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Vol. XXI

No. 2

February 2013

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Managing Editor : Mahabir Singh


Editor
: Anil Ahlawat (BE, MBA)
Hony. Advisor
: Dr. S. Malhotra
Director, Delhi Public School,
Faridabad (HR)

Contents
Full Length JEE Advanced Practice Paper : 2013 6

Examiners Mind

17

Thought Provoking Problems

20

(SHM and Waves)


Interview

24

NEET/PMTs Practice Paper : 2013

25

NCERT Xtract Questions for NEET

29

CBSE Board Sample Paper 2013


Class XII

36

JEE Main Practice Paper : 2013

42

Brain Map

48

Exam prep : Chapterwise MCQs

51
59

Essential Formulae for Competitive Exams 77


India Progress in Science

any Indian scientists are working in NASA and many reputed universities
and laboratories in USA, England and Europe including CERN. One works
there, gets a lot of experience and settles there because of better facilities for
working. In Darmstadt, Germany, GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research,
is being upgraded, to become Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR).
FAIR will feature a double-ring synchrotron with a circumference of 1100 metres
connected to the existing facility at GSI. We are very much involved in this work,
not for just working there but as a partner. We have a variable Energy Cyclotron
Centre Salt-Lake, Calcutta. Our scientists have ample experience in this field.
Our scientists are making advanced components for FAIR as India is also a
partner in this venture. This facility is more powerful than even the one at cern,
in Geneva The large Hadron Collider which is trying to detect the Higgs Boson
or God particle. Although the energy of the particles attained in FAIR, is much
lower than that of the Geneva facility, the intensity attained will be higher than
that of any other facility. To create heavy particles by collision, one needs very
high energy. This is the reason why there is a race for making more and more
powerful cyclotrons. Energy is a very important factor. If energy is less, one
cannot do the experiments that are done by very powerful accelerators. With
the available energy, if one can make a very intense beam, the measurements
made will be more reliable in the given energy range. The new detector can
also detect collisions of the order of 10 million per second whereas the other
ones can detect 10,000 collisions per second. If the collisions are more, more
the new particles produced and less the error of determination. Both energy
and intensity are important. These facilities can also be used for irradiation and
other uses ranging from agriculture to atomic physics.
We wish all the scientists working with FAIR a very bright future. The work
done by every scientist in every cormer of the world is for the benefit of the
whole humanity.
Anil Ahlawat,
Editor

for Practise
NEET 2013 MBBS Practice Paper
Class XI
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Infocus features are marketing incentives MTG does not vouch or subscribe to the claims
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Editor : Anil Ahlawat
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physics for you | February 13

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physics

SECTION - I
Straight Objective Type
This section contains 6 multiple choice questions numbered
1 to 6. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d), out
of which ONLY ONE is correct.
1. Two cylinders of same cross-section and length
L but made of two material of densities d1 and
d2 are cemented together to form a cylinder of
length 2L. The combination floats in a liquid of
density d with a length L/2 above the surface of
liquid. If d1 < d2 then
3
d
(b) > d1
(a) d1 < d
4
2
d
(c) > d1
(d) d < d1
4
2. A plank of mass m is placed over smooth
inclined plane and a sphere is placed on plank
as shown.

There is sufficient friction between sphere and
plank to prevent slipping.

If system is released from
rest, the frictional force


on sphere is
(a) up the plane
(b) down the plane
(c) zero
(d) horizontal
3

A transverse wave y = 0.05sin(20px 50pt) m, is


propagating along +ve x-axis on a string (x is in
cm). A light insect starts crawling on the string
with velocity 5 cm s1 at t = 0 along +ve x-axis from
a point where x = 5 cm. The difference in phase
between its position at t = 5 s and its position at
t = 0 is
(a) 15p
(b) 250p (c) 24p (d) 5p

4. Two point charges q and 2q are placed (a, 0) and


(0, a). A point charge q1 is placed at point P on the
quarter circle of radius a as shown in figure.

If electric field at origin is zero, then
a
2
(a) point P is
,
a
2q
3 3
a 2a
(b) point P is
,

(c) q1 = 3q 5 5
(d) none of these

P
q1

5. Consider a Youngs double slit set up as shown.


The slits have equal width. Take O as origin. If
D
D
and y2 = +
average intensity between y1 =
4d
4d
equals n times the intensity of maxima, then n is

1
2
1 +
2

2
(c) 1 +



(a)

2
(b) 2 1 +


1
2
(d) 1
2

6. Optic axis of a thin equiconvex lens is the x-axis,


the co-ordinate of a point object and its image are
( 40 cm, 1 cm) and (50 cm, 2 cm) respectively.
Lens is located at x =
(a) + 20 cm
(b) 30 cm
(c) 10 cm
(d) 0 cm

By Momentum : JABALPUR : (0761) 2400022, NAGPUR : (0712) 3221105, GWALIOR : (0751) 3205976.

Physics for you | feBruary 13

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SECTION - II

Multiple Correct Answer Type


This section contains 4 multiple choice questions numbered
7 to 10. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d), out
of which ONE or MORE THAN ONE are correct.
1
7. The least count of a stop watch is
s. Two
10
persons A and B use this watch to measure the
time period of an oscillating pendulum. Person A
takes the time period of 50 oscillations, while B
takes the reading of 100 oscillations. Neglecting
all other sources of error we can say that
(a) accuracy in measurement by A is equal to
that of B.
(b) accuracy in measurement by A is less than
that of B.
(c) absolute error in measurement by A is greater
than that of B.
(d) absolute error in measurement by A is equal
to that of B.
8. A light rope passes over a light
frictionless pulley attached to

the ceiling. An object with a

large mass is tied to one end
and an object with a smaller
mass is tied to the other
end.

Both masses are released from rest. Which of the


following statement(s) is/are false for the system
consisting of the two moving masses while string
remains taut?
(a) The center of mass remains at rest.
(b) The net external force is zero.
(c) The velocity of the center of mass is constant.
(d) The acceleration of the center of mass is g
downward.

9. An artificial satellite is moving in a circular orbit


around the earth. If the universal gravitational
constant start decreasing at time t = 0 at a constant
rate with respect to time t. Then satellite has
its
(a) path gradually spiraling out away from the
centre of the earth.
(b) path gradually spiraling in towards the centre
of the earth.
(c) angular momentum about the centre of the
earth remains constant.
(d) potential energy increases.
10. In the network shown in figure, points A, B and C
are at potential 70 V, 0 V and 10 V respectively.
Choose the correct alternatives.
8

Physics for you | feBruary 13

70 V
A

0V
B

10
D

20
30
10 V
C

(a) Point D is at a potential of 40 V.


(b) The currents in the sections AD, DB, and DC
are in the ratio 3 : 2 : 1.
(c) The currents in the sections AD, DB and DC
are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3.
(d) The network draws a total power of 200 W.

SECTION - III
Linked Comprehension Type
This section contains 2 paragraphs P11-13 and P14-16. Based
upon each paragraph, 3 multiple choice questions have to be
answered. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),
out of which ONLY ONE is correct.
P11-13 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 11 to 13
You are on a summer tour to a remote hill station.
You do not have facility of an electric heater and you
want some ice. Unfortunately, the air temperature
drops to only 6C during night. Being a physicist you
know that a clear, moonless night sky acts like a black
body radiator at a temperature of TS = 23C, and
decide to make ice by letting water radiate energy to
such a sky. You take a cylindrical container, thermally
insulated from ground and pour 4.5 g of water in it.
The cross-section of container is 10 cm2. Assume that
absorptivity and emissivity of water surface are same
and neglect the presence of atmosphere. Also assume
the average temperature of water to be 2C.
Stefans constant s = 5.0 108 W m2 K4
Emissivity of water e = 1.0
Specific heat of water, s = 4190 J kg1 K1
Latent heat of fusion of ice L = 3.33 105 J kg1
Take 254 = 4 105 and 114 104 = 5000
11. What is the total loss in heat for the above sample
of water to freeze ?

(a) 1612 J (b) 1512 J (c) 1132 J (d) 1499 J
12. What is the approximate rate of energy loss by
the water sample ?
(a) 100 mJ s1
(b) 8 mJ s1
(c) 20 mJ s1
(d) None of these
13. Is it possible to freeze the water sample during
one night ?
(a) Yes
(b) No
(c) Cannot be predicted
(d) None of these

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P14-16 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 14 to 16


M
is kept over another block of
A block of mass
2
mass M and the heavier block is kept over smooth

horizontal surface as shown in figure. The heavier


block is long enough such that the smaller block
does not fall from it during the subsequent motion
and the coefficient of friction between the blocks is
M
m. Suddenly block of mass
is given an impulse J
2
in horizontal direction.

14. Which of the following is correct?


(a) The friction between the blocks will be
impulsive.
(b) The friction between the blocks will be
non-impulsive.
(c) N o r m a l b e t we e n t h e b l o c k s w i l l b e
impulsive.
(d) None of these.
15. The work done by impulsive force will be
(a)

J2

M

(b)

2J2

M

1 J2

(d) none of these
2M
16. The amount of heat evolved during the subsequent
motion of the blocks is
J2
J2

(b) 2 M
(a)
M
2J2
(c)

(d) none of these
3M
Section - iV
Integer Answer Type
(c)

This section contains 7 questions numbered


17 to 23 The answer to each of the questions
is a single digit integer, ranging from 0 to 9.
For example, if the correct answers to question
numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,
respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles
will look like the following.

X
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Y
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Z
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

W
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

17. A barrier AB of length 12 m is hinged


at A. At the lower end a horizontal
spring keeps the barrier closed.
The height of water is 6 m and the
width of the barrier is 5 m.

Water level is 4 m below the hinge A. If spring
constant is 6 105 N m1, find elongation of spring
(in metre).
10 Physics for you |

feBruary 13

4m
Water

6m

5m
B

18. A wire loop ABCD is divided into two parts.


AB = AD = 2 m, BC = CD = BD = 1 m. The wire
loop is lying on x-y plane. The resistance per unit
length of the wire is 0.2 W m1. There exist time

^
dependent magnetic field B = ( 2.5t) k tesla. Find
the approximate value of current (in A) through
part AB. Take 3 = 1.68 and

45 = 7 .

B
A

C
D

19. Electrons in H-like atom (Z = 3) make transitions


from 4 th excited state to 3 rd excited state and
from 3rd excited state to 2nd excited state. The
resulting radiation are incident on a metal plate
to eject photoelectrons. The stopping potential for
photoelectrons ejected by the shorter wavelength
is 4.20 V. What is stopping potential (in volts) for
the photoelectrons ejected by longer wavelength ?
20. In a circus act, a 4 kg dog is trained to jump from B
cart to A cart and then immediately back to the B
cart. The carts each have a mass of 20 kg and they
are initially at rest. In both cases the dog jumps at
6 m s1 relative to the cart. If the cart moves along
the same line with negligible friction, If the final
magnitude of velocity of cart B with respect to the
floor is x/36 then find the value of x.

21. Glycerine is filled in 25 mm wide space between


two large plane horizontal surfaces. A thin plate
of area 0.75 m2 at a distance of 10 mm from
one of the surfaces is in horizontal position
between the plates inside the glycerine. It
is dragged horizontally at a constant speed
of 0.5 m s 1 . Take coefficient of viscosity
h = 0 . 5 N s m 2. I f t h e f o r c e r e q u i r e d
to drag the plate at constant speed is
125X / 4 newton, find the value of X.

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0.5 m s1

Fixed
surface

10 mm
15 mm

22. A cylinder of height h, diameter h/2 and mass


M and with a homogeneous mass distribution is
placed on a horizontal table. One end of a string
running over a pulley is fastened to the top of
the cylinder, a body of mass m is hung from the
other end and the system is released. Friction is
negligible everywhere. At what minimum ratio
m/M will the cylinder tilt ?
h/2

the rate of P, that may be varied. The rate of water


in flow from tap is, F = 0.021 litres per minute.
The heat generated is sufficient so that the water
in the container is boiling and getting converted
into steam at a steady rate. What is the minimum
power P (in kW) that must be generated as heat in
the steady state in resistor R so that the amount
of liquid water in the container neither increases
nor decreases with time? (Neglect other losses of
heat, such as conduction from the container to
the air and heat capacity of container)
For water, specific heat s = 4.2 kJ kg1 K1, latent
heat of vaporisation Lvap = 2.3 MJ kg1, density
r = 1000 kg m3. Mark your answer in nearest
integer.

h M

23. Water temperature 20C flows from a tap T into


a heated container C. The container has a heating
element (a resistor R) which is generating heat at

chemistry

SECTION - I
Straight Objective Type
This section contains 6 multiple choice questions numbered
24 to 29. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),
out of which ONLY ONE is correct.
24. The passage of a constant current through a
solution of dilute H 2SO 4 with Pt electrodes
liberated 336 cm3 of a mixture of H2 and O2 at
S.T.P. The quantity of electricity that was passed is
(a) 96500 C
(b) 965 C
(c) 1930 C
(d) 100 faraday
25. Amongst [Co(ox)3]3, [CoF6]3 and [Co(NH3)6]3+
(a) [Co(ox)3]3 and [CoF6]3 are paramagnetic and
[Co(NH3)6]3+ is diamagnetic.
(b) [Co(ox)3]3 and [Co(NH3)6]3+ are paramagnetic
and [CoF6]3 is diamagnetic.
(c) [Co(ox)3]3 and [Co(NH3)6]3+ are diamagnetic
and [CoF6]3 is paramagnetic.
(d) [Co(NH3)6]3+ and [CoF6]3 are paramagnetic
and [Co(ox)3]3 is diamagnetic.
Ph

26. Ph
OHC

Ph
Ph

Ph

(a)

HOH2C

CHO

The final product is

Conc. H2SO4

HO

Ph

(c)

Ph (b)
COOH

Ph


Ph

Ph

Ph

(d)

Ph

Ph

Ph

Ph
CH2

H2C

Ph

Ph

Ph
Ph
O




27. Two 1 st order reactions have half-lives in the
ratio 3 : 2. Then the ratio of time intervals
t1 : t2, will be?

Where t1 is the time period for 25% completion
of the first reaction and t2 is the time required
for 75% completion of the second reaction.
[log 2 = 0.3, log 3 = 0.477]
(a) 0.199 : 1
(b) 0.420 : 1
(c) 0.273 : 1
(d) 0.311 : 1
O

28. Identify the anomers.


H
H

Conc. NaOH,

Ph

(a)

HO
H

OH

HO

OH
H O
OH

HO

and

HO
H

H
H
H O
OH

H
CH2 OH

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CH2 OH

Physics for you | feBruary 13

11

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(b)

H
H

H
Me
CH2OH
C

OH and

OH

(d)

OH
H

HO

CH2OH

OH

HO

H
OH

OH and H
H
OH

H
H

29. Which amongst the following metal carbonyls


are inner orbital complexes with diamagnetic
property?
(II) Fe(CO)5 ;
(I ) Ni(CO)4;
(IV) Cr(CO)6
(III) V(CO)6

(b) HCDO
(c) HCDO
(d) D2CO

Select the correct answer from the codes given


below:
(a) I and II only
(b) II , III and IV only
(c) II and IV only (d) I , II and IV only

Multiple Correct Answer Type


This section contains 4 multiple choice questions numbered
30 to 33. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),
out of which ONE or MORE THAN ONE are correct.
30. Which are correct against property mentioned?
(a) CH 3 COCl > (CH 3 CO) 2 O > CH 3 COOEt >
CH3CONH2
(Rate of hydrolysis)

CH3

CH3

COOH >

COOH
CH3

(Rate of esterification)
OH

(c)

CH
CH3

ON2

>

OH

>

OH

(Rate of esterification)
12 Physics for you |

feBruary 13

NaOH
NaOEt
NaOD

DCOONa + CH2DOH
DCOOEt + DCH2ONa
DCOONa + CD3OD

33. The van der Waals equation of state for a non-ideal


PV
V
a
gas can be rearranged to give
=

RT V b VRT
for 1 mol of gas.

SECTION - II

(b) CH 3 CH 2 COOH > CH3

Ph CH2 COOH
(Rate of decarboxylation)

32. Which of the following products is/are correctly


mentioned in the following reactions?
(a) HCHO NaOD HCOONa + CH3OD

OH
Et

Et

CH3 C COOH > CH3 C CH2 COOH >

31. The correct statement(s) regarding defects in


solids is (are)
(a) Schottky defect is usually favoured by small
difference in the sizes of cation and anion.
(b) Schottky defect lowers the density of
solids.
(c) C o m p o u n d s h a v i n g F - c e n t r e s a r e
diamagnetic.
(d) Frenkel defect is a dislocation defect.

CH2OH

Me
O

(d)

OH and HO
HO
OH

CH2OH
C

(c)

Me

HO

OH

Me
H

The constants a and b are 1.0


PV
positive numbers. When RT
applied to H2 at 80 K, the
equation gives the curve
0
40 60 80
as shown in the figure.
P, atm
Which one of the following
statements is(are) correct?
(a) At 40 atm the two terms V/(V b) and
a/VRT are equal.
(b) At 80 atm the two terms V/(V b) and
a/VRT are equal.
(c) At a pressure greater than 80 atm, the term
V/(V b) is greater than a/VRT.
(d) At 60 atm the term V/(V b) is smaller than
a
1+
VRT

SECTION - III
Linked Comprehension Type
This section contains 2 paragraphs P34-36 and P37-39. Based
upon each paragraph, 3 multiple choice questions have to be
answered. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),
out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

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P34-36 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 34 to 36
A fuel cell is a cell that is continuously supplied with
an oxidant and a reductant so that it can deliver a
current indefinitely.
Fuel cells offer the possibility of achieving high
thermodynamic efficiency in the conversion of Gibbs
energy into mechanical work. Internal combustion
engines at best convert only the fraction (T2 T1)/T2
of the heat of combustion into mechanical work.
While the thermodynamic efficiency of the fuel cell
G
, where DG is the Gibbs energy
is given by, =
H
change for the cell reaction and DH is the enthalpy
change of the cell reaction. A hydrogen-oxygen
fuel cell may have an acidic or alkaline electrolyte.
2.303RT
= 0.06
F
The above fuel cell is used to produce constant current
supply under constant temperature and 30 atm
constant total pressure condition in a cylinder. If 10
mol of H2 and 5 mol of O2 were taken initially. Rate
of combustion of O2 is 10 millimoles per minute.
The half cell reactions are
Pt|H2(g)|H+(aq.)||H2O(l)|O2(g)| Pt;

1
O
+ 2H +( aq ) + 2 e H 2O( l ) ; E = 1.246 V
2 2( g )
2H+(aq) + 2e H2(g); E = 0
To maximize the power per unit mass of an
electrochemical cell, the electronic and electrolytic
resistances of the cell must be minimized. Since fused
salts have lower electrolytic resistances than aqueous
solutions, high-temperature electrochemical cells are
of special interest for practical applications
34. Calculate e.m.f. of the given cell at t = 0.

(log 2 = 0.3).
(a) 1.255 V
(b) 1.35 V
(c) 1.3 V
(d) 1.246 V
35. The above fuel cell is used completely as an
electrolytic cell with Cu voltameter of resistance
26.94 using Pt electrodes. Initially Cu voltameter
contains 1 litre solution of 0.05 M CuSO4.[H+] in
solution after electrolysis (Assuming no change
on volume of solution).
(a) 0.015 M
(b) 0.03 M
(c) 0.025 M
(d) 0.01 M
36.

