floats in a liquid of

density d with a length L/2 above the surface of

liquid. If d1 < d2 then

3

d

(b) > d1

(a) d1 < d

4

2

d

(c) > d1

(d) d < d1

4

2. A plank of mass m is placed over smooth

inclined plane and a sphere is placed on plank

as shown.

There is sufficient friction between sphere and

plank to prevent slipping.

If system is released from

rest, the frictional force

on sphere is

(a) up the plane

(b) down the plane

(c) zero

(d) horizontal

3

propagating along +ve x-axis on a string (x is in

cm). A light insect starts crawling on the string

with velocity 5 cm s1 at t = 0 along +ve x-axis from

a point where x = 5 cm. The difference in phase

between its position at t = 5 s and its position at

t = 0 is

(a) 15p

(b) 250p (c) 24p (d) 5p

(0, a). A point charge q1 is placed at point P on the

quarter circle of radius a as shown in figure.

If electric field at origin is zero, then

a

2

(a) point P is

,

a

2q

3 3

a 2a

(b) point P is

,

(c) q1 = 3q 5 5

(d) none of these

P

q1

The slits have equal width. Take O as origin. If

D

D

and y2 = +

average intensity between y1 =

4d

4d

equals n times the intensity of maxima, then n is

1

2

1 +

2

2

(c) 1 +

(a)

2

(b) 2 1 +

1

2

(d) 1

2

the co-ordinate of a point object and its image are

( 40 cm, 1 cm) and (50 cm, 2 cm) respectively.

Lens is located at x =

(a) + 20 cm

(b) 30 cm

(c) 10 cm

(d) 0 cm

By Momentum : JABALPUR : (0761) 2400022, NAGPUR : (0712) 3221105, GWALIOR : (0751) 3205976.

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SECTION - II

This section contains 4 multiple choice questions numbered

7 to 10. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d), out

of which ONE or MORE THAN ONE are correct.

1

7. The least count of a stop watch is

s. Two

10

persons A and B use this watch to measure the

time period of an oscillating pendulum. Person A

takes the time period of 50 oscillations, while B

takes the reading of 100 oscillations. Neglecting

all other sources of error we can say that

(a) accuracy in measurement by A is equal to

that of B.

(b) accuracy in measurement by A is less than

that of B.

(c) absolute error in measurement by A is greater

than that of B.

(d) absolute error in measurement by A is equal

to that of B.

8. A light rope passes over a light

frictionless pulley attached to

the ceiling. An object with a

large mass is tied to one end

and an object with a smaller

mass is tied to the other

end.

following statement(s) is/are false for the system

consisting of the two moving masses while string

remains taut?

(a) The center of mass remains at rest.

(b) The net external force is zero.

(c) The velocity of the center of mass is constant.

(d) The acceleration of the center of mass is g

downward.

around the earth. If the universal gravitational

constant start decreasing at time t = 0 at a constant

rate with respect to time t. Then satellite has

its

(a) path gradually spiraling out away from the

centre of the earth.

(b) path gradually spiraling in towards the centre

of the earth.

(c) angular momentum about the centre of the

earth remains constant.

(d) potential energy increases.

10. In the network shown in figure, points A, B and C

are at potential 70 V, 0 V and 10 V respectively.

Choose the correct alternatives.

8

70 V

A

0V

B

10

D

20

30

10 V

C

(b) The currents in the sections AD, DB, and DC

are in the ratio 3 : 2 : 1.

(c) The currents in the sections AD, DB and DC

are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3.

(d) The network draws a total power of 200 W.

SECTION - III

Linked Comprehension Type

This section contains 2 paragraphs P11-13 and P14-16. Based

upon each paragraph, 3 multiple choice questions have to be

answered. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),

out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

P11-13 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 11 to 13

You are on a summer tour to a remote hill station.

You do not have facility of an electric heater and you

want some ice. Unfortunately, the air temperature

drops to only 6C during night. Being a physicist you

know that a clear, moonless night sky acts like a black

body radiator at a temperature of TS = 23C, and

decide to make ice by letting water radiate energy to

such a sky. You take a cylindrical container, thermally

insulated from ground and pour 4.5 g of water in it.

The cross-section of container is 10 cm2. Assume that

absorptivity and emissivity of water surface are same

and neglect the presence of atmosphere. Also assume

the average temperature of water to be 2C.

Stefans constant s = 5.0 108 W m2 K4

Emissivity of water e = 1.0

Specific heat of water, s = 4190 J kg1 K1

Latent heat of fusion of ice L = 3.33 105 J kg1

Take 254 = 4 105 and 114 104 = 5000

11. What is the total loss in heat for the above sample

of water to freeze ?

(a) 1612 J (b) 1512 J (c) 1132 J (d) 1499 J

12. What is the approximate rate of energy loss by

the water sample ?

(a) 100 mJ s1

(b) 8 mJ s1

(c) 20 mJ s1

(d) None of these

13. Is it possible to freeze the water sample during

one night ?

(a) Yes

(b) No

(c) Cannot be predicted

(d) None of these

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M

is kept over another block of

A block of mass

2

mass M and the heavier block is kept over smooth

block is long enough such that the smaller block

does not fall from it during the subsequent motion

and the coefficient of friction between the blocks is

M

m. Suddenly block of mass

is given an impulse J

2

in horizontal direction.

(a) The friction between the blocks will be

impulsive.

(b) The friction between the blocks will be

non-impulsive.

(c) N o r m a l b e t we e n t h e b l o c k s w i l l b e

impulsive.

(d) None of these.

15. The work done by impulsive force will be

(a)

J2

M

(b)

2J2

M

1 J2

(d) none of these

2M

16. The amount of heat evolved during the subsequent

motion of the blocks is

J2

J2

(b) 2 M

(a)

M

2J2

(c)

(d) none of these

3M

Section - iV

Integer Answer Type

(c)

17 to 23 The answer to each of the questions

is a single digit integer, ranging from 0 to 9.

For example, if the correct answers to question

numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,

respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles

will look like the following.

X

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Y

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Z

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

W

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

at A. At the lower end a horizontal

spring keeps the barrier closed.

The height of water is 6 m and the

width of the barrier is 5 m.

Water level is 4 m below the hinge A. If spring

constant is 6 105 N m1, find elongation of spring

(in metre).

10 Physics for you |

feBruary 13

4m

Water

6m

5m

B

AB = AD = 2 m, BC = CD = BD = 1 m. The wire

loop is lying on x-y plane. The resistance per unit

length of the wire is 0.2 W m1. There exist time

^

dependent magnetic field B = ( 2.5t) k tesla. Find

the approximate value of current (in A) through

part AB. Take 3 = 1.68 and

45 = 7 .

B

A

C

D

from 4 th excited state to 3 rd excited state and

from 3rd excited state to 2nd excited state. The

resulting radiation are incident on a metal plate

to eject photoelectrons. The stopping potential for

photoelectrons ejected by the shorter wavelength

is 4.20 V. What is stopping potential (in volts) for

the photoelectrons ejected by longer wavelength ?

20. In a circus act, a 4 kg dog is trained to jump from B

cart to A cart and then immediately back to the B

cart. The carts each have a mass of 20 kg and they

are initially at rest. In both cases the dog jumps at

6 m s1 relative to the cart. If the cart moves along

the same line with negligible friction, If the final

magnitude of velocity of cart B with respect to the

floor is x/36 then find the value of x.

two large plane horizontal surfaces. A thin plate

of area 0.75 m2 at a distance of 10 mm from

one of the surfaces is in horizontal position

between the plates inside the glycerine. It

is dragged horizontally at a constant speed

of 0.5 m s 1 . Take coefficient of viscosity

h = 0 . 5 N s m 2. I f t h e f o r c e r e q u i r e d

to drag the plate at constant speed is

125X / 4 newton, find the value of X.

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0.5 m s1

Fixed

surface

10 mm

15 mm

M and with a homogeneous mass distribution is

placed on a horizontal table. One end of a string

running over a pulley is fastened to the top of

the cylinder, a body of mass m is hung from the

other end and the system is released. Friction is

negligible everywhere. At what minimum ratio

m/M will the cylinder tilt ?

h/2

in flow from tap is, F = 0.021 litres per minute.

The heat generated is sufficient so that the water

in the container is boiling and getting converted

into steam at a steady rate. What is the minimum

power P (in kW) that must be generated as heat in

the steady state in resistor R so that the amount

of liquid water in the container neither increases

nor decreases with time? (Neglect other losses of

heat, such as conduction from the container to

the air and heat capacity of container)

For water, specific heat s = 4.2 kJ kg1 K1, latent

heat of vaporisation Lvap = 2.3 MJ kg1, density

r = 1000 kg m3. Mark your answer in nearest

integer.

h M

a heated container C. The container has a heating

element (a resistor R) which is generating heat at

chemistry

SECTION - I

Straight Objective Type

This section contains 6 multiple choice questions numbered

24 to 29. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),

out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

24. The passage of a constant current through a

solution of dilute H 2SO 4 with Pt electrodes

liberated 336 cm3 of a mixture of H2 and O2 at

S.T.P. The quantity of electricity that was passed is

(a) 96500 C

(b) 965 C

(c) 1930 C

(d) 100 faraday

25. Amongst [Co(ox)3]3, [CoF6]3 and [Co(NH3)6]3+

(a) [Co(ox)3]3 and [CoF6]3 are paramagnetic and

[Co(NH3)6]3+ is diamagnetic.

(b) [Co(ox)3]3 and [Co(NH3)6]3+ are paramagnetic

and [CoF6]3 is diamagnetic.

(c) [Co(ox)3]3 and [Co(NH3)6]3+ are diamagnetic

and [CoF6]3 is paramagnetic.

(d) [Co(NH3)6]3+ and [CoF6]3 are paramagnetic

and [Co(ox)3]3 is diamagnetic.

Ph

26. Ph

OHC

Ph

Ph

Ph

(a)

HOH2C

CHO

Conc. H2SO4

HO

Ph

(c)

Ph (b)

COOH

Ph

Ph

Ph

Ph

(d)

Ph

Ph

Ph

Ph

CH2

H2C

Ph

Ph

Ph

Ph

O

27. Two 1 st order reactions have half-lives in the

ratio 3 : 2. Then the ratio of time intervals

t1 : t2, will be?

Where t1 is the time period for 25% completion

of the first reaction and t2 is the time required

for 75% completion of the second reaction.

[log 2 = 0.3, log 3 = 0.477]

(a) 0.199 : 1

(b) 0.420 : 1

(c) 0.273 : 1

(d) 0.311 : 1

O

H

H

Conc. NaOH,

Ph

(a)

HO

H

OH

HO

OH

H O

OH

HO

and

HO

H

H

H

H O

OH

H

CH2 OH

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CH2 OH

11

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(b)

H

H

H

Me

CH2OH

C

OH and

OH

(d)

OH

H

HO

CH2OH

OH

HO

H

OH

OH and H

H

OH

H

H

are inner orbital complexes with diamagnetic

property?

(II) Fe(CO)5 ;

(I ) Ni(CO)4;

(IV) Cr(CO)6

(III) V(CO)6

(b) HCDO

(c) HCDO

(d) D2CO

below:

(a) I and II only

(b) II , III and IV only

(c) II and IV only (d) I , II and IV only

This section contains 4 multiple choice questions numbered

30 to 33. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),

out of which ONE or MORE THAN ONE are correct.

30. Which are correct against property mentioned?

(a) CH 3 COCl > (CH 3 CO) 2 O > CH 3 COOEt >

CH3CONH2

(Rate of hydrolysis)

CH3

CH3

COOH >

COOH

CH3

(Rate of esterification)

OH

(c)

CH

CH3

ON2

>

OH

>

OH

(Rate of esterification)

12 Physics for you |

feBruary 13

NaOH

NaOEt

NaOD

DCOONa + CH2DOH

DCOOEt + DCH2ONa

DCOONa + CD3OD

PV

V

a

gas can be rearranged to give

=

RT V b VRT

for 1 mol of gas.

SECTION - II

Ph CH2 COOH

(Rate of decarboxylation)

mentioned in the following reactions?

(a) HCHO NaOD HCOONa + CH3OD

OH

Et

Et

solids is (are)

(a) Schottky defect is usually favoured by small

difference in the sizes of cation and anion.

(b) Schottky defect lowers the density of

solids.

(c) C o m p o u n d s h a v i n g F - c e n t r e s a r e

diamagnetic.

(d) Frenkel defect is a dislocation defect.

CH2OH

Me

O

(d)

OH and HO

HO

OH

CH2OH

C

(c)

Me

HO

OH

Me

H

PV

positive numbers. When RT

applied to H2 at 80 K, the

equation gives the curve

0

40 60 80

as shown in the figure.

P, atm

Which one of the following

statements is(are) correct?

(a) At 40 atm the two terms V/(V b) and

a/VRT are equal.

(b) At 80 atm the two terms V/(V b) and

a/VRT are equal.

(c) At a pressure greater than 80 atm, the term

V/(V b) is greater than a/VRT.

(d) At 60 atm the term V/(V b) is smaller than

a

1+

VRT

SECTION - III

Linked Comprehension Type

This section contains 2 paragraphs P34-36 and P37-39. Based

upon each paragraph, 3 multiple choice questions have to be

answered. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),

out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

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P34-36 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 34 to 36

A fuel cell is a cell that is continuously supplied with

an oxidant and a reductant so that it can deliver a

current indefinitely.

Fuel cells offer the possibility of achieving high

thermodynamic efficiency in the conversion of Gibbs

energy into mechanical work. Internal combustion

engines at best convert only the fraction (T2 T1)/T2

of the heat of combustion into mechanical work.

While the thermodynamic efficiency of the fuel cell

G

, where DG is the Gibbs energy

is given by, =

H

change for the cell reaction and DH is the enthalpy

change of the cell reaction. A hydrogen-oxygen

fuel cell may have an acidic or alkaline electrolyte.

2.303RT

= 0.06

F

The above fuel cell is used to produce constant current

supply under constant temperature and 30 atm

constant total pressure condition in a cylinder. If 10

mol of H2 and 5 mol of O2 were taken initially. Rate

of combustion of O2 is 10 millimoles per minute.

The half cell reactions are

Pt|H2(g)|H+(aq.)||H2O(l)|O2(g)| Pt;

1

O

+ 2H +( aq ) + 2 e H 2O( l ) ; E = 1.246 V

2 2( g )

2H+(aq) + 2e H2(g); E = 0

To maximize the power per unit mass of an

electrochemical cell, the electronic and electrolytic

resistances of the cell must be minimized. Since fused

salts have lower electrolytic resistances than aqueous

solutions, high-temperature electrochemical cells are

of special interest for practical applications

34. Calculate e.m.f. of the given cell at t = 0.

(log 2 = 0.3).

(a) 1.255 V

(b) 1.35 V

(c) 1.3 V

(d) 1.246 V

35. The above fuel cell is used completely as an

electrolytic cell with Cu voltameter of resistance

26.94 using Pt electrodes. Initially Cu voltameter

contains 1 litre solution of 0.05 M CuSO4.[H+] in

solution after electrolysis (Assuming no change

on volume of solution).

(a) 0.015 M

(b) 0.03 M

(c) 0.025 M

(d) 0.01 M

36.

mole1 and

of resulting solution left in sopper voltameter

after above electrolysis is

(a) 2.57 S m1

(c) 1.525 S m1

(b) 1.75 S m1

(d) 2.25 S m1

P37-39 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 37 to 39

A black coloured (A) on reaction with dil. H2SO4 gives

a gas (B) which on passing in a solution of an acid (C)

gives a white turbidity (D). Gas (B) when passed in

an acidified solution of a compound (E) gives a black

precipitate (F) which is soluble in hot concentrated (C).

After boiling this solution when excess of ammonia

solution is added, a blue coloured compound (G) is

formed. To this solution of (E), on addition of acetic

acid and aqueous potassium ferrocyanide, a chocolate

brown precipitate (H) is formed. On addition of an

aqueous solution of BaCl2 to an aqueous solution of (E)

white precipitate insoluble in HNO3 is obtained.

37. Black coloured compound (A) is

(a) PbS

(b) CuS

(c) Ag2S

(d) All of these.

38. The gas (B) on passing through an acid (C) gives

a white turbidity (D) because

(a) gas (B) acts as an oxidising agent

(b) gas (B) acts as an reducing agent

(c) acid (C) acts as an oxidising agent

(d) both (b) and (c)

39. To which of the following property, the compound

(E) will respond?

(a) It gives white precipitate with (CH3COO)2

Pb solution soluble in ammonium acetate.

(b) It gives dirty white precipitate with KI.

(c) Its hydrated salt effloresces.

(d) All of these.

Section - iV

Integer Answer Type

This section contains 7 questions numbered

40 to 46. The answer to each of the questions

is a single digit integer, ranging from 0 to 9.

For example, if the correct answers to question

numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,

respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles

will look like the following.

X

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Y

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Z

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

W

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

2.4 g coke for its complete reduction to metal

along with the production of CO gas. Find the

equivalent weight of metal in case of given metal

oxide.

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I : Molar entropy of a substance follows the

order (Sm)Solid < (Sm)liquid < (Sm)gas

II: Entropy change for the reaction H2(g) 2H(g)

is +ve.

III: Molar entropy of a non-crystalline solid will

be zero at absolute zero.

IV: If the path of an irreversible process is

reversed, then both system and surroundings

shall be restored to their orginal states.

V : Refractive index and molarity are intensive

properties.

42. Sulphide ions reacts with sodium nitropruside

giving a coloured solution. In the reaction, the

change in oxidation state of iron is

when 144 g of water at 100C and 1 atm pressure

in converted into steam at 100C and 4 atm pressure?

(Take R = 2 cal/K mole, ln2 = 0.7).

in given compound are

O

O

O

white precipitate with aqueous AgNO3 ?

container having same volume and same

temperature following equilibrium are established :

equilibrium

equilibrium

having double the volume and at same temperature

then, the total pressure of this container at

equilibrium will be

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Ph Ph

Ph C C Ph

Cl

OH Cl

Cl

mathematics

SECTION - I

Straight Objective Type

This section contains 6 multiple choice questions numbered

47 to 52. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),

out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

sin x + 4

be

47. Let g : , A defined by g( x) =

sin x 2

2

invertible function, then the set A is equal to

(a) [5, 2]

(b) [2, 5]

(c) [5, 2]

(d) [3, 2]

1

9

48. If f ( x + 1) = f ( x) +

, x N and f(x) > 0 for

f ( x)

2

x N all then lim f ( x) =

(a) 3

(b) 4

10

(c) 5

(d) 6

0

integer) is equal to

(a) 10

4

(c) 10

14 Physics for you |

then

2

n

2

2

2

lim Cn Cn1 + Cn 2 + .... + ( 1)n C0 =

n

3

3

3

(a) 0

(b) 1

feBruary 13

(d) 2

51. I f t h e c o m m o n t a n g e n t s t o t h e c i r c l e s

x2 + y2 2x 4y + 1 = 0 and x2 + y2 14x 4y + 52 = 0

intersect at A and B on the line joining their

centres then the equation of the ellipse with A,

1

will be

B as foci and eccentricity

2

2

2

(a) ( x 9 ) ( y 2 )

+

=1

48

64

( x 9) + ( y 2)

( x 2) + ( y 9)

(c)

(b)

64

=1

64

( x 9) + ( y 2)

2

(d)

=1

48

48

(c) 1

24

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32

=1

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x 3 y 2 z 1

=

=

2

3

x2 y3 z2

=

=

lie in the same plane, then

3

2

3

1

the value of sin sinl is equal to

(a) 3

(b) p 3 (c) 4

(d) p 4

and

SECTION - II

Multiple Correct Answer Type

This section contains 4 multiple choice questions numbered

53 to 56. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),

out of which ONE or MORE THAN ONE are correct.

b . If c = a + b + ( a b ) then

(a) a = b

(b) 1 2a2 = g2

1 + cos 2

(c) 2 =

(d) a2 b2 = g2

2

54. The equation of the curve passing through

(3, 4) & satisfying the differential equation

2

dy

dy

y + ( x y ) x = 0 can be

dx

dx

(a) x y + 1 = 0

(b) x2 + y2 = 25

(c) x2 + y2 5x 10 = 0 (d) x + y 7 = 0

55. The image of point having abscissa = a on

y = x 1 w.r.t. the line mirror 3x + y = 6a is the

point on x = y2 + 1 with ordinate = a. Then the

value of a is

1

(a) 1

(b)

3

(c) 2

(d) none of these

` 150

Buy ONLINE at

www.mtg.in

` 165

+ 8cosA = 0, then triangle may be

(a) Right angled

(b) isosceles

(c) Equilateral

(d) Right angled isosceles

SECTION - III

Linked Comprehension Type

This section contains 2 paragraphs P57-59 and P60-62. Based

upon each paragraph, 3 multiple choice questions have to be

answered. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),

out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

the graph of the

derivative of a

function y = f(x)

for 0 x 5 with

f(0) = 0 .

of sec1

(a) 2

(b) 5

(c) 10 (d) 17

(a) [1, 3]

(b) [0, 4]

(c) [0, 1]

(d) none of these

59.

0 f ( x)dx =

21

(a)

20

(c) 1

` 150

21

20

(d) none of these

(b)

` 250

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P60-62 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 60 to 62

A bag contains 6 balls of 3 different colour namely

White, Green and Red, atleast one ball of each different

colour. Assume all possible probability distributions

are equally likely.

60. The probability that the bag contains 2 balls of

each colour, is

(a) 1/3

(b) 1/5

(c) 1/10

(d) 1/4

and found to be one of each different colour. The

probability that the bag contained 4 Red ball is

(a) 1/14

(b) 2/14 (c) 3/14

(d) 4/14

62. Three balls are picked at random from the bag

and found to be one of each different colour. The

probability that the bag contained equal number

of White and Green balls, is

(a) 4/14

(b) 3/14 (c) 2/14

(d) 5/14

Section - iV

Integer Answer Type

This section contains 7 questions numbered

63 to 69. The answer to each of the questions is

a single digit integer, ranging from 0 to 9.

For example, if the correct answers to question

numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,

respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles

will look like the following.

X

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Y

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Z

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

4

[|b1| |a1|] + [|b2| |a2|] is equal to (where

[] denotes greatest integer)

z 1

z2

between two curves

= 2 and

= 2 is

z2

z 1

67. The sum of infinite terms of a decreasing G.P.

is equal to the greatest value of the function

f(x) = x3 + 3x 9 in the interval [2, 3] and the

difference between the first two terms is f (0). If

the common ratio of the G.P. is k/3 then k =

68. If the area bounded by the curve

f ( x) = tan x + cot x tan x cot x between the

2

69. The sum of the factors of 7! , which are odd &

are of the form 3t + 1, where t is a whole number is

W

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

answer keys

1. (a) 2. (c)

5. (a) 6. (c)

9. (a,c,d)

12. (a) 13. (a)

16. (c) 17. (1)

20. (5) 21. (1)

24. (c) 25. (c)

28. (d) 29. (c)

32. (a,b,c,d)

35. (a) 36. (b)

39. (d) 40. (6)

43. (6) 44. (8)

1 1 1

1 2 1

equal to

64. If (1 + ax + bx2)4 = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + .... + a8x8 where

a, b, a0, a1, ..... a8 R such that a0 + a1 + a2 0 and

a0 a1 a2

a1

a2

a2

a0

47.

51.

55.

59.

63.