If (Cu2+) = 0.01S m2 mole1, (H+) = 0.035 S m2

mole1 and

(SO42) = 0.016 S m2 mole1, specific conductivity


of resulting solution left in sopper voltameter
after above electrolysis is

(a) 2.57 S m1
(c) 1.525 S m1

(b) 1.75 S m1
(d) 2.25 S m1


P37-39 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 37 to 39
A black coloured (A) on reaction with dil. H2SO4 gives
a gas (B) which on passing in a solution of an acid (C)
gives a white turbidity (D). Gas (B) when passed in
an acidified solution of a compound (E) gives a black
precipitate (F) which is soluble in hot concentrated (C).
After boiling this solution when excess of ammonia
solution is added, a blue coloured compound (G) is
formed. To this solution of (E), on addition of acetic
acid and aqueous potassium ferrocyanide, a chocolate
brown precipitate (H) is formed. On addition of an
aqueous solution of BaCl2 to an aqueous solution of (E)
white precipitate insoluble in HNO3 is obtained.
37. Black coloured compound (A) is
(a) PbS
(b) CuS
(c) Ag2S
(d) All of these.
38. The gas (B) on passing through an acid (C) gives
a white turbidity (D) because
(a) gas (B) acts as an oxidising agent
(b) gas (B) acts as an reducing agent
(c) acid (C) acts as an oxidising agent
(d) both (b) and (c)
39. To which of the following property, the compound
(E) will respond?
(a) It gives white precipitate with (CH3COO)2
Pb solution soluble in ammonium acetate.
(b) It gives dirty white precipitate with KI.
(c) Its hydrated salt effloresces.
(d) All of these.
Section - iV
Integer Answer Type
This section contains 7 questions numbered
40 to 46. The answer to each of the questions
is a single digit integer, ranging from 0 to 9.
For example, if the correct answers to question
numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,
respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles
will look like the following.

X
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Y
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Z
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

W
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

40. 5.6 g of an oxide of a hypothetical metal required


2.4 g coke for its complete reduction to metal
along with the production of CO gas. Find the
equivalent weight of metal in case of given metal
oxide.

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13

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41. How many of the given statements are correct?


I : Molar entropy of a substance follows the
order (Sm)Solid < (Sm)liquid < (Sm)gas
II: Entropy change for the reaction H2(g) 2H(g)
is +ve.
III: Molar entropy of a non-crystalline solid will
be zero at absolute zero.
IV: If the path of an irreversible process is
reversed, then both system and surroundings
shall be restored to their orginal states.
V : Refractive index and molarity are intensive
properties.
42. Sulphide ions reacts with sodium nitropruside
giving a coloured solution. In the reaction, the
change in oxidation state of iron is

44. What is the free energy change (DG) in kcal,


when 144 g of water at 100C and 1 atm pressure
in converted into steam at 100C and 4 atm pressure?
(Take R = 2 cal/K mole, ln2 = 0.7).

45. Number of H that can takes part in tautomerism


in given compound are
O
O
O

46. How many of the following compounds will give


white precipitate with aqueous AgNO3 ?

43. Two solids, A and B are present in two different


container having same volume and same
temperature following equilibrium are established :

In container (1) A(s)


equilibrium

D(g) + C(g) PT = 2 atm at

In container (2) B(s)


equilibrium

E(g) + F(g) PT = 4 atm at

If excess of A and B are added to a third container


having double the volume and at same temperature
then, the total pressure of this container at
equilibrium will be

Cl

Cl

Cl


Cl

Cl
Ph Ph

Ph C C Ph

Cl

OH Cl

Cl

mathematics

SECTION - I
Straight Objective Type
This section contains 6 multiple choice questions numbered
47 to 52. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),
out of which ONLY ONE is correct.
sin x + 4

be
47. Let g : , A defined by g( x) =
sin x 2
2
invertible function, then the set A is equal to
(a) [5, 2]
(b) [2, 5]
(c) [5, 2]
(d) [3, 2]
1
9
48. If f ( x + 1) = f ( x) +
, x N and f(x) > 0 for
f ( x)
2
x N all then lim f ( x) =

(a) 3

(b) 4
10

(c) 5

(d) 6

49. The value of [tan x] dx (where [] denotes greatest


0

integer) is equal to

(a) 10
4

(c) 10
14 Physics for you |

50. If C 0, C 1, C 2, ....., C n are binomial coefficients


then
2
n

2
2
2
lim Cn Cn1 + Cn 2 + .... + ( 1)n C0 =
n

3
3
3


(a) 0

(b) 1

(d) None of these

feBruary 13

(d) 2

51. I f t h e c o m m o n t a n g e n t s t o t h e c i r c l e s
x2 + y2 2x 4y + 1 = 0 and x2 + y2 14x 4y + 52 = 0
intersect at A and B on the line joining their
centres then the equation of the ellipse with A,
1
will be
B as foci and eccentricity
2
2
2

(a) ( x 9 ) ( y 2 )
+
=1
48
64

( x 9) + ( y 2)

( x 2) + ( y 9)
(c)

(b)

64

=1

64

( x 9) + ( y 2)
2

(d)

=1

48

48

(b) (10 tan1)

(c) 1

24

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32

=1

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52. Two lines whose equations are

x 3 y 2 z 1
=
=
2
3

x2 y3 z2
=
=
lie in the same plane, then
3
2
3
1
the value of sin sinl is equal to
(a) 3
(b) p 3 (c) 4
(d) p 4

and

SECTION - II
Multiple Correct Answer Type
This section contains 4 multiple choice questions numbered
53 to 56. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),
out of which ONE or MORE THAN ONE are correct.

53. Let unit vectors a and b are perpendicular & unit

vector c is inclined at an angle q to both a and

b . If c = a + b + ( a b ) then
(a) a = b
(b) 1 2a2 = g2
1 + cos 2
(c) 2 =

(d) a2 b2 = g2
2
54. The equation of the curve passing through
(3, 4) & satisfying the differential equation
2

dy
dy
y + ( x y ) x = 0 can be
dx
dx

(a) x y + 1 = 0
(b) x2 + y2 = 25
(c) x2 + y2 5x 10 = 0 (d) x + y 7 = 0
55. The image of point having abscissa = a on
y = x 1 w.r.t. the line mirror 3x + y = 6a is the
point on x = y2 + 1 with ordinate = a. Then the
value of a is
1
(a) 1
(b)
3
(c) 2
(d) none of these

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` 165

56. If in a triangle ABC, sin4A + sin4B + sin4C


+ 8cosA = 0, then triangle may be
(a) Right angled
(b) isosceles
(c) Equilateral
(d) Right angled isosceles

SECTION - III
Linked Comprehension Type
This section contains 2 paragraphs P57-59 and P60-62. Based
upon each paragraph, 3 multiple choice questions have to be
answered. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d),
out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

P57-59 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 57 to 59

The diagram shows


the graph of the
derivative of a
function y = f(x)
for 0 x 5 with
f(0) = 0 .

57. Tangent line to y = f(x) at x = 0 makes an angle


of sec1
(a) 2

k with the x-axis then k =


(b) 5
(c) 10 (d) 17

58. f is increasing in the interval


(a) [1, 3]
(b) [0, 4]
(c) [0, 1]
(d) none of these
59.

0 f ( x)dx =

21
(a)

20

(c) 1

` 150

21

20
(d) none of these
(b)

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P60-62 : Paragraph for Question Nos. 60 to 62
A bag contains 6 balls of 3 different colour namely
White, Green and Red, atleast one ball of each different
colour. Assume all possible probability distributions
are equally likely.
60. The probability that the bag contains 2 balls of
each colour, is

(a) 1/3
(b) 1/5
(c) 1/10
(d) 1/4

61. Three balls are picked up at random from the bag


and found to be one of each different colour. The
probability that the bag contained 4 Red ball is

(a) 1/14
(b) 2/14 (c) 3/14
(d) 4/14
62. Three balls are picked at random from the bag
and found to be one of each different colour. The
probability that the bag contained equal number
of White and Green balls, is

(a) 4/14
(b) 3/14 (c) 2/14
(d) 5/14
Section - iV
Integer Answer Type
This section contains 7 questions numbered
63 to 69. The answer to each of the questions is
a single digit integer, ranging from 0 to 9.
For example, if the correct answers to question
numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,
respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles
will look like the following.

X
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Y
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Z
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

b 2. Given 0 < a < 1 and a 2 < a 1 < b2 < b 1 then


4
[|b1| |a1|] + [|b2| |a2|] is equal to (where
[] denotes greatest integer)

66. The product of maximum & minimum distance


z 1
z2
between two curves
= 2 and
= 2 is
z2
z 1
67. The sum of infinite terms of a decreasing G.P.
is equal to the greatest value of the function
f(x) = x3 + 3x 9 in the interval [2, 3] and the
difference between the first two terms is f (0). If
the common ratio of the G.P. is k/3 then k =
68. If the area bounded by the curve
f ( x) = tan x + cot x tan x cot x between the

lines x = 0 , x = and the x-axis is logK then K is


2
69. The sum of the factors of 7! , which are odd &
are of the form 3t + 1, where t is a whole number is

W
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

answer keys
1. (a) 2. (c)
5. (a) 6. (c)
9. (a,c,d)
12. (a) 13. (a)
16. (c) 17. (1)
20. (5) 21. (1)
24. (c) 25. (c)
28. (d) 29. (c)
32. (a,b,c,d)
35. (a) 36. (b)
39. (d) 40. (6)
43. (6) 44. (8)

1 1 1

63. If A 1 3 2 then det [adj {adj {adj A }}] is


1 2 1

equal to
64. If (1 + ax + bx2)4 = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + .... + a8x8 where
a, b, a0, a1, ..... a8 R such that a0 + a1 + a2 0 and
a0 a1 a2
a1

a2

a2
a0

47.
51.
55.
59.
63.
67.

a0 = 0 then 32(a b) is
a1

65. If roots of equation x2 x(1 + 4a) + a + 3a2 = 0


are a1, b1 & that of x2 ax 2a2 = 0 are a2 and

16 Physics for you |

feBruary 13

(a)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(1)
(2)

PHYSICS
3. (b)
7. (b,d)
10. (a,b,d)
14. (b)
18. (3)
22. (1)
CHEMISTRY
26. (c)
30. (a,b)
33. (c,d)
37. (d)
41. (3)
45. (4)

4. (b)
8. (a,b,c,d)
11. (a)
15. (a)
19. (1)
23. (1)
27. (d)
31. (a,b,d)
34. (c)
38. (d)
42. (0)
46. (4)

MATHEMATICS
48. (a)
49. (b)
50. (a)
54. (a,b)
52. (d)
53. (a,b,c)
56. (a,d)
57. (d)
58. (b)
60. (c)
61. (a)
62. (b)
64. (3)
65. (1)
66. (3)
68. (4)
69. (8)

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seeking Unity in diversity and diversity in unity


Passage- 1
Differentiation and Integration they are the right
and left hands of science. We shall study a few cases of
motion and cases similar to various types of motion in
different fields.
Water flow and current
flow are similar.
Resistance in narrow
tubes will be more.
although the same potential energy is applied.
As the quantity of water flowing is the same, water
will be faster in the narrow tube than in the wider one
because the same quantity has to flow.
The same current will be flowing in resistances in series.
A

I
R1

B
R3

R2
+

In the given circuit same current is flowing in all the


three resistances in series.
IR1 IR2 IR3 + e = 0
Take "up the current"-positive, down the flow, negative.
The potential from the positive of the battery to its
negative plate is negative and negative to positive is
positive.
I3
m From any point, back to
I
2

the same point, the total
potential difference should
I4
be zero.
I
I1

m The total current entering a junction will be


equal to the current leaving the junction.

I1 + I2 I3 I4 I5 = 0

These are Kirchhoff's Laws.

2. If the given bridge is balanced and no current is


flowing through the galvanometer, what is the
value of S?
B
P

A
R

(a) 1 A

2
2

12 V

(b) 2 A

(c) 3 A

Q
C
S

(a) 4 W
(b) 2 W
(c) 8 W
(d) None of these
3. When a straight conductor is held perpendicular
to the plane of the paper and the current is
outwards, what is the direction of the associated
magnetic lines by Oersted's law?
(a) It is parallel to the conductor and outwards.
(b) It is parallel to the conductor and inwards.
(c) It is circular, perpendicular to the direction
of current, in the plane of the paper,
anticlockwise.
(d) Perpendicular to the plane of the paper,
clockwise.
4. What is the essential difference in the direction of
action of the magnetic field on a charge and the
electric field?
5. Three capacitors are connected in series as shown
in figure.
C1

1. The total current flowing in the circuit is


2

C2

C3

+
V

(d) 4 A

(a) The same charge is flowing in all the three


capacitors
(b) Total equivalent capacitance is C = C1 + C2 + C3
(c) The equivalent capacitance C is given by
1
1
1
1
=
+
+
C C1 C2 C3
(d) None of these

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February 13

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6. The relation current, resistance and potential


difference is given by
V
V = IR I =


R

The corresponding relation for capacitance is
2
(a) Q = V
(b) V = QC
C
(c) Q = VC
(d) none of these
7. The total resistance when R1, R2, R3 are in parallel is

1
1
1
=
+
+
R R1 R2
When capacitors are in
capacitance, C is given by
1
1
1
1
(a)
(b)
=
+
+
C C1 C2 C3

1
R3
parallel, the total
C = C1 + C2 + C3

(c) none of these

Therefore, total resistance is, 1 W + 1 W + 2 W = 4 W.


12 V

The total current in the circuit =
=3A
4
2. (a) : This is a Wheatstone bridge where the
resistances are so balanced that no current flows
through the branch BD, as the galvanometer
shows no deflection.
P R
QR 2 8
Here,
=
S=
=
=4

Q S
P
4
3. (c) : When current is outwards, ^r to
the plane of the paper, the direction
of the magnetic field is anticlockwise,
perpendicular to the direction of the
current.
4. The magnetic field always acts perpendicular
to the direction of the current. The electric field
always acts parallel to the motion of the charge.

Passage-II
In a CR circuit, when a capacitor is getting
charged, the voltage increases exponentially and
when the current is observed, initially the current
is high; till the capacitor gets charged fully, the
current decreases exponentially till it reaches zero
exponentially.

Charging and discharging a capacitor has its
analogy in nuclear physics in the studies of
radioactivity, production and decay of radioactive
materials. The oscillations of mass and spring,
L, C, R circuit are all analogous to problems in
radioactivity.

Students are advised to prepare Charts for
comparision.
8. The functions of spring and mass in electrical
oscillations are given by
(a) R and L
(b) L and C
(c) L and R
(d) none of these

5. (a, c): At any instant, the charges accumulated on


all the capacitors will be equal (a) but the sign are
different.

9. What is common in a leaking water tank,


radioactive decay and discharge of a fully charged
capacitor?

SOLUTIONS
1. (c) :

2
P

R
S

12 V

In P and Q, 2 W and 2 W are in parallel.
1
1
1
1 1 1
i.e.,
=
+

= +
RPQ = 1
R R1 R2
R 2 2
RQR is also 1 W. They are in series with S = 2 W.

i.e.,

The total capacitance is C, where C is given by,


1
1
1
1
=
+
+

C C1 C2 C3

6. (c) : Q = VC
7. (b) : + V

C1

C2

C3

The total charge, Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3


The potential applied across all the three capacitors
in parallel is the same.
Q = VC = VC1 + VC2 + VC3

C = C1 + C2 + C3
8. (b) : L and C
d 2Q

1
1
Q where
= 2
LC
LC
dt
2

The period of oscillation, T =

1

Frequency of oscillation =
2 LC
9. They all obey
Y

the exponential decay
law. Let quantity of
water,
number
of
time
decaying nuclei
X

and the charge in the capacitor be Y and time
denoted by X. The decay diagram is as shown.

Seek unifined approach to solve diverse
problems.

vvv
2

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SHM and Waves


By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*
R
is drilled through a cylinder
4
of radius R to form a body as shown in figure.
Assuming that the body is in pure rolling, find the
time period T for small oscillations.

1. A hole of radius


2. A cylinder of mass M and radius R is kept on a
rough horizontal platform at one extreme end of the
platform at t = 0. Axis of the cylinder is parallel to
z-axis. The platform is oscillating in the xy plane and
its displacement from the origin is represented as
x = 2cos(4pt) m.

There is no slipping between

the cylinder and the platform.
Find the acceleration of the
centre of mass of the cylinder
as a function of time.
3. A particle simultaneously participates in two
mutually perpendicular oscillations : x = cospt m and
t
y = cos . Find the trajectory of the particle.
2
4. When a tuning fork of frequency 262 Hz is struck,
it loses half of its energy after 4 s.
(a) What is the decay time t ?
(b) What is the Q-factor for this tuning fork?
(c) What is the fractional energy loss per cycle?

5. A metallic rod of length 1 m is rigidly clamped


at its midpiont. Longitudinal stationary waves
are set up in such a way that there are two nodes
on either side of the midpoint. The amplitude of
an antinode is 2 106 m. Write the equation of
motion at a point 2 cm from the midpoint and
those of constituent waves in the rod.

(Y = 2 1011 N m2 and r = 8 103 kg m3)
6. The first overtone of an organ pipe beats with the
first overtone of a closed organ pipe with a beat
frequency of 2.2 Hz. The fundamental frequency
of the closed organ pipe is 110 Hz. Find the length
of the pipes.
7. Two identical wires are stretched by the same
tension of 100 N and each emits a note of frequency
200 cycles per second. The tension in one wire is
increased by 1 N. Calculate the number of beats
heard per second when the wires are plucked.
8. By what factor does the sound intensity increase if
a sound level increases by 3 dB.
SOLUTIONS
1.

Let s be the mass density of the cylinder and x be


the position of centre of mass. Then

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february 13

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R2 R
R2
0 = x R2
+

16
2
16
R
or x =
30
Let M be the mass of the cylinder without cavity.
Moment of inertia about contact point
3
I1 = MR 2
2
And moment of inertia of an imaginary cylinder
occupying the cavity is
2

I2 =

M 3R
1M R

+
2 16 4
16
2

So, the moment of inertia of the system about the


contact point,
3
1
9
695
I = I1 I 2 =

MR 2 =
MR 2
512
2 512 64
When the system is turned through a small angle
clockwise, the restoring torque on it is
15
R
= Mg sin

16
30
15
R
d 2
695
MR 2
= Mg sin
30
16
512
dt 2
For small q, sinq q,
d 2 512 g
+
= 0
dt 2 32 695 R
Comparing it with the standard equation of
SHM, we get,

512 g
2
=
=
32 695R T
or T = 2

32 695R
R
= 41.4
512 g
g

2. From given equation x = 2 cos(4pt) m,


angular frequency, w = 4p rad s1.
\ Acceleration of the platform when displacement
is x,
a = w2x
= 32p2cos(4pt) m s2
Fictitious force acting on the cylinder
= Ma = M 32p2 cos(4pt)
From Newton's second law,
32 p2 M cos(4pt) f = MaCM
...(i)
Also, taking torque about C.M. of the cylinder,
1
fR = MR 2
...(ii)
2
For pure rolling; aCM = R a
...(iii)
Solving above equations, we get,
32 2
f =
M cos( 4 t) N
3

And acceleration of C.M. of the cylinder relative


64 2
cos( 4 t) m s 2
to platform =
3
Acceleration of C.M. of the cylinder relative to
64

ground = 32 2 cos( 4 t)
3

32 2
= cos( 4 t) m s 2

3
3. The given equations are

x = cospt
... (i)

t

y = cos
2
1 + cos t
or 2 y 2 1 = cos t .... (ii)

2
Put (i) in (ii), we get,
2y2 1 = x
or 2y2 = x + 1 represents the equation of a parabola.
E
4. Using E = E0et/t and E = 0 . The Q value can be
2
calculated from decay time and the frequency.
(a) The energy at time, t = 4 s is equal to half the
original energy;
E0

= E0 e 4 / or e 4 / = 2
2
By taking loge both sides, we get
4
4
= ln 2 , =
= 5.77 s

ln 2
(b) Q - factor = w0t = (2pu)t = 2p 262 5.77
= 9.5 103.
(c) The fractional energy loss in a period is given
by
1
1
| E | T
4
E = = = 262 5.77 = 6.6 10
y=

5. When a longitudinal wave is set in the rod, its free


end is antinode and clamped point is node. Two

and a node
consecutive nodes are separated by
2

and an antinode by .
4

4 + 2 = L = 1 m = 0.4 m
2
4
Y
Velocity of a transverse wave in a rod is, v =

2 1011 N m 2
1
v=
= 5000 m s
8 10 3 kg m 3
v
Also v = ul, =

5000 m s 1
= 12500 Hz
0.4 m

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Let the incident wave on the rod be y1 = A sin(wt kx).