67.

a0 = 0 then 32(a b) is

a1

are a1, b1 & that of x2 ax 2a2 = 0 are a2 and

feBruary 13

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(1)

(2)

PHYSICS

3. (b)

7. (b,d)

10. (a,b,d)

14. (b)

18. (3)

22. (1)

CHEMISTRY

26. (c)

30. (a,b)

33. (c,d)

37. (d)

41. (3)

45. (4)

4. (b)

8. (a,b,c,d)

11. (a)

15. (a)

19. (1)

23. (1)

27. (d)

31. (a,b,d)

34. (c)

38. (d)

42. (0)

46. (4)

MATHEMATICS

48. (a)

49. (b)

50. (a)

54. (a,b)

52. (d)

53. (a,b,c)

56. (a,d)

57. (d)

58. (b)

60. (c)

61. (a)

62. (b)

64. (3)

65. (1)

66. (3)

68. (4)

69. (8)

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Passage- 1

Differentiation and Integration they are the right

and left hands of science. We shall study a few cases of

motion and cases similar to various types of motion in

different fields.

Water flow and current

flow are similar.

Resistance in narrow

tubes will be more.

although the same potential energy is applied.

As the quantity of water flowing is the same, water

will be faster in the narrow tube than in the wider one

because the same quantity has to flow.

The same current will be flowing in resistances in series.

A

I

R1

B

R3

R2

+

three resistances in series.

IR1 IR2 IR3 + e = 0

Take "up the current"-positive, down the flow, negative.

The potential from the positive of the battery to its

negative plate is negative and negative to positive is

positive.

I3

m From any point, back to

I

2

the same point, the total

potential difference should

I4

be zero.

I

I1

equal to the current leaving the junction.

I1 + I2 I3 I4 I5 = 0

These are Kirchhoff's Laws.

flowing through the galvanometer, what is the

value of S?

B

P

A

R

(a) 1 A

2

2

12 V

(b) 2 A

(c) 3 A

Q

C

S

(a) 4 W

(b) 2 W

(c) 8 W

(d) None of these

3. When a straight conductor is held perpendicular

to the plane of the paper and the current is

outwards, what is the direction of the associated

magnetic lines by Oersted's law?

(a) It is parallel to the conductor and outwards.

(b) It is parallel to the conductor and inwards.

(c) It is circular, perpendicular to the direction

of current, in the plane of the paper,

anticlockwise.

(d) Perpendicular to the plane of the paper,

clockwise.

4. What is the essential difference in the direction of

action of the magnetic field on a charge and the

electric field?

5. Three capacitors are connected in series as shown

in figure.

C1

2

C2

C3

+

V

(d) 4 A

capacitors

(b) Total equivalent capacitance is C = C1 + C2 + C3

(c) The equivalent capacitance C is given by

1

1

1

1

=

+

+

C C1 C2 C3

(d) None of these

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17

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February 13

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difference is given by

V

V = IR I =

R

The corresponding relation for capacitance is

2

(a) Q = V

(b) V = QC

C

(c) Q = VC

(d) none of these

7. The total resistance when R1, R2, R3 are in parallel is

1

1

1

=

+

+

R R1 R2

When capacitors are in

capacitance, C is given by

1

1

1

1

(a)

(b)

=

+

+

C C1 C2 C3

1

R3

parallel, the total

C = C1 + C2 + C3

12 V

The total current in the circuit =

=3A

4

2. (a) : This is a Wheatstone bridge where the

resistances are so balanced that no current flows

through the branch BD, as the galvanometer

shows no deflection.

P R

QR 2 8

Here,

=

S=

=

=4

Q S

P

4

3. (c) : When current is outwards, ^r to

the plane of the paper, the direction

of the magnetic field is anticlockwise,

perpendicular to the direction of the

current.

4. The magnetic field always acts perpendicular

to the direction of the current. The electric field

always acts parallel to the motion of the charge.

Passage-II

In a CR circuit, when a capacitor is getting

charged, the voltage increases exponentially and

when the current is observed, initially the current

is high; till the capacitor gets charged fully, the

current decreases exponentially till it reaches zero

exponentially.

Charging and discharging a capacitor has its

analogy in nuclear physics in the studies of

radioactivity, production and decay of radioactive

materials. The oscillations of mass and spring,

L, C, R circuit are all analogous to problems in

radioactivity.

Students are advised to prepare Charts for

comparision.

8. The functions of spring and mass in electrical

oscillations are given by

(a) R and L

(b) L and C

(c) L and R

(d) none of these

all the capacitors will be equal (a) but the sign are

different.

radioactive decay and discharge of a fully charged

capacitor?

SOLUTIONS

1. (c) :

2

P

R

S

12 V

In P and Q, 2 W and 2 W are in parallel.

1

1

1

1 1 1

i.e.,

=

+

= +

RPQ = 1

R R1 R2

R 2 2

RQR is also 1 W. They are in series with S = 2 W.

i.e.,

1

1

1

1

=

+

+

C C1 C2 C3

6. (c) : Q = VC

7. (b) : + V

C1

C2

C3

The potential applied across all the three capacitors

in parallel is the same.

Q = VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC3

C = C1 + C2 + C3

8. (b) : L and C

d 2Q

1

1

Q where

= 2

LC

LC

dt

2

The period of oscillation, T =

1

Frequency of oscillation =

2 LC

9. They all obey

Y

the exponential decay

law. Let quantity of

water,

number

of

time

decaying nuclei

X

and the charge in the capacitor be Y and time

denoted by X. The decay diagram is as shown.

Seek unifined approach to solve diverse

problems.

vvv

2

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19

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By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

R

is drilled through a cylinder

4

of radius R to form a body as shown in figure.

Assuming that the body is in pure rolling, find the

time period T for small oscillations.

1. A hole of radius

2. A cylinder of mass M and radius R is kept on a

rough horizontal platform at one extreme end of the

platform at t = 0. Axis of the cylinder is parallel to

z-axis. The platform is oscillating in the xy plane and

its displacement from the origin is represented as

x = 2cos(4pt) m.

There is no slipping between

the cylinder and the platform.

Find the acceleration of the

centre of mass of the cylinder

as a function of time.

3. A particle simultaneously participates in two

mutually perpendicular oscillations : x = cospt m and

t

y = cos . Find the trajectory of the particle.

2

4. When a tuning fork of frequency 262 Hz is struck,

it loses half of its energy after 4 s.

(a) What is the decay time t ?

(b) What is the Q-factor for this tuning fork?

(c) What is the fractional energy loss per cycle?

at its midpiont. Longitudinal stationary waves

are set up in such a way that there are two nodes

on either side of the midpoint. The amplitude of

an antinode is 2 106 m. Write the equation of

motion at a point 2 cm from the midpoint and

those of constituent waves in the rod.

(Y = 2 1011 N m2 and r = 8 103 kg m3)

6. The first overtone of an organ pipe beats with the

first overtone of a closed organ pipe with a beat

frequency of 2.2 Hz. The fundamental frequency

of the closed organ pipe is 110 Hz. Find the length

of the pipes.

7. Two identical wires are stretched by the same

tension of 100 N and each emits a note of frequency

200 cycles per second. The tension in one wire is

increased by 1 N. Calculate the number of beats

heard per second when the wires are plucked.

8. By what factor does the sound intensity increase if

a sound level increases by 3 dB.

SOLUTIONS

1.

the position of centre of mass. Then

Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh

february 13

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R2 R

R2

0 = x R2

+

16

2

16

R

or x =

30

Let M be the mass of the cylinder without cavity.

Moment of inertia about contact point

3

I1 = MR 2

2

And moment of inertia of an imaginary cylinder

occupying the cavity is

2

I2 =

M 3R

1M R

+

2 16 4

16

2

contact point,

3

1

9

695

I = I1 I 2 =

MR 2 =

MR 2

512

2 512 64

When the system is turned through a small angle

clockwise, the restoring torque on it is

15

R

= Mg sin

16

30

15

R

d 2

695

MR 2

= Mg sin

30

16

512

dt 2

For small q, sinq q,

d 2 512 g

+

= 0

dt 2 32 695 R

Comparing it with the standard equation of

SHM, we get,

512 g

2

=

=

32 695R T

or T = 2

32 695R

R

= 41.4

512 g

g

angular frequency, w = 4p rad s1.

\ Acceleration of the platform when displacement

is x,

a = w2x

= 32p2cos(4pt) m s2

Fictitious force acting on the cylinder

= Ma = M 32p2 cos(4pt)

From Newton's second law,

32 p2 M cos(4pt) f = MaCM

...(i)

Also, taking torque about C.M. of the cylinder,

1

fR = MR 2

...(ii)

2

For pure rolling; aCM = R a

...(iii)

Solving above equations, we get,

32 2

f =

M cos( 4 t) N

3

64 2

cos( 4 t) m s 2

to platform =

3

Acceleration of C.M. of the cylinder relative to

64

ground = 32 2 cos( 4 t)

3

32 2

= cos( 4 t) m s 2

3

3. The given equations are

x = cospt

... (i)

t

y = cos

2

1 + cos t

or 2 y 2 1 = cos t .... (ii)

2

Put (i) in (ii), we get,

2y2 1 = x

or 2y2 = x + 1 represents the equation of a parabola.

E

4. Using E = E0et/t and E = 0 . The Q value can be

2

calculated from decay time and the frequency.

(a) The energy at time, t = 4 s is equal to half the

original energy;

E0

= E0 e 4 / or e 4 / = 2

2

By taking loge both sides, we get

4

4

= ln 2 , =

= 5.77 s

ln 2

(b) Q - factor = w0t = (2pu)t = 2p 262 5.77

= 9.5 103.

(c) The fractional energy loss in a period is given

by

1

1

| E | T

4

E = = = 262 5.77 = 6.6 10

y=

end is antinode and clamped point is node. Two

and a node

consecutive nodes are separated by

2

and an antinode by .

4

4 + 2 = L = 1 m = 0.4 m

2

4

Y

Velocity of a transverse wave in a rod is, v =

2 1011 N m 2

1

v=

= 5000 m s

8 10 3 kg m 3

v

Also v = ul, =

5000 m s 1

= 12500 Hz

0.4 m

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21

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The reflected wave is y2 = A sin( t + kx + ).

From principle of superposition,

y = y1 + y2 = A sin(wt kx) + Asin (wt + kx + f)

when sounded together, the expressions for beat

frequency are

(t kx ) + (t + kx + )

= 2 A sin

3 110

(t kx ) (t + kx + )

cos

\ lo = 1.0067 m or lo = 0.9934 m

At x = 0,

= 0 , hence f = 0

2

Amax = 2A = 2 106 m.

\ y = 2 106 cos5p (0.5 0.02) sin(25000pt).

The equation of component waves can be obtained

by applying 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) sin(A B).

\ y = 106[sin(5px + 25000pt) sin(5px 25000pt)]

d

1 T 2

=

dT 4 LT T 2

( 2n 1)v

, where n = 1, 2, 3,....

4lc

o

2 lo

Fundamental frequency of closed organ pipe,

330

v

= 110 Hz or lc =

= 0.75 m

4lc

4 110

3v

First overtone of closed organ pipe =

4lc

First overtone of open organ pipe =

2222physics FOR YOU |

february 13

2v

2lo

.... (i)

1 T

4 LT

1/ 2

(Using (i))

2 T

200

1

=

2

100

8. Intensity level b is given by

Hence, =

= 10(dB)log10

the two component waves.

1/ 2

=

dT 2T

closed and an open organ pipe are given by;

1 T

2L

1/ 2

1/ 2

d

1 1 T

1

1 T

1

=

=

dT 2 L 2

4 L

2

y = 2 10 6 cos x sin 2 t

= 2 106cos(5px)sin(25000 pt).

330

330

= 2.2 or

3 110 = 2.2

lo

lo

by each wire before the tension change occurs is

= 2 A cos kx + sin t + .

2

2

3v 2 v

2 v 3v

= 2.2 or

= 2.2

4lc 2lo

2lo 4lc

or

I

I0

I

= 10/(10 )

I0

.... (i)

Let I be the intensity when the sound level is

(b + 3) dB. Hence,

I

+ 3 = 10 log

I0

I

= 10( + 3)/ 10

.... (ii)

I

0

Divide (ii) by (i), we get

I 10( + 3)/ 10

=

I

10 / 10

I

= 10( 0.3) = 2

I

\ An increase in sound level of 3 dB increases the

intensity by a factor of 2.

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23

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diameter d forms an image of intensity I. Aperture

of diameter d/2 in central region of lens is covered

by a black paper. Focal length of lens and intensity

of image now will be respectively

3f

I

I

and

(a) f and

(b)

4

2

4

f

I

3I

and

(c) f and

(d)

2

2

4

2. The radius of the rear wheel of bicycle is twice that

of the front wheel. When the bicycle is moving,

the angular speed of the rear wheel compared to

that of the front is

(a) greater

(b) smaller

(c) same

(d) exact double

3. When a particle oscillates in simple harmonic

motion, both its potential energy and kinetic

energy vary sinusoidally with time. If u be the

frequency of the motion of the particle, the

frequency associated with the kinetic energy is

(a) 4u

(b) 2u

(c) u

(d)

2

4. A wooden block is dropped from the top of a cliff

100 m high and simultaneously a bullet of mass

10 g is fired from the foot of the cliff upwards with

a velocity of 100 m s1. The bullet and wooden

block will meet each other after a time

(a) 10 s

(b) 0.5 s (c) 1 s

(d) 7 s

5. A common emitter amplifier has a voltage gain of

50, an input impedance of 100 W and an output

impedance of 200 W. The power gain of the

amplifier is

(a) 500

(b) 1000 (c) 1250 (d) 50

6. A satellite is launched into a circular orbit of

radius R around earth while a second satellite

is launched into an orbit of radius 1.02R. The

percentage difference in the time period is

(a) 0.7

(b) 1.0

(c) 1.5

(d) 3.0

maximum speed with which a vehicle can travel

on a curved road by 10 percent. The radius of

curvature of the road has to be changed from

20 m to

(a) 6 m

(b) 18 m

(c) 24.2 m

(d) 30.5 m

8. A 220 V input is supplied to a transformer.

The output circuit draws a current of 2.0 A at

440 V. If the efficiency of the transformer is 80%,

the current drawn by the primary windings of the

transformer is

(a) 3.6 A

(b) 2.8 A

(c) 2.5 A

(d) 5.0 A

9. A block of mass m is attached with massless

spring of spring constant k. The block is placed

over a fixed rough inclined surface for which the

3

coefficient of friction is = . The block of mass m

4

is initially at rest. The block of mass M is released

from rest with spring in unstretched state. The

minimum value of M required to move the block

up the plane is

(Neglect mass of string and pulley and friction in

pulley) (Take sin 37 = 3 )

5

3

m

5

6

(c) m

5

(a)

WorldMags.net

4

m

5

3

(d) m

2

(b)

25

WorldMags.net

frequency is incident on a photosensitive material.

If the frequency of incident light is halved and the

intensity is doubled, the photocurrent becomes

(a) one fourth

(b) doubled

(c) halved

(d) zero

is applied to a wire of this material, there is

a decrease of cross-sectional area by 2%. The

percentage increase in its length is

(a) 3%

(b) 2.5%

(c) 1%

(d) 0.5%

12. The centre of mass of three particles of masses

1 kg, 2 kg and 3 kg is at (2, 2, 2). The position of the

fourth mass of 4 kg to be placed in the system so

that the new centre of mass is at (0, 0, 0) is

(a) (3, 3, 3)

(b) (3, 3, 3)

(c) (2, 3 3)

(d) (2, 2, 3)

13. A body moves with uniform acceleration, then

which of the following graphs is correct?

v

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

a string held vertically in tension. An electric field

is applied parallel to the string, so that the bead

stays at rest at middle of the string. If the electric

field is switched off momentarily and switched

on

(a) the bead moves downwards and stops as

soon the field is switched on.

(b) the bead moves downwards when the field

is off and moves upwards when the field is

switched on.

(c) the bead moves downwards with constant

acceleration till it reaches the bottom of the

string.

(d) the bead moves downwards with constant

velocity till it reaches the bottom of the

string.

26 physics for you |

february 13

by x = 36t m and 2y = 96t 9.8t2 m. The angle of

projection is

3

4

(a) sin1

(b) sin1

5

5

3

4

(c) sin1

(d) sin1

4

3

18. A body is moving forward and backward. Change

in frequency observed by the body of a source is

2%. What is velocity of the body?

(Speed of sound is 300 m s1)

(a) 6 m s1

(b) 2 m s1

1

(c) 2.5 m s

(d) 3 m s1

19. The refractive index of a material of a plano

concave lens is 5/3, the radius of curvature is

0.3 m. The focal length of the lens in air is

(a) 0.45 m

(b) 0.6 m

(c) 0.75 m

(d) 1.0 m

t

v

16 W, the voltage across the resistor is 12 V. When

the same battery is connected across a resistor

of 10 W, voltage across it is 11 V. The internal

resistance of the battery is

10

25

20

30

(a)

(b)

(d)

(c)

7

7

7

7

16. A satellite of mass ms revolving in a circular orbit

of radius rs round the earth of mass M has a total

energy E. Then its angular momentum will be

(a) (2Emsrs2)1/2

(b) (2Emsrs2)

1/2

(c) (2Emsrs)

(d) (2Emsrs)

hammer with 25 N s1 momentum in 0.05 s is

(a) 500 N (b) 125 N (c) 50 N (d) 25 N

21. The dimensional formula for latent heat is

(a) [MLT2]

(b) [ML2T2]

(c) [M0L2T2]

(d) [MLT1]

22. A charge Q situated at a certain distance from

a short electric dipole in the end on opposite

experiences a force F. If the distance of the charge

from the dipole is doubled, force acting on the

charge will be

F

F

(a) 2F

(b)

(c) 8 F

(d)

2

8

23. The magnetic induction and the intensity of magnetic

field inside an iron core of an electromagnet are

1 Wb m2 and 150 A m1 respectively. The relative

permeability of iron is

(m0 = 4p 107 H m1)

(a)

106

4

(b)

WorldMags.net

106

6

(c)

10 5

10 5

(d)

4

6

WorldMags.net

A and D in the following circuit is

10

10

C

40% and the tension is increased by 44 %, then

the ratio of the final and initial fundamental

frequencies is

(a) 2 : 1 (b) 3 : 2 (c) 3 : 4 (d) 1 : 3

10

10

(a) 10 W

(c) 5 W

(b) 20 W

(d) 30 W

downwards in air has a terminal velocity of

1 m s1. The viscosity of air is 18 105 poise. The

viscous force on the drop is

(a) 101.73 104 dyne (b) 101.73 105 dyne

(c) 16.95 105 dyne (d) 16.95 104 dyne

26. A stone is projected vertically up to reach

maximum height h. The ratio of its kinetic energy

4

to its potential energy, at a height h, will be

5

(a) 5 : 4

(b) 4 : 5

(c) 1 : 4

(d) 4 : 1

27. Refer to the arrangement of logic gates. For A = 0,

B = 0 and A = 1, B = 0, the values of output Y are,

respectively

A

B

(a) 0 and 1

(c) 1 and 1

(b) 1 and 0

(d) 0 and 0

are 2k, 2k, k and 2k respectively are attached to a

mass M kept on a frictionless plane as shown in

figure. If the mass M is displaced in the horizontal

direction, then the frequency of the system is

2k

2k

k

M

2k

(a)

1

k

2 4M

(b)

1 4k

2 M

(c)

1

k

2 7 M

(d)

1 7k

2 M

the radius of its dees is 0.5 m, the kinetic energy of

a proton, which is accelerated by the cyclotron is

(a) 10.2 MeV

(b) 20.1 MeV

(c) 5.1 MeV

(d) 1.5 MeV

because

(a) yellow light is scattered less by the fog

particles.

(b) yellow light is scattered more by the fog

particles.

(c) yellow light is unaffected during its passage

through the fog .

(d) wavelength of yellow light is the mean of the

visible part of the spectrum.

32. In Youngs double slit experiment, an interference

pattern is obtained on a screen by a light of

wavelength 6000 coming from the coherent

sources S1 and S2. At certain point P on the

screen third dark fringe is formed. Then the path

difference S1P S2P in microns is

(a) 0.75 (b) 1.5

(c) 3.0

(d) 4.5

33. Photoelectric effect is an example of

(a) elastic collision

(b) inelastic collision

(c) two dimensional collision

(d) oblique collision

34. The angle of minimum deviation in an equilateral

prism of refractive index 1.414 is

(a) 60

(b) 30

(c) 90

(d) 45

35. A black body of mass 34.38 g and surface area

19.2 cm2 is at an initial temperature of 400 K. It

is allowed to cool inside an evacuated enclosure

kept at constant temperature 300 K. The rate of

cooling is 0.04C per second. The specific heat of

the body in J kg1 K1 is

(Stefans constant s = 5.73 108 W m2 K4)

(a) 2800 (b) 2100 (c) 1400 (d) 1200

36. The activity of a radioactive sample is measured

as N0 counts per minute at t = 0 and N0/e counts

per minute at t = 5 minutes. The time (in minutes)

at which the activity reduces to half its value is

2

5

(a) ln

(b)

5

ln 2

(c) 5 log10 2

WorldMags.net

(d) 5 ln 2

physics for you | february 13

27

WorldMags.net

the same plane. Their radii are 20 cm and 40 cm

and carry 0.2 A and 0.3 A current respectively in

opposite directions. The magnetic field (in tesla)

at the centre is

5

3

(a) 0

(b) 0

4

4

7

4 0

(d) 9 0

4

38. When 1 kg of ice at 0C melts to water at 0C, the

resulting change in its entropy, taking latent heat

of ice to be 80 cal g1 is

(a) 273 cal K1

(b) 8 104 cal K1

(c) 80 cal K1

(d) 293 cal K1

(c)

39. A coil has 1,000 turns and 500 cm2 as its area.

The plane of the coil is placed at right angles to

a magnetic field of 2 105 Wb m2. The coil is

rotated through 180 in 0.2 s. The average emf

induced in the coil is

(a) 5 mV (b) 10 mV (c) 15 mV (d) 20 mV

14

40. Number of neutrons in 12

6 C and 6 C are

(a) 8 and 6

(b) 6 and 8

(c) 6 and 6

(d) 8 and 8

(a)

C

4

(b)

3C

4

4C

(d) 3C

3

44. A particle crossing the origin of co-ordinates at

time t = 0, moves in the xy-plane with a constant

acceleration a in the y-direction. If its equation

of motion is y = bx2 (b is a constant), its velocity

component in the x-direction is

(c)

2b

a

a

b

a (b) 2b (c) b (d) a

45. A galvanometer, having a resistance of 50 W, gives

a full scale deflection for a current of 0.05 A. The

length of a resistance wire of area of cross-section

2.97 102 cm2 that can be used to convert the

galvanometer into an ammeter which can read a

maximum of 5 A current is

(Specific resistance of the wire = 5 107 W m)

(a) 9 m

(b) 6 m

(c) 3 m

(d) 1.5 m

(a)

2

certain gas are related by P = AT BT , where

V

A and B are constants. The work done by the gas

as its temperature changes from T1 to T2 while

pressure remains constant is

(a) A B (T2 T1 )

2

(b) A(T2 T1) B(T22 T12)

(c)

A 2

B

T T12 T23 T13

3

T 2

B

(T2 T1)3

3

30

30

42. When 15

P decays to become 14

Si the particle

released is

(a) electron

(b) a-particle

(c) neutron

(d) positron

(d) A(T2 T1)2

value C is made as shown in the figure. Equivalent

capacitance between points A and B is

A

february 13

(a) zero

(c) 1 m s1

(b) 4 m s1

(d) 3 m s1

1

y=

sin( 60t + 2 x), where x and y are in metres

10

and t is in seconds. This represents a wave

(1) travelling with a velocity of 30 m s1

(2) of frequency 30 Hz

(3) of wavelength p m

(4) of amplitude 10 cm

(5) moving in the positive x direction

Pick out the correct statements from the above.

(a) 1, 2, 4

(b) 3, 4, 5

(c) 1, 2, 3, 4

(d) All

48. If 4 moles of an ideal monoatomic gas at

temperature 400 K is mixed with 2 moles of

another ideal monoatomic gas at temperature

700 K, the temperature of the mixture is

(a) 550C

(b) 500C

(c) 550 K

(d) 500 K

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

motion. This means that

(a) it is at rest.

(b) the path can be a straight line or circular and

the ball travels with uniform speed.

(c) all parts of the ball have the same velocity

(magnitude and direction) and the velocity

is constant.

(d) the centre of the ball moves with constant

velocity and the ball spins about its centre

uniformly.

2. Which one of the following statements isnot true

(a) The second law of motion is consistent with

the first law.

(b) The second law of motion is a vector law.

(c) The second law of motion is applicable to a

single point particle.

(d) The second law of motion is not a local law.

3. A body of mass 10 kg is acted upon by two

perpendicular forces, 6 N and 8 N. The resultant

acceleration of the body is

3

(a) 1 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t. 8Nforce.

4

3

(b) 0.2 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t. 8N force.

4

(d) both Newtons second and third law.

5. Which one of the following is not a contact

force?

(a) Viscous force

(b) Magnetic force

(c) Friction

(d) Buoyant force

6. A body of mass 2 kg travels according to the law

x(t) = pt + qt2 + rt3 where p = 3 m s1, q = 4 m s2

and r = 5 m s3.

(a) 136 N (b) 134 N (c) 158 N (d) 68 N

scale on a lift. If the lift is descending with a

downward acceleration of 9 m s2, what would

be the reading of the weighing scale?

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 50 kg (b) 5 kg

and moving in opposite directions with speed of

5 m s1 each, collide and rebound with the same

speed. The impulse imparted to each ball is

(a) 0.25 kg m s1

(c) 0.1 kg m s1

(b) 0.5 kg m s1

(d) 0.125 kg m s1

5

(c) 1 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t. 8Nforce.

4

^

^

F = ( 3 i + 4 j ) N. If its initial velocity at t = 0 is

^

^

u = (6 i 12 j ) m s1, the time at which it will just

5

(d) 0.2 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t8Nforce.

4

particles can be understood from

(a) conservation of energy.

(b) Newtons first law only.

(a) never (b) 10 s (c) 2 s

(d) 15 s

friction between the floor

and the block B is 0.1. The

coefficient of friction

WorldMags.net

29

WorldMags.net

A is m/2 and of B is m. What is the maximum

horizontal force F can be applied to the block B

so that two blocks move together?

(a) 0.15mg

(b) 0.05mg

(c) 0.1mg

(d) 0.45mg

11. A stream of water flowing horizontally with a

speed of 15 m s1 gushes out of a tube of crosssectional area 102 m2, and hits a vertical wall

nearby. What is the force exerted on the wall

by the impact of water, assuming it does not

rebound?

(a) 1.25 103 N

(b) 2.25 103 N

3

(c) 3.25 10 N

(d) 4.25 103 N

true?

(a) The same force for the same time causes the same

change in momentum for different bodies.

(b) The rate of change of momentum of a body

is directly proportional to the applied force

and takes place in the direction in which the

force acts.

(c) A greater opposing force is needed to stop a

heavy body than a light body in the same time,

if they are moving with the same speed.

(d) The greater the change in the momentum in

a given time, the lesser is the force that needs

to be applied.

13. A block of 6 kg is suspended

by a rope of length 2 m from

the ceiling. A force of 50 N

in the horizontal direction

is applied at the midpoint P

of the rope, as shown in the

figure. What is the angle

the rope makes with the vertical in equilibrium?

Neglect the mass of the rope.

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 30 (b) 40

(c) 60

(d) 45

14. A person in an elevator accelerating upwards with

an acceleration of 2 m s2, tosses a coin vertically

upwards with a speed of 20 m s1. After how much

time will the coin fall back into his hand?

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 1.67 s (b) 2 s

(c) 3.33 s (d) 5 s

15. Two masses of 5 kg and 3 kg are

suspended with help of massless

inextensible strings as shown in

figure. The whole system is going

upwards with an acceleration of

2 m s2. The tensions T1 and T2 are

(Take g = 10 m s2)

30 Physics for you |

february 13

T1

5 kg

T2

3 kg

(a) 96 N, 36 N

(c) 96 N, 96 N

(b) 36 N, 96 N

(d) 36 N, 36 N

wall by pressing it with a finger. If the coefficient

of friction between the block and the wall is m

and the acceleration due to gravity is g, what is

the minimum force required to be applied by the

finger to hold the block against the wall?

Mg

(a) mMg (b) Mg

(c)

(d) 2mMg

acting at a point P

produced by strings

as shown in figure,

which is at rest. The

forces F1 and F2 are

1

3

(a)

N,

N

2

2

(b)

(c)

3

2

1

N,

1

2

2N

45

45

P

1N

90

F2

F1

(d)

N,

N

2

2

2

2

18. A metre scale is moving with uniform velocity.

This implies

N,

torque about the centre of mass can act on

the scale.

(b) the force acting on the scale is zero and the

torque acting about centre of mass of the

scale is also zero.

(c) the total force acting on it need not be zero

but the torque on it is zero.

(d) neither the force nor the torque need to be

zero.

19. A 100 kg gun fires a ball of 1 kg horizontally from

a cliff of height 500 m. It falls on the ground at

a distance of 400 m from the bottom of the cliff.

Find the recoil velocity of the gun.

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 0.2 m s1

(b) 0.4 m s1

1

(c) 0.6 m s

(d) 0.8 m s1

20. A large force is acting on a body for a short time.

The impulse imparted is equal to the change in

(a) acceleration

(b) momentum

(c) energy

(d) velocity

21. Figure shows a man standing stationary with

respect to a horizontal conveyor belt that is

accelerating with 1 m s2. What is the net force

on the man? (Mass of the man = 65 kg)

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

(a) T

(c) T +

(d) 65 N

moving in 2-dimensions.

on the particle is

(a) 1 N along y-axis (b) 1 N along x-axis

(c) 0.5 N along x-axis (d) 0.5 N y-axis

a frictionless inclined plane of

slope angle 30 as shown in the

figure. A flexible cord attached

to A passes over a frictionless

pulley and is connected to

block B of weight W. Find the weight W for which

the system is in equilibrium.

(a) 25 N (b) 50 N (c) 75 N (d) 100 N

24. The position-time

graph of a body of

mass 2 kg is as given

in figure. What is

the impulse on the

body at t = 4 s?

2

(a)

kg m s1

3

2

(b) kg m s1

3

3

(c)

kg m s1

2

(b) T

mv 2

l

mv 2

l

(d) 0

on a table. Each coin has a mass m. The force on

the 7th coin (counted from the bottom) due to all

the coins on its top is

(a) 3mg, vertically downwards

(b) 3mg, vertically upwards

(c) 7mg, vertically downwards

(d) 7mg, vertically upwards

27. A car of mass m starts from rest and acquires a

^

velocity along east v = v i (v > 0) in two seconds.

Assuming the car moves with uniform acceleration,

the force exerted on the car is

mv

(a)

eastward and is exerted by the car engine.

2

mv

(b)

eastward and is due to the friction on

2

the tyres exerted by the road.

mv

(c) more than

eastward exerted due to the

2

engine and overcomes the friction of the road.

(d) mv exerted by the engine.

2

28. A stone of mass m tied to the end of a string

revolves in a vertical circle of radius R. The net

forces at the lowest and highest points of the

circle directed vertically downwards are

Lowest Point

Highest Point

(a) mg T1

mg + T2

(b) mg + T1

mg T2

2

2

(c) mg + T1 mv1

mg T2 + mv2

R

R

2

mv 2

mg + T2 + mv2

1

R

R

T1 and v1 denote the tension and speed at the

lowest point. T2 and v 2 denote corresponding

values at the highest point.

(d) mg T1

(d)

3

kg m s1

2

a particle of mass m and the other to a small

peg on a smooth horizontal table. If the particle

moves in a circle with speed v the net force on

the particle (directed towards the centre) is

at an angle of 15. If the coefficient of friction

between the wheels of a race car and the road is

0.2, what is the maximum permissible speed to

avoid slipping?

(a) 18.2 m s1

(c) 38.2 m s1

WorldMags.net

(b) 28.2 m s1

(d) 48.2 m s1

31

WorldMags.net

suddenly turns westward with the same speed

to avoid an opponent. The force that acts on the

player is

(a) frictional force along westward.

(b) muscle force along southward.

(c) frictional force along south-west.

(d) muscle force along south-west.

solutions

3. (a) : Here, m = 10 kg

The resultant force acting

on the body is

F = (8 N)2 + (6 N)2 = 10 N

6N

1. (c)

2. (d) : The second law

of motion is a local law which

means that force F at a point in space (location of

the particle) at a certain instant of time is related

here and now is determined by the force here

and now, not by any history of the motion of the

particle.

8N

force.

6 N 3

From figure, tan =

=

8 N 4

The resultant acceleration of the body is

F 10 N

a= =

= 1 m s2

m 10 kg

The resultant acceleration is along the direction

of the resultant force.

Hence, the resultant acceleration of the body is

3

1 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t. 8 N force.

4

4. (d) : Newtons second and third laws of motion

lead to conservation of linear momentum.

5. (b) : Among the given forces magnetic force is a

non-contact force.

6. (a) : Here, x(t) = pt + qt2 + rt3

where p = 3 m s1, q = 4 m s2 and r = 5 m s3

m = 2 kg

dx d

(pt + qt2 + rt3) = p + 2qt + 3rt2

Velocity, v =

=

dt dt

dv

Acceleration, a =

= 2q + 6rt

dt

At t = 2 s

a = 2(4 m s2) + 6(5 m s3)(2 s)

= 8 m s2 + 60 m s2 = 68 m s2

The force acting on the body of mass 2 kg is

F = ma = (2 kg)(68 m s2) = 136 N

32 Physics for you |

february 13

force on the floor by the person. By the Newtons

third law this is equal and opposite to the normal

force N on the person by the floor.

\ When the lift is descending downward with

a acceleration of a m s2, then

50 10 N = 50 9

or N = 50 10 50 9 = 50 N

\ The reading of weighing machine is 5 kg.

8. (b) :

= 0.25 kg m s1

As the speed is reversed on collision,

Final momentum of the ball A

= (0.05 kg)(5 m s1)

= 0.25 kg m s1

Impulse imparted to the ball A

= Change in momentum of ball A

= Final momentum Initial momentum

= 0.25 kg m s1 0.25 kg m s1

= 0.5 kg m s1

Similarly,

Initial momentum of ball B = (0.05 kg)(5 m s1)

= 0.25 kg m s1

Final momentum of ball B = (0.05 kg)(5 m s1)

= + 0.25 kg m s1

Impulse imparted to ball B

= (0.25 kg m s1) ( 0.25 kg m s1)

= 0.5 kg m s1

Impulse imparted to each ball is 0.5 kg m s1 in

magnitude. The two impulses are opposite in

direction.

^

^

9. (b) : Here, m = 5 kg, F = 3 i + 4 j N

^

^

u = 6 i 12 j m s 1

The acceleration of the body is

^

^

F ( 3 i + 4 j ) N

3^ 4^

a= =

= i + j m s 2

m

5 kg

5 5

Velocity of the body along x-axis at any time t is

^ 3^

v x = u x + a xt = 6 i i t

5

The body will have a velocity along y-axis, if its

velocity along x-axis will be zero.

i.e. vx = 0 t = 10 s

m

10. (d) : Here, mA =

, mB = m

2

mA = 0.2, mB = 0.1

Let both the blocks are

moving with common

acceleration a. Then,

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

The coin will fall back into the persons hand

after t s.

A mA g

= A g = 0.2 g

mA

and F mB(mB + mA)g = (mB + mA)a

F = (mB + mA)a + mB(mB + mA)g

a=

m

m

= m + (0.2 g ) + (0.1) m + g

2

2

3

3

0.9

= 2 m (0.2 g) + 2 m (0.1g ) =

mg = 0.45 mg

2

11. (b) : Here, v = 15 m s1

Area of cross section, A = 102 m2

Density of water, r =

103

kg

\ t =

2 20 m s 1

2v

40

10

s=

s = 3.33 s

=

=

a + g ( 2 + 10) m s 2 12

3

block is as shown in the Fig. (a).

The equation of motion of 3 kg

block is

T2 3g = 3a

T2 = 3(a + g)

m3

= 3(2 + 10) = 36 N

=rAv

= 103 kg m3 102 m2 15 m s1 = 150 kg s1

is as shown in the Fig. (b).

= Momentum loss of water per second

= 150 kg

s1

15 m

s1

= 2250 N = 2.25

5 kg block is

T1 T2 5g = 5a

103

a given time, the greater is the force that needs

to be applied.

13. (b) :

5

= tan 1 = 40

6

T1 = 5(a + g) + T2

= 5(2 + 10) + 36

= 96 N

(Using (i))

F = N, the normal reaction of the wall on the book.

The minimum upward frictional force needed to

ensure that the book does not fall is Mg. The frictional

force = mN.

Mg

Thus, minimum value of F =

.

17. (a) :

of 6 kg block is as

shown in Fig. (b).

In equilibrium

T2 = 6g = 6 10 = 60 N

The free body diagram

of the point P is as

shown in Fig. (c).

In equilibrium

T1sinq = 50 N

...(i)

T1cosq = T2 = 60 N

...(ii)

Dividing (i) by (ii), we get

50 5

tan =

=

60 6

(i)

2N

2 cos45

1 cos451 N

45 45

2 sin45 P 90 F1

1 sin45

F2

Applying equilibrium conditions,

SFx = 0

F1 + 1sin45 2sin45 = 0

or F1 = 2sin45 1sin45

2

1

1

=

N

=

2

2

2

and SFy = 0

1cos45 + 2sin45 F2 = 0

1

2

3

+

=

F2 =

N

2

2

2

18. (b)

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33

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23. (b) :

A

g = 10 m s2

30

\ 400 = u 10

where u is the velocity of the ball.

u = 40 m s1

momentum, we get

0 = Mv + mu

v=

(1 kg )( 40 m s 1 )

mu

=

= 0.4 m s 1

100 kg

M

gun is opposite to that of the ball.

20. (b) : If a large force F acts for a short time dt the

impulse imparted I is

dp

I = Fdt =

dt

dt

I = dp = change in momentum

21. (d) : Here, mass of the man M = 65 kg

As the man is standing stationary w.r.t. the belt,

acceleration of man = acceleration of belt.

\ Acceleration of man, a = 1 m s2

\ Net force on the man

line and passing through the origin.

\ x = t

Since the graph between y and t is a parabola.

\ y = t2

dv

\ v = dx = 1 and a = x = 0

x

x

dt

dt

and vy =

30

2 500 m

= 10 s

10 m s 2

Horizontal distance covered = ut

gs

in

m

2h

=

g

t=

dy

= 2t and ay = 2 m s2

dt

F = may = (0.5 kg)(2 m s2)

= 1 N along y-axis

34 Physics for you |

february 13

mg

30

mgcos30

B

W

\ T = W

and T = mgsin30

From (i) and (ii), we get

1

W = mgsin30 = (100 N) = 50 N

2

(i)

(ii)

3

u = m s1.

4

After t = 4 s, the body is at rest i.e., v = 0

\ Impulse = m(v u)

3

3

= 2 kg (0 m s1) = kg m s1

2

4

25. (a) : The net force on the particle is T and is

directed towards the centre of the circle. The

tension T provides the necessary centripetal force

to the particle moving in the circle.

26. (a) : The force on 7th coin is due to weight of the

three coins lying above it.

\ F = 3mg

This force acts vertically downwards.

27. (b)

28. (a) : At the lowest point, mg acts downwards and

T1 upwards so that net force = mg T1.

At the highest point, both mg and T2 act downwards

so that net force = mg + T2.

Hence, option (a) is correct.

29. (c) : Here R = 300 m, q = 15, g = 9.8 m s2,

m = 0.2

The maximum permissible speed is given by

vmax =

Rg( + tan )

=

1 tan

1 0.2 0.27

= 38.2 m s1

30. (c)

nn

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

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Excel in Physics, Excel in Chemistry and Excel in Biology have received overwhelming

response. Nearly all the questions asked in the CBSE Board Examination 2012

were available in the books; fully solved.

We feel pleased to present the revised edition of the books. The books give comprehensive account of the subject according to the current syllabus and pattern of

the CBSE Board Examination.

This will impart the students a clear and vivid understanding of the subject matter.

Available at

leading bookshops

throughout India.

WorldMags.net

35

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resistance coils?

[1]

2. How does focal length of a lens change when red

light is replaced by blue light?

[1]

3. Name the series of hydrogen spectrum lying in

the infrared region.

[1]

4. Would sky waves be suitable for transmission of

TV signals of 60 MHz frequency?

[1]

5. W

hat is the colour code for a resistor of resistance

3.5 kW with 5% tolerance?

[1]

6. W

hich physical quantity has the unit Wb m2? Is it

a scalar or a vector quantity?

[1]

7. A solenoid is connected to a battery so that a

steady current flows through it. If an iron core is

inserted into the solenoid, will the current increase

or decrease? Explain.

[1]

8. Why is ground wave transmission of signals

restricted to a frequency of 1500 kHz?

[1]

+

9. A uniform field E exists

+ A

B

between two charged +

+

ABCDA?

+

C

D

+

+

[2]

10. What is an ideal diode? Draw the output

waveform across the load resistor R, if the input

waveform is as shown in the figure.

+6V

R

6V

[2]

Q on a screen in Youngs double slit experiment

when waves from sources S1 and S2 have phase

36 physics for you | February13

respectively.

[2]

2

12. Two conductors are made of the same material

and have the same length. Conductor A is solid

wire of diameter 1 mm. Conductor B is a hollow

tube of outer diameter 2 mm and inner diameter

1 mm. Find the ratio of resistance RA to RB.

[2]

difference of (i) 0 and (ii)

galvanometer increases by 20% when its resistance

is increased by a factor 2. Calculate by what factor

the voltage sensitivity changes.

[2]

14. A coil of 0.01 H inductance and 1 W resistance

is connected to 200 V, 50 Hz ac supply. Find the

impedance of the circuit and time lag between

maximum alternating voltage and current.

[2]

15. With the help of an example, explain, how the

neutron to proton ratio changes during alpha

decay of a nucleus.

[2]

16. Two long parallel wires are hanging freely. If they

are connected to a battery (i) in series, (ii) in parallel,

what would be the effect on their positions?

[2]

17. Obtain equivalent capacitance of the following

network. For a 300 V supply, determine the charge

and voltage across each capacitor.

[3]

(i) X-rays (ii) Sound waves. Give reasons.

Two polaroids are used to study polarisation.

One of them (the polariser) is kept fixed and

the other (the analyser) is initially kept with its

axis parallel to the poalriser. The analyser is then

rotated through angles of 45, 90 and 180 in

turn. How would the intensity of light coming out

of analyser be affected for these angles of rotation,

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transmitting and receiving an audio signal with

the help of a block diagram.

[3]

R

10 V and 2 V and

internal resistances

10 W and 5 W

2V 5

respectively,

are

connected

in

parallel with the

positive end of 10 V

10 V 10

battery connected

to negative pole of 2 V battery as shown in figure.

Find the effective voltage and effective resistance

of the combination.

[3]

21. A source contains two phosphorus radionuclides

32

33

15 P (T1/2 = 14.3 days) and 15 P (T1/2 = 25.3 days).

33 . How

Initially 10% of the decays come from 15

P

long one must wait until 90% do so?

[3]

22. The two plates of a parallel plate capacitor are

4 mm apart. A slab of dielectric constant 3 and

thickness 3 mm is introduced between the plates

with its faces parallel to them. The distance

between the plates is so adjusted that the

rd

2

capacitance of the capacitor becomes of its

3

original value. What is the new distance between

the plates?

[3]

OR

Define the term electric potential due to a point

charge. Find the electric potential at the centre

of a square of side 2 m , having charges 100 mC,

50 mC, 20 mC and 60 mC at the four corners of

the square.

[3]

displacement current of 2.0 A in the space between

the two parallel plates of 1 mF capacitor?

[3]

24. The figure shows

a

rectangular

current carrying

loop, placed 2 cm

away

from

a

25 cm

long

straight,

current carrying

conductor. What is

the direction and

magnitude of the

net force acting on

the loop?

15 A

25 A

2 cm

10 cm

[3]

contact with each other forming a combination

lens.

(a) What is the focal length of this combination?

(b) An object of size 3 cm is placed at 30 cm from

this combination of lenses. Calculate the

position and size of the image formed.

[3]

26. In an experiment of photoelectric effect, Neeta

plotted graphs for different observation between

photoelectric current and collector plate potential

but her friend Megha has to help her in plotting

the correct graph. Neeta thanked Megha for

timely help.

(a) What value was displayed by Megha and

Neeta.

(b) Draw the correct graph between I and V. [4]

27. What is induced emf? Write Faradays law

of electromagnetic induction. Express it

mathematically. A conducting rod of length l, with

one pivoted, is rotated with a uniform angular

speed w in a vertical plane, normal to a uniform

magnetic field B. Deduce an expression for the

emf induced in this rod.

In India, domestic power supply is at 220 V,

50 Hz, while in USA it is 110 V, 50 Hz. Give one

advantage and one disadvantage of 220 V supply

over 110 V supply.

[5]

OR

Explain the phenomenon of self induction. Define

coefficient of self inductance. What are its units?

Calculate self inductance of a long solenoid. [5]

working of transistor as oscillator.

(b) Draw a circuit diagram for a two inputs OR

gate and explain its working with the help of

input, output waveforms.

[5]

OR

Define the terms potential barrier and depletion

region for a p-n junction. Explain with the help of

a circuit diagram, the use of a p-n diode as a full

wave rectifier. Draw the input and output wave

forms.

[5]

29. Define magnifying power of an optical telescope.

Draw a ray diagram for an astronomical refracting

telescope in normal adjustment showing the paths

through the instrument of three rays from a distant

object. Derive an expression for its magnifying

power. Write the singificance of diameter of the

objective lens on the optical performance of a

telescope.

[5]

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37

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OR

State Huygens principle and prove laws of

reflection and refraction on the basis of Huygens

principle.

[5]

SOLUTIONS

coils because they have low value of temperature

coefficient (less temperature sensitivity) of

resistance and high resistivity.

2. According to lens makers formula,

4. No, signals of frequency greater than 30 MHz

will not be reflected by the ionosphere, but will

penetrate through the ionosphere.

5. Given, resistance = 3.5 kW 5% = 35 102 W 5%

\ Colour code of given resistor is orange, green,

red and gold.

6. Magnetic field induction has the unit Wb m2. It is

a vector quantity.

7. The current will decrease. As the iron core is

inserted in the solenoid, the magnetic field

increases and the flux increases. Lenzs law implies

that induced emf should resist this increase, which

can be achieved by a decrease in current.

8. In ground wave propagation, the loss of energy

due to interaction with matter increases with the

increase in frequency of wave. Therefore, the

waves of frequency above 1500 kHz get heavily

damaged in ground wave propagation. Hence

the ground wave propagation is restricted to a

frequency of 1500 kHz.