The reflected wave is y2 = A sin( t + kx + ).
From principle of superposition,
y = y1 + y2 = A sin(wt kx) + Asin (wt + kx + f)

These two produce beats frequency of 2.2 Hz


when sounded together, the expressions for beat
frequency are

(t kx ) + (t + kx + )
= 2 A sin

3 110

(t kx ) (t + kx + )
cos

\ lo = 1.0067 m or lo = 0.9934 m

The free end of the rod is an antinode, here

amplitude is maximum, cos kx + = 1.

At x = 0,
= 0 , hence f = 0
2
Amax = 2A = 2 106 m.

For a point 2 cm from the midpoint, x = 0.5 0.02


\ y = 2 106 cos5p (0.5 0.02) sin(25000pt).
The equation of component waves can be obtained
by applying 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) sin(A B).
\ y = 106[sin(5px + 25000pt) sin(5px 25000pt)]

d
1 T 2
=

dT 4 LT T 2

( 2n 1)v
, where n = 1, 2, 3,....
4lc

For open organ pipe, = n v , where n = 1, 2, 3,...


o
2 lo
Fundamental frequency of closed organ pipe,
330
v
= 110 Hz or lc =
= 0.75 m
4lc
4 110
3v
First overtone of closed organ pipe =
4lc
First overtone of open organ pipe =
2222physics FOR YOU |

february 13

2v
2lo

.... (i)

1 T
4 LT

1/ 2

(Using (i))

2 T
200
1
=

= 1 cycle per second


2
100
8. Intensity level b is given by
Hence, =

= 10(dB)log10

The two terms in the expression for y represent


the two component waves.

For closed pipe, c =

1/ 2

=
dT 2T

= 106 sin(25000pt + 5px) + 106 sin(25000pt 5px)

6. The frequency in nth mode of vibration of one end


closed and an open organ pipe are given by;

1 T
2L

Differentiate equation (i) w.r.t. T, we get


1/ 2
1/ 2
d
1 1 T
1
1 T
1
=

=

dT 2 L 2
4 L

The equation of the resultant standing wave is


2
y = 2 10 6 cos x sin 2 t

= 2 106cos(5px)sin(25000 pt).

330
330
= 2.2 or
3 110 = 2.2
lo
lo

7. The frequency of the fundamental note emitted


by each wire before the tension change occurs is

= 2 A cos kx + sin t + .

2
2

3v 2 v
2 v 3v

= 2.2 or

= 2.2
4lc 2lo
2lo 4lc

or

I
I0

I
= 10/(10 )
I0

.... (i)


Let I be the intensity when the sound level is
(b + 3) dB. Hence,
I
+ 3 = 10 log

I0
I
= 10( + 3)/ 10
.... (ii)
I
0
Divide (ii) by (i), we get

I 10( + 3)/ 10
=
I
10 / 10

I
= 10( 0.3) = 2
I

\ An increase in sound level of 3 dB increases the
intensity by a factor of 2.

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vvv

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physics FOR YOU | february 13

23

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Role of Coaching Institutes


in Ones Success

one are the days when students used to


believe in self study and pass their exams
with flying colors. Today, in this highly
competitive world where children outdo each other
in a bid to score 90 percent, professional training and
coaching institutes have become a part and parcel of
the modern age education.
The purpose of competitive exams is to filter students
with the right aptitude for a particular professional
field. Simply mugging up the study material may
not prove useful. It is important to have a strategy in
place. Thus a mapped out plan is the need of the hour
and coaching institutes play a very vital role in jotting
out a good plan for the students.
The coaching institutes play a very significant role
in the enhancement of students preparation. They
enhance students opportunities by providing a high
standard of academic learning, environment and
discipline. The institutes help students in developing
skills in various academic fields. With the growing
span of education in India, the students have become
alert and conscious about their careers, they tend to
seek the best quality education and for that they seek
the best coaching institute in the town.
Good coaching institute helps students to identify
their weak areas and helps to strengthen them with
well built strategies. Aspirants working hard to
crack JEE Main, JEE Advanced, CAT, MAT, TOFEL,
IAS etc opt for these coaching institutes for proper
guidance and grooming. The growing demands of
high level education have led to a fiercely competitive
environment for students seeking admissions in
prestigious institutes.
The genesis of growth in competition lies in the
education imparted in the schools. The school board
exams have diverse levels of difficulty and it usually
doesnt match the competency level of the competitive
exams. Schools basically focus on imparting syllabus
education while entrance exams focus on application
based education. The inability of traditional school set
up in meeting the needs of students in preparing for

24 physics for you |

february 13

competitive exams and choosing the right career has


ushered in the concept of coaching centers.
Earlier students were unaware of the various new
career options available due to lack of guidance and
they used to rely on their parents, siblings, friends
and other such sources for information. With the
emergence of media penetration and online support
systems, people have become more aware. Coaching
institutes have generated greater awareness of the
various options available for the students.
The experienced and qualified faculty at a good
coaching institute helps the students to understand
and analyze the concepts and test patterns and guide
them to work accordingly. They clarify all the related
doubts of the students and provide them with relevant
suggestions notes and handouts which help students
utilize their time optimally.
The pattern of competitive entrance exams such as
JEE, CAT etc undergo frequent change and at times
this change happens on yearly basis. The coaching
centers understand the changes and lead the students
in the desired manner. The Mock tests taken in these
coaching classes are very helpful in giving fairly good
exposure to the students and encourage them to put
in focused effort and to work hard. These tests give
ample practice as they teach the students to respond
promptly to tricky questions and manage speed and
time.
Coaching centers are very important but one needs to
keep a few things in mind before joining a coaching
institute. The students should inquire about the
faculties and the reputation of the coaching institute
before joining. Also, the timing should be suitable
and it should not be too far from your place as then it
will be tiresome to travel and you will have no time to
study at home.
At the end of the day, irrespective of whether you go
to a coaching class or not, it is your effort that will
fetch you the kind of results you are longing for.

WorldMags.net

Contributed by FIITJEE

nn

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1. A lens having focal length f and aperture of


diameter d forms an image of intensity I. Aperture
of diameter d/2 in central region of lens is covered
by a black paper. Focal length of lens and intensity
of image now will be respectively
3f
I
I
and
(a) f and
(b)
4
2
4
f
I
3I
and
(c) f and
(d)
2
2
4
2. The radius of the rear wheel of bicycle is twice that
of the front wheel. When the bicycle is moving,
the angular speed of the rear wheel compared to
that of the front is
(a) greater
(b) smaller
(c) same
(d) exact double
3. When a particle oscillates in simple harmonic
motion, both its potential energy and kinetic
energy vary sinusoidally with time. If u be the
frequency of the motion of the particle, the
frequency associated with the kinetic energy is

(a) 4u
(b) 2u
(c) u
(d)
2
4. A wooden block is dropped from the top of a cliff
100 m high and simultaneously a bullet of mass
10 g is fired from the foot of the cliff upwards with
a velocity of 100 m s1. The bullet and wooden
block will meet each other after a time
(a) 10 s
(b) 0.5 s (c) 1 s
(d) 7 s
5. A common emitter amplifier has a voltage gain of
50, an input impedance of 100 W and an output
impedance of 200 W. The power gain of the
amplifier is
(a) 500
(b) 1000 (c) 1250 (d) 50
6. A satellite is launched into a circular orbit of
radius R around earth while a second satellite
is launched into an orbit of radius 1.02R. The
percentage difference in the time period is
(a) 0.7
(b) 1.0
(c) 1.5
(d) 3.0

7. Keeping the banking angle same, to increase the


maximum speed with which a vehicle can travel
on a curved road by 10 percent. The radius of
curvature of the road has to be changed from
20 m to
(a) 6 m
(b) 18 m
(c) 24.2 m
(d) 30.5 m
8. A 220 V input is supplied to a transformer.
The output circuit draws a current of 2.0 A at
440 V. If the efficiency of the transformer is 80%,
the current drawn by the primary windings of the
transformer is
(a) 3.6 A
(b) 2.8 A
(c) 2.5 A
(d) 5.0 A
9. A block of mass m is attached with massless
spring of spring constant k. The block is placed
over a fixed rough inclined surface for which the
3
coefficient of friction is = . The block of mass m
4
is initially at rest. The block of mass M is released
from rest with spring in unstretched state. The
minimum value of M required to move the block
up the plane is
(Neglect mass of string and pulley and friction in
pulley) (Take sin 37 = 3 )
5


3
m
5
6
(c) m
5
(a)

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4
m
5
3
(d) m
2
(b)

physics for you | february 13

25

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10. Light of frequency 1.5 times the threshold


frequency is incident on a photosensitive material.
If the frequency of incident light is halved and the
intensity is doubled, the photocurrent becomes
(a) one fourth
(b) doubled
(c) halved
(d) zero

11. The Poissons ratio of a material is 0.4. If a force


is applied to a wire of this material, there is
a decrease of cross-sectional area by 2%. The
percentage increase in its length is
(a) 3%
(b) 2.5%
(c) 1%
(d) 0.5%
12. The centre of mass of three particles of masses
1 kg, 2 kg and 3 kg is at (2, 2, 2). The position of the
fourth mass of 4 kg to be placed in the system so
that the new centre of mass is at (0, 0, 0) is
(a) (3, 3, 3)
(b) (3, 3, 3)
(c) (2, 3 3)
(d) (2, 2, 3)
13. A body moves with uniform acceleration, then
which of the following graphs is correct?
v

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

14. A charged bead is capable of sliding freely through


a string held vertically in tension. An electric field
is applied parallel to the string, so that the bead
stays at rest at middle of the string. If the electric
field is switched off momentarily and switched
on
(a) the bead moves downwards and stops as
soon the field is switched on.
(b) the bead moves downwards when the field
is off and moves upwards when the field is
switched on.
(c) the bead moves downwards with constant
acceleration till it reaches the bottom of the
string.
(d) the bead moves downwards with constant
velocity till it reaches the bottom of the
string.
26 physics for you |

february 13

17. The equations of motion of a projectile are given


by x = 36t m and 2y = 96t 9.8t2 m. The angle of
projection is
3
4
(a) sin1
(b) sin1
5
5
3
4
(c) sin1
(d) sin1
4
3
18. A body is moving forward and backward. Change
in frequency observed by the body of a source is
2%. What is velocity of the body?
(Speed of sound is 300 m s1)
(a) 6 m s1
(b) 2 m s1
1
(c) 2.5 m s
(d) 3 m s1
19. The refractive index of a material of a plano
concave lens is 5/3, the radius of curvature is
0.3 m. The focal length of the lens in air is
(a) 0.45 m
(b) 0.6 m
(c) 0.75 m
(d) 1.0 m

t
v

15. When a battery connected across a resistor of


16 W, the voltage across the resistor is 12 V. When
the same battery is connected across a resistor
of 10 W, voltage across it is 11 V. The internal
resistance of the battery is
10
25
20
30
(a)
(b)
(d)
(c)

7
7
7
7
16. A satellite of mass ms revolving in a circular orbit
of radius rs round the earth of mass M has a total
energy E. Then its angular momentum will be
(a) (2Emsrs2)1/2
(b) (2Emsrs2)
1/2
(c) (2Emsrs)
(d) (2Emsrs)

20. The average force that is necessary to stop a


hammer with 25 N s1 momentum in 0.05 s is
(a) 500 N (b) 125 N (c) 50 N (d) 25 N
21. The dimensional formula for latent heat is
(a) [MLT2]
(b) [ML2T2]
(c) [M0L2T2]
(d) [MLT1]
22. A charge Q situated at a certain distance from
a short electric dipole in the end on opposite
experiences a force F. If the distance of the charge
from the dipole is doubled, force acting on the
charge will be
F
F
(a) 2F
(b)

(c) 8 F
(d)
2
8
23. The magnetic induction and the intensity of magnetic
field inside an iron core of an electromagnet are
1 Wb m2 and 150 A m1 respectively. The relative
permeability of iron is

(m0 = 4p 107 H m1)
(a)

106

4

(b)

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106

6

(c)

10 5
10 5
(d)
4
6

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24. The equivalent resistance between the terminals


A and D in the following circuit is
10

10
C

30. If the length of stretched string is shortened by


40% and the tension is increased by 44 %, then
the ratio of the final and initial fundamental
frequencies is
(a) 2 : 1 (b) 3 : 2 (c) 3 : 4 (d) 1 : 3

10

10

(a) 10 W
(c) 5 W

(b) 20 W
(d) 30 W

25. A rain drop of radius 0.3 mm falling vertically


downwards in air has a terminal velocity of
1 m s1. The viscosity of air is 18 105 poise. The
viscous force on the drop is
(a) 101.73 104 dyne (b) 101.73 105 dyne
(c) 16.95 105 dyne (d) 16.95 104 dyne
26. A stone is projected vertically up to reach
maximum height h. The ratio of its kinetic energy
4
to its potential energy, at a height h, will be
5
(a) 5 : 4
(b) 4 : 5
(c) 1 : 4
(d) 4 : 1
27. Refer to the arrangement of logic gates. For A = 0,
B = 0 and A = 1, B = 0, the values of output Y are,
respectively
A
B

(a) 0 and 1
(c) 1 and 1

(b) 1 and 0
(d) 0 and 0

28. Four massless springs whose spring constants


are 2k, 2k, k and 2k respectively are attached to a
mass M kept on a frictionless plane as shown in
figure. If the mass M is displaced in the horizontal
direction, then the frequency of the system is

2k

2k

k
M

2k

(a)

1
k

2 4M

(b)

1 4k
2 M

(c)

1
k

2 7 M

(d)

1 7k
2 M

29. Oscillating frequency of a cyclotron is 10 MHz. If


the radius of its dees is 0.5 m, the kinetic energy of
a proton, which is accelerated by the cyclotron is
(a) 10.2 MeV
(b) 20.1 MeV
(c) 5.1 MeV
(d) 1.5 MeV

31. Sodium lamps are used in foggy conditions


because
(a) yellow light is scattered less by the fog
particles.
(b) yellow light is scattered more by the fog
particles.
(c) yellow light is unaffected during its passage
through the fog .
(d) wavelength of yellow light is the mean of the
visible part of the spectrum.
32. In Youngs double slit experiment, an interference
pattern is obtained on a screen by a light of
wavelength 6000 coming from the coherent
sources S1 and S2. At certain point P on the
screen third dark fringe is formed. Then the path
difference S1P S2P in microns is
(a) 0.75 (b) 1.5
(c) 3.0
(d) 4.5
33. Photoelectric effect is an example of
(a) elastic collision
(b) inelastic collision
(c) two dimensional collision
(d) oblique collision
34. The angle of minimum deviation in an equilateral
prism of refractive index 1.414 is
(a) 60
(b) 30
(c) 90
(d) 45
35. A black body of mass 34.38 g and surface area
19.2 cm2 is at an initial temperature of 400 K. It
is allowed to cool inside an evacuated enclosure
kept at constant temperature 300 K. The rate of
cooling is 0.04C per second. The specific heat of
the body in J kg1 K1 is

(Stefans constant s = 5.73 108 W m2 K4)
(a) 2800 (b) 2100 (c) 1400 (d) 1200
36. The activity of a radioactive sample is measured
as N0 counts per minute at t = 0 and N0/e counts
per minute at t = 5 minutes. The time (in minutes)
at which the activity reduces to half its value is
2
5
(a) ln
(b)
5
ln 2
(c) 5 log10 2

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(d) 5 ln 2
physics for you | february 13

27

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37. Two concentric coils of 10 turns each are placed in


the same plane. Their radii are 20 cm and 40 cm
and carry 0.2 A and 0.3 A current respectively in
opposite directions. The magnetic field (in tesla)
at the centre is
5
3
(a) 0
(b) 0
4
4
7

4 0

(d) 9 0
4
38. When 1 kg of ice at 0C melts to water at 0C, the
resulting change in its entropy, taking latent heat
of ice to be 80 cal g1 is
(a) 273 cal K1
(b) 8 104 cal K1
(c) 80 cal K1
(d) 293 cal K1
(c)

39. A coil has 1,000 turns and 500 cm2 as its area.
The plane of the coil is placed at right angles to
a magnetic field of 2 105 Wb m2. The coil is
rotated through 180 in 0.2 s. The average emf
induced in the coil is
(a) 5 mV (b) 10 mV (c) 15 mV (d) 20 mV
14
40. Number of neutrons in 12
6 C and 6 C are
(a) 8 and 6
(b) 6 and 8
(c) 6 and 6
(d) 8 and 8

(a)

C

4

(b)

3C
4

4C

(d) 3C
3
44. A particle crossing the origin of co-ordinates at
time t = 0, moves in the xy-plane with a constant
acceleration a in the y-direction. If its equation
of motion is y = bx2 (b is a constant), its velocity
component in the x-direction is
(c)

2b
a
a
b
a (b) 2b (c) b (d) a
45. A galvanometer, having a resistance of 50 W, gives
a full scale deflection for a current of 0.05 A. The
length of a resistance wire of area of cross-section
2.97 102 cm2 that can be used to convert the
galvanometer into an ammeter which can read a
maximum of 5 A current is

(Specific resistance of the wire = 5 107 W m)
(a) 9 m
(b) 6 m
(c) 3 m
(d) 1.5 m
(a)

46. In the figure, the velocity v3 will be

41. Pressure P, volume V and temperature T for a


2
certain gas are related by P = AT BT , where
V
A and B are constants. The work done by the gas
as its temperature changes from T1 to T2 while
pressure remains constant is
(a) A B (T2 T1 )
2
(b) A(T2 T1) B(T22 T12)

(c)

A 2
B
T T12 T23 T13
3
T 2

B
(T2 T1)3
3
30
30
42. When 15
P decays to become 14
Si the particle
released is
(a) electron
(b) a-particle
(c) neutron
(d) positron
(d) A(T2 T1)2

43. A network of six identical capacitors, each of


value C is made as shown in the figure. Equivalent
capacitance between points A and B is
A

28 physics for you |

february 13

(a) zero
(c) 1 m s1

(b) 4 m s1
(d) 3 m s1

47. A travelling wave is represented by the equation


1
y=
sin( 60t + 2 x), where x and y are in metres
10
and t is in seconds. This represents a wave
(1) travelling with a velocity of 30 m s1
(2) of frequency 30 Hz

(3) of wavelength p m
(4) of amplitude 10 cm
(5) moving in the positive x direction
Pick out the correct statements from the above.
(a) 1, 2, 4
(b) 3, 4, 5
(c) 1, 2, 3, 4
(d) All
48. If 4 moles of an ideal monoatomic gas at
temperature 400 K is mixed with 2 moles of
another ideal monoatomic gas at temperature
700 K, the temperature of the mixture is
(a) 550C
(b) 500C
(c) 550 K
(d) 500 K

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Cont. on Page No. 70

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1. A ball is travelling with uniform translatory


motion. This means that
(a) it is at rest.
(b) the path can be a straight line or circular and
the ball travels with uniform speed.
(c) all parts of the ball have the same velocity
(magnitude and direction) and the velocity
is constant.
(d) the centre of the ball moves with constant
velocity and the ball spins about its centre
uniformly.
2. Which one of the following statements isnot true

about Newtons second law of motion F = ma ?


(a) The second law of motion is consistent with
the first law.
(b) The second law of motion is a vector law.
(c) The second law of motion is applicable to a
single point particle.
(d) The second law of motion is not a local law.
3. A body of mass 10 kg is acted upon by two
perpendicular forces, 6 N and 8 N. The resultant
acceleration of the body is
3
(a) 1 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t. 8Nforce.
4
3
(b) 0.2 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t. 8N force.
4

(c) Newtons second law only.