9. Work done in moving a charge along the closed

rectangular path would be zero, because field in

the entire space is uniform and electrostatic forces

are conservative forces.

10. A p-n junction diode which offers zero resistance

when forward biased and infinite resistance when

reverse biased is called an ideal diode.

The output waveform across R is as shown in the

figure below.

As mb > mr \ fb < fr

i.e. focal length of lens decreases.

1

1

1

= ( 1)

f

R1 R2

+6V

intensity at any point on the screen is

I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos

where f is the phase difference between the waves

at that point.

Here, we consider I1 = I2 = I0

Therefore,

When f = 0, the intensity at point P is

I P = I0 + I0 + 2 I0 I0 cos 0 = 4 I0

2

I

=

I

Q

0 + I 0 + 2 I 0 I 0 cos = 2 I 0

2

IP 2

=

IQ 1

l

RA =

(0.5 10 3 )2

Resistance of conductor B,

l

RB =

[(1 10 3 )2 (0.5 10 3 )2 ]

\

RA (1 10 3 )2 (0.5 10 3 )2 0.75 3

=

=

=

RB

0.25 1

(0.5 10 3 )2

20

120

I =

I , R = 2R

100 s 100 s

Is

Then, initial voltage sensitivity, Vs =

R

New voltage sensitivity,

13. Given, Is = I s +

I s 120

1

3

I

=

= V

R 100 s 2 R 5 s

\ % decrease in voltage sensitivity

3

Vs Vs

Vs Vs

5 100

100 =

= 40%

=

Vs

Vs

Vs =

The inductive reactance is

XL = wL = 2puL = 2 3.14 50 0.01 = 3.14 W

The impedance of the circuit is

2

2

Z = R + X L = (1)2 + ( 3.14)2 = 10.86 3.3

The phase difference between current and voltage

is

XL

= 3.14

tan f =

R

72

rad

f = tan1(3.14) 72

180

72

1

Time lag, Dt =

=

=

s

180 2 50 250

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A

ZX

A4

Z2Y

q

2 10 8

V4 = 4 =

= 200 V

C4 100 10 12

From (i), Vp = 300 V4 = 300 200 = 100 V

+ 42 He

238

92 U

234

90 Th + 2 He

Before decay, neutron to proton ratio, n/p

238 92

= 1.58

=

92

After decay, neutron to proton ratio, n/p

16. (i)

(ii)

Potential difference across C2 and C3 in series

234 90

= 1.60

90

C1 = 100 pF

C2 = 200 pF

18. (i) Phenomenon of polarisation is shown by

transverse waves only. X-rays are transverse in

nature, and hence they can be polarised.

According to Malus law

I = I0 cos2q

where

I = intensity of light coming from analyser

I0 = initial intensity

I

When q = 45, then I = I0 cos245 = 0

2

When q = 90, then I = I0 cos290= 0

19.

+

300 V

Microphone

C4 = 100 pF

Modulator

1

1

1

2

1

=

+

=

=

\

Cs 200 200 200 100

Cs = 100 pF

equivalent capacitance of the network is

1

1

1

1

1

3

=

+

+

=

=

\

C C p C4

200 100 200

200

pF = 66.7 1012 F

3

As Cp and C4 are in series,

C=

Vp + V4 = 300

...(i)

200

10 12 300

3

= 2 108 C

Charge on C4 is q4 = CV =

Transmitting

antenna

Receiving

antenna

Loudspeaker

Transmitter

Detector

Oscillator

\

C3 = 200 pF

= 100 V

long parallel wires, the currents in the two

wires will be in opposite directions. Due to

which a force of repulsion will be acting

between them and they move further apart.

When a battery is connected in parallel to two

long parallel wires, the currents in the two

wires will be in same direction. Due to which

a force of attraction will be acting between

them and they come closer to each other.

17.

given below.

(i) A microphone converts sound waves into

electrical waves i.e. audio signal.

(ii) An oscillator generates carrier waves.

(iii) There is a mixing of carrier waves and audio

signal in a modulator.

(iv) The modulated waves are fed to transmitter,

these waves are then radiated through

transmitting antenna.

(v) T h e r e c e i v i n g a n t e n n a r e c e i ve s t h e

transmitting signal.

(vi) The detector demodulates (separate out) the

audio signal from the modulated waves.

(vii) The loudspeaker converts the audio signal

back into sound waves.

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39

20.

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C

I

2V

B

A

I1 10 V 10

Veff

or

Reff

we get

...(i)

I1 = I + I2

Applying Kirchhoffs loop rule for closed loop

ABCDEFA gives

10 = IR + 10I1

...(ii)

Applying Kirchhoffs loop rule for closed loop

BCDEB gives

2 = 5I2 IR = 5(I1 I) IR

(Using (i))

...(iii)

or 4 = 10I1 10I 2IR

Equation (i) (iii) gives

6 = 3IR + 10I

10

or 2 = I R +

3

or 2 = (R + Reff)I

Comparing with Veff = (R + Reff)I, we get

Veff = 2 V and Reff =

10

10% of

33

15 P

32

15 P

nuclides and

nuclides.

32

15 P

33

15 P

32

15 P nuclides = 9x;

33

Initial no. of 15

P nuclides = x

32

Final no. of 15 P nuclides = y;

33

Final no. of 15

P nuclides = 9y

\ Initial no. of

As

or

For

1

N 1

=

=

2

N 0 2

N = N0 ( 2)

32

P

15

t / T1/ 2

= ( 2)

1 t

9 = ( 2) 14.3 25.3 or 81 = 211t / 14.3 25.3

9

11t

log10 81 =

log10 2

14.3 25.3

I2

1.9085 =

11t 0.3010

14.3 25.3

= 208.5 days

11 0.3010

22. Here, distance between parallel plates

d = 4 mm = 0.004 m, K = 3, thickness,

t = 3 mm = 0.003 m

Let the new distance between the plates be d1.

0A

0 A

and C1 =

C=

d

1

d1 t 1

K

2

Since C1 = C

(Given)

3

0 A

2 0 A

1 3 d

d1 t 1

K

1

2

=

d

3

1

d1 t 1

K

1

2

=

1 3 0.004

d1 0.003 1

3

1

1

=

2 0.006

d1 0.003

3

1

1

=

d1 0.002 0.006

d1 0.002 = 0.006

d1 = 0.006 + 0.002 = 0.008 m = 8 mm

t / T1/ 2

t=

OR

Electric potential at a point is the amount of work

done to bring a unit positive charge from infinity

to that point against the electrostatic forces.

t / T1/ 2

isotope,

\

For

y = 9x(2)t/14.3

33

P

15

...(i)

isotope,

9y = x(2)t/25.3

2m

...(ii)

AC = BD =

( 2) + ( 2)

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=2m

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\ AO = OC = BO = OD = 1 m

V=

Focal length, f =

q

q

q

1 qA

+ B + C + D

4 0 AO BO OC OD

(b)

100 10 6 50 10 6 20 10 6 60 10 6

V = 9 109

1

1

1

1

d

d

dE

ID = 0 E = 0 (EA) = 0 A

dt

dt

dt

24.

15 A

(b)

2 cm

10 cm

0 I1I 2 l

F1=

2 r

2 10 7 15 25 0.25

=

= 93.75 105

2 10 2

= 9.375 104 N (Repulsive)

Force between wires PQ and AB

2 10 7 15 25 0.25

0.12

= 1.56 104 N (Attractive)

Net force on the rectangular loop

F = F1 F2 = (9.375 1.56) 104

= 7.815 104 N (Repulsive i.e., towards left).

1 31 2

=

=

v

30

30

hI =

I3 > I2 > I1

I3

I2

I1

Stopping

potential

0

Collector

plate potential

(MTG Excel in Physics).

Advantage: At 220 V supply power loss due to

heating effect is lesser.

Disadvantage: At 220 V peak value of current is

more. Thus, it is more dangerous.

25 cm

or

v = 15 cm

v hI

m= =

u ho

V0

Retarding

potential

25 A

1 1 1 1

1

= + =

+

v f u 10 30

Photocurrent

d V

A dV

dV

=C

= 0

dt d

d dt

dt

E = V and C = 0 A

d

d

dV ID

2.0

or

=

=

= 2 106 V s 1

dt

C 10 6

Thus a displacement current of 2.0 A can be set

up by changing the potential difference across

the parallel plates of capacitor at the rate of

2 106 V s1.

1 1 1

=

f v u

15

v

=

3 = 1.5 cm

u 30

26. (a) The values displayed by them is sharing and

caring.

or

= 0 A

1

1

=

100 = 10 cm

P 10

F2 =

Power of the combination, P = P1 + P2

= 15 D 5 D = 10 D

OR

Refer point 4.2(1) page no. 226 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

28. (a) Refer point 9.4(10) page no. 541, (MTG Excel in

Physics).

Physics).

OR

Refer point 9.3[(2), 6(ii)] page 532, 534 (MTG Excel

in Physics).

Physics).

OR

Refer point 6.10(6) and point 6.11 page no. 403,

404 (MTG Excel in Physics).

mmm

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41

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observations is x, then the random error in the

arithmetic mean of 400 observations would be

1

(a) 4x

(b) x

4

1

(c) 2x

(d) x

2

2. After one second the velocity of a projectile

makes an angle of 45 with the horizontal. After

another one second it is travelling horizontally.

The magnitude of its initial velocity and angle of

projection are (Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 14.62 m s1, 60

(b) 14.62 m s1, tan1(2)

(c) 22.36 m s1, tan1(2) (d) 22.36 m s1, 60

3. A block of mass 1 kg is

1 kg

placed over a plank of

2 kg

F = 30 N

mass 2 kg. The length of

the plank is 2 m.

2m

Coefficient of friction between the block and the

plank is 0.5 and the ground over which plank is

placed is smooth. A constant force F = 30 N is applied

on the plank in horizontal direction. The time after

which the block will separate from the plank is

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 0.73 s

(b) 1.2 s

(c) 0.62 s

(d) 1.6 s

4. A boy of mass 30 kg starts running from rest

along a circular path of radius 6 m with constant

tangential acceleration of magnitude 2 m s2.

After 2 s from start he feels that his shoes started

slipping on ground. The friction between his

shoes and ground is

(Take g = 10 m s2)

1

1

1

1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5

3

4

2

42 physics for you |

february13

the ceiling horizontally by means of two vertical

wires of equal length tied to its ends. One of

the wires is made of steel and is of cross-section

0.1 cm2 and the other of brass of cross-section

0.2 cm2. Along the rod at which distance a weight

may be hung to produce equal stresses in both the

wires?

(a) 4 m from steel wire

3

4

m from brass wire

(b)

3

(c) 1 m from steel wire

1

m from brass wire

4

6. Two cylinders A and B, fitted with pistons, contain

equal amounts of an ideal diatomic gas at 300 K.

The piston of A is free to move, while that of B is

held fixed. The same amount of heat is given to

the gas in each cylinder. If the rise in temperature

of the gas in A is 30 K then the rise in temperature

of the gas in B is

(a) 30 K (b) 18 K (c) 50 K (d) 42 K

(d)

concentrically inside a conducting shell B of

radius R(R > r). A charge Q is given to A, and

then A is joined to B by a metal wire. The charge

flowing from A to B will be

r

R

(a) Q

(b) Q

R + r

R + r

(c) Q

(d) zero

below. The emf of the cell is 3 V and internal

resistance is 0.5 W. The resistors R1 and R2 have

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R1

friction. When parachute opens, it decelerates at

2 m s2. He reaches the ground with a speed of

3 m s1. At what height did he bail out?

(a) 293 m (b) 111 m (c) 91 m (d) 182 m

capacitor in steady state must be

3 V 0.5

1 F

R2

(a) 1 mC

(c) 1.33 mC

(b) 2 mC

(d) zero

^

current of density J = J0r k , where J0 is a constant

and r is the radial distance from the axis of the

cylinder. The magnetic field inside the conductor

at a distance d from the axis of the cylinder is

0 J0 d

(a) 0 J0

(b)

2

0 J0 d 3

0 J0 d 2

(c)

(d)

4

3

10. An object of mass 0.2 kg executes simple harmonic

oscillations along the x-axis with a frequency

25

Hz. At the position x = 0.04 m, the object has

amplitude of oscillation is

(Potential energy is zero at mean position)

(a) 6 cm (b) 4 cm (c) 8 cm (d) 2 cm

11. Velocity of sound in an open organ pipe is

330 m s1. The frequency of wave is 1.1 kHz and

the length of tube is 30 cm. To which harmonic

does this frequency correspond?

(a) 2nd

(b) 3rd

(c) 4th

(d) 5th

12. A point object is placed at a distance of 25 cm from

a convex lens of focal length 20 cm. If a glass slab

of thickness t and refractive index 1.5 is inserted

between the lens and the object the image is

formed at infinity. The thickness t is

(a) 10 cm

(b) 5 cm

(c) 20 cm

(d) 15 cm

13. An ideal massless spring S can be compressed

2 m by a force of 200 N. This spring is placed at

the bottom of the frictionless inclined plane which

makes an angle q = 30 with the horizontal. A

20 kg mass is released from rest at the top of the

inclined plane and is brought to rest momentarily

after compressing the spring 4 m. Through what

distance does the mass slide before coming to

rest?

(a) 2.2 m

(b) 4 m

(c) 8.17 m

(d) 1.9 m

and inextensible string. The whole system

is suspended by a massless spring as A 2m

shown in the figure. The magnitudes of

acceleration A and B immediately after B m

the string is cut, are respectively

g

g

,g

(a) g ,

(b)

2

2

g g

,

(c) g, g

(d)

2 2

16. If the work done in blowing a soap bubble of

volume V is W, then the work done in blowing a

soap bubble of volume 2V will be

(a) W

(b) 2W

(c) 2W (d) W(4)1/3

17. A hydrogen atom in an excited state emits a

photon which has the longest wavelength of the

Paschen series. Further emissions from the atom

cannot include the

(a) longest wavelength of the Lyman series

(b) second longest wavelength of the Lyman

series

(c) longest wavelength of the Balmer series

(d) second longest wavelength of the Balmer

series

18. A horizontal rod rotates about a vertical axis

through one end. A ring, which can slide along

the rod without friction, is initially close to the

axis and then slides to the other end of the rod.

In this process, which of the following quantities

will be conserved?

[L = angular momentum, KT = total kinetic energy,

KR = rotational kinetic energy]

(a) L only

(b) L and KT only

(c) L and KR only

(d) KT only

19. A photon of energy 10.2 eV corresponds to light

of wavelength l0. Due to an electron transition

from n = 2 to n = 1 in a hydrogen atom, light of

wavelength l is emitted. If we take into account the

recoil of the atom when the photon is emitted,

(a) l = l0

(b) l < l0

(c) l > l0

(d) the data is not sufficient to reach a

conclusion

WorldMags.net

43

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through a certain distance in a uniform electric

field in time t1. A proton of mass mp also initially

at rest takes time t2 to move through an equal

distance in this uniform electric field. Neglecting

t

the effect of gravity, the ratio 2 is nearly equal to

t1

mp

(b)

me

(a) 1

m

e

(c)

mp

1/ 2

1/ 2

(d) 1836

straight line strikes another spherical ball B of

mass 1 kg at rest. After the collision, A and B move

with velocities v1 m s1 and v2 m s1 respectively

making angles of 30 and 60 with respect to the

v

original direction of motion of A. The ratio 1

v2

will be

4

1

3

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) 3

4

3

3

P2

5 V, 2

10

2 V, 1

P1

(a) 0.27 A, P1 to P2

(c) 0.03 A, P1 to P2

(b) 0.27 A, P2 to P1

(d) 0.03 A, P2 to P1

25 divisions. A current of 4 10 4 A gives a

deflection of one division. To convert this

galvanometer into a voltmeter having a range of

25 V, it should be connected with a resistance of

(a) 2500 W as a shunt (b) 2450 W as a shunt

(c) 2550 W in series

(d) 2450 W in series

27. What is the charge induced in coil of 100 turns

of resistance 100 W, if magnetic flux changes from

2 T m2 to 2 T m2?

(a) 4 C

(b) 2 C

(c) 2.8 C

(d) 0.4 C

28. If an electron revolves around a proton, then its

time period T is (R = radius of orbit)

(a) R2 (b) R3/2 (c) R3 (d) R

collides with a block of mass 4 kg hanging with

the string. What is the velocity of bullet when it

comes out of block, if block rises to height 0.2 m

after collision?

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 200 m s1

(b) 150 m s1

1

(c) 400 m s

(d) 300 m s1

held by two identical springs as

shown in the figure. When the disc is

pressed down slightly and released, it

executes SHM with a time period of 2 s.

The spring constant of each spring is

(a) 236 N m1

(b) 118.3 N m1

(c) 59.15 N m1

(d) 108.3 N m1

of a lift. When the lift is at rest its time period

is T. With what acceleration should the lift be

accelerated upwards in order to reduce its period

T

to ? (g is the acceleration due to gravity)

2

(a) 4g

(b) g

(c) 2g

(d) 3g

10 cm and mass 0.1 kg are arranged such that

they have common centre and their planes

are perpendicular to each other. The moment

of inertia of this system about an axis passing

through common centre and perpendicular to the

plane of either of the rings in kg m2 is

(a) 15 103

(b) 5 10 3

(c) 15 10 4

(d) 18 104

1 mm and 2 mm are separated by a distance of

5 cm and are uniformly charged. If the spheres

are connected by a conducting wire then in

equilibrium condition, the ratio of the magnitude

of the electric fields at the surfaces of spheres of

A and B is

(a) 1 : 2

(b) 2 : 1

(c) 1 : 4

(d) 4 : 1

battery with internal resistance 1 W are connected

to a 10 W resistor as shown in figure. The current

in 10 W resistor is

44 physics for you |

february13

SOLUTIONS

1. (b) : Since error is measured for 400 observations

instead of 100 observations. So error will reduce

1

by factor.

4

Hence, the random error in the arithmetic mean

x

of 400 observations would be .

4

2. (c) : Total time of flight is T = 4 s and if u is its

initial speed and q the angle of projection. Then

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WorldMags.net

2u sin

= 4

g

or usinq = 2g

...(i)

After 1 s velocity vector makes an angle of 45

with horizontal i.e.,

vx = vy

ucosq = usinq gt

ucosq = usinq g

( t = 1 s)

ucosq = 2g g

(Using (i))

or ucosq = g

...(ii)

Squaring and adding (i) and (ii), we get

T=

u2 = 5g2 = 5(10)2 m2 s2

\ u = 22.36 m s1

Dividing (i) by (ii), we get,

u sin 2 g

=

=2

u cos

g

tanq = 2 or q = tan1 (2)

3. (a) : Maximum frictional force between the block

and the plank is

f max = mmg = (0.5)(1)(10) = 5 N

The free body diagrams of the block and the plank

are as shown in the figure (a) and (b) respectively.

5N

(a)

5N

30 N

(b)

5

= 5 m s 2

1

30 5 25

Acceleration of plank, a2 =

m s 2

=

2

2

\ Relative acceleration of plank

a = a2 a1

25

a=

5 = 7.5 m s 2

2

2S

22

t=

=

= 0.73 s

a

7.5

Acceleration of block, a1 =

v = 2 2 = 4 m s1

At this moment centripetal force on boy is

mv 2 30 16

Fc =

=

N = 80 N

R

6

Tangential force on boy is

Ft = ma = 30 2 N = 60 N

Total force acting on boy is

Fc2

Ft2

F=

+

= (80) + (60) = 100 N

At the time of slipping, F = mmg

1

or 100 = m 30 10 or =

3

5. (a) : A

2m

T1

T2

x

W

A1 A2

T1 A1 0.1

i.e.

...(i)

=

=

or T2 = 2T1

T2 A2 0.2

Now for translatory equilibrium of the rod,

T1 + T2 = W

...(ii)

From (i) and (ii), we get

2W

W

T1 = ; T2 =

3

3

Now if x is the distance of weight W from steel

wire, then for rotational equilibrium of rod,

W

2W

T1x = T2 (2 x) or

x=

( 2 x)

3

3

4

x= m

3

6. (d) : In cylinder A, heat is supplied at constant

pressure while in cylinder B, heat is supplied at

constant volume.

\ (DQ)A = nCPDTA

and (DQ)B = nCVDTB

Given: (DQ)A = (DQ)B

nCPDTA = nCVDTB

C

or

TB = P TA

CV

C

7

For diatomic gas, P =

CV 5

7

TB = 30 K = 42 K

5

7. (c) : When charge of amount q has flown from A

to B, the charge on A is (Q q).

The potentials of A and B are

1 Qq

1 q

VA =

+

4

r

4

0

0 R

1 Qq

1 q

VB =

+

4 0 R

4 0 R

1 1

1

(Q q ) > 0

VA VB =

r R

4 0

\ VA > VB for all values of q.

Charge will flow A to B till q = Q.

8. (b) : In steady state current in the branch

containing the capacitor is zero and hence emf

e is shared between r and R2 in the ratio of their

resistances.

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45

WorldMags.net

R2

( 3 V)(1 )

=

=2V

VR =

2

R2 + r 1 + 0.5

Potential difference across capacitor of 1 mF is

same across R2.

\ Potential difference across 1 mF capacitor is

VC = 2 V

\ Charge on capacitor,

Q = CVC = (1 mF)(2 V) = 2 mC

^

9. (c) : Current density, J = J0r k

Current within a distance d,

d 2

d 2

^ ^

I = J dS = ( J0rrddr )( k k )

r = 0 = 0

0 0

^

[ dS = rddr k ]

z

d3

3

From Amperes Law,

d3

B dl = 0 2J0 3

C

= 2 J0

10. (a) : = 2 =

k

m

\ k = (2pu)2m

Total energy of oscillation is

E = (0.5 J + 0.4 J) = 0.9 J

1

E = KA2

2

where A is the amplitude of oscillation

1

0.9 = kA2

2

A=

=

1.8

1.8

=

k

( 2 )2 m

1 1.8

=

2 0.2

1

25

2

...(i)

(Using (i))

1.8

3

=

m = 6 cm

0.2 50

pipe is

v 330 m s 1

=

= 550 Hz

2l 2 0.3 m

The given frequency

u = 1.1 kHz = 1100 Hz = 2u0

0 =

february13

placed at focus of the lens i.e., at 20 cm from the lens.

Hence,

1

shift = 25 20 = 1 t

1

or 5 = 1

t

1.5

or

5 1.5

t=

= 15 cm

0.5

application of a force of 200 N, hence its spring

constant k is given by

g

0k

field at d.

d3

B( 2 d ) = 0 2 J0

3

0 J0 d 2

B=

3

or

harmonic.

F 200 N

k= =

= 100 N m 1

2

2m

h

= 30

which the mass travels before it comes to rest.

Applying the conservation of energy,

1 2

kx = mgh = mgl sin

2 1

1

1

or

100 4 2 = 20 9.8 l

2

2

800

l=

= 8.17 m

98

14. (a) : Initial velocity of parachutist after bailing out

u2 = 2gh = 2 9.8 50 = 980

...(i)

When it reaches the ground

32 = u2 2 2 h1 or 32 = 980 2 2 h1 (Using (i))

980 9 971

or h1 =

or h1 = 242. 75 m

=

4

4

\ Total height = 242.75 m + 50 m

293 m

15. (b) : Just before the string is cut, force on the spring

pulling up = kx = 3mg. After string is cut, free body

diagram of block A gives

3mg

2maA = 3mg 2mg

A

mg g

or aA =

=

2mg

2m 2

Free body diagram of block B gives

maB = mg or aB = g

mg

16. (d) : W = TD A = T(2 4pR )

4 3

and V = R

3

When volume is doubled new radius becomes

R = (2)1/3R

\ W = T 2 4pR2 = T 2 4p(2)2/3R2

= T 2 4p(4)1/3R2 = (4)1/3W

WorldMags.net

17. (d) : n = 4

n=3

n=2

WorldMags.net

momentum along a direction perpendicular to

the direction of motion (i.e. along y-axis), we get

0 + 0 = 4v1sin30 v2sin60

4v1sin30 = v2sin60

A

B

n=1

The photon emitted comes from the transition A.