(d) both Newtons second and third law.
5. Which one of the following is not a contact
force?
(a) Viscous force
(b) Magnetic force
(c) Friction
(d) Buoyant force
6. A body of mass 2 kg travels according to the law
x(t) = pt + qt2 + rt3 where p = 3 m s1, q = 4 m s2
and r = 5 m s3.

The force acting on the body at t = 2 s is


(a) 136 N (b) 134 N (c) 158 N (d) 68 N

7. A person of mass 50 kg stands on a weighing


scale on a lift. If the lift is descending with a
downward acceleration of 9 m s2, what would
be the reading of the weighing scale?

(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 50 kg (b) 5 kg

(c) 95 kg (d) 100 kg

8. Two billiard balls A and B, each of mass 50 g


and moving in opposite directions with speed of
5 m s1 each, collide and rebound with the same
speed. The impulse imparted to each ball is
(a) 0.25 kg m s1
(c) 0.1 kg m s1

(b) 0.5 kg m s1
(d) 0.125 kg m s1

5
(c) 1 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t. 8Nforce.
4

9. A body with mass 5 kg is acted upon by a force

^
^
F = ( 3 i + 4 j ) N. If its initial velocity at t = 0 is

^
^
u = (6 i 12 j ) m s1, the time at which it will just

5
(d) 0.2 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t8Nforce.
4

4. Conservation of momentum in a collision between


particles can be understood from
(a) conservation of energy.
(b) Newtons first law only.

have a velocity along the y-axis is


(a) never (b) 10 s (c) 2 s
(d) 15 s

10. In figure, the coefficient of


friction between the floor
and the block B is 0.1. The
coefficient of friction

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Physics for you | february 13

29

WorldMags.net

between the blocks B and A is 0.2. The mass of


A is m/2 and of B is m. What is the maximum
horizontal force F can be applied to the block B
so that two blocks move together?
(a) 0.15mg
(b) 0.05mg
(c) 0.1mg
(d) 0.45mg
11. A stream of water flowing horizontally with a
speed of 15 m s1 gushes out of a tube of crosssectional area 102 m2, and hits a vertical wall
nearby. What is the force exerted on the wall
by the impact of water, assuming it does not
rebound?
(a) 1.25 103 N
(b) 2.25 103 N
3
(c) 3.25 10 N
(d) 4.25 103 N

12. Which one of the following statements is not


true?
(a) The same force for the same time causes the same
change in momentum for different bodies.
(b) The rate of change of momentum of a body
is directly proportional to the applied force
and takes place in the direction in which the
force acts.
(c) A greater opposing force is needed to stop a
heavy body than a light body in the same time,
if they are moving with the same speed.
(d) The greater the change in the momentum in
a given time, the lesser is the force that needs
to be applied.
13. A block of 6 kg is suspended
by a rope of length 2 m from
the ceiling. A force of 50 N
in the horizontal direction
is applied at the midpoint P
of the rope, as shown in the
figure. What is the angle

the rope makes with the vertical in equilibrium?
Neglect the mass of the rope.

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 30 (b) 40
(c) 60
(d) 45
14. A person in an elevator accelerating upwards with
an acceleration of 2 m s2, tosses a coin vertically
upwards with a speed of 20 m s1. After how much
time will the coin fall back into his hand?

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 1.67 s (b) 2 s
(c) 3.33 s (d) 5 s
15. Two masses of 5 kg and 3 kg are
suspended with help of massless
inextensible strings as shown in
figure. The whole system is going
upwards with an acceleration of
2 m s2. The tensions T1 and T2 are

(Take g = 10 m s2)
30 Physics for you |

february 13

T1

5 kg

T2
3 kg

(a) 96 N, 36 N
(c) 96 N, 96 N

(b) 36 N, 96 N
(d) 36 N, 36 N

16. A block of mass M is held against a rough vertical


wall by pressing it with a finger. If the coefficient
of friction between the block and the wall is m
and the acceleration due to gravity is g, what is
the minimum force required to be applied by the
finger to hold the block against the wall?
Mg

(a) mMg (b) Mg
(c)
(d) 2mMg

17. There are four forces


acting at a point P
produced by strings
as shown in figure,
which is at rest. The
forces F1 and F2 are
1
3
(a)
N,
N
2
2
(b)
(c)

3
2
1

N,

1
2

2N
45
45
P

1N

90

F2

F1

(d)

N,

N
2
2
2
2
18. A metre scale is moving with uniform velocity.
This implies
N,

(a) the force acting on the scale is zero, but a


torque about the centre of mass can act on
the scale.
(b) the force acting on the scale is zero and the
torque acting about centre of mass of the
scale is also zero.
(c) the total force acting on it need not be zero
but the torque on it is zero.
(d) neither the force nor the torque need to be
zero.
19. A 100 kg gun fires a ball of 1 kg horizontally from
a cliff of height 500 m. It falls on the ground at
a distance of 400 m from the bottom of the cliff.
Find the recoil velocity of the gun.

(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 0.2 m s1
(b) 0.4 m s1
1
(c) 0.6 m s
(d) 0.8 m s1
20. A large force is acting on a body for a short time.
The impulse imparted is equal to the change in
(a) acceleration
(b) momentum
(c) energy
(d) velocity
21. Figure shows a man standing stationary with
respect to a horizontal conveyor belt that is
accelerating with 1 m s2. What is the net force
on the man? (Mass of the man = 65 kg)

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net
(a) T

(c) T +

(a) 35 N (b) 45 N (c) 55 N

(d) 65 N

22. Figure shows (x, t), (y, t) diagram of a particle


moving in 2-dimensions.

If the particle has a mass of 500 g, the force acting


on the particle is
(a) 1 N along y-axis (b) 1 N along x-axis
(c) 0.5 N along x-axis (d) 0.5 N y-axis

23. Block A of weight 100 N rests on


a frictionless inclined plane of
slope angle 30 as shown in the
figure. A flexible cord attached
to A passes over a frictionless
pulley and is connected to

block B of weight W. Find the weight W for which
the system is in equilibrium.

(a) 25 N (b) 50 N (c) 75 N (d) 100 N
24. The position-time
graph of a body of
mass 2 kg is as given
in figure. What is
the impulse on the
body at t = 4 s?
2
(a)
kg m s1
3
2
(b) kg m s1
3
3
(c)
kg m s1
2

(b) T

mv 2
l

mv 2
l

(d) 0

Where T is the tension in the string.

26. Ten one-rupee coins are put on top of each other


on a table. Each coin has a mass m. The force on
the 7th coin (counted from the bottom) due to all
the coins on its top is
(a) 3mg, vertically downwards
(b) 3mg, vertically upwards
(c) 7mg, vertically downwards
(d) 7mg, vertically upwards
27. A car of mass m starts from rest and acquires a

^
velocity along east v = v i (v > 0) in two seconds.
Assuming the car moves with uniform acceleration,
the force exerted on the car is
mv
(a)
eastward and is exerted by the car engine.
2
mv
(b)
eastward and is due to the friction on
2
the tyres exerted by the road.
mv
(c) more than
eastward exerted due to the
2
engine and overcomes the friction of the road.
(d) mv exerted by the engine.
2
28. A stone of mass m tied to the end of a string
revolves in a vertical circle of radius R. The net
forces at the lowest and highest points of the
circle directed vertically downwards are

Lowest Point
Highest Point
(a) mg T1
mg + T2
(b) mg + T1
mg T2
2
2

(c) mg + T1 mv1
mg T2 + mv2
R
R
2
mv 2
mg + T2 + mv2
1

R
R
T1 and v1 denote the tension and speed at the
lowest point. T2 and v 2 denote corresponding
values at the highest point.
(d) mg T1

(d)

3
kg m s1
2

25. One end of a string of length l is connected to


a particle of mass m and the other to a small
peg on a smooth horizontal table. If the particle
moves in a circle with speed v the net force on
the particle (directed towards the centre) is

29. A circular racetrack of radius 300 m is banked


at an angle of 15. If the coefficient of friction
between the wheels of a race car and the road is
0.2, what is the maximum permissible speed to
avoid slipping?

(Take tan15 = 0.27)


(a) 18.2 m s1
(c) 38.2 m s1

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(b) 28.2 m s1
(d) 48.2 m s1

Physics for you | february 13

31

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30. A hockey player is moving northward and


suddenly turns westward with the same speed
to avoid an opponent. The force that acts on the
player is
(a) frictional force along westward.
(b) muscle force along southward.
(c) frictional force along south-west.
(d) muscle force along south-west.

solutions

3. (a) : Here, m = 10 kg
The resultant force acting
on the body is
F = (8 N)2 + (6 N)2 = 10 N

6N

1. (c)
2. (d) : The second law
of motion is a local law which
means that force F at a point in space (location of
the particle) at a certain instant of time is related

to a at that point at that instant. Acceleration


here and now is determined by the force here
and now, not by any history of the motion of the
particle.

8N

Let the resultant force F makes an q w.r.t. 8 N


force.
6 N 3
From figure, tan =
=
8 N 4
The resultant acceleration of the body is
F 10 N
a= =
= 1 m s2
m 10 kg
The resultant acceleration is along the direction
of the resultant force.
Hence, the resultant acceleration of the body is
3
1 m s2 at an angle of tan1 w.r.t. 8 N force.
4
4. (d) : Newtons second and third laws of motion
lead to conservation of linear momentum.
5. (b) : Among the given forces magnetic force is a
non-contact force.
6. (a) : Here, x(t) = pt + qt2 + rt3
where p = 3 m s1, q = 4 m s2 and r = 5 m s3

m = 2 kg
dx d
(pt + qt2 + rt3) = p + 2qt + 3rt2
Velocity, v =
=
dt dt
dv
Acceleration, a =
= 2q + 6rt
dt
At t = 2 s
a = 2(4 m s2) + 6(5 m s3)(2 s)
= 8 m s2 + 60 m s2 = 68 m s2
The force acting on the body of mass 2 kg is
F = ma = (2 kg)(68 m s2) = 136 N
32 Physics for you |

february 13

7. (b) : The reading on the scale is a measure of the


force on the floor by the person. By the Newtons
third law this is equal and opposite to the normal
force N on the person by the floor.
\ When the lift is descending downward with
a acceleration of a m s2, then
50 10 N = 50 9
or N = 50 10 50 9 = 50 N
\ The reading of weighing machine is 5 kg.
8. (b) :

Initial momentum of ball A = (0.05 kg)(5 m s1)



= 0.25 kg m s1
As the speed is reversed on collision,
Final momentum of the ball A

= (0.05 kg)(5 m s1)

= 0.25 kg m s1
Impulse imparted to the ball A

= Change in momentum of ball A

= Final momentum Initial momentum

= 0.25 kg m s1 0.25 kg m s1

= 0.5 kg m s1
Similarly,
Initial momentum of ball B = (0.05 kg)(5 m s1)

= 0.25 kg m s1
Final momentum of ball B = (0.05 kg)(5 m s1)

= + 0.25 kg m s1
Impulse imparted to ball B

= (0.25 kg m s1) ( 0.25 kg m s1)

= 0.5 kg m s1
Impulse imparted to each ball is 0.5 kg m s1 in
magnitude. The two impulses are opposite in
direction.

^
^
9. (b) : Here, m = 5 kg, F = 3 i + 4 j N
^
^


u = 6 i 12 j m s 1
The acceleration of the body is

^
^
F ( 3 i + 4 j ) N
3^ 4^
a= =
= i + j m s 2
m
5 kg
5 5
Velocity of the body along x-axis at any time t is
^ 3^
v x = u x + a xt = 6 i i t
5
The body will have a velocity along y-axis, if its
velocity along x-axis will be zero.
i.e. vx = 0 t = 10 s
m
10. (d) : Here, mA =
, mB = m
2
mA = 0.2, mB = 0.1
Let both the blocks are
moving with common
acceleration a. Then,

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14. (c) : Here, v = 20 m s1, a = 2 m s2, g = 10 m s2


The coin will fall back into the persons hand
after t s.

A mA g
= A g = 0.2 g
mA
and F mB(mB + mA)g = (mB + mA)a
F = (mB + mA)a + mB(mB + mA)g
a=

m
m
= m + (0.2 g ) + (0.1) m + g

2
2
3
3
0.9
= 2 m (0.2 g) + 2 m (0.1g ) =
mg = 0.45 mg
2
11. (b) : Here, v = 15 m s1
Area of cross section, A = 102 m2
Density of water, r =

103

kg

\ t =

2 20 m s 1
2v
40
10
s=
s = 3.33 s
=
=
a + g ( 2 + 10) m s 2 12
3

15. (a) : The free body diagram of 3 kg


block is as shown in the Fig. (a).
The equation of motion of 3 kg
block is
T2 3g = 3a
T2 = 3(a + g)

m3

Mass of water hitting the wall per second

= 3(2 + 10) = 36 N

=rAv
= 103 kg m3 102 m2 15 m s1 = 150 kg s1

The free body diagram of 5 kg


is as shown in the Fig. (b).

Force exerted on the wall


= Momentum loss of water per second
= 150 kg

s1

15 m

s1

= 2250 N = 2.25

The equation of motion of


5 kg block is
T1 T2 5g = 5a

103

12. (d) : The greater the change in the momentum in


a given time, the greater is the force that needs
to be applied.
13. (b) :

5
= tan 1 = 40
6

T1 = 5(a + g) + T2

= 5(2 + 10) + 36

= 96 N

(Using (i))

16. (c) : If F is the force of the finger on the book,


F = N, the normal reaction of the wall on the book.
The minimum upward frictional force needed to
ensure that the book does not fall is Mg. The frictional
force = mN.
Mg
Thus, minimum value of F =
.

17. (a) :

The free body diagram


of 6 kg block is as
shown in Fig. (b).
In equilibrium
T2 = 6g = 6 10 = 60 N
The free body diagram
of the point P is as
shown in Fig. (c).
In equilibrium
T1sinq = 50 N
...(i)
T1cosq = T2 = 60 N
...(ii)
Dividing (i) by (ii), we get
50 5
tan =
=
60 6

(i)

2N

2 cos45
1 cos451 N
45 45

2 sin45 P 90 F1

1 sin45

F2


Applying equilibrium conditions,
SFx = 0
F1 + 1sin45 2sin45 = 0
or F1 = 2sin45 1sin45
2
1
1

=
N

=
2
2
2
and SFy = 0
1cos45 + 2sin45 F2 = 0
1
2
3
+
=
F2 =
N
2
2
2
18. (b)

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Physics for you | february 13

33

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19. (b) : Here,

23. (b) :

Mass of the gun, M = 100 kg

Mass of the ball, m = 1 kg


A

g = 10 m s2

30

\ 400 = u 10
where u is the velocity of the ball.
u = 40 m s1

According to law of conservation of linear


momentum, we get
0 = Mv + mu
v=

(1 kg )( 40 m s 1 )
mu
=
= 0.4 m s 1
100 kg
M

ve sign shows that the direction of recoil of the


gun is opposite to that of the ball.
20. (b) : If a large force F acts for a short time dt the
impulse imparted I is
dp
I = Fdt =
dt
dt
I = dp = change in momentum
21. (d) : Here, mass of the man M = 65 kg
As the man is standing stationary w.r.t. the belt,
acceleration of man = acceleration of belt.
\ Acceleration of man, a = 1 m s2
\ Net force on the man

F = Ma = (65 kg)(1 m s2) = 65 N

22. (a) : Since the graph between x and t is a straight


line and passing through the origin.
\ x = t
Since the graph between y and t is a parabola.
\ y = t2
dv
\ v = dx = 1 and a = x = 0
x
x
dt
dt
and vy =

30

2 500 m

= 10 s
10 m s 2
Horizontal distance covered = ut

gs
in
m

2h
=
g

Time taken by the ball to reach the ground is


t=

dy
= 2t and ay = 2 m s2
dt

The force acting on the particle is


F = may = (0.5 kg)(2 m s2)
= 1 N along y-axis
34 Physics for you |

february 13

Height of the cliff, h = 500 m

mg
30

mgcos30

B
W

As the system is in equilibrium,


\ T = W
and T = mgsin30
From (i) and (ii), we get
1
W = mgsin30 = (100 N) = 50 N
2

(i)
(ii)

24. (d) : At t = 4 s, the body has constant velocity


3
u = m s1.
4
After t = 4 s, the body is at rest i.e., v = 0
\ Impulse = m(v u)
3
3
= 2 kg (0 m s1) = kg m s1
2
4
25. (a) : The net force on the particle is T and is
directed towards the centre of the circle. The
tension T provides the necessary centripetal force
to the particle moving in the circle.
26. (a) : The force on 7th coin is due to weight of the
three coins lying above it.
\ F = 3mg
This force acts vertically downwards.
27. (b)
28. (a) : At the lowest point, mg acts downwards and
T1 upwards so that net force = mg T1.
At the highest point, both mg and T2 act downwards
so that net force = mg + T2.
Hence, option (a) is correct.
29. (c) : Here R = 300 m, q = 15, g = 9.8 m s2,

m = 0.2
The maximum permissible speed is given by
vmax =

Rg( + tan )
=
1 tan

300 9.8 (0.2 + 0.27 )


1 0.2 0.27

= 38.2 m s1

30. (c)

nn

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Physics for you | february 13

35

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1. Why are alloys used for making standard


resistance coils?
[1]
2. How does focal length of a lens change when red
light is replaced by blue light?
[1]
3. Name the series of hydrogen spectrum lying in
the infrared region.
[1]
4. Would sky waves be suitable for transmission of
TV signals of 60 MHz frequency?
[1]
5. W
hat is the colour code for a resistor of resistance
3.5 kW with 5% tolerance?
[1]
6. W
hich physical quantity has the unit Wb m2? Is it
a scalar or a vector quantity?
[1]
7. A solenoid is connected to a battery so that a
steady current flows through it. If an iron core is
inserted into the solenoid, will the current increase
or decrease? Explain.
[1]
8. Why is ground wave transmission of signals
restricted to a frequency of 1500 kHz?
[1]

+
9. A uniform field E exists
+ A
B


between two charged +

plates as shown in figure. ++

What would be work done +

in moving a charge q along +

the closed rectangular path +


+

ABCDA?

+
C
D
+

+

[2]
10. What is an ideal diode? Draw the output
waveform across the load resistor R, if the input
waveform is as shown in the figure.
+6V
R

6V

[2]

11. Find the ratio of intensities of two points P and


Q on a screen in Youngs double slit experiment
when waves from sources S1 and S2 have phase
36 physics for you | February13

respectively.
[2]
2
12. Two conductors are made of the same material
and have the same length. Conductor A is solid
wire of diameter 1 mm. Conductor B is a hollow
tube of outer diameter 2 mm and inner diameter
1 mm. Find the ratio of resistance RA to RB.
[2]
difference of (i) 0 and (ii)

13. The current sensitivity of a moving coil


galvanometer increases by 20% when its resistance
is increased by a factor 2. Calculate by what factor
the voltage sensitivity changes.
[2]
14. A coil of 0.01 H inductance and 1 W resistance
is connected to 200 V, 50 Hz ac supply. Find the
impedance of the circuit and time lag between
maximum alternating voltage and current.
[2]
15. With the help of an example, explain, how the
neutron to proton ratio changes during alpha
decay of a nucleus.
[2]
16. Two long parallel wires are hanging freely. If they
are connected to a battery (i) in series, (ii) in parallel,
what would be the effect on their positions?
[2]
17. Obtain equivalent capacitance of the following
network. For a 300 V supply, determine the charge
and voltage across each capacitor.
[3]

18. Which of the following waves can be polarised?



(i) X-rays (ii) Sound waves. Give reasons.

Two polaroids are used to study polarisation.
One of them (the polariser) is kept fixed and
the other (the analyser) is initially kept with its
axis parallel to the poalriser. The analyser is then
rotated through angles of 45, 90 and 180 in
turn. How would the intensity of light coming out
of analyser be affected for these angles of rotation,

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WorldMags.net

as compared to the initial intensity and why? [3]

19. Illustrate the basic elements required for


transmitting and receiving an audio signal with
the help of a block diagram.
[3]

20. Two cells of voltage


R

10 V and 2 V and
internal resistances
10 W and 5 W
2V 5
respectively,
are
connected
in
parallel with the
positive end of 10 V
10 V 10
battery connected

to negative pole of 2 V battery as shown in figure.
Find the effective voltage and effective resistance
of the combination.
[3]
21. A source contains two phosphorus radionuclides
32
33
15 P (T1/2 = 14.3 days) and 15 P (T1/2 = 25.3 days).
33 . How
Initially 10% of the decays come from 15
P
long one must wait until 90% do so?
[3]
22. The two plates of a parallel plate capacitor are
4 mm apart. A slab of dielectric constant 3 and
thickness 3 mm is introduced between the plates
with its faces parallel to them. The distance
between the plates is so adjusted that the
rd
2
capacitance of the capacitor becomes of its
3
original value. What is the new distance between
the plates?
[3]

OR
Define the term electric potential due to a point
charge. Find the electric potential at the centre
of a square of side 2 m , having charges 100 mC,
50 mC, 20 mC and 60 mC at the four corners of
the square.
[3]

23. How would you establish an instantaneous


displacement current of 2.0 A in the space between
the two parallel plates of 1 mF capacitor?
[3]
24. The figure shows

a
rectangular
current carrying
loop, placed 2 cm
away
from
a
25 cm
long
straight,
current carrying
conductor. What is
the direction and
magnitude of the
net force acting on

the loop?

15 A
25 A

2 cm
10 cm

[3]

25. Two lenses of powers + 15 D and 5 D are in


contact with each other forming a combination
lens.
(a) What is the focal length of this combination?
(b) An object of size 3 cm is placed at 30 cm from
this combination of lenses. Calculate the
position and size of the image formed.
[3]
26. In an experiment of photoelectric effect, Neeta
plotted graphs for different observation between
photoelectric current and collector plate potential
but her friend Megha has to help her in plotting
the correct graph. Neeta thanked Megha for
timely help.
(a) What value was displayed by Megha and
Neeta.
(b) Draw the correct graph between I and V. [4]
27. What is induced emf? Write Faradays law
of electromagnetic induction. Express it
mathematically. A conducting rod of length l, with
one pivoted, is rotated with a uniform angular
speed w in a vertical plane, normal to a uniform
magnetic field B. Deduce an expression for the
emf induced in this rod.

In India, domestic power supply is at 220 V,
50 Hz, while in USA it is 110 V, 50 Hz. Give one
advantage and one disadvantage of 220 V supply
over 110 V supply.
[5]

OR
Explain the phenomenon of self induction. Define
coefficient of self inductance. What are its units?
Calculate self inductance of a long solenoid. [5]

28. (a) With the help of a circuit diagram explain the



working of transistor as oscillator.
(b) Draw a circuit diagram for a two inputs OR
gate and explain its working with the help of
input, output waveforms.
[5]
OR

Define the terms potential barrier and depletion
region for a p-n junction. Explain with the help of
a circuit diagram, the use of a p-n diode as a full
wave rectifier. Draw the input and output wave
forms.
[5]
29. Define magnifying power of an optical telescope.
Draw a ray diagram for an astronomical refracting
telescope in normal adjustment showing the paths
through the instrument of three rays from a distant
object. Derive an expression for its magnifying
power. Write the singificance of diameter of the
objective lens on the optical performance of a
telescope.
[5]

WorldMags.net

physics for you | February13

37

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OR

State Huygens principle and prove laws of
reflection and refraction on the basis of Huygens
principle.
[5]
SOLUTIONS

1. Alloys are used for making standard resistance


coils because they have low value of temperature
coefficient (less temperature sensitivity) of
resistance and high resistivity.
2. According to lens makers formula,

3. Paschen series, Brackett series and Pfund series.


4. No, signals of frequency greater than 30 MHz
will not be reflected by the ionosphere, but will
penetrate through the ionosphere.
5. Given, resistance = 3.5 kW 5% = 35 102 W 5%
\ Colour code of given resistor is orange, green,
red and gold.
6. Magnetic field induction has the unit Wb m2. It is
a vector quantity.
7. The current will decrease. As the iron core is
inserted in the solenoid, the magnetic field
increases and the flux increases. Lenzs law implies
that induced emf should resist this increase, which
can be achieved by a decrease in current.
8. In ground wave propagation, the loss of energy
due to interaction with matter increases with the
increase in frequency of wave. Therefore, the
waves of frequency above 1500 kHz get heavily
damaged in ground wave propagation. Hence
the ground wave propagation is restricted to a
frequency of 1500 kHz.
9. Work done in moving a charge along the closed
rectangular path would be zero, because field in
the entire space is uniform and electrostatic forces
are conservative forces.
10. A p-n junction diode which offers zero resistance
when forward biased and infinite resistance when
reverse biased is called an ideal diode.

The output waveform across R is as shown in the
figure below.

38 physics for you | February13

As mb > mr \ fb < fr
i.e. focal length of lens decreases.

1
1
1
= ( 1)

f
R1 R2

+6V

11. In Youngs double slit experiment, the resultant


intensity at any point on the screen is
I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos
where f is the phase difference between the waves
at that point.
Here, we consider I1 = I2 = I0
Therefore,
When f = 0, the intensity at point P is
I P = I0 + I0 + 2 I0 I0 cos 0 = 4 I0

When = , the resultant intensity at point Q is


2

I
=
I
Q
0 + I 0 + 2 I 0 I 0 cos = 2 I 0

2
IP 2

=
IQ 1

12. Resistance of conductor A,


l
RA =
(0.5 10 3 )2
Resistance of conductor B,
l
RB =
[(1 10 3 )2 (0.5 10 3 )2 ]
\

RA (1 10 3 )2 (0.5 10 3 )2 0.75 3
=
=
=
RB
0.25 1
(0.5 10 3 )2

20
120
I =
I , R = 2R
100 s 100 s
Is
Then, initial voltage sensitivity, Vs =
R
New voltage sensitivity,

13. Given, Is = I s +

I s 120
1
3
I
=
= V
R 100 s 2 R 5 s
\ % decrease in voltage sensitivity
3
Vs Vs
Vs Vs
5 100
100 =
= 40%

=
Vs
Vs

Vs =

14. Here, R = 1 W, u = 50 Hz, L = 0.01 H


The inductive reactance is
XL = wL = 2puL = 2 3.14 50 0.01 = 3.14 W
The impedance of the circuit is
2
2
Z = R + X L = (1)2 + ( 3.14)2 = 10.86 3.3
The phase difference between current and voltage
is
XL
= 3.14
tan f =
R
72
rad
f = tan1(3.14) 72
180

72
1
Time lag, Dt =
=
=
s
180 2 50 250

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15. Consider the a-decay of nucleus


A
ZX

A4
Z2Y

Potential difference across C4 is


q
2 10 8

V4 = 4 =
= 200 V
C4 100 10 12
From (i), Vp = 300 V4 = 300 200 = 100 V

+ 42 He

238
92 U

234
90 Th + 2 He
Before decay, neutron to proton ratio, n/p
238 92
= 1.58

=
92
After decay, neutron to proton ratio, n/p

Thus ratio increases.


16. (i)




(ii)

Charge on C1 is q1 = C1V1 = 100 1012 100 = 108 C


Potential difference across C2 and C3 in series

234 90
= 1.60
90

C1 = 100 pF

C2 = 200 pF

Charge on C3 is q3 = C3 V3 = 200 1012 50 = 108 C


18. (i) Phenomenon of polarisation is shown by
transverse waves only. X-rays are transverse in
nature, and hence they can be polarised.

According to Malus law

I = I0 cos2q

where
I = intensity of light coming from analyser
I0 = initial intensity
I

When q = 45, then I = I0 cos245 = 0
2

When q = 90, then I = I0 cos290= 0

19.

+
300 V

Microphone

C4 = 100 pF

Modulator

Here, C2 and C3 are in series.


1
1
1
2
1
=
+
=
=
\
Cs 200 200 200 100

Cs = 100 pF

Cp = Cs + C1 = 100 + 100 = 200 pF

Again, Cp and C4 are in series, therefore the


equivalent capacitance of the network is
1
1
1
1
1
3
=
+
+
=
=
\
C C p C4
200 100 200
200
pF = 66.7 1012 F
3
As Cp and C4 are in series,

C=

Vp + V4 = 300

...(i)

200
10 12 300
3
= 2 108 C

Charge on C4 is q4 = CV =

Transmitting
antenna

Receiving
antenna
Loudspeaker

Transmitter

Detector

Oscillator

Now Cs and C1 are in parallel.


\

When q = 180, then I = I0 cos2180 = I0

C3 = 200 pF

= 100 V

Charge on C2 is q2 = C2 V2 = 200 1012 50 = 108 C

When a battery is connected in series to two


long parallel wires, the currents in the two
wires will be in opposite directions. Due to
which a force of repulsion will be acting
between them and they move further apart.
When a battery is connected in parallel to two
long parallel wires, the currents in the two
wires will be in same direction. Due to which
a force of attraction will be acting between
them and they come closer to each other.

17.

Potential difference across C1 is V1 = Vp = 100 V

A brief description of the various elements is as


given below.
(i) A microphone converts sound waves into
electrical waves i.e. audio signal.
(ii) An oscillator generates carrier waves.
(iii) There is a mixing of carrier waves and audio
signal in a modulator.
(iv) The modulated waves are fed to transmitter,
these waves are then radiated through
transmitting antenna.
(v) T h e r e c e i v i n g a n t e n n a r e c e i ve s t h e
transmitting signal.
(vi) The detector demodulates (separate out) the
audio signal from the modulated waves.
(vii) The loudspeaker converts the audio signal
back into sound waves.

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physics for you | February13

39

20.

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C
I

2V

B
A

I1 10 V 10

Veff

or

Reff

Applying Kirchhoffs junction rule at junction B,


we get
...(i)

I1 = I + I2
Applying Kirchhoffs loop rule for closed loop
ABCDEFA gives

10 = IR + 10I1
...(ii)
Applying Kirchhoffs loop rule for closed loop
BCDEB gives

2 = 5I2 IR = 5(I1 I) IR
(Using (i))
...(iii)
or 4 = 10I1 10I 2IR
Equation (i) (iii) gives

6 = 3IR + 10I

10
or 2 = I R +

3
or 2 = (R + Reff)I
Comparing with Veff = (R + Reff)I, we get
Veff = 2 V and Reff =

10

21. Initially, the source has 90% of


10% of

33
15 P

32
15 P

nuclides and

nuclides. Finally, say after t days, the

source has 10% of


nuclides.

32
15 P

nuclides and 90% of

33
15 P

32
15 P nuclides = 9x;
33
Initial no. of 15
P nuclides = x
32
Final no. of 15 P nuclides = y;
33
Final no. of 15
P nuclides = 9y

\ Initial no. of

As
or
For

1
N 1
=
=
2
N 0 2
N = N0 ( 2)
32
P
15

t / T1/ 2

= ( 2)

1 t
9 = ( 2) 14.3 25.3 or 81 = 211t / 14.3 25.3
9
11t
log10 81 =
log10 2
14.3 25.3

I2

Dividing Eq. (ii) by Eq. (i), we get

1.9085 =

11t 0.3010
14.3 25.3

1.9085 14.3 25.3


= 208.5 days
11 0.3010
22. Here, distance between parallel plates
d = 4 mm = 0.004 m, K = 3, thickness,
t = 3 mm = 0.003 m

Let the new distance between the plates be d1.
0A
0 A
and C1 =

C=
d

1
d1 t 1

K
2
Since C1 = C
(Given)
3

0 A
2 0 A

1 3 d
d1 t 1

K

1
2
=
d
3

1
d1 t 1

K

1
2
=

1 3 0.004
d1 0.003 1

3

1
1
=
2 0.006
d1 0.003
3

1
1
=
d1 0.002 0.006


d1 0.002 = 0.006

d1 = 0.006 + 0.002 = 0.008 m = 8 mm

t / T1/ 2

t=

OR
Electric potential at a point is the amount of work
done to bring a unit positive charge from infinity
to that point against the electrostatic forces.

t / T1/ 2

isotope,

N0 = 9x; N = y; T1/2 = 14.3 days,


\
For

y = 9x(2)t/14.3
33
P
15

...(i)

isotope,

9y = x(2)t/25.3

40 physics for you | February13

2m

N0 = x; N = 9y; T1/2 = 25.3 days


...(ii)

AC = BD =

( 2) + ( 2)

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=2m

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\ AO = OC = BO = OD = 1 m

Potential at the centre of the square O is


V=

Focal length, f =

q
q
q
1 qA
+ B + C + D

4 0 AO BO OC OD

(b)

100 10 6 50 10 6 20 10 6 60 10 6

V = 9 109

1
1
1
1

= 9 109 10 106 = 9 104 V

23. Here, ID = 2.0 A, C = 1 mF = 106 F


d
d
dE
ID = 0 E = 0 (EA) = 0 A
dt
dt
dt

24.

15 A

(b)

2 cm

10 cm

Force between wires PQ and CD


0 I1I 2 l

F1=
2 r
2 10 7 15 25 0.25

=
= 93.75 105
2 10 2

= 9.375 104 N (Repulsive)
Force between wires PQ and AB
2 10 7 15 25 0.25
0.12

= 1.56 104 N (Attractive)
Net force on the rectangular loop
F = F1 F2 = (9.375 1.56) 104
= 7.815 104 N (Repulsive i.e., towards left).

1 31 2
=
=
v
30
30

hI =

I3 > I2 > I1

I3
I2
I1

Stopping
potential
0

Collector
plate potential

27. Refer point 4.1(3, 4, 5, 7 (d)) page no. 224, 225


(MTG Excel in Physics).
Advantage: At 220 V supply power loss due to
heating effect is lesser.
Disadvantage: At 220 V peak value of current is
more. Thus, it is more dangerous.

25 cm

or

v = 15 cm
v hI
m= =
u ho

V0
Retarding
potential

25 A

1 1 1 1
1
= + =
+
v f u 10 30

Photocurrent

d V
A dV
dV
=C
= 0
dt d
d dt
dt
E = V and C = 0 A

d
d
dV ID
2.0
or
=
=
= 2 106 V s 1
dt
C 10 6
Thus a displacement current of 2.0 A can be set
up by changing the potential difference across
the parallel plates of capacitor at the rate of
2 106 V s1.

1 1 1
=
f v u

15
v
=
3 = 1.5 cm
u 30
26. (a) The values displayed by them is sharing and
caring.
or

= 0 A

1
1
=
100 = 10 cm
P 10

F2 =

25. (a) Here, P1 = 15 D, P2 = 5 D


Power of the combination, P = P1 + P2

= 15 D 5 D = 10 D

OR
Refer point 4.2(1) page no. 226 (MTG Excel in
Physics).

28. (a) Refer point 9.4(10) page no. 541, (MTG Excel in
Physics).

(b) Refer point 9.5(1) page no. 542, (MTG Excel in


Physics).
OR
Refer point 9.3[(2), 6(ii)] page 532, 534 (MTG Excel
in Physics).

29. Refer point 6.9(3), page 347 (MTG Excel in


Physics).

OR
Refer point 6.10(6) and point 6.11 page no. 403,
404 (MTG Excel in Physics).
mmm

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physics for you | February13

41

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1. The random error in the arithmetic mean of 100


observations is x, then the random error in the
arithmetic mean of 400 observations would be
1
(a) 4x
(b) x
4
1
(c) 2x
(d) x
2
2. After one second the velocity of a projectile
makes an angle of 45 with the horizontal. After
another one second it is travelling horizontally.
The magnitude of its initial velocity and angle of
projection are (Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 14.62 m s1, 60
(b) 14.62 m s1, tan1(2)
(c) 22.36 m s1, tan1(2) (d) 22.36 m s1, 60
3. A block of mass 1 kg is

1 kg

placed over a plank of
2 kg
F = 30 N
mass 2 kg. The length of
the plank is 2 m.
2m

Coefficient of friction between the block and the
plank is 0.5 and the ground over which plank is
placed is smooth. A constant force F = 30 N is applied
on the plank in horizontal direction. The time after
which the block will separate from the plank is
(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 0.73 s
(b) 1.2 s
(c) 0.62 s
(d) 1.6 s
4. A boy of mass 30 kg starts running from rest
along a circular path of radius 6 m with constant
tangential acceleration of magnitude 2 m s2.
After 2 s from start he feels that his shoes started
slipping on ground. The friction between his
shoes and ground is

(Take g = 10 m s2)
1
1
1
1
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
5
3
4
2
42 physics for you |

february13

5. A light rod of length 200 cm is suspended from


the ceiling horizontally by means of two vertical
wires of equal length tied to its ends. One of
the wires is made of steel and is of cross-section
0.1 cm2 and the other of brass of cross-section
0.2 cm2. Along the rod at which distance a weight
may be hung to produce equal stresses in both the
wires?
(a) 4 m from steel wire
3
4
m from brass wire
(b)
3
(c) 1 m from steel wire
1
m from brass wire
4
6. Two cylinders A and B, fitted with pistons, contain
equal amounts of an ideal diatomic gas at 300 K.
The piston of A is free to move, while that of B is
held fixed. The same amount of heat is given to
the gas in each cylinder. If the rise in temperature
of the gas in A is 30 K then the rise in temperature
of the gas in B is
(a) 30 K (b) 18 K (c) 50 K (d) 42 K
(d)

7. A spherical conductor A of radius r is placed


concentrically inside a conducting shell B of
radius R(R > r). A charge Q is given to A, and
then A is joined to B by a metal wire. The charge
flowing from A to B will be
r
R
(a) Q

(b) Q

R + r
R + r
(c) Q

(d) zero

8. A 1 mF capacitor is connected in the circuit shown


below. The emf of the cell is 3 V and internal
resistance is 0.5 W. The resistors R1 and R2 have

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R1

14. A parachutist after bailing out falls 50 m without


friction. When parachute opens, it decelerates at
2 m s2. He reaches the ground with a speed of
3 m s1. At what height did he bail out?
(a) 293 m (b) 111 m (c) 91 m (d) 182 m

15. Two blocks A and B of masses 2m and m,

values 4 W and 1 W respectively. The charge on the


capacitor in steady state must be
3 V 0.5
1 F
R2

(a) 1 mC
(c) 1.33 mC

(b) 2 mC
(d) zero

9. A long cylindrical wire kept along z-axis carries a

^
current of density J = J0r k , where J0 is a constant
and r is the radial distance from the axis of the
cylinder. The magnetic field inside the conductor
at a distance d from the axis of the cylinder is
0 J0 d
(a) 0 J0
(b)
2
0 J0 d 3
0 J0 d 2
(c)

(d)

4
3
10. An object of mass 0.2 kg executes simple harmonic
oscillations along the x-axis with a frequency
25
Hz. At the position x = 0.04 m, the object has

kinetic energy 0.5 J and potential energy 0.4 J. The


amplitude of oscillation is

(Potential energy is zero at mean position)
(a) 6 cm (b) 4 cm (c) 8 cm (d) 2 cm
11. Velocity of sound in an open organ pipe is
330 m s1. The frequency of wave is 1.1 kHz and
the length of tube is 30 cm. To which harmonic
does this frequency correspond?
(a) 2nd
(b) 3rd
(c) 4th
(d) 5th
12. A point object is placed at a distance of 25 cm from
a convex lens of focal length 20 cm. If a glass slab
of thickness t and refractive index 1.5 is inserted
between the lens and the object the image is
formed at infinity. The thickness t is
(a) 10 cm
(b) 5 cm
(c) 20 cm
(d) 15 cm
13. An ideal massless spring S can be compressed
2 m by a force of 200 N. This spring is placed at
the bottom of the frictionless inclined plane which
makes an angle q = 30 with the horizontal. A
20 kg mass is released from rest at the top of the
inclined plane and is brought to rest momentarily
after compressing the spring 4 m. Through what
distance does the mass slide before coming to
rest?
(a) 2.2 m
(b) 4 m
(c) 8.17 m
(d) 1.9 m

respectively are connected by a massless


and inextensible string. The whole system
is suspended by a massless spring as A 2m
shown in the figure. The magnitudes of
acceleration A and B immediately after B m
the string is cut, are respectively
g
g
,g
(a) g ,
(b)
2
2
g g
, 
(c) g, g
(d)
2 2
16. If the work done in blowing a soap bubble of
volume V is W, then the work done in blowing a
soap bubble of volume 2V will be
(a) W
(b) 2W
(c) 2W (d) W(4)1/3
17. A hydrogen atom in an excited state emits a
photon which has the longest wavelength of the
Paschen series. Further emissions from the atom
cannot include the
(a) longest wavelength of the Lyman series
(b) second longest wavelength of the Lyman
series
(c) longest wavelength of the Balmer series
(d) second longest wavelength of the Balmer
series
18. A horizontal rod rotates about a vertical axis
through one end. A ring, which can slide along
the rod without friction, is initially close to the
axis and then slides to the other end of the rod.
In this process, which of the following quantities
will be conserved?