Further transitions possible are B (longest l of the

Balmer series), C (longest l of the Lyman series)

and D (second longest l of the Lyman series).

18. (b) : As no external torque acts on the system,

its angular momentum is conserved. Since there

is no loss of energy due to friction, the total

energy is conserved. However, the ring acquires

some translational kinetic energy as it slides

outwards, and hence rotational kinetic energy is

not conserved.

19. (c) : The total energy available from the transition

= 10.2 eV = energy of emitted photon + kinetic

energy of recoiling atom.

\ Energy of emitted photon < 10.2 eV

\ l > l0

20. (b) : The acceleration of the electron is

eE

...(i)

ae =

m

e

Starting from rest, the distance travelled by the

electron in time t1 in a uniform electric field E is

1

2d

d = ae t12 or t1 =

...(ii)

2

ae

The acceleration of the proton is

eE

ap =

...(iii)

mp

Starting from rest, the same distance d travelled

by the proton in time t2 in the same electric field is

1

2d

d = apt22 or t2 =

...(iv)

2

ap

Divide (iv) by (iii), we get

mp

ae

t2

(Using (i) and (iii))

=

=

t1

ap

me

21. (a) :

v1

sin 60

3

=

=

v2 4 sin 30

4

22. (a) : Here,

Mass of the bullet, m1 = 20 g = 20 103 kg = 0.02 kg

Mass of the block, m2 = 4 kg

According to law of conservation of linear

momentum, we get

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

where v1 and v2 be the velocities of the bullet and

block after the collision.

0.02 600 + 4 0 = 0.02 v1 + 4v2

or 0.02 600 = 0.02v1 + 4v2

...(i)

Here, v2 = 2 gh = 2 10 0.2 = 2 m s 1

Substituting this value of v2 in Eq. (i), we get

12 = 0.02v1 + 8

or 0.02v1 = 12 8

4

v1 =

= 200 m s 1

0.02

l

...(i)

g

When lift is accelerated upwards with acceleration

T

a, let time period becomes . Then

2

T

l

= 2

...(ii)

2

g+a

Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get

2=

g+a

a

= 1 +

g

g

1/ 2

a

4 = 1 + or a = 3g

g

24. (b) : Here, rA = 1 mm, rB = 2 mm, d = 5 cm

When spheres are connected by a conducting

wire, charge flows from the sphere at higher

potential to the sphere at lower potential, till their

potentials become equal.

Now,

CA rA 1

=

=

CB

rB 2

As potential V is same,

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47

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B

Inputs

A B

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

Output

Y

0

1

1

1

A =

A 0

A+

A=

1

A=

A

A=

A

A+

B=

A

B

A

B=

A+

B

A+

A

B=

A+

B

A

(A +

B) =

A

B

A+

B=

A

B

Inputs

A B

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

Output

Y

0

1

1

0

Inputs

A B

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

Y=

A

B+

A

B=

A

B

Output

Y

1

1

1

0

Y=

A

B

A

B=

A+

B

Inputs

A B

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

Output

Y

1

0

0

1

Inputs

A B

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

Y=

A

B+

A

B=

A

B

Output

Y

1

0

0

0

Y=

A+

B

WorldMags.net

Inputs

A

B

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

Input

A

0

1

Output

Y

0

0

0

1

Output

Y

1

0

Y=

A

WorldMags.net

qA CAV CA 1

=

=

=

qB CBV CB 2

qA

Now,

2

EA 4 0rA2 qA rB

1 2

=

=

= = 2

qB

EB

qB rA

2 1

2

4 0rB

25. (d) :

A

P2 (I I1)

I1

10

5 V, 2

D

P1 (I I )

1

(I I1)

C

10I1 + 2 I 5 = 0

2I + 10I1 = 5

P2 BCP1P2, we get

or I 11I1 = 2

...(ii)

or 2I 22I1 = 4

...(iii)

32 I1 = 1 or I1 =

1

A 0.03 A from P2 to P1

32

26. (d) : G = 50 W

Ig = Current for full scale deflection

= Current per division total no. of divisions

= 4 104 25 = 102 A

Given V = 25 V

Hence, required resistance,

V

25

R=

G =

50

Ig

10 2

= 2500 50 = 2450 W

This resistance of 2450 W should be connected

in series to convert the galvanometer into a

voltmeter.

m

m

= 2

keff

2k

T = 2

or

T2 =

or

k=

4 2m

2k

2 2m

T2

2

k=

2 ( 3.14 ) 12

2

= 6 ( 3.14 ) = 59.15 N m 1

4

and their planes are mutually perpendicular,

hence, an axis which is passing through the centre

of one of the rings and perpendicular to the plane

of its plane, will be along the diameter of other

ring. Hence, moment of the inertia of the system

about the given axis is

1

3

I = ICM + Idiameter = MR 2 + MR 2 = MR 2

2

2

3

= (0.1 kg )(0.1 m )2 = 15 10 4 kg m 2

2

vvv

I think your education is imperfect, if you do

not realize my young friends, that life is not

merely a question of getting food, clothes and

shelter. Man does not live by bread alone.

This has been realized from ancient times.

I think that the finest thing in life are

27. (a)

28. (b) : Time period of revolution of electron around

a proton is given by

4 mR

0

2 4 0mR 3

two springs are connected in parallel, the effective

spring constant is given by

keff = k + k = 2k

...(i)

\ T R3/2

2 V, 1

Applying Kirchhoffs second law for closed loop

AP2 P1DA, we get

2 R

T=

Orbit circumference 2R

=

Electron speed

v

february13

not

these,

beauty,

but

aesthetic

music,

sense,

colour,

the

flowers,

satisfaction

life that makes life worth living.

WorldMags.net

- C V Raman

WorldMags.net

1. In the following reaction, the energy released

is

1

4

He

2

+ 2e+ + Energy

4 1H

Given :

Mass of 1H = 1.007825 u

Mass of 2 He = 4.002603 u

e+

Mass of

= 0.000548 u

(a) 12.33 MeV

(b) 24.67 MeV

(c) 25.7 MeV

(d) 49.34 MeV

state corresponding to n = 3 state is E. What is

its potential energy with proper sign?

(a) 2E

(b) 2E

(c) E

(d) E

3. The energy levels of a certain atom for 1st, 2nd

and 3rd levels are E, 4E/3 and 2E respectively.

A photon of wavelength l is emitted for a transition

3 1. What will be the wavelength of emission

for transition 2 1?

4

(a)

(b)

(c) 3

(d) 3l

3

4

3

4. In Bohr model of hydrogen atom, the ratio of

period of revolution of an electron in n = 2 and

n = 1 orbit is

(a) 2 : 1 (b) 4 : 1

(c) 8 : 1

(d) 16 : 1

5. A radioactive isotope A with a half life of

1.25 1010 years decays into B which is stable.

A sample of rock from a planet is found to contain

both A and B present in the ratio 1 : 15. The age

of the rock is

(a) 9.6 1010 years

(b) 4.2 1010 years

10

(c) 5 10 years

(d) 1.95 1010 years

6. A heavy nucleus at rest breaks into two fragments

which fly off with velocities in the ratio 3 : 1. The

ratio of radii of the fragments is

(a) 1 : 31/3

(c) 4 : 1

(b) 31/3 : 4

(d) 2 : 1

the second excited state. If lH and lLi are their

respective electronic angular momenta, and EH

and ELi their respective energies, then

(a) lH > lLi and EH > ELi

(b) lH = lLi and EH < ELi

(c) lH = lLi and EH > ELi

(d) lH < lLi and EH < ELi

8. A radioactive nucleus emits 3a-particles and

5b-particles. The ratio of number of neutrons to

that of protons will be

(b) A Z

(a) A Z 12

Z6

Z1

A Z 11

(c) A Z 11

(d)

Z1

Z6

9. A radioactive sample has half life of 5 days. To

decay from 8 microcurie to 1 microcurie, the

number of days taken will be

(a) 40

(b) 25

(c) 15

(d) 10

10. A free neutron decays spontaneously into

(a) a proton, an electron and anti-neutrino

(b) a proton, an electron and a neutrino

(c) a proton and electron

(d) a proton, and electron, a neutrino and an

anti-neutrino.

11. The radius of germanium (Ge) nuclide is measured

9

nucleons in Ge are

(a) 72

(b) 73

(c) 74

(d) 75

12. The ratio of the longest and shortest wavelengths

in Brackett series of hydrogen spectra is

9

4

25

17

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5

3

9

6

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51

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because

(a) nuclei break up at high temperature

(b) atoms get ionised at high temperature

(c) kinetic energy is high enough to overcome

the coulomb repulsion between nuclei

(d) molecules break up at high temperature

nuclear fission?

(a) Fast neutron

(b) Fast proton

(c) Slow proton

(d) Slow neutron

15. The electric potential between a proton and an

electron is given by V = V0 ln r , where r0 is a

r0

constant. Assuming Bohrs model to be applicable,

write variation of rn with n, n being the principal

quantum number

(a) rn n

(b) rn 1

n

1

2

(c) rn n

(d) rn

n2

16. To generate power of 3.2 MW, the number of

fissions of 235U per minute is

(Energy released per fission = 200 MeV,

1 eV = 1.6 1019 J)

(a) 6 1018

(b) 6 1017

17

(c) 10

(d) 6 1016

17. A hydrogen atom is excited up to 9th level. The

total number of possible spectral lines emitted

by the hydrogen atom is

(a) 36

(b) 35

(c) 37

(d) 38

18. The 232

90Th atom has successive alpha and beta

decays to the end product 208

82Pb. The numbers of

alpha and beta particles emitted in the process

respectively are

(a) 4, 6

(b) 4, 4

(c) 6, 2

(d) 6, 4

19. The radius of the hydrogen atom in its ground

state is a0. The radius of a muonic hydrogen atom

in which the electron is replaced by an identically

charged muon with mass 207 times that of an

electron, is am equal to

a

(a) 207a0

(b) 0

207

a0

(c) 207

(d) a0 207

20. A nucleus with mass number 220 initially at

rest emits an a particle. If the Q value of the

reaction is 5.5 MeV, the kinetic energy of the

a particle is

(a) 4.4 MeV

(b) 5.4 MeV

52 physics for you | February 13

and then two a-particles are emitted in successive

radioactive decay. If the product nucleus has mass

number 227 and atomic number 89, the mass

number and atomic number of element X are

(a) (273, 93)

(b) (235, 94)

(c) (238, 93)

(d) (237, 92)

22. The intensity of gamma radiation from a given

source is I. On passing through 36 mm of lead,

I

it is reduced to . The thickness of lead which

8

I

will reduce the intensity of

will be

2

(a) 12 mm (b) 18 mm (c) 9 mm (d) 6 mm

23. F p p , F n n a n d F n p a r e t h e n u c l e a r f o r c e s

between proton-proton, neutron-neutron and

neutron-proton respectively. Then relation between

them is

(a) Fpp = Fnn Fnp

(b) Fpp Fnn = Fnp

(c) Fpp = Fnn = Fnp

(d) Fpp Fnn Fnp

24. Which energy state of doubly ionised lithium

has the same energy as that of the ground state

of hydrogen ? Given Z for lithium = 3.

(a) 4

(b) 3

(c) 2

(d) 1

25. When the electron in hydrogen atom is excited

from the 4th stationary orbit to the 5th stationary

orbit, the change in the angular momentum of

the electron is

(Plancks constant, h = 6.63 1034 J s)

(a) 4.16 1034 J s (b) 3.32 1034 J s

(c) 1.05 1034 J s (d) 2.08 1034 J s

Semiconductor electronics

26. In the following figure, the diodes which are

forward biased, are

+10 V

(i)

+5V

(ii)

10 V

(iii) 12 V

(iv)

R

5 V

R

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+5V

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(c) (ii) and (iv)

and identify the correct choice of the given

answers.

(A) The width of the depletion layer in a p-n

junction diode increases in forward bias.

(B) In an intrinsic semiconductor the fermi energy

level is exactly in the middle of the forbidden

energy gap.

(a) A is true and B is false

(b) Both A and B are false

(c) A is false and B is true

(d) Both A and B are true

(d) (i), (ii) and (iv)

A

C

Y

A

0

0

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

A

0

0

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

(a)

(c)

Y

1

0

1

0

Y

0

1

0

1

(b)

(d)

A

0

0

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

Y

1

0

0

1

A

0

0

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

Y

0

1

0

0

current gain of 50. If the load resistance is 4 kW

and input resistance is 500 W, the voltage gain

of the amplifier is

(a) 100

(b) 200

(c) 300

(d) 400

following relations indicating the cell characteristics

is correct?

(a) a b c and a = b = g = 90

(b) a = b = c and a b g = 90

(c) a = b = c and a = b = g = 90

(d) a b c and a b and g 90

29. If an intrinsic semiconductor is heated, the ratio

of free electrons to holes is

(a) greater than one (b) less than one

(c) equal to one

(d) decreases and becomes zero

30. While a collector to emitter voltage is constant

in a transistor, the collector current changes by

8.2 mA when the emitter current changes by

8.3 mA. The value of forward current ratio is

(a) 82

(b) 83

(c) 8.2

(d) 8.3

0.7 V. In the following circuit, the voltages across

the 10 W resistance in series with the diode and

20 W resistance are

10

20

Y

X

(a)

(b)

Y

X

Y

(c) X

(d) X

Z

Z

Z

(d) 3.58 V, 9.3 V

resistor 2 kW is

1 k

+ 20 V

12 V

(c) 5.35 V, 2.14 V

impurity element to be added to germanium

should be of valency

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 4

(d) 5

10 V 10

(a) 2 mA (b) 4 mA

2 k

(c) 6 mA

(d) 10 mA

electromotive force produced by monochromatic

light is proportional to

(a) the barrier voltage at p-n junction

(b) the intensity of light falling on the cell

(c) the frequency of light falling on the cell

(d) the voltage applied at the p-n junction.

38. Two pieces, one of germanium and the other of

the aluminium are cooled from T1 K to T2 K. The

resistance of

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53

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decreases.

(b) each of them decreases.

(c) aluminium decreases and that of germanium

increases.

(d) each of them increases.

(ne) and hole (nh) concentrations of 1.5 1016 m3.

Doping by indium increases nh to 4.5 1022 m3.

The doped semiconductor is of

(a) n-type with electron concentration

ne = 5 1022 m3.

(b) p-type with electron concentration

ne = 2.5 1010 m3.

(c) n-type with electron concentration

ne = 2.5 1023 m3.

(d) p-type having electron concentration

ne = 5 109 m3.

40. A full wave p-n diode rectifier uses a load resistor

of 1500 W. No filter is used. The forward bias

resistance of the diode is 10 W. The efficiency of

the rectifier is

(a) 81.2% (b) 40.6% (c) 80.6% (d) 40.2%

Communication systems

41. If the maximum amplitude of an amplitude

modulated wave is 25 V and the minimum

amplitude is 5 V, the modulation index is

1

1

3

(b)

(c)

(d) 2

(a)

5

3

2

3

42. A signal wave of frequency 12 kHz is modulated

with a carrier wave of frequency 2.51 MHz.

The upper and lower side band frequencies are

respectively

(a) 2512 kHz and 2508 kHz

(b) 2522 kHz and 2488 kHz

(c) 2502 kHz and 2498 kHz

(d) 2522 kHz and 2498 kHz

43. The frequency band used in the downlink of

satellite communication is

(a) 9.5 to 2.5 GHz

(b) 896 to 901 MHz

(c) 3.7 to 4.2 GHz

(d) 840 to 935 MHz

44. A basic communication system consists of

(A) transmitter

(B) information source

(C) user of information

(D) channel

(E) receiver

Choose the correct sequence in which these are

arranged in a basic communication system.

(a) ABCDE

(b) BADEC

(c) BDACE

(d) BEADC

54 physics for you | February 13

the signal frequency 200 4000 Hz. The channel

width of this case is

(a) 8 kHz

(b) 4 kHz

(c) 7.6 kHz

(d) 3.8 kHz

46. A n e x a m p l e o f p o i n t t o p o i n t m o d e o f

communication is

(a) FM radio

(b) standard FM radio

(c) television

(d) telephony

47. If both the length of an antenna and the wavelength

of the signal to be transmitted are doubled, the

power radiated by the antenna

(a) is doubled

(b) is halved

(c) remains constant (d) is quadrupled

48. Identify the incorrect statement from the

following.

(a) AM detection is carried out using a rectifer

and an envelope detector.

(b) Pulse position denotes the time of rise or fall

of the pulse amplitude.

(c) Modulation index m is kept 1, to avoid

distortion.

(d) Facsimile (FAX) scans the contents of the

document to create electronic signals.

49. Through which mode of propagation, the radio

waves can be sent from one place to another

(a) ground wave propagation

(b) sky wave propagation

(c) space wave propagation

(d) all of them

50. A television tower of height 140 m can broadcast

its signal upto a maxiumum area of (Radius of

earth = 6.4 106 m)

(a) 1.56 106 km2

(b) 5.6 103 km2

10

2

(c) 5.6 10 km

(d) 1.56 109 km2

solutions

1. (c) : The given nuclear reaction is

4

4 1H 2 He + 2e+ + Energy

The energy released during the process is

= [4.0313 4.002603 0.001096]u c2

= (0.027601 u)c2

= (0.027601 u)(931.5 MeV/u) = 25.7 MeV

2. (b)

3. (d) : 2 E

4

3E

E

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2

1

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E3 E1 = 2E E = E

hc

=E

From figure,

E2 E1 = E2 E3 + E3 E1

4

= E 2E + 2E E

3

2

1

= E+E= E

3

3

hc 1 hc

=

3

l = 3l

....(i)

(Using (i))

of revolution of electron in nth orbit is given as

Tn =

402 h 3n3

4

T2 2 3 8

= =

1

T1 1

me

Tn n3

radioactive decay,

Number of atoms remained undecayed after

time t is

N = N0elt

N

N

e t = 0 or t = ln 0

N

N

1 N

t = ln 0

N

T1/ 2 N0

ln

t=

ln 2

N

1.25 1010 16

ln

1

ln 2

1.25 1010 4 ln 2

=

ln 2

= 5 1010 years

=

\ R1 : R2 = 1 : 31/3

number and atomic number decreases by four

and two respectively. During the emission of

b-particle the mass number remains the same

while the atomic number increases by 1.

A

ZX

( A 12 )

( Z 6 )Y

( A 12 )

( Z 1) Y

No. of neutrons A 12 ( Z 1)

=

No. of protons

Z1

A

Z

11

=

Z1

9. (c) : Here,

Half life, T1/2 = 5 days

Initial activity, R0 = 1 microcurie

Final activity, R = 8 microcurie

As

R 1

=

R0 2

3

1 1

1

1

= or =

8

2

2

2

or n = 3

t

As n =

or t = nT1/ 2 = ( 3)( 5 days) = 15 days

T1/ 2

spontaneously into a proton, an electron and

anti-neutrino.

n p + e + u

neutron

proton

electron

anti-neutrino

or R (A)1/3

according to law of conservation of momentum,

we get

m 1v 1 + m 2v 2 = 0

v1 m2 3

.... (i)

or

=

=

v2 m1 1

As nuclear density is same,

4 3

m1 3 R1 R13

=

=

m2 4 R 3 R 3

2

2

3

3

R1 m1 1

=

=

or

(Using (i))

R 3 m2 3

So, lH = lLi = 3 h

2

while E Z2 and ZH = 1, ZLi = 3

So, ELi = 9 EH or EH < ELi

or

RBe

RGe

(9)1/ 3

( A)1/ 3

RBe

(9)1/ 3

=

2 RBe ( A)1/ 3

\ (A)1/3 = 2 (9)1/3

or

A = 23 9 = 72

The number of nucleons in Ge is 72.

12. (a) : For Brackett series,

1

1

1

= R

4 2 n2

where n = 5, 6, 7, 8, ........

For longest wavelength, n = 5

1

1

1

= R

Longest

4 2 52

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55

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1

1

9

= R =

.... (i)

R

16 25 400

For shortest wavelength, n =

1

1

1 R

= R

.... (ii)

=

Shortest

4 2 2 16

Longest R 400 25

=

=

9

Shortest 16 9 R

needed because at high temperature, the kinetic

energy becomes large enough to overcome the

coulomb repulsion between nuclei.

14. (d)

15. (a) : Given : V = V0 ln r

r

0

\ Potential energy, U = eV

or | F | =

eV0

r

eV

dU

= 0

dr

r

force.

2

eV

eV0

mv

= 0 or v =

r

r

m

By Bohrs postulate, mvr = nh

2

nh

or v =

2mr

.... (i)

.... (ii)

eV0

nh

=

2mr

m

or r =

nh

m

2m

eV0

1

n

2

meV

0

rn n

.... (ii)

A

ZX

A

Z 1Y

A 8

Z 5 Y

and atomic number 89.

\ A 8 = 227 or A = 235

and Z 5 = 89 or Z = 94

1

= e 36

8

1

and

= e x

2

From Eq. (i), we get

.... (i)

.... (ii)

1

36

= e

2

Using (ii), we get

Energy released per fission = 200 MeV

= 200 106 eV

= 200 106 1.6 1019 J

Number of fissions per minute

.... (i)

or r =

h 20

19. (b) : a0 =

me 2

h 20

a =

( 207 m)e 2

Dividing (ii) by (i), we get

a

a

1

=

or a = 0

207

a0 207

The kinetic energy of the a particle is

A4

220 4

Q=

KE =

5.5 MeV= 5.4 MeV

A

220

21. (b) : Let A and Z be mass number and atomic

number of element X.

r 1

r

dU

or U = eV0 ln

= eV0 0

dr

r r0

r0

Force, F =

9(9 1) 9 8

=

= 36

2

2

18. (d) : Let number of a particles emitted be x and

number of b particles emitted be y.

Difference in mass number = 4x = 232 208 = 24

or x = 6

Difference in charge number = 2x y

= 90 82 = 8

12 y = 8 or y = 4

Here n = 9 \ N =

3.2 106 60

6

200 10 1.6 10

= 6 1018

n(n 1)

N=

2

56 physics for you | February 13

19

36

= 12 mm

3

23. (c) : Nuclear force is charge independent.

\ Fpp = Fnn = Fnp

or e3 mx = em36 or x =

atom is given as

CZ2

, where C is a constant.

n2

For ground state of hydrogen atom, Z = 1, n = 1

En =

E1 =

C(1)2

(1)2

=C

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C ( 3) 2

9C

=

n2

n2

As En = E1

9C

= C or n2 = 9 or n = 3

n2

25. (c) : According to Bohrs quantisation condition

nh

Ln =

2

4h

For n = 4 , L4 =

2

5h

and for n = 5 , L5 =

2

\ Change in angular momentum when an

electron is excited from n = 4 to n = 5 is

5h 4 h

L = L5 L4 =

2 2

h 6.63 10 34

J s = 1.05 1034 J s

=

=

2

2 3.14

En =

if p side of junction is at higher potential and n

side of junction is at lower potential. Therefore,

option (b) is true.

A

27. (c) :

0

0

1

B

A

0

1

1

1

0

0

B

A

1

1

0

0 C

0

0

0 C

0

0

1 C

1

0

0

D

DIC = 8.2 mA

As DIE = DIB + DIC

\ DIB = DIE DIC = 8.3 mA 8.2 mA = 0.1 mA

I

Forward current ratio, h fe = C

IB VCE is constant

8.2 mA

=

= 82

0.1 mA

31. (d) :

X

Y

A = (X + Y )

Inputs of second OR gate are X and A.

Output of second OR gate is

C = X + A

= X + X + Y = X + (X Y ) = X + (X Y )

= X(1 + Y ) = X

Final output is Z = C = X = X

Ri = 500 W

R

4 10 3

= 400

Voltage gain, Av = L = 50

500

Ri

34. (b) : Let the currents through the 20 W (parallel)

and 10 W (in series with the diode) be I1 and I2

respectively.

C

0 C

29. (c)

layer decreases in forward bias.

a = b = c and a = b = g = 90

B

(I1 + I2)

I2

I1

10

20

D

E

(I1 + I2)

F

A

10 V 10

Applying Kirchhoffs second law for closed loop

ABEFA, we get

20I1 + 10(I1 + I2) 10 = 0

.... (i)

Applying Kirchhoffs second law for closed loop

BCDEB, we get

0.7 + 10I2 20I1 = 0

.... (ii)

Solving (i) and (ii), we get

I1 = 0.214 A and I2 = 0.358 A

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57

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with the diode = 0.358 A 10 W = 3.58 V

And voltage across the 20 W resistance

= 0.214 A 20 W = 4.28 V

a trivalent impurity should be added to

germanium.

The upperside band frequency = uc + us

= (2510 + 12) kHz = 2522 kHz

The lower side band frequency = uc us

= (2510 12) kHz = 2498 kHz

43. (c) : The frequency band used in the downlink

of satellite communication is 3.7 to 4.2 GHz.

regulating device. Therefore, the current in the

12 V

circuit, I =

= 6 10 3 A = 6 mA

2 k

system is shown in the figure below.

is produced by photo-voltaic action i.e. a potential

difference is created between two points whose

magnitude depends upon the intensity of incident

light.

of modulating signals.

Therefore,

Band width = 2um

= 2 4000 Hz = 8 103 Hz = 8 kHz

of aluminium is positive and of germanium is

negative. Hence the resistance of aluminium

decreases and that of germanium increases with

decreases in temperature.

(1.5 1016 m3)2 = ne (4.5 1022 m3)

ne =

(1.5 1016 m 3 )2

22

= 5 109 m 3

( 4.5 10 m )

As nh >> ne, so semiconductor is p-type and

ne = 5 109 m3.

40. (c) : Here, ri = 10 W, RL = 1500 W

Efficiency of the full wave rectifier is

=

0.812 RL

r f + RL

0.812 1500

= 0.806 = 80.6%

10 + 1500

Transmitter

User of

Information

radiated by the antenna remains constant.

48. (c) : Modulation index m is kept 1 to avoid

distortion.

49. (d)

50. (b) : Here, h = 140 m

R = 6.4 106 m

25 V 5 V 20 2

=

=

25 V + 5 V 30 3

Receiver

communication takes place over a link between

a single transmitter and a receiver. Telephony is

an example of such a mode of communication.

...(ii)

Minimum amplitude, Amin = Ac Am

Solving (i) and (ii), we get

A

+ Amin ,

A

Amin

Ac = max

Am = max

2

2

A

A

Amin

Modulation index, = m = max

Ac Amax + Amin

Channel

Coverage range, d = 2 Rh

Area covered = pd2 = p2Rh

22

=

2 6.4 106 140

7

= 5632 106 m2 = 5.6 109 m2

= 5.6 103 km2

Pdc

( 2 Im / )2 RL

=

Pac ( I / 2 )2 (r + R )

m

f

L

Information

Source

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nn

WorldMags.net

Questions for Practice

a

a t2

in the equation P =

,

b

bx

where P is pressure, x is distance and t is time

are

(a) [M2LT3]

(b) [ML0T2]

3 1

(c) [ML T ]

(d) [MLT3]

1. The dimensions of

12 m s1. It releases a packet when it is at a height

of 65 m from the ground. How much time the

packet will take to reach the ground ?

[Take g = 10 m s2]

(a) 5 s

(b) 6 s

(c) 7 s

(d) 8 s

3. A block of mass 10 kg is placed on rough

horizontal surface whose coefficient of friction is

0.5. If a horizontal force of 100 N is applied on it,

then acceleration of block will be

[Take g = 10 m s2]

(a) 10 m s2

(b) 5 m s2

2

(c) 15 m s

(d) 0.5 m s2

4. A ball with charge 50e is placed at the centre of

a hollow spherical shell has a net charge of 50e.

What is the charge on the shells outer surface?

(a) 50e (b) Zero (c) 100e (d) +100e

5. A voltmeter of resistance 998 W is connected across

a cell of emf 2 V and internal resistance 2 W. The

potential difference across the voltmeter is

(a) 1.99 V

(b) 3.5 V

(c) 5 V

(d) 6 V

6. The magnetic moment produced in a substance of

1 g is 6 107 A m2. If its density is 5 g cm3, then

the intensity of magnetisation will be

(a) 8.3 106 A m1

(b) 3.0 A m1

(c) 1.2 107 A m1

(d) 3 106 A m1

7. A planet is revolving around a star in an elliptic

orbit. The ratio of the farthest distance to the

closest distance of the planet from the star is 4.

farthest to the closest position is

(a) 1 : 16 (b) 16 : 1 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 4 : 1

8. A homogeneous disc with a radius 0.2 m and mass

5 kg rotates around an axis passing through its

centre. The angular velocity of the rotation of the

disc as a function of time is given by the formula

w = 2 + 6t. The tangential force applied to the rim

of the disc is

(a) 1 N

(b) 2 N

(c) 3 N (d) 4 N

9. A body of mass 0.01 kg

F(N)

executes simple harmonic

80

0 0.2

motion (SHM) about x = 0

0.2

x(m)

under the influence of a force

80

as shown in the adjacent

figure. The period of the

SHM is

(a) 1.05 s (b) 0.52 s (c) 0.25 s (d) 0.03 s

10. A transverse wave in a medium is described by

the equation y = A sin 2(wt kx). The magnitude of

the maximum velocity of particles in the medium

is equal to that of the wave velocity, if the value of

A is

2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

4

from bottom to surface of a lake remains constant

but its diameter is doubled. If the pressure on the

surface is equal to h metre of mercury column and

relative density of mercury is r, then the depth of

lake in metre is

(a) 2rh

(b) 4rh

(c) 8rh (d) 7rh

12. A stone of mass 2 kg is projected upwards with

kinetic energy of 98 J. The height at which the

kinetic energy of the body becomes half its

original value is

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59

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(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 5 m

(b) 2.5 m (c) 1.5 m (d) 0.5 m

stationary particle of mass M. If the particle

m stops just after collision, the coefficient of

restitution of collision is equal to

m

(a) 1

(b) m

(c) M m (d)

M+m

M+m

M

14. A body cools down from 60C to 55C in

30 s. Using Newtons law of cooling, calculate

the approximate time taken by same body to

cool down from 55C to 50C. Assume that the

temperature of surroundings is 45C.

(a) 40 s

(b) 55 s

(c) 50 s

(d) 60 s

15. A conducting circular loop is placed in a

uniform magnetic field, B = 0.025 T with its plane

perpendicular to the loop. The radius of the loop

is made to shrink at a constant rate of 1 mm s1.

The induced emf when the radius is 2 cm, is

(a) 2p mV

(b) p mV

(c)

(d) 2 mV

V

2

16. In the series LCR circuit as shown in the figure,

the voltmeter V and ammeter A readings are

400 V

400 V

9

]

R = 50

100 V, 50 Hz

(c) V = 400 V, I = 2 A (d) V = 300 V, I = 2 A

in a medium is represented by

Ex = 0,

N

rad

2 rad

Ey = 2.5 cos 2 106

x ,

t 10

C

s

m

Ez = 0.

The wave is

(a) moving along the + x direction with frequency

106 Hz and wavelength 100 m.

(b) moving along + x direction with frequency

106 Hz and wavelength 200 m.

(c) moving along x direction with frequency

106 Hz and wavelength 200 m.

(d) moving along + y direction with frequency

2p 106 Hz and wavelength 200 m.

60 physics for you |

february 13

the surface of water of refractive index m. A floating

opaque disc is placed on the surface of water so that

light from the source is not visible from the surface.

The minimum diameter of the disc is

2h

(a)

(b) 2h(m2 1)1/2

2

( 1)1/ 2

h

(c)

(d) h(m2 1)1/2

[2( 2 1)1/ 2 ]

19. An electron is moving in an orbit of a hydrogen

atom from which there can be a maximum of six

transitions. An electron is moving in an orbit of

another hydrogen atom from which there can be

a maximum of three transitions. The ratio of the

velocity of the electron in these two orbits is

1

2

3

5

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

1

4

4

20. One milliwatt of light of wavelength 4560 is

incident on a cesium surface of work function

1.9 eV. Given that quantum of efficiency

of photoelectric emission is 0.5%, Plancks

constant, h = 6.62 1034 J s, velocity of light,

c = 3 108 m s1, the photoelectric current liberated is

(a) 1.836 106 A

(b) 1.836 107 A

5

(c) 1.836 10 A

(d) 1.836 104 A

21. The distance between poles of horse shoe magnet

is 10 cm and its pole strength is 104 A m. The

magnetic field at a point P midway between the

poles is

(a) zero

(b) 8 109 T

7

(c) 2 10 T

(d) 8 107 T

22. Find the potential difference between the points E

and F in the figure given below. Assume E and F

are the midpoints of AB and DC respectively.

(+q)

6m

(+q)

D

+q/2

C

+q/2

(c) (1.5 109q) volt

23. As the switch S is closed

in the circuit shown in

figure, current passed

through it is

(a) zero

(b) 1 A

(c) 2 A

(d) 1.6 A

WorldMags.net

4m

(d) (3 109q) volt

10 V 4

2

2

S

5V

WorldMags.net

exerts a force, given by F = ( 5x 16x3) N. The

work done, when the spring is stretched from

0.1 m to 0.2 m is

(a) 8.1 102 J

(b) 12.2 102 J

1

(c) 8.1 10 J

(d) 12.2 101 J

below the free surface. By what amount is the

pressure inside the bubble greater than the

atmospheric pressure?

(a) 1030 N m2

(b) 1230 N m2

2

(c) 1130 N m

(d) 1330 N m2

energy E. What will happen if the satellites kinetic

energy is made 2E?

(a) Radius of the orbit is doubled

(b) Radius of the orbit is halved

(c) Period of revolution is doubled

(d) Satellite escapes away

along the path acb as shown in figure, 60 J of heat

flows into the system and 30 J of work is done by

the system. Along the path adb, if the work done

by the system is 10 J, heat flow into the system is

conveyor belt moving horizontally with a velocity

of 0.2 m s1. Then the extra force required to keep

the belt moving is

(a) 0.4 N (b) 0.08 N (c) 0.04 N (d) 0.02 N

27. A solid sphere is rolling on a frictionless surface,

shown in figure with a translational velocity

v m s1. If it is to climb the inclined surface then v

should be

(a) 100 J

(b) 20 J

(c) 80 J

(d) 40 J

33. In the circuit shown, the cell is ideal, with

emf = 15 V. Each resistance R is of 3 W. The potential

difference across the capacitor of capacitance 3 mF

is

C = 3 F

(a) 10 gh

7

(b) 2gh

(c) 2gh

(d)

10

gh

7

28. The average translational kinetic energy of

O2 (molar mass 32) molecules at a particular

temperature is 0.048 eV. The translational kinetic

energy of N2 (molar mass 28) molecules in eV at

the same temperature is

(a) 0.0015

(b) 0.003

(c) 0.048

(d) 0.768

29. Two simple harmonic motions are represented

3

y2 = 0.1 cospt. The phase difference of the velocity of

particle 1 with respect to the velocity of particle 2 is

(a)

(b) (c)

(d)

3

3

6

6

30. A pipe 30.0 cm long is open at both ends. Which

harmonic mode of the pipe is resonantly excited

by a 1.1 kHz source? Take the speed of sound in

air as 330 m s1.

(a) First harmonic

(b) Second harmonic

(c) Third harmonic

(d) Fourth harmonic

31. There is an air bubble of radius 1.0 mm in a

liquid of surface tension 0.075 N m1 and density

R

15 V

(a) zero

(b) 9 V

(c) 12 V (d) 15 V

1.5 m carries a current of 2 A. It is suspended in

mid-air by a uniform horizontal magnetic field B.

The magnitude of B (in tesla) is

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 2

(b) 1.5

(c) 0.55

(d) 0.66

primary of a transformer. If mutual inductance

between primary and secondary be 1.5 H, the

crest voltage in secondary is

(a) 75 V (b) 150 V (c) 471 V (d) 300 V

36. When 100 V dc is applied across a coil, a current

of 1 A flows through it. When 100 V 50 Hz ac is

applied to the same coil, only 0.5 A flows. The

inductance of the coil is

(a) 5.5 mH

(b) 0.55 mH

(c) 55 mH

(d) 0.55 H

37. Youngs experiment is performed with light of

wavelength 6000 wherein 16 fringes occupy a

certain region on the screen. If 24 fringes occupy

WorldMags.net

61

WorldMags.net

l, then l is

(a) 6000 (b) 4500 (c) 5000 (d) 4000

the x-direction has wavelength of 6.0 mm. The

electric field is in the y-direction and its maximum

magnitude of 33 V m1. The equation for the

electric field as function of x and t is

x

x

(a) 11 sinp(t )

(b) 33 sinp 1011(t )

c

c

x

x

(c) 33 sinp (t )

(d) 11 sinp 1011 (t )

c

c

39. A convex lens of focal length 1.0 m and a concave

lens of focal length 0.25 m are 0.75 m apart. A

parallel beam of light is incident in the convex

lens. The beam emerging after refraction from

both lenses is

(a) parallel to principal axis

(b) convergent

(c) divergent

(d) none of these

40. The wavelength of the first line of Lyman series

for hydrogen atom is equal to that of the second

line of Balmer series for a hydrogen like ion. The

atomic numer Z of hydrogen like ion is

(a) 4

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 3

41. A particle moving with uniform acceleration

has velocity 6 m s1 at a distance of 5 m from the

initial position. After moving another 7 m, the

velocity becomes 8 m s1. The initial velocity and

acceleration of the particle are

(a) 2 m s1, 4 m s2

(b) 4 m s1, 2 m s2

1

2

(c) 4 m s , 4 m s

(d) 6 m s1, 1 m s2

42. A particle is moving along a circular path of radius

5 m with uniform speed of 5 m s1. What will be

average acceleration when the particle completes

half revolution ?

(a) zero

(b) 10 m s2

10

(c) 10p m s2

(d)

m s2

figure. All surfaces are smooth except between

B and C. Friction coefficient between B and C is

m. Minimum value of F to prevent block B from

downward slipping is

F

A

2m

B

m

C

2m

3

(a) mg

2

5

(b) mg

2

5

(c) mmg

2

(d) 3 mmg

2

february 13

to the fourth floor, a distance of 20 m. As it passes

the fourth floor its speed is 4 m s1. There is a

constant frictional force of 500 N. The work done

by the lifting mechanism is

(a) 196 103 J

(b) 204 103 J

3

(c) 214 10 J

(d) 203 105 J

45. A body is projected vertically upwards from the

surface of a planet of radius R with a velocity

equal to half of the escape velocity for that planet.

The maximum height attained by the body is

R

R

R

R

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

3

4

5

SOLUTIONS

2

at

bx

[a] = [T2], as t2 is subtracted from a.

From, P =

1. (b) : P =

a t2 t2

=

bx

bx

t2

[T 2 ]

= [M1L0T4]

[b] = =

Px [ML1T 2 ][L]

a

[T 2 ]

=

= [ML0T2]

b [M 1L0T 4 ]

ground and it is released initially with the velocity

of balloon, so

a = + g = 10 m s2, S = 65 m, t = ?

1

S = ut + at2

2

65 = 12t + 5t2 or 5t2 12t 65 = 0

12 144 + 1300 12 38

=

= 5 s or 2.6 s

10

10

Time cannot be negative. Therefore, t = 5 s.

t=

3. (b) :

N

m

f

mg

Here, m = 10 kg, g = 10 m s2, m = 0.5

F = 100 N

Force of friction, f = mN = mmg

= 0.5 10 kg 10 m s2 = 50 N

Force that produces acceleration

F = F f = 100 N 50 N = 50 N

F 50 N

a=

=

= 5 m s 2

m 10 kg

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

( 50e 50e) = 100e.

5. (a) :

2V

2

998

V

2V

I=

=

= 2 103 A

R + r 998 + 2

V = IR = (2 103 A) 998 W = 1.996 V

M

M

I=

=

V Mass

Density

Given: Mass = 1 g = 103 kg

5 10 3 kg

and density = 5 g cm3 =

= 5 103 kg m3

2 3 3

(

10

)

m

Hence, I =

6 10 7 A m 2 5 10 3 kg m 3

10 3 kg

= 3 A m 1

during the revolution of planet. Because

gravitational force is a central force.

Planet

rmax

vmin

Star

vmax

momentum, we get

mvmaxrmin = mvminrmax

where vmin is the speed of the planet when it is

farthest from the star and vmax is the speed of the

planet when it is closest to the star.

vmin rmin

=

...(i)

v

r

max

max

As per question

rmax

=4

rmin

1

2

2

r

KEFarthest 2 mvmin

=

= min

1

KEClosest

r

mv 2max max

2

2

1

1

= =

4

16

F=

(Using (i))

1

1

MR = 5 0.2 6 = 3.0 N

2

2

From the given graph,

(80 0) N

k = Slope of F-x graph =

= 400 N m 1

(0.2 0) m

Time period of SHM is

rmin

8. (c) : Given : w = 2 + 6t

d

=

=6

dt

t = FR = Ia

where R is the radius of the disc.

1

2

I 2 MR

F=

=

R

R

T = 2

m

0.01 kg

= 2

= 0.03 s

k

400 N m 1

y = A sin2(wt kx)

dy

Velocity of the particle =

= 2Awcos2(wt kx)

dt

Maximum velocity = 2Aw

Coefficient of t 2

Velocity of the wave =

=

=

Coefficient of x 2 k k

As per question

2 A =

or 2 A = =

A=

k

k 2

4

P1V1 = P2V2

4

\ (Hrwater + hrmercury) g ( pr3)

3

4

= hrmercury g ( p(2r)3)

3

or Hrwater = 8hrmercury hrmercury

mercury

or

H = 7h

water

\

H = 7hr

12. (b) : At the time of projection kinetic energy of the

stone,

1

K = mu2

2

where m is the mass of the stone and u is the

velocity of the projection

2 K 2 98

=

= 98

m

2

Using, v2 = u2 2gh

or

u2 =

WorldMags.net

63

WorldMags.net

u2

( v = 0)

h=

2g

98

h=

=5m

2 9.8

1

Also , K = m ( 2 gh)

2

1

1

and K = mv 2 = m ( 2 gh )

2

2

K h

=

K

h

...(i)

(Using (i))

T + T

T1 T2

= K 1 2 Ts

2

t

where Ts is the temperature of the surroundings.

60 + 55

60 55

= K

45

2

30

As V =

100 =

VR2 + (VL VC )2

VR2 + 0 = VR or VR = 100 V

the reading of ammeter A is 2 A.

rad

N

2 rad

cos 2 106

Ey = 2.5

x ,

t 10

s

m

Ez = 0.

This shows that the wave is propagating along

+ x direction.

Comparing

the

given

equation

with

Ey = E0cos(wt kx), we get

2

and k = 10 2 or k =

= 10 2

2

= 200 m

or =

10 2

18. (a) : The figure shows incidence from water at

critical angle qc for the limiting case.

Disc

...(i)

55 + 50

55 50

...(ii)

= K

45

2

t

Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq.(ii), we get

5

30 = 12.5 or t = 12.5 or t = 12.5 30 = 50 s

5

30 7.5

7.5

7.5

t

15. (b) : Here, Magnetic field, B = 0.025 T

Radius of the loop, r = 2 cm = 2 102 m

Constant rate at which radius of the loop

dr

shrinks,

= 1 10 3 m s 1

dt

Magnetic flux linked with the loop is

f = BAcosq = B(pr2)cos0 = Bpr2

The magnitude of the induced emf is

d d (

dr

=

=

Br 2 ) = B2r

dt

dt

dt

16. (a) : As VL = VC \ XL = XC

The circuit is resonance circuit.

100 V

Current, I =

=2A

50

= p 106 V = p mV

K

h

K

=

or

K =

2K h

2

h 5

h = = m = 2.5 m

2 2

13. (b) : According to law of conservation of linear

momentum, we get

mu

mu + 0 = 0 + Mv2 v2 =

...(i)

M

As per definition,

mu

v2 0 v2

( v2 v1 )

m

(Using(i))

e=

=

=

= M =

u

0u

(u2 u1 )

u

M

february 13

r

h

Air

Water

Light

source

1

1

so that tan c =

( 2 1)1/ 2

r

From figure, tan c =

h

where r is the radius of the disc.

Therefore, diameter of the disc is

2h

2r = 2 h tan c =

( 2 1)1/ 2

19. (d) : Number of spectral lines obtained due to

transition of an electron from nth orbit to lower

orbits is

n(n 1)

N=

2

In the first case, N = 6

n(n 1)

6=

n=4

2

Now, sin c =

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

n(n 1)

n=3

3=

2

Velocity of an electron in hydrogen atom in nth

orbit is

2 e 2

1

vn =

;v

4 0nh n n

magnetic field due to each pole is in the same

direction.

m

m

\ B = B1 + B2 = 0 21 + 22

4 r

r

As m1 = m2 and r1 = r2

2 m 10 ( 2 10 )

\ B = 0

= 8 109 T

=

4 r 2

( 5 10 2 )2

22. (a) :

(+q)

6m

(+q)

D

+q/2

C

+q/2

Potential at E,

q q / 2 q / 2

1 q

VE =

+

+

+

4 0 AE BE DE

CE

1 q q q / 2 q / 2 = 1 2q + q

+ +

+

4 0 3 3

5

5 4 0 3 5

Potential at F,

q q / 2 q / 2

1 q

VF =

+

+

+

4 0 AF BF DF

CF

1 q q q / 2 q / 2 = 1 2q + q

=

+ +

+

4 0 5 3

4 5 5

3

3

0

I1

4 C

2

I3

2

I2 B

5V

Applying Kirchhoffs first law at C, we get

I1 + I 2 = I 3

10 V 5 V V 0

+

=

4

2

2

10 V + 10 2V = 2V or V = 4 V

I3 =

4V

= 2A

2

xf

4m

10 V

A

q 1 1

2q

=

4 0 3 5 15 4 0

P

hc /

\ No. of photoelectrons emitted per second

0.5

1

P

=

N=

100

200 hc

1 P

\ Photoelectric current =

e

200 hc

(10 3 ) ( 4560 10 10 ) (1.6 10 19 )

1

=

200

(6.62 10 34 ) ( 3 108 )

6

= 1.836 10 A

1 2q q 2q q

+

4 0 3 5 5 3

2

9 109 q = 1.2 109 q volt.