[L = angular momentum, KT = total kinetic energy,
KR = rotational kinetic energy]
(a) L only
(b) L and KT only
(c) L and KR only
(d) KT only
19. A photon of energy 10.2 eV corresponds to light
of wavelength l0. Due to an electron transition
from n = 2 to n = 1 in a hydrogen atom, light of
wavelength l is emitted. If we take into account the
recoil of the atom when the photon is emitted,
(a) l = l0
(b) l < l0
(c) l > l0
(d) the data is not sufficient to reach a
conclusion

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physics for you | february 13

43

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20. An electron of mass me initially at rest moves


through a certain distance in a uniform electric
field in time t1. A proton of mass mp also initially
at rest takes time t2 to move through an equal
distance in this uniform electric field. Neglecting
t
the effect of gravity, the ratio 2 is nearly equal to
t1
mp
(b)

me

(a) 1
m
e

(c)
mp

1/ 2

1/ 2

(d) 1836

21. A spherical ball A of mass 4 kg, moving along a


straight line strikes another spherical ball B of
mass 1 kg at rest. After the collision, A and B move
with velocities v1 m s1 and v2 m s1 respectively
making angles of 30 and 60 with respect to the
v
original direction of motion of A. The ratio 1
v2
will be
4
1
3
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d) 3
4
3
3

P2

5 V, 2

10

2 V, 1

P1

(a) 0.27 A, P1 to P2
(c) 0.03 A, P1 to P2

(b) 0.27 A, P2 to P1
(d) 0.03 A, P2 to P1

26. A galvanometer of 50 W resistance has


25 divisions. A current of 4 10 4 A gives a
deflection of one division. To convert this
galvanometer into a voltmeter having a range of
25 V, it should be connected with a resistance of
(a) 2500 W as a shunt (b) 2450 W as a shunt
(c) 2550 W in series
(d) 2450 W in series
27. What is the charge induced in coil of 100 turns
of resistance 100 W, if magnetic flux changes from
2 T m2 to 2 T m2?
(a) 4 C
(b) 2 C
(c) 2.8 C
(d) 0.4 C
28. If an electron revolves around a proton, then its
time period T is (R = radius of orbit)
(a) R2 (b) R3/2 (c) R3 (d) R

22. A bullet of mass 20 g moving with 600 m s1


collides with a block of mass 4 kg hanging with
the string. What is the velocity of bullet when it
comes out of block, if block rises to height 0.2 m
after collision?

(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 200 m s1
(b) 150 m s1
1
(c) 400 m s
(d) 300 m s1

29. A uniform circular disc of mass 12 kg is



held by two identical springs as
shown in the figure. When the disc is
pressed down slightly and released, it
executes SHM with a time period of 2 s.
The spring constant of each spring is
(a) 236 N m1
(b) 118.3 N m1
(c) 59.15 N m1
(d) 108.3 N m1

23. A simple pendulum is suspended from the ceiling


of a lift. When the lift is at rest its time period
is T. With what acceleration should the lift be
accelerated upwards in order to reduce its period
T
to ? (g is the acceleration due to gravity)
2
(a) 4g
(b) g
(c) 2g
(d) 3g

30. Two thin uniform circular rings each of radius


10 cm and mass 0.1 kg are arranged such that
they have common centre and their planes
are perpendicular to each other. The moment
of inertia of this system about an axis passing
through common centre and perpendicular to the
plane of either of the rings in kg m2 is
(a) 15 103
(b) 5 10 3
(c) 15 10 4
(d) 18 104

24. Two spherical conductors A and B of radii


1 mm and 2 mm are separated by a distance of
5 cm and are uniformly charged. If the spheres
are connected by a conducting wire then in
equilibrium condition, the ratio of the magnitude
of the electric fields at the surfaces of spheres of
A and B is
(a) 1 : 2

(b) 2 : 1

(c) 1 : 4

(d) 4 : 1

25. A 5 V battery with internal resistance 2 W and 2 V


battery with internal resistance 1 W are connected
to a 10 W resistor as shown in figure. The current
in 10 W resistor is
44 physics for you |

february13

SOLUTIONS
1. (b) : Since error is measured for 400 observations
instead of 100 observations. So error will reduce
1
by factor.
4
Hence, the random error in the arithmetic mean
x
of 400 observations would be .
4
2. (c) : Total time of flight is T = 4 s and if u is its
initial speed and q the angle of projection. Then

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WorldMags.net

2u sin
= 4
g
or usinq = 2g
...(i)
After 1 s velocity vector makes an angle of 45
with horizontal i.e.,
vx = vy

ucosq = usinq gt

ucosq = usinq g
( t = 1 s)

ucosq = 2g g
(Using (i))
or ucosq = g
...(ii)
Squaring and adding (i) and (ii), we get

T=

u2sin2q + u2cos2q = (2g)2 + (g)2


u2 = 5g2 = 5(10)2 m2 s2

\ u = 22.36 m s1
Dividing (i) by (ii), we get,
u sin 2 g
=
=2
u cos
g


tanq = 2 or q = tan1 (2)
3. (a) : Maximum frictional force between the block
and the plank is

f max = mmg = (0.5)(1)(10) = 5 N
The free body diagrams of the block and the plank
are as shown in the figure (a) and (b) respectively.
5N

(a)

5N

30 N
(b)

5
= 5 m s 2
1
30 5 25
Acceleration of plank, a2 =
m s 2
=
2
2
\ Relative acceleration of plank

a = a2 a1
25
a=
5 = 7.5 m s 2
2
2S
22
t=
=
= 0.73 s
a
7.5
Acceleration of block, a1 =

4. (b) : After 2 s speed of boy will be



v = 2 2 = 4 m s1
At this moment centripetal force on boy is
mv 2 30 16
Fc =
=
N = 80 N
R
6

Tangential force on boy is

Ft = ma = 30 2 N = 60 N
Total force acting on boy is
Fc2

Ft2

F=
+
= (80) + (60) = 100 N

At the time of slipping, F = mmg
1
or 100 = m 30 10 or =
3

5. (a) : A

2m
T1

T2

x
W

As stresses are equal, T1 = T2


A1 A2
T1 A1 0.1
i.e.
...(i)
=
=
or T2 = 2T1
T2 A2 0.2
Now for translatory equilibrium of the rod,
T1 + T2 = W
...(ii)
From (i) and (ii), we get
2W
W

T1 = ; T2 =
3
3
Now if x is the distance of weight W from steel
wire, then for rotational equilibrium of rod,
W
2W
T1x = T2 (2 x) or
x=
( 2 x)
3
3
4
x= m
3
6. (d) : In cylinder A, heat is supplied at constant
pressure while in cylinder B, heat is supplied at
constant volume.
\ (DQ)A = nCPDTA
and (DQ)B = nCVDTB
Given: (DQ)A = (DQ)B
nCPDTA = nCVDTB

C

or
TB = P TA
CV
C
7
For diatomic gas, P =
CV 5
7
TB = 30 K = 42 K
5

7. (c) : When charge of amount q has flown from A
to B, the charge on A is (Q q).
The potentials of A and B are
1 Qq
1 q
VA =
+

4
r
4

0
0 R
1 Qq
1 q
VB =
+
4 0 R
4 0 R

1 1
1
(Q q ) > 0
VA VB =
r R
4 0
\ VA > VB for all values of q.

Charge will flow A to B till q = Q.
8. (b) : In steady state current in the branch
containing the capacitor is zero and hence emf
e is shared between r and R2 in the ratio of their
resistances.

WorldMags.net

physics for you | february 13

45

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Potential difference across R2 is


R2
( 3 V)(1 )
=
=2V

VR =
2
R2 + r 1 + 0.5
Potential difference across capacitor of 1 mF is
same across R2.
\ Potential difference across 1 mF capacitor is

VC = 2 V
\ Charge on capacitor,

Q = CVC = (1 mF)(2 V) = 2 mC

^
9. (c) : Current density, J = J0r k
Current within a distance d,
d 2
d 2
^ ^
I = J dS = ( J0rrddr )( k k )
r = 0 = 0

0 0

^
[ dS = rddr k ]
z

d3
3
From Amperes Law,

d3

B dl = 0 2J0 3
C
= 2 J0



10. (a) : = 2 =

k
m
\ k = (2pu)2m
Total energy of oscillation is

E = (0.5 J + 0.4 J) = 0.9 J
1
E = KA2
2
where A is the amplitude of oscillation
1
0.9 = kA2
2
A=
=

1.8
1.8
=
k
( 2 )2 m
1 1.8
=
2 0.2

1
25
2

...(i)

(Using (i))
1.8
3
=
m = 6 cm
0.2 50

11. (a) : Fundamental frequency of an open organ


pipe is
v 330 m s 1
=
= 550 Hz
2l 2 0.3 m

The given frequency

u = 1.1 kHz = 1100 Hz = 2u0
0 =

46 physics for you |

february13

12. (d) : Image will be formed at infinity if object is


placed at focus of the lens i.e., at 20 cm from the lens.
Hence,

1

shift = 25 20 = 1 t

1
or 5 = 1
t

1.5
or

5 1.5
t=
= 15 cm
0.5

13. (c) : As the spring is compressed by 2 m with the


application of a force of 200 N, hence its spring
constant k is given by
g
0k

Here loop C is a circle of radius d, B is the magnetic


field at d.
d3
B( 2 d ) = 0 2 J0
3
0 J0 d 2
B=
3

or

Therefore, the given frequency corresponds to 2nd


harmonic.

F 200 N
k= =
= 100 N m 1
2
2m

h
= 30

Suppose l be the distance along the inclined plane


which the mass travels before it comes to rest.
Applying the conservation of energy,
1 2
kx = mgh = mgl sin
2 1

1
1
or
100 4 2 = 20 9.8 l
2
2
800
l=
= 8.17 m
98
14. (a) : Initial velocity of parachutist after bailing out

u2 = 2gh = 2 9.8 50 = 980
...(i)
When it reaches the ground
32 = u2 2 2 h1 or 32 = 980 2 2 h1 (Using (i))
980 9 971
or h1 =
or h1 = 242. 75 m
=
4
4
\ Total height = 242.75 m + 50 m
293 m

15. (b) : Just before the string is cut, force on the spring
pulling up = kx = 3mg. After string is cut, free body
diagram of block A gives
3mg

2maA = 3mg 2mg
A
mg g
or aA =
=
2mg
2m 2
Free body diagram of block B gives
maB = mg or aB = g

mg
16. (d) : W = TD A = T(2 4pR )
4 3
and V = R
3
When volume is doubled new radius becomes

R = (2)1/3R
\ W = T 2 4pR2 = T 2 4p(2)2/3R2

= T 2 4p(4)1/3R2 = (4)1/3W

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17. (d) : n = 4
n=3
n=2

WorldMags.net

Applying the law of conservation of linear


momentum along a direction perpendicular to
the direction of motion (i.e. along y-axis), we get
0 + 0 = 4v1sin30 v2sin60
4v1sin30 = v2sin60

A
B

n=1
The photon emitted comes from the transition A.
Further transitions possible are B (longest l of the
Balmer series), C (longest l of the Lyman series)
and D (second longest l of the Lyman series).
18. (b) : As no external torque acts on the system,
its angular momentum is conserved. Since there
is no loss of energy due to friction, the total
energy is conserved. However, the ring acquires
some translational kinetic energy as it slides
outwards, and hence rotational kinetic energy is
not conserved.
19. (c) : The total energy available from the transition
= 10.2 eV = energy of emitted photon + kinetic
energy of recoiling atom.
\ Energy of emitted photon < 10.2 eV
\ l > l0
20. (b) : The acceleration of the electron is
eE
...(i)
ae =
m
e

Starting from rest, the distance travelled by the
electron in time t1 in a uniform electric field E is
1
2d
d = ae t12 or t1 =

...(ii)
2
ae

The acceleration of the proton is
eE
ap =
...(iii)
mp


Starting from rest, the same distance d travelled
by the proton in time t2 in the same electric field is
1
2d
d = apt22 or t2 =
...(iv)
2
ap

Divide (iv) by (iii), we get
mp
ae
t2
(Using (i) and (iii))

=
=
t1
ap
me
21. (a) :

v1
sin 60
3
=
=
v2 4 sin 30
4
22. (a) : Here,
Mass of the bullet, m1 = 20 g = 20 103 kg = 0.02 kg


Mass of the block, m2 = 4 kg
According to law of conservation of linear
momentum, we get

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
where v1 and v2 be the velocities of the bullet and
block after the collision.

0.02 600 + 4 0 = 0.02 v1 + 4v2
or 0.02 600 = 0.02v1 + 4v2
...(i)
Here, v2 = 2 gh = 2 10 0.2 = 2 m s 1
Substituting this value of v2 in Eq. (i), we get

12 = 0.02v1 + 8

or 0.02v1 = 12 8
4
v1 =
= 200 m s 1
0.02
l

...(i)
g
When lift is accelerated upwards with acceleration
T
a, let time period becomes . Then
2
T
l
= 2
...(ii)
2
g+a


Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get

23. (d) : Here, T = 2

2=

g+a
a
= 1 +
g
g

1/ 2

Squaring both sides, we get


a
4 = 1 + or a = 3g

g
24. (b) : Here, rA = 1 mm, rB = 2 mm, d = 5 cm
When spheres are connected by a conducting
wire, charge flows from the sphere at higher
potential to the sphere at lower potential, till their
potentials become equal.
Now,

CA rA 1
=
=
CB
rB 2

As potential V is same,

WorldMags.net

physics for you | february 13

47

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BRAIN MAP Digital Electronics and Logic Gates

B
Inputs
A B
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1

Output
Y
0
1
1
1

A =
A 0

A+
A=
1
A=
A

A=
A

A+
B=
A
B

A
B=
A+
B

A+
A
B=
A+
B

A
(A +
B) =
A
B

A+
B=
A
B

Inputs
A B
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1

Output
Y
0
1
1
0

Inputs
A B
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

Y=
A
B+
A
B=
A
B

Output
Y
1
1
1
0
Y=
A
B

A
B=
A+
B

Inputs
A B
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1

Output
Y
1
0
0
1

Inputs
A B
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1

Y=
A
B+
A
B=
A
B

Output
Y
1
0
0
0

Y=
A+
B

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Inputs
A
B
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

Input
A
0
1

Output
Y
0
0
0
1

Output
Y
1
0
Y=
A

WorldMags.net

qA CAV CA 1
=
=
=
qB CBV CB 2
qA

Now,

2
EA 4 0rA2 qA rB
1 2
=
=
= = 2
qB
EB
qB rA
2 1
2
4 0rB

25. (d) :
A

P2 (I I1)

I1

10

5 V, 2
D

P1 (I I )
1

(I I1)
C

10I1 + 2 I 5 = 0

2I + 10I1 = 5

Applying Kirchhoffs second law for closed loop


P2 BCP1P2, we get

2 + 1(I I1) 10I1 = 0

or I 11I1 = 2

...(ii)

or 2I 22I1 = 4

...(iii)

Subtracting Eq. (iii) from Eq. (i), we get


32 I1 = 1 or I1 =

1
A 0.03 A from P2 to P1
32


26. (d) : G = 50 W

Ig = Current for full scale deflection

= Current per division total no. of divisions

= 4 104 25 = 102 A
Given V = 25 V
Hence, required resistance,
V
25
R=
G =
50
Ig
10 2


= 2500 50 = 2450 W
This resistance of 2450 W should be connected
in series to convert the galvanometer into a
voltmeter.

m
m
= 2
keff
2k

T = 2
or

T2 =

or

k=

4 2m
2k

2 2m
T2
2

k=

2 ( 3.14 ) 12
2
= 6 ( 3.14 ) = 59.15 N m 1
4

30. (c) : Because both the rings have common centre


and their planes are mutually perpendicular,
hence, an axis which is passing through the centre
of one of the rings and perpendicular to the plane
of its plane, will be along the diameter of other
ring. Hence, moment of the inertia of the system
about the given axis is
1
3
I = ICM + Idiameter = MR 2 + MR 2 = MR 2
2
2

3
= (0.1 kg )(0.1 m )2 = 15 10 4 kg m 2
2
vvv

Lifes True Beauty


I think your education is imperfect, if you do
not realize my young friends, that life is not
merely a question of getting food, clothes and
shelter. Man does not live by bread alone.
This has been realized from ancient times.
I think that the finest thing in life are

27. (a)
28. (b) : Time period of revolution of electron around
a proton is given by

4 mR
0

2 4 0mR 3

29 . (c) : Let k be spring constant of each spring. Here,


two springs are connected in parallel, the effective
spring constant is given by

keff = k + k = 2k

...(i)


\ T R3/2

2 V, 1


Applying Kirchhoffs second law for closed loop
AP2 P1DA, we get

2 R

T=

Orbit circumference 2R
=
Electron speed
v

50 physics for you |

february13

not

these,

beauty,

but

aesthetic

music,
sense,

colour,
the

flowers,

satisfaction

derived from these. It is these finer things in


life that makes life worth living.

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- C V Raman

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Atoms and nuclei


1. In the following reaction, the energy released
is
1

4
He
2

+ 2e+ + Energy

4 1H

Given :

Mass of 1H = 1.007825 u

Mass of 2 He = 4.002603 u

e+

Mass of
= 0.000548 u
(a) 12.33 MeV
(b) 24.67 MeV
(c) 25.7 MeV
(d) 49.34 MeV

2. The total energy of an electron in the excited


state corresponding to n = 3 state is E. What is
its potential energy with proper sign?
(a) 2E
(b) 2E
(c) E
(d) E
3. The energy levels of a certain atom for 1st, 2nd
and 3rd levels are E, 4E/3 and 2E respectively.
A photon of wavelength l is emitted for a transition
3 1. What will be the wavelength of emission
for transition 2 1?
4

(a)

(b)

(c) 3
(d) 3l
3
4
3
4. In Bohr model of hydrogen atom, the ratio of
period of revolution of an electron in n = 2 and
n = 1 orbit is
(a) 2 : 1 (b) 4 : 1
(c) 8 : 1
(d) 16 : 1
5. A radioactive isotope A with a half life of
1.25 1010 years decays into B which is stable.
A sample of rock from a planet is found to contain
both A and B present in the ratio 1 : 15. The age
of the rock is
(a) 9.6 1010 years
(b) 4.2 1010 years
10
(c) 5 10 years
(d) 1.95 1010 years
6. A heavy nucleus at rest breaks into two fragments
which fly off with velocities in the ratio 3 : 1. The
ratio of radii of the fragments is

(a) 1 : 31/3
(c) 4 : 1

(b) 31/3 : 4
(d) 2 : 1

7. A hydrogen atom and a Li 2+ ion are both in


the second excited state. If lH and lLi are their
respective electronic angular momenta, and EH
and ELi their respective energies, then
(a) lH > lLi and EH > ELi
(b) lH = lLi and EH < ELi
(c) lH = lLi and EH > ELi
(d) lH < lLi and EH < ELi
8. A radioactive nucleus emits 3a-particles and
5b-particles. The ratio of number of neutrons to
that of protons will be
(b) A Z
(a) A Z 12
Z6

Z1
A Z 11
(c) A Z 11
(d)
Z1
Z6
9. A radioactive sample has half life of 5 days. To
decay from 8 microcurie to 1 microcurie, the
number of days taken will be
(a) 40
(b) 25
(c) 15
(d) 10
10. A free neutron decays spontaneously into
(a) a proton, an electron and anti-neutrino
(b) a proton, an electron and a neutrino
(c) a proton and electron
(d) a proton, and electron, a neutrino and an
anti-neutrino.
11. The radius of germanium (Ge) nuclide is measured
9

to be twice the radius of 4Be. The number of


nucleons in Ge are
(a) 72
(b) 73
(c) 74
(d) 75
12. The ratio of the longest and shortest wavelengths
in Brackett series of hydrogen spectra is
9
4
25
17
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
5
3





9
6

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physics for you | February 13

51

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13. Fusion reaction takes place at high temperature


because
(a) nuclei break up at high temperature
(b) atoms get ionised at high temperature
(c) kinetic energy is high enough to overcome
the coulomb repulsion between nuclei
(d) molecules break up at high temperature

14. Which of the following is more effective in inducing


nuclear fission?
(a) Fast neutron
(b) Fast proton
(c) Slow proton
(d) Slow neutron
15. The electric potential between a proton and an

electron is given by V = V0 ln r , where r0 is a
r0
constant. Assuming Bohrs model to be applicable,
write variation of rn with n, n being the principal
quantum number
(a) rn n
(b) rn 1

n
1
2
(c) rn n
(d) rn
n2
16. To generate power of 3.2 MW, the number of
fissions of 235U per minute is

(Energy released per fission = 200 MeV,
1 eV = 1.6 1019 J)
(a) 6 1018
(b) 6 1017
17
(c) 10
(d) 6 1016
17. A hydrogen atom is excited up to 9th level. The
total number of possible spectral lines emitted
by the hydrogen atom is
(a) 36
(b) 35
(c) 37
(d) 38
18. The 232
90Th atom has successive alpha and beta
decays to the end product 208
82Pb. The numbers of
alpha and beta particles emitted in the process
respectively are
(a) 4, 6
(b) 4, 4
(c) 6, 2
(d) 6, 4
19. The radius of the hydrogen atom in its ground
state is a0. The radius of a muonic hydrogen atom
in which the electron is replaced by an identically
charged muon with mass 207 times that of an
electron, is am equal to
a
(a) 207a0
(b) 0
207
a0
(c) 207
(d) a0 207
20. A nucleus with mass number 220 initially at
rest emits an a particle. If the Q value of the
reaction is 5.5 MeV, the kinetic energy of the
a particle is
(a) 4.4 MeV
(b) 5.4 MeV
52 physics for you | February 13

(c) 5.6 MeV

(d) 6.5 MeV

21. An element X decays first by positron emission


and then two a-particles are emitted in successive
radioactive decay. If the product nucleus has mass
number 227 and atomic number 89, the mass
number and atomic number of element X are
(a) (273, 93)
(b) (235, 94)
(c) (238, 93)
(d) (237, 92)
22. The intensity of gamma radiation from a given
source is I. On passing through 36 mm of lead,
I
it is reduced to . The thickness of lead which
8
I
will reduce the intensity of
will be
2
(a) 12 mm (b) 18 mm (c) 9 mm (d) 6 mm
23. F p p , F n n a n d F n p a r e t h e n u c l e a r f o r c e s
between proton-proton, neutron-neutron and
neutron-proton respectively. Then relation between
them is
(a) Fpp = Fnn Fnp
(b) Fpp Fnn = Fnp
(c) Fpp = Fnn = Fnp
(d) Fpp Fnn Fnp
24. Which energy state of doubly ionised lithium
has the same energy as that of the ground state
of hydrogen ? Given Z for lithium = 3.
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 2
(d) 1
25. When the electron in hydrogen atom is excited
from the 4th stationary orbit to the 5th stationary
orbit, the change in the angular momentum of
the electron is

(Plancks constant, h = 6.63 1034 J s)

(a) 4.16 1034 J s (b) 3.32 1034 J s

(c) 1.05 1034 J s (d) 2.08 1034 J s

Semiconductor electronics
26. In the following figure, the diodes which are
forward biased, are
+10 V

(i)

+5V
(ii)

10 V


(iii) 12 V

(iv)

R
5 V
R

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+5V

WorldMags.net

(a) only (iii)


(c) (ii) and (iv)

32. Consider the following statements A and B


and identify the correct choice of the given
answers.
(A) The width of the depletion layer in a p-n
junction diode increases in forward bias.
(B) In an intrinsic semiconductor the fermi energy
level is exactly in the middle of the forbidden
energy gap.
(a) A is true and B is false
(b) Both A and B are false
(c) A is false and B is true
(d) Both A and B are true

(b) (i) and (iii)


(d) (i), (ii) and (iv)

27. Truth table for the given circuit is


A

C
Y

A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

(a)

(c)

Y
1
0
1
0
Y
0
1
0
1

(b)

(d)

A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

Y
1
0
0
1

A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

Y
0
1
0
0

33. A common emitter transistor amplifier has a


current gain of 50. If the load resistance is 4 kW
and input resistance is 500 W, the voltage gain
of the amplifier is
(a) 100
(b) 200
(c) 300
(d) 400

28. For a cubic crystal structure which one of the


following relations indicating the cell characteristics
is correct?
(a) a b c and a = b = g = 90
(b) a = b = c and a b g = 90
(c) a = b = c and a = b = g = 90
(d) a b c and a b and g 90
29. If an intrinsic semiconductor is heated, the ratio
of free electrons to holes is
(a) greater than one (b) less than one
(c) equal to one
(d) decreases and becomes zero
30. While a collector to emitter voltage is constant
in a transistor, the collector current changes by
8.2 mA when the emitter current changes by
8.3 mA. The value of forward current ratio is
(a) 82
(b) 83
(c) 8.2
(d) 8.3

34. The voltage drop across a forward biased diode is


0.7 V. In the following circuit, the voltages across
the 10 W resistance in series with the diode and
20 W resistance are
10
20

Y
X

(a)

(b)

Y
X
Y

(c) X

(d) X


Z
Z
Z

(b) 3.58 V, 4.28 V


(d) 3.58 V, 9.3 V

36. In the given circuit, the current through the


resistor 2 kW is
1 k
+ 20 V
12 V

(a) 0.70 V, 4.28 V


(c) 5.35 V, 2.14 V

35. To obtain p-type extrinsic semiconductor, the


impurity element to be added to germanium
should be of valency
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5

31. The logic circuit shown below is equivalent to

10 V 10

(a) 2 mA (b) 4 mA

2 k

(c) 6 mA

(d) 10 mA

37. In a p-n junction photodiode, the value of the photo


electromotive force produced by monochromatic
light is proportional to
(a) the barrier voltage at p-n junction
(b) the intensity of light falling on the cell
(c) the frequency of light falling on the cell
(d) the voltage applied at the p-n junction.
38. Two pieces, one of germanium and the other of
the aluminium are cooled from T1 K to T2 K. The
resistance of

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physics for you | February 13

53

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(a) aluminium increases and that of germanium


decreases.
(b) each of them decreases.
(c) aluminium decreases and that of germanium
increases.
(d) each of them increases.

39. Pure Si at 500 K has equal number of electron


(ne) and hole (nh) concentrations of 1.5 1016 m3.
Doping by indium increases nh to 4.5 1022 m3.
The doped semiconductor is of
(a) n-type with electron concentration

ne = 5 1022 m3.
(b) p-type with electron concentration

ne = 2.5 1010 m3.
(c) n-type with electron concentration

ne = 2.5 1023 m3.
(d) p-type having electron concentration

ne = 5 109 m3.
40. A full wave p-n diode rectifier uses a load resistor
of 1500 W. No filter is used. The forward bias
resistance of the diode is 10 W. The efficiency of
the rectifier is
(a) 81.2% (b) 40.6% (c) 80.6% (d) 40.2%

Communication systems
41. If the maximum amplitude of an amplitude
modulated wave is 25 V and the minimum
amplitude is 5 V, the modulation index is
1
1
3
(b)
(c)
(d) 2
(a)
5
3
2
3
42. A signal wave of frequency 12 kHz is modulated
with a carrier wave of frequency 2.51 MHz.
The upper and lower side band frequencies are
respectively
(a) 2512 kHz and 2508 kHz
(b) 2522 kHz and 2488 kHz
(c) 2502 kHz and 2498 kHz
(d) 2522 kHz and 2498 kHz
43. The frequency band used in the downlink of
satellite communication is
(a) 9.5 to 2.5 GHz
(b) 896 to 901 MHz
(c) 3.7 to 4.2 GHz
(d) 840 to 935 MHz
44. A basic communication system consists of
(A) transmitter
(B) information source
(C) user of information
(D) channel
(E) receiver
Choose the correct sequence in which these are
arranged in a basic communication system.
(a) ABCDE
(b) BADEC
(c) BDACE
(d) BEADC
54 physics for you | February 13

45. 1000 kHz carrier wave is amplitude modulated by


the signal frequency 200 4000 Hz. The channel
width of this case is
(a) 8 kHz
(b) 4 kHz
(c) 7.6 kHz
(d) 3.8 kHz
46. A n e x a m p l e o f p o i n t t o p o i n t m o d e o f
communication is
(a) FM radio
(b) standard FM radio
(c) television
(d) telephony
47. If both the length of an antenna and the wavelength
of the signal to be transmitted are doubled, the
power radiated by the antenna
(a) is doubled
(b) is halved
(c) remains constant (d) is quadrupled
48. Identify the incorrect statement from the
following.
(a) AM detection is carried out using a rectifer
and an envelope detector.
(b) Pulse position denotes the time of rise or fall
of the pulse amplitude.
(c) Modulation index m is kept 1, to avoid
distortion.
(d) Facsimile (FAX) scans the contents of the
document to create electronic signals.
49. Through which mode of propagation, the radio
waves can be sent from one place to another
(a) ground wave propagation
(b) sky wave propagation
(c) space wave propagation
(d) all of them
50. A television tower of height 140 m can broadcast
its signal upto a maxiumum area of (Radius of
earth = 6.4 106 m)
(a) 1.56 106 km2
(b) 5.6 103 km2
10
2
(c) 5.6 10 km
(d) 1.56 109 km2

solutions
1. (c) : The given nuclear reaction is
4

4 1H 2 He + 2e+ + Energy
The energy released during the process is

Q = [4m(1H) m( 2He) 2(me+)]c2

= [4 1.007825 4.002603) 2 0.000548]u c2


= [4.0313 4.002603 0.001096]u c2
= (0.027601 u)c2
= (0.027601 u)(931.5 MeV/u) = 25.7 MeV

2. (b)
3. (d) : 2 E
4
3E
E

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2
1

WorldMags.net

E3 E1 = 2E E = E
hc

=E

From figure,
E2 E1 = E2 E3 + E3 E1
4
= E 2E + 2E E
3
2
1
= E+E= E
3
3
hc 1 hc
=
3
l = 3l

....(i)

(Using (i))

4. (c) : In Bohr model of hydrogen atom, the period


of revolution of electron in nth orbit is given as
Tn =

402 h 3n3
4

T2 2 3 8
= =
1
T1 1

me
Tn n3

5. (c) : According to Rutherford and Soddy law for


radioactive decay,
Number of atoms remained undecayed after
time t is

N = N0elt
N
N
e t = 0 or t = ln 0

N
N
1 N
t = ln 0

N
T1/ 2 N0
ln
t=
ln 2
N

1.25 1010 16
ln
1
ln 2
1.25 1010 4 ln 2
=
ln 2

= 5 1010 years
=

\ R1 : R2 = 1 : 31/3

8. (d) : During the emission of a-particle, the mass


number and atomic number decreases by four
and two respectively. During the emission of
b-particle the mass number remains the same
while the atomic number increases by 1.

A
ZX

( A 12 )
( Z 6 )Y

( A 12 )
( Z 1) Y

No. of neutrons A 12 ( Z 1)
=
No. of protons
Z1
A

Z
11

=
Z1
9. (c) : Here,
Half life, T1/2 = 5 days
Initial activity, R0 = 1 microcurie
Final activity, R = 8 microcurie

As

R 1
=
R0 2

where n is the no. of half lives


3

1 1
1
1
= or =
8
2
2
2
or n = 3
t
As n =
or t = nT1/ 2 = ( 3)( 5 days) = 15 days
T1/ 2

10. (a) : A free neutron is unstable. It decays


spontaneously into a proton, an electron and
anti-neutrino.


n p + e + u
neutron

proton

electron

anti-neutrino

11. (a) : Nuclear radii, R = R0(A)1/3 (where R0 = 1.2 fm)



or R (A)1/3

6. (a) : As the heavy nucleus at rest breaks, therefore


according to law of conservation of momentum,
we get

m 1v 1 + m 2v 2 = 0
v1 m2 3
.... (i)
or
=
=
v2 m1 1
As nuclear density is same,
4 3
m1 3 R1 R13

=
=
m2 4 R 3 R 3
2
2
3
3
R1 m1 1
=
=
or
(Using (i))
R 3 m2 3

7. (b) : In second excited state, n = 3,


So, lH = lLi = 3 h
2
while E Z2 and ZH = 1, ZLi = 3
So, ELi = 9 EH or EH < ELi

or

RBe
RGe

(9)1/ 3
( A)1/ 3

RBe
(9)1/ 3
=
2 RBe ( A)1/ 3

\ (A)1/3 = 2 (9)1/3
or
A = 23 9 = 72
The number of nucleons in Ge is 72.
12. (a) : For Brackett series,
1
1
1
= R

4 2 n2
where n = 5, 6, 7, 8, ........
For longest wavelength, n = 5
1
1
1

= R
Longest
4 2 52

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physics for you | February 13

55

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1
1
9
= R =
.... (i)
R
16 25 400
For shortest wavelength, n =
1
1
1 R

= R
.... (ii)
=
Shortest
4 2 2 16

Dividing (ii) by (i), we get


Longest R 400 25
=

=
9
Shortest 16 9 R

13. (c) : For fusion to take place, high temperature is


needed because at high temperature, the kinetic
energy becomes large enough to overcome the
coulomb repulsion between nuclei.
14. (d)
15. (a) : Given : V = V0 ln r
r
0
\ Potential energy, U = eV

or | F | =

eV0
r

eV
dU
= 0
dr
r

This force provides the necessary centripetal


force.
2

eV
eV0
mv

= 0 or v =
r
r
m
By Bohrs postulate, mvr = nh
2
nh
or v =

2mr

.... (i)

.... (ii)

From equations (i) and (ii), we get

eV0
nh
=
2mr
m

or r =

nh
m

2m
eV0

1
n
2

meV
0

rn n

.... (ii)

A
ZX

A
Z 1Y

A 8
Z 5 Y

Since the product nucleus has mass number 227


and atomic number 89.
\ A 8 = 227 or A = 235
and Z 5 = 89 or Z = 94

22. (a) : As I = I0emx


1

= e 36

8
1
and
= e x
2

From Eq. (i), we get

.... (i)
.... (ii)

1
36
= e
2
Using (ii), we get

16. (a) : Here, Power = 3.2 MW = 3.2 106 W


Energy released per fission = 200 MeV

= 200 106 eV

= 200 106 1.6 1019 J
Number of fissions per minute

.... (i)

or r =

h 20
19. (b) : a0 =


me 2
h 20
a =
( 207 m)e 2
Dividing (ii) by (i), we get
a
a
1
=
or a = 0
207
a0 207

20. (b) : Here, A = 220, Q = 5.5 MeV


The kinetic energy of the a particle is
A4
220 4
Q=
KE =
5.5 MeV= 5.4 MeV
A
220
21. (b) : Let A and Z be mass number and atomic
number of element X.

r 1
r
dU
or U = eV0 ln
= eV0 0
dr
r r0
r0
Force, F =

9(9 1) 9 8
=
= 36
2
2
18. (d) : Let number of a particles emitted be x and
number of b particles emitted be y.
Difference in mass number = 4x = 232 208 = 24
or x = 6
Difference in charge number = 2x y
= 90 82 = 8
12 y = 8 or y = 4
Here n = 9 \ N =

3.2 106 60
6

200 10 1.6 10
= 6 1018

17. (a) : Number of spectral lines emitted is


n(n 1)
N=
2
56 physics for you | February 13

19

36
= 12 mm
3
23. (c) : Nuclear force is charge independent.
\ Fpp = Fnn = Fnp
or e3 mx = em36 or x =

24. (b) : The energy of nth state of a hydrogen like


atom is given as
CZ2

, where C is a constant.
n2
For ground state of hydrogen atom, Z = 1, n = 1
En =

E1 =

C(1)2
(1)2

=C

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

For nth state of Li2+ ion (Z = 3)


C ( 3) 2

9C
=
n2
n2
As En = E1
9C

= C or n2 = 9 or n = 3

n2
25. (c) : According to Bohrs quantisation condition
nh
Ln =

2
4h
For n = 4 , L4 =
2
5h
and for n = 5 , L5 =
2
\ Change in angular momentum when an
electron is excited from n = 4 to n = 5 is
5h 4 h
L = L5 L4 =

2 2
h 6.63 10 34
J s = 1.05 1034 J s
=
=
2
2 3.14

En =

26. (b) : p-n junction diode is said to be forward biased


if p side of junction is at higher potential and n
side of junction is at lower potential. Therefore,
option (b) is true.
A

27. (c) :

0
0
1

B
A

0
1
1

1
0
0

B
A

1
1
0

0 C
0
0

0 C

0
0

1 C
1
0

0
D

30. (a) : Here, DIE = 8.3 mA


DIC = 8.2 mA
As DIE = DIB + DIC
\ DIB = DIE DIC = 8.3 mA 8.2 mA = 0.1 mA
I
Forward current ratio, h fe = C
IB VCE is constant
8.2 mA
=
= 82
0.1 mA


31. (d) :

X
Y

Output of first OR gate is



A = (X + Y )
Inputs of second OR gate are X and A.
Output of second OR gate is
C = X + A

= X + X + Y = X + (X Y ) = X + (X Y )

= X(1 + Y ) = X
Final output is Z = C = X = X

33. (d) : Here, b = 50, R L = 4 kW = 4 103 W



Ri = 500 W
R
4 10 3
= 400
Voltage gain, Av = L = 50
500
Ri
34. (b) : Let the currents through the 20 W (parallel)
and 10 W (in series with the diode) be I1 and I2
respectively.
C

0 C

29. (c)

32. (c) : In a p-n junction the width of the depletion


layer decreases in forward bias.

28. (c) : For cubic crystal,



a = b = c and a = b = g = 90

B
(I1 + I2)

I2
I1

10
20

D
E
(I1 + I2)
F

A

10 V 10
Applying Kirchhoffs second law for closed loop
ABEFA, we get
20I1 + 10(I1 + I2) 10 = 0
.... (i)
Applying Kirchhoffs second law for closed loop
BCDEB, we get
0.7 + 10I2 20I1 = 0
.... (ii)
Solving (i) and (ii), we get

I1 = 0.214 A and I2 = 0.358 A

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physics for you | February 13

57

WorldMags.net

Thus, voltage across the 10 W resistance in series


with the diode = 0.358 A 10 W = 3.58 V
And voltage across the 20 W resistance

= 0.214 A 20 W = 4.28 V

35. (b) : To obtain p-type extrinsic semiconductor


a trivalent impurity should be added to
germanium.