15

23. (c) : The currents through various arms will be as

shown in figure.

v

3

4 =

v3 4

hc

20. (a) : Energy of photon =

Power of lamp = P

VE VF =

W=

xi

Fdx =

0.2

( 5x 16 x

0.1

)dx

0.2

= x2 4x4

0.1

2

5

5

= (0.2)2 4(0.2)4 + (0.1)2 + 4(0.1)4

2

2

= 0.1 0.0064 + 0.025 + 0.0004

= 0.081 = 8.1 102 J

earth is

1

E = mv 2, where v is the orbital velocity.

2

2

\ 2 E = 1 m ( 2 v )

2

2v is the escape velocity of the satellite from the

earth.

\ When the kinetic energy of satellite is made

2E, satellite escapes away.

26. (a) : Force required to keep the belt moving = F

dm

= 0.2 m s1 2 kg s1 = 0.4 N

F=v

dt

27. (a) : From conservation of energy

Potential energy = Translational + Rotational

kinetic energy kinetic energy

WorldMags.net

65

WorldMags.net

1

1

mv 2 + I 2

2

2

v2

1

1 2

mgh = mv 2 + mR2

2

2 5

R2

1

2 1

2

or mgh = mv + mv

2

5

or

mgh =

mgh =

For the path acb,

7

10

mv 2 or v 2

gh

10

7

28. (c) : The average translational kinetic energy of a

3

molecule of a gas = kBT which is independent

2

of mass of molecule but depends upon the

temperature of the gas.

3

dy

Velocity, v1 = 1

dt

= 0.1 100pcos(100pt + )

3

y = 0.1cospt

or

= 0.1sin(pt + )

2

dy

Velocity, v2 = 2 = 0.1 pcos(pt + )

2

dt

\ Phase difference of the velocity of particle 1

w.r.t. particle 2 is

= (100pt + ) (pt + )

2

3

= 99pt +

3

2

At t = 0, phase difference =

=

3

6

2

In case of an open organ pipe, fundamental

frequency = frequency of 1st harmonic

330

v

1 = =

= 550 Hz

2l 2 30 10 2

The frequncies of 2nd harmonic, 3rd harmonic,

4th harmonic,.... are

2 550 Hz = 1100 Hz;

3 550 Hz = 1650 Hz;

4 550 Hz = 2200 Hz and so on.

Hence, the source of frequency 1.1 kHz i.e.,

1100 Hz will resonantly excite second harmonic.

31. (c) : Here, r = 1.0 mm = 103 m,

S = 0.075 N m1, r = 103 kg m3;

h = 10 cm = 10 102 m

The pressure inside the bubble which is greater

than the atmospheric pressure is

2S

=

+ hg

r

66 physics for you |

february 13

\ DUacb = Qacb Wacb

P

= 60 J 30 J = 30 J

a

d

For the path adb,

V

Qadb = DUadb + Wadb

DUacb = DUadb, change in internal energy is path

independent.

\ Qadb = 30 J + 10 J = 40 J

no current. Hence potential difference across

capacitor = Potential difference across C and F.

3

B

I1

2 0.075

+ 10 10 2 10 3 9.8

10 3

= 150 + 980 = 1130 N m2

A

I

H

3 F

I1

3

I2 3

D I

F

I

G

15 V

Refer figure.

Effective resistance of the network between A and

D is

( 3 + 3) 3

R1 =

=2

( 3 + 3) + 3

Total resistance of the circuit = 2 W + 3 W = 5 W

15 V

Current, I =

=3A

5

( 3 A)( 3 )

I1 =

= 1A

3+6

and

I2 =

( 3 A)(6 )

= 2A

3+6

Potential difference across A and D = 3 W 2 A = 6 V

Potential difference across D and F,

VD VF = 3 W 3 A = 9 V

Potential difference across C and D,

VC VD = 3 W 1 A = 3 V

Potential difference across C and F = VC VF

= (VC VD) + (VD VF)

= 3 V + 9 V = 12 V

\ Potential difference across capacitor

= VC VF = 12 V

34. (d) : Magnetic force on a straight wire

F = BIl sin90 = BIl

Weight of the wire, W = mg

Since the wire remains suspended in mid-air so,

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

BIl = mg

mg ( 200 10 3 ) 10

or B =

=

= 0.66 T

Il

2 1.5

I = I0 sinwt, the emf induced in the secondary is

dI

d

s = M P = M [ I 0 sin t ]

dt

dt

s = MI 0cos t = 2 MI 0 cos t [as w = 2pu]

\ (es)max = 2puMI0

Note:

[as (coswt)max = 1]

dI

1

= 300 V is wrong as it

(es)max = M = 1.5

dt

1 1

4 50

will give the average value (over a quarter cycle)

and not the required peak value.

36. (d) : R =

V 100 V

=

= 100

I

1A

Vrms 100 V

=

= 200

0.5 A

I rms

Z=

As R2 + X L2 = Z 2

As XL = wL = 2puL = 2p 50 L

\ L =

\ n2 = 24 fringes

As n1l1 = n2l2

1 n2

=

2 n1

6000 24

=

2

16

2 =

= 2 =

1 1

0.75

+

0.25

1

(1)( 0.25)

=14+3=3+3=0

Since, power of the system is zero therefore, the

incident parallel beam of light will remain parallel

after emerging from the system.

series for hydrogen atom is

1

1

1 3

4

= R = R or =

2

2

R

4

3

2

1

The wavelength of the second line of Balmer series

for hydrogen like ion is

1

1

1 3 2

16

= Z2 R =

Z R or =

2

2

16

4

3Z 2 R

2

As per question, l = l

4

16

=

or

or Z2 = 4 or Z = 2

3 3Z 2

acceleration of the particle.

Using v2 u2 = 2aS

62 u2 = 2a 5

...(i)

and 82 u2 = 2a(5 + 7) = 2a 12

...(ii)

Solving (i) and (ii), we get

a = 2 m s2 and u = 4 m s1

42. (d) : Change in velocity when the particle

completes half revolution is

6000 16 96000

= 4000

=

24

24

= 33 sinp 1011 (t

XL

100 3

=

= 0.55 H

100 100

Ey = E0 sin t

x

)

c

d

1

1

39. (a) : Power of system =

+

f1 f2 f1 f2

2 c 2 3 108

=

6 10 3

= p 1011 rad s1

The equation for the electric field, along y-axis in

the electromagnetic wave is

Dv = 5 m s1 ( 5 m s1) = 10 m s1

Time taken to complete the half revolution is

r 5 m

t=

=

= s

v 5 m s 1

v 10 m s 1 10

Average acceleration =

= m s 2

=

s

F

F

...(i)

a=

=

2 m + m + 2 m 5m

C

Free body diagram of C gives

2

N

N = 2 ma = F (Using (i))

5

a

WorldMags.net

67

WorldMags.net

Now B will not slide downward if

mN mBg

or

So

5

2

mg

F mg or F

5

2

Fmin =

5

mg

2

= 1000 9.8 20 = 196 103 J

Work done to impart velocity to the body = 1 mv 2

2

1

= 103 16 = 8 103 J

2

Work done against frictional force = 500 20

= 10 103 J

3

Total work done = 214 10 J

Velocity of projection, v =

is

Ei = KE + PE

1

GMm 1 2GM GMm

= mv 2

= m

2

R

2

4R

R

3 GMm

4 R

Let the maximum height attained by the body be

h. At this height, the total energy of the body is

GMm

E f = KE + PE = 0

R+h

=

From the principle of conservation of energy,

Ei = Ef

2GM

R

planet respectively.

ve 1 2GM

=

2 2

R

3 GMm

GMm

=

4 R

R+h

or 3(R + h) = 4R or 3 R + 3h = 4 R h =

vvv

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10 Model Test Papers

19 yrs.

Chapterwise

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69

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Voltage gain = 50

Input resistance, Ri = 100 W

Output resistance, Ro = 200 W

200

R

Resistance gain = o =

=2

Ri 100

(Voltage gain)2 50 50

Power gain =

=

= 1250

Resistance gain

2

3R

from the centre

2

of a charged conducting spherical shell of radius

R

R is E. The electric field at a distance

from the

2

centre of the sphere is

E

E

(a) zero (b) E

(c)

(d)

2

3

q is the angle between them. The angle between

(a)

(b)

(c) 2q

(d) q

4

2

2

2

or mr rr r = m f r f f

front.

[rr = 2rf (Given)]

m(2rf)2wr = mrf2wf

f

\ 4wr = wf or r =

4

Hence, the angular velocity of rear wheel will be

smaller compared to front wheel.

3. (b) : The frequency of kinetic energy is twice the

frequency of simple harmonic motion.

4. (c) : Let the block and bullet meet after time t, at a

distance x vertically below the top of the cliff.

Taking vertical downwards motion of block for

time t

1

( u = 0) ...(i)

x = 0 + gt 2

2

Taking vertical upwards motion of bullet for time t

1

100 x = 100t gt 2

...(ii)

2

Adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

100 = 100t or t = 1 s

february 13

SOLUTIONS

1. (c) : By covering the aperture of diameter d/2,

focal length of lens is not affected. Area reduces

by (1/4)th. So does the intensity.

\ New focal length = f, and

I

3I

=

New intensity = I

4

4

2. (b) : As no external torque acts on the system,

angular momentum will remain conserved.

According to law of conservation of angular

momentum,

I1w1 = I2w2

5. (c) : Here,

3/ 2

T2 1.02 R

=

= 1.03

T1 R

T T1

Percentage difference = 2

100

T1

T R3/ 2

= 2 1 100

T1

= (1.03 1) 100

= 0.03 100 = 3%

For the same banking angle

vmax R

vmax

=

vmax

R

R vmax

or

=

R

R vmax

As per question

10

11

vmax

= vmax +

v

= v

= 1.1 vmax

2

R 1.1 vmax

= 1.21

=

R vmax

h = 80%, Ip = ?

=

Vs I s

VI

or I p = s s

Vp I p

Vp

Ip =

(440 V)(2 A)

=5 A

80

(220 V)

100

stationary, the block of mass M released from

2Mg

(before coming it rest

rest comes down by

k

momentarily again). Thus the maximum extension

in the spring is

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2 Mg

...(i)

k

For block of mass m to just move up the incline

kx = mgsin 37 + mmgcos 37

...(ii)

3 3

4

(Using (i))

2 Mg = mg + mg

5 4

5

3

or M = m

5

10. (d) : When the frequency of incident light is

halved, its frequency becomes 0.75u0 which is

less than threshold frequency (u0). Hence, no

photoelectric emission will take place.

x=

D

11. (b) : Cross - sectional area, A =

4

where D is the diameter of the wire.

A 2 D

=

A

D

D 1 A 1

=

= 2% = 1 %

or

D

2 A 2

Poissons ratio, =

or

GMms

rs2

ms vs2

rs

GM

vs =

rs

Kinetic energy of the satellite is

K=

1

1 GM GMms

m v2 = m

=

2 s s 2 s rs

2rs

(i)

(Using (i))

GMms

U=

rs

Total energy of the satellite is

...(i)

E = K +U =

GMms GMms

GMms

=

2rs

rs

2rs

...(ii)

The angular momentum L of the satellite is given

by

D / D

l / l

l D / D

1

=

=

= 2.5 %

l

0.4

(Using (i))

can imagine one particle of mass (1 + 2 + 3) kg at

(2, 2, 2). Let the second particle of mass 4 kg be

put at (x2, y2, z2).

Given (xCM, yCM, zCM) = (0, 0 , 0)

m x + m2 x2

Using xCM = 1 1

m1 + m2

6 2 + 4 x2

5+4

x2 = 3

Similarly, we get

y2 = 3, z2 = 3

0=

15. (b) : Let e be the emf and r be the internal resistance

of the battery.

As per question

16

12 =

...(i)

16 + r

10

10 + r

Dividing (i) by (ii), we get

12 8(10 + r)

3 2 (10 + r)

=

or

=

11 5(16 + r)

11 5 (16 + r)

and 11 =

15(16 + r) = 22(10 + r)

240 + 15r = 220 + 22r

20

7r = 20 or r =

7

16. (a) : The velocity vs of the satellite is given by

...(ii)

L = msvsrs = ms GM

r

s

2

1/2

= (GMms rs)

1/ 2

rs

(Using(i))

(iii)

L = (2Emsrs2)1/2

17. (a) : Given : x = 36t

and

2y = 96t 9.8t2

or

y = 48t 4.9t2

Let the initial velocity of projectile be u and angle

of projection is q. Then,

Initial horizontal component of velocity,

dx

ux = ucosq =

= 36

dt t =0

or

ucosq = 36

Initial vertical component of velocity,

dy

uy = usinq =

= 48

dt t =0

(i)

or

(ii)

usinq = 48

\

48 4

=

36 3

4

4

sinq =

or q = sin1

5

5

tanq =

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71

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v u

v + u

and 2 =

Then, 1 =

v

v

\

Du = u2 u1 = u

2u

v

2u

100 =

100 = 2

v

v

300

u=

=

= 3 m s1

100 100

So,

1

1

1

= ( 1)

f

R1 R2

Here, m =

\

5

, R = , R2 = 0.3

3 1

4

h.

5

4

1

\ Total mechanical energy, E2 = mg h + mv 2

5

2

According to the law conservation of mechanical

energy,

Let v be velocity of stone at height h =

0.9

or f =

= 0.45 m

2

25 N s 1

I

=

= 500 N

20. (a) : Fav =

t

0.05 s

Heat energy

Mass

E2 = E1

4

1

mgh + mv 2 = mgh

5

2

4

2

or v = 2 g h h

2

...(i)

gh

5

Required ratio of kinetic energy to its potential

4

energy at h = h is

5

1

1

2

mgh

K.E. 2 mv

(Using (i))

=

= 5

P.E. 4

4

mgh

mgh

5

5

1

=

4

or v =

[ML2T 2 ]

= [M 0L2T 2 ]

[M]

1

22. (d) : In case of electric dipole, F 3

r

3

1

F 2r

1

F

=

or F =

=

3

F

8

8

1

r

r = 0.3 mm = 0.03 cm

v = 1 m s1 = 100 cm s1

According to Stoke law,

Viscous force, F = 6phrv

F = 6p 18 105 poise 0.03 cm 100 cm s1

= 101.73 104 dyne

1

1 5

1

2

=

1

=

f 3

0.3

0.9

= 5 W + 10 W + 5 W = 20 W

m0 = 4p 107 H m1

As B = m0mrH

1 Wb m 2

10 5

B

r =

=

=

7

1

1

6

0 H 4 10 H m 150 A m

A

27. (b) : B

and b.

A

B

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

28. (b) :

2k

72 physics for you |

february 13

WorldMags.net

2k

0

1

0

0

k

M

2k

WorldMags.net

their equivalent spring constant is

( 2 k )( 2 k )

=k

k1 =

2k + 2k

Springs on the right of the block are in parallel,

hence their equivalent spring constant is

k2 = k + 2k = 3k

Now again both k1 and k2 are in parallel.

\ keq = k1 + k2 = k + 3k = 4k

Hence, frequency of the system is

1 keq

1 4k

=

=

2 M

2 M

29. (c) : The oscillator frequency should be same as

protons cyclotron frquency.

Bq

Cyclotron frequency, =

2

m

or Bq = 2pmu

...(i)

Kinetic energy of proton is

q 2 B2r 2 ( 2 m)2 r 2

(Using (i))

=

2m

2m

= 2p2mu2r2

Substituting the given values, we get

K=

K=

= 5.1 MeV

1.6 10 13

1 T

(i)

2L

where the symbols have their usual meanings.

When the length of a stretched string is shortened

by 40% and the tension is increased by 44%, then

its length and tension becomes

40

3

L = L

L= L

100

5

44

36

T= T

100

25

2

=

1

5

5 6 10 7

=

m = 15 107 m

2

2

33. (a)

A + m

sin

2

34. (b) : =

sin( A / 2)

where m is the refractive index, A is the angle of

prism and dm is the angle of minimum deviation.

Given : A = 60, m = 1.414

60 + m

sin

2

2=

sin 30

1

2

60 + m

60 + m

= sin

or sin 45 = sin

2

2

60 + m

or dm = 90 60 = 30

2

dT A 4

=

[T Ts4 ]

dt ms

A

or

s=

[T 4 Ts4 ]

dT

m

dt

m = 34.38 g = 34.38 103 kg,

s = 5.73 108 Wm2 K4,

dT

= 0.04C s1

dt

T = 400 K, Ts = 300 K

1 T

2L

1

36 T

2 T

=

3 25 2 L

2 L

5

\ S1P S2P =

45 =

For nth dark fringe,

2

MeV

string is

T = T +

particles.

s=

=

(ii)

34.38 10 3 0.04

34.38 10 3 0.04

= 1400 K

N0

= N0el5

e

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73

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1

5

The activity reduces to half its initial value in half

life period,

ln 2 ln 2

T1/ 2 =

=

= 5 ln 2

1/ 5

5l = 1 or l =

at the centre O due to

current in the inner coil is

10 2 0.2

B1 = 0

4

0.2

0.3 A

0.2A

O

AT BT 2

V

AT BT 2

or V =

P

41. (b) : P =

Since P is constant

AdT 2 BTdT

P

or PdV = (A 2BT) dT

\ dV =

Workdone, W = PdV =

0.2 m

0.4 m

centre O due to current in

the outer coil is

10 2 0.3

B2 = 0

4

0.4

200

=

4

+

30

30

15 P 14 Si + e

positron

43. (c) :

B = B1 B2

[Since B1 and B2 are in opposite directions]

Q 8 10 4 cal

=

T

273 K

= 293 cal K1

2C

E

B

2C

2C/3

6

6

= 1000 10 10 V

0.2

2C/3

= 10 103 V = 10 mV

40. (b) : Number of neutrons in 126 C = 12 6 = 6

february 13

B

N B

N B

Initial

= Final

t

t

= 2 105 500 104 cos180 = 106 Wb

The average induced emf in the coil is

Number of neutrons in

C

G

the figure below.

= 2 105 500 104 cos0 = 106 Wb

Final flux after rotation

fBFinal = BAcos180

B = 2 105 Wb m2

Initial flux through the coil

fBInitial = BAcosq

2

Change in entropy, S =

D

C

3 5

1 4 = 4 0 T

water at 0C is

Q = mice Lice = (1 kg) (80 cal g1)

= (1000 g) (80 cal g1) = 8 104 cal

( A 2 BT )dT

T1

42. (d) :

T2

14

6C

= 14 6 = 8

CAB =

2C 2C 4C

+

=

3

3

3

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` 17

` 17

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` 200

75

WorldMags.net

dy

dx

= b2 x

dt

dt

vy = 2bxvx

get

dvy

dv

dx

= 2bvx

+ 2bx x = 2 bvx2 + 0

dt

dt

dt

dvx

= 0, because the particle has constant

dt

acceleration along y-direction]

[

As per question

dvy

2

= a = 2bvx2 or vx =

a

or vx =

2b

dt

45. (c) : Here, G = 50 W, Ig = 0.05 A , I = 5 A,

a

2b

= 2.97 106 m2

r = 5 10 7 W m

I gG

0.05 50 50

=

=

S=

I Ig

5 0.05 99

Now, S =

\ l=

1

m = 10 cm

10

(ii) Angular frequency, w = 60 rad s1

(i) Amplitude , A =

l

SA

or l =

A

50 ( 2.97 10 6 )

= 3.0 m

99

( 5 10 7 )

46. (c) :

or A3v3 = A1v1 A2v2

1

or v3 =

[ A v A2 v2 ]

A3 1 1

1

[0.2 4 0.2 2] = 1 m s 1

=

0.4

47. (c) : The given wave equation is

1

y=

sin( 60t + 2 x)

10

Compare it with the standard wave equation

y = Asin(wt + kx)

60 rad s 1

=

= 30 m s 1

k 2 rad m 1

v=

60 30

=

=

=

Hz

2 2

2 2

=

= m

k

2

As there is positive sign between t and x terms, the

given wave is moving in the negative x direction.

\ Wavelength of the wave, =

n2 = 2, T2 = 700 K

Tmixture =

n1T1 + n2T2

n1 + n2

4 400 K + 2 700 K

4+2

1600 K + 1400 K

= 500 K

6

conducting spherical shell is zero as charge only

resides on the outer surface of the conducting

spherical shell.

makes an angle a

Then

tan =

B sin

A sin

=

A = B Given

A + B cos A + A cos

2 sin cos

sin

2

2 = tan

=

=

1 + cos

2

2

2 cos

2

=

2

mmm

We get,

76 physics for you |

february 13

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kinematics

Homogeneity Principle

Mean absolute error

| a1 | + | a2 | +... + | an |

n

1 n

= | ai |

n i =1

amean =

amean

Instantaneous speed

a + a2 + .... + an

Arithmetic mean amean = 1

amean =

1

ai

n i

=1

Speed =

time taken

total distance travelled

Average speed =

total time taken

s1 + s2 + s3 ......

i.e. vav =

t1 + t2 + t3 ......

=

amean

mean value

amean

100%

Percentage error a =

amean

=

n 1

1

VC = 1

(value of 1 MSD) or

(value of

n

n

MSD).

Least count of screw gauge or spherometer

Pitch

and

Number of divisions on circular scale

Pitch =

Number of rotaations given

or n = number of quantities.

of curvature using spherometer

Radius

Random error =

R=

l2 h

+

6h 2

= lim

t 0 t

ds

dt

displacement

time taken

total displacement

Average velocity =

total time taken

Velocity =

Acceleration a =

Change in velocity

time taken

Average acceleration

aav =

t

Instantaneous acceleration

v

a = lim .

t 0 t

motion

v = u + at

1 2

at

2

2

2

v u = 2as

a

sn = u + ( 2n 1)

2

where u is initial velocity, v is final velocity, a is

uniform acceleration, s is distance travelled in time

t, sn is distance covered in nth second. These

equations are not valid if the acceleration is nonuniform.

Equation of motion for a body under gravity

v = u + gt

s = ut +

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77

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1 2

gt

2

2

2

v u = 2gh

1

hn = u + g( 2n 1)

2

Relative velocity

If two bodies are moving along the same line

in the same direction with velocities vA and vB

relative to earth, the velocity of B relative to A

will be given by vBA = vB vA.

If the bodies are moving towards or away

from each other as directions of vA and vB

are opposite velocity of B relative to A will be

vBA = vB (vA) = vB + vA.

Relative velocity of rain

vm

vr

Where, vm = velocity of man vr = velocity of rain

and a is the angle with the vertical direction at

which man should hold umbrella to save himself

from the rain.

a

^

Unit vector, a =

|a|

where, a^ is the unit vector drawn in the direction

Dot or scalar product

a b = ab cos ,

0qp

Properties of dot product

a b = b a

a ( b + c ) = a b + a c

m( a b ) = ma b = a ( mb ) = ( a b )m

where m is a scalar

tan =

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

i i = j j = k k = 1,

i j = j k = k j = 0

If a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k

a a = a 2 = a12 + a22 + a33 .

b b = b 2 = b12 + b22 + b33 .

Cross or vector product

^

a b = ab sin n .

0qp

a b = b a

february 13

m( a b ) = ( ma ) b = a ( mb ) = ( a b )m ,

where m is a scalar.

a ( b + c ) = a b + a c

h = ut +

If a = a1i + a2 j + a3 k

^

^

^

and b = b1i + b2 j + b3k , then

^

i

j

a b = a1 a2

b1 b2

k

a3

b3

a and b .

If a b = 0 and a and b are not null vectors,

Parallelogram law of vector addition

R = a + b , then R = a 2 + b 2 + 2 ab cos

b sin

and tan =

a + b cos

If R = a b = a + ( b )

a b = the area of a parallelogram with sides

then R = a 2 + b 2 2 ab cos

b sin(180 )

b sin

=

and tan =

a + b cos(180 ) a b cos

Equation of trajectory

y = x tan

gx 2

2u2 cos 2

the horizontal.

Time of flight

2u sin

T=

g

Horizontal range

R=

u2 sin 2

g

If q = 45 2

u

Rmax =

g

R =

=

=R

=

g

g

g

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Maximum Height

Centripetal acceleration

u2 sin 2

H=

2g

Height attained by projectile is maximum if

q = 90

u2 Rmax

H max =

=

2g

2

Here, range of projectile

u2 sin 2 90

=0

g

When the range is maximum, (q = 45)

at = ra

Resultant acceleration

a = ac2 + at2

a

tan = t .

ac

Centripetal force

u2 sin 2 45 u2 Rmax

=

=

2g

4g

4

F=

2u sin( )

Time of flight T =

g cos

Range

Linear momentum

p = mv

v.

u2 [sin( 2 ) sin ]

g cos 2

R will be maximum

maximum.

i.e. sin(2q b) = 1

Rmax =

when

sin(2q b)

is

u2

up the plane

g(1 + sin )

Time of flight T =

2u sin( + )

g cos

u2 sin( 2 + ) + sin

g

1 sin 2

Range, R =

1 + sin

u2

down the plane

=

2

1 sin g(1 sin )

At the highest point of a projectile motion given

angular projection, the angular momentum of

projectile.

Rmax =

u2

g

L = mu cos

u2 sin 2

2g

Angular acceleration

d d 2

=

dt dt 2

When a body moves in a circular path with

increasing angular velocity, it has two linear

acceleration.

=

mv 2

.

r

Laws of Motion

R=

v2

= r 2 = v = v( 2 )2

r

Tangential acceleration

R=

H=

ac =

dp

=

= ma.

dt

Impulse = Change in linear momentum

= F t = m(v u)

Equilibrium of concurrent forces :

F1 + F2 + F3 + .... + Fn = 0

Lamis theorem :

F

F1

F

= 2 = 3

sin sin sin

where, = angle between F2 and F3

Apparent weight of a man in a lift :

When the lift is at rest or moving with

constant velocity, the apparent weight

= mg. Thus apparent weight = true weight.

When the lift is accelerating upwards

with acceleration a, then apparent weight

= m(g + a).

Thus apparent weight is more than the true

weight.

When the lift is accelerating downwards

with acceleration a, then apparent weight

= m(g a).

Thus apparent weight is less than the true

weight of man.

WorldMags.net

79

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= m(g g) = 0.

T = m(g + a).

When

with acceleration a, the tension in the rope is

T = m(g a).

v2

rg

Circular turning of roads

The velocity with which a car can take a circular

path of radius r without slipping is given by

vmax = s rg

slipping,

fk = mk R

where mk is coefficient of kinetic friction.

Acceleration of a body down a rough inclined

plane, a = g(sinq mcosq)

coefficient of friction.

Angle of repose

m = tana

Where, a is angle of repose

Work done in moving a body over a rough

horizontal surface.

W = mR s = mmg s

Where, R is normal reaction and s is distance

moved by body.

Work done in moving a body up a rough inclined

plane.

80 physics for you |

february 13

rg( s + tan )

vmax =

1 s tan

1/ 2

v2

or tan = 0

rg

v02

h

tan =

=

rg

b2 h2

v02 = rg tanq

Tension at any position of angular displacement,

mv 2

+ mg cos

r

At the lowest point of vertical circle, q = 0

Tension at the lowest point is given by

Laws of friction :

The magnitude of the force of static friction

the values

fs ms R

...(i)

where the dimensionless constant ms is called the

coefficient of static friction, R is the magnitude of

normal reaction force. The equality in equation

holds when the surfaces are on the verge of

slipping i.e.,

fs = (fs)max = (fl) ms R.

The magnitude of the force of kinetic friction

acting between two surfaces is

dm

dt

dm

Where,

is mass of burnt gases escaping per

dt

second and u = exhaust speed of the burnt gases.

Velocity of rocket at any time t.

m

v = u log e 0

m

Acceleration of rocket at any instant

upthrust weight

a=

mass

W = (mgsinq + mR)s.

Bending cyclist,

T=

mvL2

TL =

+ mg

r

At the highest point of the vertical circle,

q = 180. Tension at the highest point is given

by

2

mvH

TH =

mg

r

Minimum velocity at the highest point,

vH = gr

velocity, v = 3 gr .

W = F S = FS cos

Where q is angle between F and S

Work done by a variable force, W =

xf

F( x)dx

xi

1 2

mv .

2

Relation between kinetic energy (K) and linear

momentum (p)

Kinetic energy : K =

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p2

or p = 2mK

2m

Work done by a spring force

W = Fspring ds

Work energy theorem : W = Kf Ki

K=

ROTATIONAL MOTION

The coordinates of centre of mass are given by

XCM =

W

Power, P = total

t

dW d s

Instantaneous power, P =

= F

= Fv

dt

dt

+

m1 + m2

(m1 + m2 )

v2 =

2m1u1

(m m1 )

u

+ 2

m1 + m2

m1 + m2 2

i =1

N

mi

mi xi

i =1

mi yi mi yi

i =1

N

mi

i =1

i =1

v1 =

mi xi

i =1

N

YCM =

2 h1

2h

= 2e

.

g

g

ZCM =

mi zi mi zi

i =1

N

mi

i =1

i =1

system)

v=

1

1

1

x dm; YCM =

y dm ; ZCM =

z dm

M

M

M

Velocity of centre of mass is given by

XCM =

m1u1 + m2u2

(m1 + m2 )

Loss in kinetic energy in elastic collision is

1 m1m2

(u u2 )2

K =

2 (m1 + m2 ) 1

Coefficient of restitution

v v1

e= 2

u1 u2

Kinetic energy lost in inelastic collision is

1 m1m2

(u u2 )2 (1 e 2 )

K =

2 (m1 + m2 ) 1

velocity v and rise to a height h1.

e=

or

v

=

u

2 gh1

2 gh

h1 = e h

h1

h

or

h1 = e 2 h.

vCM =

i =1

N

mi vi

mi

mi vi

i =1

i =1

N

aCM

mi ai mi ai

i =1

N

mi

i =1

i =1

Angular velocity : =

d

dt

d

dt

Equations of rotational motion

w = w0 + at

1 2

= 0 t + t

2

w

2 w02 = 2aq

Angular acceleration : =

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Torque = r F

In magnitude t = rF sinq

Angular momentum L = r p

In magnitude, L = rp sin q

Relationship between torque

momentum

dL

i.e., ext =

dt

the plane and z axis is perpendicular to its plane.

Moment of inertia : I =

and

angular

miri2

about an axis passing through the centre of mass

and d is the perpendicular distance between two

parallel axis.

i =1

S.No.

Body

Axis of rotation

Moment of

inertia (I)

Radius of

gyration (K)

MR2

1

MR 2

2

3

MR 2

2

3

R

2

plane

2MR2

R 2

and perpendicular to its plane

1

MR 2

2

1

MR 2

4

R

2

5

MR 2

4

own plane

3

MR 2

2

and perpendicular to its plane

1.

2.

3.

4.

Uniform

circular

ring of mass M and

radius R

Uniform

circular

disc of mass M and

radius R

Solid sphere of

radius R and mass

M

Hollow sphere of

radius R and mass

M

february 13

R

2

3

R

2

2

MR 2

5

2

R

5

7

MR 2

5

7

R

5

2

MR 2

3

2

R

3

5

MR 2

3

5

R

3

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83

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5.

6.

1

MR 2

2

length l, radius R and perpendicular to its own axis

and mass M

l2 R2

M +

12 4

l2 R2

+

12 4

of cylinder

l2 R2

M +

4

3

l2 R2

+

3

4

perpendicular to the rod

ML2

12

perpendicular to the rod

ML2

3

Torque t = Ia

between angular momentum and

moment of inertia, L = Iw

1

Kinetic energy of rotational motion, K R = I 2 .

2

Kinetic energy of a rolling body = translational kinetic

energy (KT) + rotational kinetic energy (KR)

Relation

K2

1

1

1

Mv 2 + I 2 = Mv 2 1 +

2

2

2

R 2

inclination q without slipping its velocity at the

=

2 gh

1+

R2

g sin

.

inclined plane is given by a =

K2

1+

R2

When a body rolls down on an inclined plane

without slipping, time taken by the body to reach

K2

2l 1 +

R2

g sin

g=

GMe

Re2

4

G Re3 4

= 3

= GRe

3

Re2

gh =

h

= g 1 +

2

Re

( Re + h)

GMe

GMe

g = 2

Re

For h << Re

2h

gh = g 1

Re

the surface of earth is given by

february 13

12

of the earth and r is the uniform density of the

material of the earth.

gravitation

Newtons universal law of gravitation

Gm1m2

F=

r2

Where, r is the separation between masses of

objects m1 and m2.

Acceleration due to gravity

GM

g=

.

R2

Where M and R are the mass and radius of Earth

respectively.

Relationship between g and G

gd =

GMe

Re3

R d

( Re d ) = g e

=

Re

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d

g 1

Re

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At the centre, d = Re \ gd = 0.

Gm

E=

r2

Where, m is test mass.

The gravitational field intensity due to spherical

shell of radius R and mass M at a point distant r

from the centre of the shell is given as follows:

At a point outside the shell i.e. r > R

E=

GM

r2

At a point on the surface of the shell i.e. r = R

GM

E=

R2

At a point inside the shell i.e. r < R, E = 0

For solid sphere gravitational field intensity

change only at a point inside the sphere

i.e., r < R.

GMr

E=

R3

GM

Gravitational potential : V =

r

The gravitational potential due to a spherical shell

of radius R and mass M at a point distant r from

the centre of the shell is given as follows:

At a point outside the shell i.e. r > R

GM

V=

r

At a point on the surface of the shell i.e. r = R

GM

V=

R

At a point inside the shell i.e. r < R

GM( 3R 2 r 2 )

V=

2R3

Relation between gravitational field intensity and

gravitational potential

vo =

dV

dr

T = 2

( Re + h)3 2 ( Re + h)3

=

GMe

Re

g

Height of satellite above the earths surface

T 2R2 g

e

h=

4 2

GMm

given by

GMe m

Uh =

(

Re + h)

1/ 3

Re

GM

= [m2GMr ]1/ 2

r

L = mvo r = mr

1 2 1 GMe m |U |

.

mv =

=

2 o 2 ( Re + h)

2

GMe m

Potential energy of a satellite, U =

.

Re + h

K=

GMe m

2( Re + h)

Escape speed : ve =

2GMe

Re

PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS

restoring

area

Stress =

Longitudinal Stress =

FN

A

FV

A

FT

Tangential Stress =

A

change in length L

Longitudinal strain =

=

original length

L

r

Gravitational potential energy of a body of mass

GMe

As g = 2

Re

GMe

g

= Re

Re + h

Re + h

E = K +U =

GM

V=

R

The gravitational potential due to a solid sphere

at a point inside the sphere i.e. r < R

E=

GMe m

Re

Orbital speed of satellite, when it is revolving

around earth at a height h is given by

Us =

Volumetric Stress =

Volumetric strain =

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change in volume V

=

original volume

V

physics for you | february 13

85

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Stress

=E

Strain

normal stress

Youngs modulus, Y =

longitudinal strain

force is applied.

tangential stress

Modulus of rigidity (h) =

shearing strain

F/A

F

=

=

.

A

In case of a solids and liquids bulk modulus is

almost constant.

In case of a gas, it is process dependent

In isothermal process, K = Ki = P

In adiabatic process K = Ka = gP

1

Bulk modulus (B)

when pressure is applied on a substance, its

volume decreases while mass remains constant.

Compressibility =

P P

=

or 1 +

<< 1

if

1 P / B

B

B

lateral strain

r / r

=

longitudinal strain L / L

L =

=

=

AY

2 AY

2Y

3B 2

,

2 + 6B

twist is given by

r 4

2L

where h is modulus of rigidity of the material of wire.

Interatomic force constant (k)

C=

interatomic force

F0

change in interatomic distance = r = Yr0

Depression of a beam loaded at the middle by a

load W and supported at the ends

k=

WL3

48YI g

Depression of a cantilever at a free end

=

section of the wire.

Every wire is like a spring whose force constant

is equal to

YA

1

or K

L

L

m(mass)

V (volume)

Density , =

Relative density =

density of a substance

density of water at 4C

thrust ( F ) F

=

area ( A)

A

WL3

3YI g

PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

Pressure P =

9 1 3

= +

Y B

K=

M = AL

Y

= 3B(1 2s),

Y = 2h(1 + s),

=

W=

F/A

FL

FL

=

=

L / L AL r 2 L

1

1

normal stress

F / A

PV

u = stress strain = Y (strain )2

Bulk modulus, B =

=

= .

2

2

volumetric strain V / V

V

In case of elongation by its own weight,

F (= Mg) will act at centre of gravity of the wire, so

normal stress

F / A

PV

B=

=

=

.

that length of wire which is stretched is (L/2).

volumetric

strain V / V

V

1

stress strain volume

2

1 F L

1

1

=

AL = F L = load elongation

2A L

2

2

Elastic potential energy stored per unit volume of

a stretched wire,

february 13

by P = P0 + hrg

V is completely immersed in a liquid of density s,

following two forces act on the body :

weight of body W = VrBg acting vertically

downwards through the centre of gravity.

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vertically upwards through the centre of

buoyancy.

more than upthrust, the body will sink.

The density of body is equal to the density

of liquid (i.e., rB = s). In this situation

W = W so the body will float fully submerged

anywhere in the liquid.

The density of body is lesser than that

of liquid (i.e. rB < s). In this situation

W < W so the body will move upwards and

in equilibrium will float partially immersed in

the liquid such that

2S

P=

.

r

When an air bubble of radius r is at depth h below

the free surface of liquid of density r and surface

tension S, then the excess pressure inside the

bubble,

2S

P=

+ hg.

r

If r1 and r2 are the radii of curved liquid surface,

then excess pressure inside the liquid surface is

given by

1 1

P = S + .

r1 r2

When two soap bubbles of radii r1 and r2 coalesce

to form a new soap bubble of radius r, under

When two soap bubbles of radii r1 and r2 are in

Force

F

Surface tension, S =

=

Length L

Work done in forming a liquid drop of radius r,

surface tension S is, W = 4pr2S.

Work done in forming a soap bubble of radius r,

surface tension S is,

given by

W = 2 4pr2S = 8pr2S.

r1r2

.

interface, then r =

r2 r1

r is

2S

P = P0 + hg +

r

The rise or fall in a capillary tube is given by

drop from r1 to r2 is

W = 4 S

r22

h=

).

r12

bubble from r1 to r2 is

r

cos =

R

W = 8 S r22 r12

When n number of smaller drops of a liquid, each

of radius r, surface tension S are combined to

form a bigger drop of radius R, then

2S cos

2S

=

rg

Rg

dv

F = A

dx

where h = coefficient of viscosity of the liquid

Pr 4

P

=

8 l

R

8 l

R =

is called liquid resistance.

r 4

Stokes law : F = 6rv.

R = n1/3r

The surface area of bigger drop = 4pR2 = 4pn2/3r2. It

is less than the area of n smaller drops.

Work done in breaking a liquid drop of radius R

into n equal small drops

Poiseuilles equation : Q =

Terminal velocity : v =

T

W = 4pR2 (n1/3 1) S

where S is the surface tension.

Excess pressure inside a liquid drop is given by

2S

P=

.

r

Excess pressure inside a soap bubble is given by

4S

P=

.

r

2r 2 ( ) g

.

9

K

Critical velocity : vc =

r

Reynold number : vc =

Dvc

NR

or NR =

D

Bernoullis theorem :

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87

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1

P + gh + v 2 = constant

2

1

1

or P1 + gh11 + v12 = P2 + gh2 + v22

2

2

Velocity of efflux v = 2 gh

surface

t =

2( H h)

g

Stefan Boltzmann law : E = sT4

Range = R = vt =

2 gh 2 h( H h)

H

Rmax = H at h =

2

If the hole is at the bottom of the tank, time t

taken by the tank to emptied.

where a is the area of the hole.

A

t=

2H/ g

a

THERMAL, PROPERTIES OF MATTER

Relationship between different temperature scales:

KA(T1 T2 )

L

K

Wiedemann-Franz law :

= a constant, where K = therm

T

H=

=

=

=

=

100

180

80

212

100

E = esT4

The energy radiated per second by a body of area

A = eAsT4

Newtons law of cooling :

dQ

= k(T TS )

dt

m

R 2S

Temperature of sun is given by T =

R 2

s

increase in area

A

=

=

original area rise in temperature AT

Coefficient of volume expansion of a solid,

increase in volume

V

=

original volume rise in temperature V T

Relation between a, b and g

=

= .

2 3

The specific heat of a substance is given by

1 Q

s=

m T

The molar specific heat of a substance is given by

1 Q

C=

T

Thermal capacity, S = s m

Q

The latent heat of a substances given by L =

m

Principal of calorimetry :

=

other.

When a bar of length L and uniform area of cross

section A with its ends maintained at temperatures

T1 and T2, the rate of flow of heat (or heat current)

H is given by

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february 13

1/ 4

THERMODYNAMICS

increase in length

L

=

=

original length rise in temperature LT

Coefficient of area expansion of a solid,

L

.

KA

Vf

dW = PdV

Vi

the gas.

First law of thermodynamics : DQ = DU + DW

Equation of isothermal process PV = constant.

Work done during isothermal process,

P

Vf

i

W = RT ln ; W = RT ln P

V

f

where g = CP/CV.

W=

( PV

i i Pf V f )

( 1)

; W=

R(Ti T f )

1

V

Equation of isobaric process

= constant.

T

Work done during isobaric process,

W = P(Vf Vi) = mR(Tf Ti).

Efficiency of a heat engine,

Q

work done

W Q1 Q2

=

=

=

=1 2

heat absorbed Q1

Q1

Q1

The coefficient of performance of a refrigerator,

=

work done to transfer the heat

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=

Q2

Q2

=

W Q1 Q2

( rigid diatomic ) =

Boltzmann constant

R

NA

NA is the Avogadros number.

m

N

Here, =

=

M NA

where, m is the mass of the gas containing N

molecules, M is the molar mass

Equation of a real gas :

2 a

P + 2 (V b) = RT

V

kB =

8a

Critical temperature : TC =

27 Rb

Critical pressure : PC =

a

27 b 2

1

P = mn v 2

3

Root mean square speed,

3RT

=

M

3kBT

m

8 kBT

.

m

2 RT

=

M

3

k T

2 B

The molar specific heats are given by

5

CV ( rigid diatomic ) = R

2

7

CP ( rigid diatomic ) = R

2

v = A2 x 2

Acceleration of a particle in S.H.M. is given by

a = w2x

1

m 2 ( A2 x 2 )

2

The potential energy of a particle in S.H.M. is

1

given by, = m 2 A2 sin 2 (t + )

2

Total energy of a particle in S.H.M. is given by

1

E = m 2 A2

2

Spring pendulum

K=

m

k

The time period of a simple pendulum is given by

T = 2

is given by

1

T = 2

1 1

g +

L Re

then its time period is given by

T = 2

2 kBT

.

m

molecule is E =

2

T

Velocity of a particle in S.H.M. is given by

Angular frequency w = 2pu =

8 RT

=

M

Average speed, v =

2nd 2

T = 2 L / g .

Critical volume : VC = 3b

vrms =

OSCILLATIONS

T

= 1 2

T1

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

7

5

L

ga

L

g+a

v, T = 2 L

g

If a simple pendulum is suspended in a lift and

L

time period is given by T = 2

=

gg

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given by

acceleration a, then its time period is given by

T = 2

T = 2 LC

a mass m, then the mass can oscillate with time

period

( g 2 + a2 )

plane of inclination q, then the time period is given by

T = 2

L

g cos

the piston is slightly depressed and released,

the piston can oscillate with a time period

then its time period is given by

T = 2

Torsional pendulum :

L

1 g

T = 2

I

C

where I is the moment of inertia of the disc about

the suspension wire as axis of rotation and C is the

restoring torque per unit twist.

r 4

2L

where r is the radius, L is the length and h is the

modulus of rigidity of a wire respectively.

The time period of oscillation of a liquid in U-tube

is given by

C=

L

h

T = 2

= 2

2g

g

where L = total length of liquid column in a U-tube,

h = height of liquid column in each limb of U-tube

Also h = L/2

The time period of oscillation of floating cylinder

m

Ag

where m is the mass of a cylinder, A is the area

of cross section of a cylinder, s is the density of a

liquid

h

h

= 2

g

g

where h is the height of cylinder of density r and

s is the density of a liquid in which cylinder is

floating, h is the height of the cylinder inside the

liquid.

Time period of LC oscillations of a circuit

february 13

v = lu

Intensity of a wave :

I = 2p2u2A2rv

where u is the frequency, A is the amplitude,

v is the velocity of the wave, r is the density of the

medium.

Energy density of wave

u = 2p2A2u2r

where r is the density of the medium.

Wave velocity, v =

Particle velocity,

dy

dy

= A cos( kx t + ) =

k dx

dt

2

d y

Particle acceleration, a =

= 2 y

dt 2

Relationship between phase difference, path

difference and time difference

2

Phase difference =

path difference

2

Phase difference =

time difference

T

Speed

of a transverse waves on a stretched string

T

is given by v =

per unit length of the string called linear density.

Speed of a transverse wave in a solid is given by

vparticle =

in a liquid is given by T = 2

MV

BA2

WAVES

T = 2

or T = 2

mL

YA

T = 2

of a solid.

v=

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E

given by v =

density of the medium.

4L

( 2n )

1 =

density of material of a metallic bar.

Speed of a longitudinal wave in a fluid is given

B

by v =

a fluid.

given by v =

Newtons formula : v =

.

v

3 rms

v

v

C =

=

4[L + e ] 4[L + 0.6r ]

v

v

O =

=

2[L + 2 e ] 2[L + 1.2r ]

v = 2u(L2 L1)

arm length L and thickness d in the direction of

vibration is given by

d

d

= v =

L2

L2

is given by

at both ends.

Fundamental frequency

v=

1 =

v

v

1 T

=

=

1 2 L 2 L

Y

since v =

v vo

=

v vs

and sound relative to air.

The upper sign on vs (or vo) is used when source

(observer) moves towards the observer (source)

while lower sign is used when it moves away.

If the wind blows with speed vw in the direction

of sound, v is replaced by v + vw in the above

equation. If the wind blows with speed vw in a

direction opposite to that of sound, v is replaced

by v vw in the above equation.

A practical and small unit of loudness of sound is

v

nv

n T

n =

where n = 1, 2, 3, ....

=

= n1 =

n 2L

2L

p T,

p =

2L

where p = number of loops.

Vibrations of a closed organ pipe

= difference in frequencies.

P

RT

=

M

Speed of sound in gas is independent of the

pressure of the gas, provided temperature

remains constant.

Effect of humidity : With increase in humidity,

density of air decreases

v

v

=

1 4 L

v( 2n 1)

v

=

= ( 2n 1)v1

n

4L

Effect of temperature : vt = v0 1 +

546

v=

Frequency, n =

I

given by L = 10 log10 .

I0

mmm

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