42. (d) : Here, us = 12 kHz, uc = 2.51 MHz = 2510 kHz


The upperside band frequency = uc + us

= (2510 + 12) kHz = 2522 kHz
The lower side band frequency = uc us

= (2510 12) kHz = 2498 kHz
43. (c) : The frequency band used in the downlink
of satellite communication is 3.7 to 4.2 GHz.

36. (c) : In the circuit, Zener diode is used as a voltage


regulating device. Therefore, the current in the
12 V
circuit, I =
= 6 10 3 A = 6 mA
2 k

44. (b) : The block diagram of a communication


system is shown in the figure below.

37. (b) : In photodiode, the photoelectromotive force


is produced by photo-voltaic action i.e. a potential
difference is created between two points whose
magnitude depends upon the intensity of incident
light.

45. (a) : Bandwidth is equal to twice the frequency


of modulating signals.
Therefore,
Band width = 2um

= 2 4000 Hz = 8 103 Hz = 8 kHz

38. (c) : The temperature coefficient of resistance


of aluminium is positive and of germanium is
negative. Hence the resistance of aluminium
decreases and that of germanium increases with
decreases in temperature.

47. (c) : Power radiated by the antenna is proportional

39. (d) : As ni2 = ne nh


(1.5 1016 m3)2 = ne (4.5 1022 m3)

ne =

(1.5 1016 m 3 )2
22

= 5 109 m 3

( 4.5 10 m )
As nh >> ne, so semiconductor is p-type and
ne = 5 109 m3.
40. (c) : Here, ri = 10 W, RL = 1500 W
Efficiency of the full wave rectifier is
=

0.812 RL
r f + RL

0.812 1500
= 0.806 = 80.6%
10 + 1500

Transmitter

User of
Information

to l . When both the length of the antenna l and

wavelength of the signal l are doubled, the power


radiated by the antenna remains constant.
48. (c) : Modulation index m is kept 1 to avoid
distortion.
49. (d)
50. (b) : Here, h = 140 m
R = 6.4 106 m

25 V 5 V 20 2
=
=
25 V + 5 V 30 3

58 physics for you | February 13

Receiver

46. (d) : In point-to-point communication mode,


communication takes place over a link between
a single transmitter and a receiver. Telephony is
an example of such a mode of communication.

41. (d) : Maximum amplitude, Amax = Ac + Am ...(i)


...(ii)
Minimum amplitude, Amin = Ac Am
Solving (i) and (ii), we get
A
+ Amin ,
A
Amin
Ac = max
Am = max

2
2
A
A
Amin
Modulation index, = m = max
Ac Amax + Amin

Channel

Coverage range, d = 2 Rh
Area covered = pd2 = p2Rh
22
=
2 6.4 106 140
7
= 5632 106 m2 = 5.6 109 m2
= 5.6 103 km2

Pdc
( 2 Im / )2 RL
=
Pac ( I / 2 )2 (r + R )
m
f
L

Information
Source

WorldMags.net

nn

WorldMags.net
Questions for Practice

a
a t2
in the equation P =
,
b
bx
where P is pressure, x is distance and t is time
are
(a) [M2LT3]
(b) [ML0T2]
3 1
(c) [ML T ]
(d) [MLT3]

1. The dimensions of

2. A balloon is going upwards with velocity


12 m s1. It releases a packet when it is at a height
of 65 m from the ground. How much time the
packet will take to reach the ground ?

[Take g = 10 m s2]
(a) 5 s
(b) 6 s
(c) 7 s
(d) 8 s
3. A block of mass 10 kg is placed on rough
horizontal surface whose coefficient of friction is
0.5. If a horizontal force of 100 N is applied on it,
then acceleration of block will be

[Take g = 10 m s2]
(a) 10 m s2
(b) 5 m s2
2
(c) 15 m s
(d) 0.5 m s2
4. A ball with charge 50e is placed at the centre of
a hollow spherical shell has a net charge of 50e.
What is the charge on the shells outer surface?
(a) 50e (b) Zero (c) 100e (d) +100e
5. A voltmeter of resistance 998 W is connected across
a cell of emf 2 V and internal resistance 2 W. The
potential difference across the voltmeter is
(a) 1.99 V
(b) 3.5 V
(c) 5 V
(d) 6 V
6. The magnetic moment produced in a substance of
1 g is 6 107 A m2. If its density is 5 g cm3, then
the intensity of magnetisation will be
(a) 8.3 106 A m1
(b) 3.0 A m1
(c) 1.2 107 A m1
(d) 3 106 A m1
7. A planet is revolving around a star in an elliptic
orbit. The ratio of the farthest distance to the
closest distance of the planet from the star is 4.

The ratio of kinetic energies of the planet at the


farthest to the closest position is
(a) 1 : 16 (b) 16 : 1 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 4 : 1
8. A homogeneous disc with a radius 0.2 m and mass
5 kg rotates around an axis passing through its
centre. The angular velocity of the rotation of the
disc as a function of time is given by the formula
w = 2 + 6t. The tangential force applied to the rim
of the disc is
(a) 1 N
(b) 2 N
(c) 3 N (d) 4 N
9. A body of mass 0.01 kg
F(N)
executes simple harmonic
80
0 0.2
motion (SHM) about x = 0
0.2
x(m)
under the influence of a force
80
as shown in the adjacent
figure. The period of the
SHM is
(a) 1.05 s (b) 0.52 s (c) 0.25 s (d) 0.03 s
10. A transverse wave in a medium is described by
the equation y = A sin 2(wt kx). The magnitude of
the maximum velocity of particles in the medium
is equal to that of the wave velocity, if the value of
A is
2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2
4

11. The temperature of an air bubble while rising


from bottom to surface of a lake remains constant
but its diameter is doubled. If the pressure on the
surface is equal to h metre of mercury column and
relative density of mercury is r, then the depth of
lake in metre is
(a) 2rh
(b) 4rh
(c) 8rh (d) 7rh
12. A stone of mass 2 kg is projected upwards with
kinetic energy of 98 J. The height at which the
kinetic energy of the body becomes half its
original value is

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59

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(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 5 m
(b) 2.5 m (c) 1.5 m (d) 0.5 m

13. A particle of mass m collides with another


stationary particle of mass M. If the particle
m stops just after collision, the coefficient of
restitution of collision is equal to
m
(a) 1
(b) m
(c) M m (d)
M+m
M+m
M
14. A body cools down from 60C to 55C in
30 s. Using Newtons law of cooling, calculate
the approximate time taken by same body to
cool down from 55C to 50C. Assume that the
temperature of surroundings is 45C.
(a) 40 s
(b) 55 s
(c) 50 s
(d) 60 s
15. A conducting circular loop is placed in a
uniform magnetic field, B = 0.025 T with its plane
perpendicular to the loop. The radius of the loop
is made to shrink at a constant rate of 1 mm s1.
The induced emf when the radius is 2 cm, is
(a) 2p mV
(b) p mV

(c)
(d) 2 mV
V
2
16. In the series LCR circuit as shown in the figure,
the voltmeter V and ammeter A readings are
400 V

400 V

9
]

R = 50

100 V, 50 Hz

(a) V = 100 V, I = 2 A (b) V = 100 V, I = 5 A


(c) V = 400 V, I = 2 A (d) V = 300 V, I = 2 A

17. The electric field part of an electromagnetic wave


in a medium is represented by

Ex = 0,

N
rad
2 rad
Ey = 2.5 cos 2 106
x ,
t 10

C
s
m

Ez = 0.


The wave is
(a) moving along the + x direction with frequency
106 Hz and wavelength 100 m.
(b) moving along + x direction with frequency
106 Hz and wavelength 200 m.
(c) moving along x direction with frequency
106 Hz and wavelength 200 m.
(d) moving along + y direction with frequency
2p 106 Hz and wavelength 200 m.
60 physics for you |

february 13

18. A point source of light is placed at a depth of h below


the surface of water of refractive index m. A floating
opaque disc is placed on the surface of water so that
light from the source is not visible from the surface.
The minimum diameter of the disc is
2h

(a)
(b) 2h(m2 1)1/2
2
( 1)1/ 2
h

(c)
(d) h(m2 1)1/2
[2( 2 1)1/ 2 ]
19. An electron is moving in an orbit of a hydrogen
atom from which there can be a maximum of six
transitions. An electron is moving in an orbit of
another hydrogen atom from which there can be
a maximum of three transitions. The ratio of the
velocity of the electron in these two orbits is
1
2
3
5
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
2
1
4
4
20. One milliwatt of light of wavelength 4560 is
incident on a cesium surface of work function
1.9 eV. Given that quantum of efficiency
of photoelectric emission is 0.5%, Plancks
constant, h = 6.62 1034 J s, velocity of light,
c = 3 108 m s1, the photoelectric current liberated is
(a) 1.836 106 A
(b) 1.836 107 A
5
(c) 1.836 10 A
(d) 1.836 104 A
21. The distance between poles of horse shoe magnet
is 10 cm and its pole strength is 104 A m. The
magnetic field at a point P midway between the
poles is
(a) zero
(b) 8 109 T
7
(c) 2 10 T
(d) 8 107 T
22. Find the potential difference between the points E
and F in the figure given below. Assume E and F
are the midpoints of AB and DC respectively.
(+q)

6m

(+q)

D
+q/2

C
+q/2

(a) (1.2 109q) volt


(c) (1.5 109q) volt
23. As the switch S is closed

in the circuit shown in
figure, current passed
through it is
(a) zero
(b) 1 A
(c) 2 A
(d) 1.6 A

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4m

(b) (1.8 109q) volt


(d) (3 109q) volt
10 V 4

2
2
S

5V

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24. When a spring is stretched by a distance x, it


exerts a force, given by F = ( 5x 16x3) N. The
work done, when the spring is stretched from
0.1 m to 0.2 m is
(a) 8.1 102 J
(b) 12.2 102 J
1
(c) 8.1 10 J
(d) 12.2 101 J

103 kg m3. The bubble is at a depth of 10.0 cm


below the free surface. By what amount is the
pressure inside the bubble greater than the
atmospheric pressure?
(a) 1030 N m2
(b) 1230 N m2
2
(c) 1130 N m
(d) 1330 N m2

25. A satellite is orbiting around the earth with total


energy E. What will happen if the satellites kinetic
energy is made 2E?
(a) Radius of the orbit is doubled
(b) Radius of the orbit is halved
(c) Period of revolution is doubled
(d) Satellite escapes away

32. When a system is taken from state a to state b


along the path acb as shown in figure, 60 J of heat
flows into the system and 30 J of work is done by
the system. Along the path adb, if the work done
by the system is 10 J, heat flow into the system is

26. Sand drops vertically at the rate of 2 kg s1 on to a


conveyor belt moving horizontally with a velocity
of 0.2 m s1. Then the extra force required to keep
the belt moving is
(a) 0.4 N (b) 0.08 N (c) 0.04 N (d) 0.02 N
27. A solid sphere is rolling on a frictionless surface,
shown in figure with a translational velocity
v m s1. If it is to climb the inclined surface then v
should be

(a) 100 J
(b) 20 J
(c) 80 J
(d) 40 J
33. In the circuit shown, the cell is ideal, with
emf = 15 V. Each resistance R is of 3 W. The potential
difference across the capacitor of capacitance 3 mF
is
C = 3 F

(a) 10 gh
7

(b) 2gh

(c) 2gh

(d)

10
gh
7
28. The average translational kinetic energy of
O2 (molar mass 32) molecules at a particular
temperature is 0.048 eV. The translational kinetic
energy of N2 (molar mass 28) molecules in eV at
the same temperature is
(a) 0.0015
(b) 0.003
(c) 0.048
(d) 0.768
29. Two simple harmonic motions are represented

by the equations y1 = 0.1 sin 100 t + and

3
y2 = 0.1 cospt. The phase difference of the velocity of
particle 1 with respect to the velocity of particle 2 is

(a)

(b) (c)

(d)
3
3
6
6
30. A pipe 30.0 cm long is open at both ends. Which
harmonic mode of the pipe is resonantly excited
by a 1.1 kHz source? Take the speed of sound in
air as 330 m s1.
(a) First harmonic
(b) Second harmonic
(c) Third harmonic
(d) Fourth harmonic
31. There is an air bubble of radius 1.0 mm in a
liquid of surface tension 0.075 N m1 and density

R
15 V

(a) zero

(b) 9 V

(c) 12 V (d) 15 V

34. A straight wire of mass 200 g and length


1.5 m carries a current of 2 A. It is suspended in
mid-air by a uniform horizontal magnetic field B.
The magnitude of B (in tesla) is

(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 2
(b) 1.5

(c) 0.55

(d) 0.66

35. A 50 Hz ac of crest value 1 A flows through


primary of a transformer. If mutual inductance
between primary and secondary be 1.5 H, the
crest voltage in secondary is
(a) 75 V (b) 150 V (c) 471 V (d) 300 V
36. When 100 V dc is applied across a coil, a current
of 1 A flows through it. When 100 V 50 Hz ac is
applied to the same coil, only 0.5 A flows. The
inductance of the coil is
(a) 5.5 mH
(b) 0.55 mH
(c) 55 mH
(d) 0.55 H
37. Youngs experiment is performed with light of
wavelength 6000 wherein 16 fringes occupy a
certain region on the screen. If 24 fringes occupy

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61

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the same region with another light of wavelength


l, then l is
(a) 6000 (b) 4500 (c) 5000 (d) 4000

38. A plane electromagnetic wave propagating in


the x-direction has wavelength of 6.0 mm. The
electric field is in the y-direction and its maximum
magnitude of 33 V m1. The equation for the
electric field as function of x and t is
x
x
(a) 11 sinp(t )
(b) 33 sinp 1011(t )
c
c
x
x
(c) 33 sinp (t )
(d) 11 sinp 1011 (t )
c
c
39. A convex lens of focal length 1.0 m and a concave
lens of focal length 0.25 m are 0.75 m apart. A
parallel beam of light is incident in the convex
lens. The beam emerging after refraction from
both lenses is
(a) parallel to principal axis
(b) convergent
(c) divergent
(d) none of these
40. The wavelength of the first line of Lyman series
for hydrogen atom is equal to that of the second
line of Balmer series for a hydrogen like ion. The
atomic numer Z of hydrogen like ion is
(a) 4
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3
41. A particle moving with uniform acceleration
has velocity 6 m s1 at a distance of 5 m from the
initial position. After moving another 7 m, the
velocity becomes 8 m s1. The initial velocity and
acceleration of the particle are
(a) 2 m s1, 4 m s2
(b) 4 m s1, 2 m s2
1
2
(c) 4 m s , 4 m s
(d) 6 m s1, 1 m s2
42. A particle is moving along a circular path of radius
5 m with uniform speed of 5 m s1. What will be
average acceleration when the particle completes
half revolution ?
(a) zero
(b) 10 m s2
10
(c) 10p m s2
(d)
m s2

43. The system is pushed by a force F as shown in


figure. All surfaces are smooth except between
B and C. Friction coefficient between B and C is
m. Minimum value of F to prevent block B from
downward slipping is
F

A
2m

B
m

C
2m

3
(a) mg
2

5
(b) mg
2

5
(c) mmg
2

(d) 3 mmg
2

62 physics for you |

february 13

44. A 1000 kg elevator rises from rest in the basement


to the fourth floor, a distance of 20 m. As it passes
the fourth floor its speed is 4 m s1. There is a
constant frictional force of 500 N. The work done
by the lifting mechanism is
(a) 196 103 J
(b) 204 103 J
3
(c) 214 10 J
(d) 203 105 J
45. A body is projected vertically upwards from the
surface of a planet of radius R with a velocity
equal to half of the escape velocity for that planet.
The maximum height attained by the body is
R
R
R
R
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
2
3
4
5
SOLUTIONS
2

at
bx
[a] = [T2], as t2 is subtracted from a.

From, P =

1. (b) : P =

a t2 t2
=
bx
bx

t2
[T 2 ]
= [M1L0T4]
[b] = =
Px [ML1T 2 ][L]
a
[T 2 ]
=
= [ML0T2]
b [M 1L0T 4 ]

2. (a) : Here, u = 12 m s1, as packet is to fall to the


ground and it is released initially with the velocity
of balloon, so

a = + g = 10 m s2, S = 65 m, t = ?
1

S = ut + at2
2

65 = 12t + 5t2 or 5t2 12t 65 = 0

12 144 + 1300 12 38
=
= 5 s or 2.6 s
10
10
Time cannot be negative. Therefore, t = 5 s.
t=

3. (b) :

N
m
f

mg



Here, m = 10 kg, g = 10 m s2, m = 0.5

F = 100 N

Force of friction, f = mN = mmg

= 0.5 10 kg 10 m s2 = 50 N

Force that produces acceleration

F = F f = 100 N 50 N = 50 N
F 50 N

a=
=
= 5 m s 2
m 10 kg

WorldMags.net

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4. (d) : The net charge on the outer surface is


( 50e 50e) = 100e.
5. (a) :
2V
2

998
V

From Ohms law


2V

I=
=
= 2 103 A
R + r 998 + 2

Potential difference across the voltmeter is


V = IR = (2 103 A) 998 W = 1.996 V

6. (b) : Intensity of magnetisation


M
M
I=
=
V Mass

Density
Given: Mass = 1 g = 103 kg

5 10 3 kg
and density = 5 g cm3 =
= 5 103 kg m3
2 3 3
(
10
)
m

Hence, I =

6 10 7 A m 2 5 10 3 kg m 3
10 3 kg

= 3 A m 1

7. (a) : Angular momentum remains conserved


during the revolution of planet. Because
gravitational force is a central force.

Planet

rmax

vmin

Star
vmax

According to law of conservation of angular


momentum, we get

mvmaxrmin = mvminrmax
where vmin is the speed of the planet when it is
farthest from the star and vmax is the speed of the
planet when it is closest to the star.
vmin rmin

=

...(i)
v
r

max

max

As per question
rmax
=4

rmin

1
2
2
r

KEFarthest 2 mvmin
=
= min
1
KEClosest
r
mv 2max max
2
2

1
1
= =
4
16

F=

(Using (i))

1
1
MR = 5 0.2 6 = 3.0 N
2
2

9. (d) : The slope of F-x gives the spring constant k.



From the given graph,
(80 0) N

k = Slope of F-x graph =
= 400 N m 1
(0.2 0) m

Time period of SHM is

rmin

8. (c) : Given : w = 2 + 6t
d
=
=6
dt


t = FR = Ia

where R is the radius of the disc.
1
2
I 2 MR
F=
=
R
R

T = 2

m
0.01 kg
= 2
= 0.03 s
k
400 N m 1

10. (b) : The given equation of the transverse wave is



y = A sin2(wt kx)
dy

Velocity of the particle =
= 2Awcos2(wt kx)
dt

Maximum velocity = 2Aw
Coefficient of t 2

Velocity of the wave =
=
=
Coefficient of x 2 k k

As per question

2 A =

or 2 A = =
A=
k
k 2
4

11. (d) : From Boyles law (T = constant)



P1V1 = P2V2
4

\ (Hrwater + hrmercury) g ( pr3)
3
4

= hrmercury g ( p(2r)3)
3

or Hrwater = 8hrmercury hrmercury
mercury

or
H = 7h
water

\
H = 7hr
12. (b) : At the time of projection kinetic energy of the
stone,
1
K = mu2

2

where m is the mass of the stone and u is the
velocity of the projection

2 K 2 98
=
= 98
m
2

Using, v2 = u2 2gh
or

u2 =

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physics for you | february 13

63

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u2
( v = 0)
h=
2g
98
h=
=5m
2 9.8
1
Also , K = m ( 2 gh)
2
1
1
and K = mv 2 = m ( 2 gh )
2
2
K h

=
K
h

...(i)

(Using (i))

T + T

T1 T2
= K 1 2 Ts
2

t
where Ts is the temperature of the surroundings.

For 1st case

60 + 55

60 55
= K
45
2

30

Similarly, for 2nd case

As V =

100 =

VR2 + (VL VC )2
VR2 + 0 = VR or VR = 100 V

Hence, the reading of the voltmeter V is 100 V and


the reading of ammeter A is 2 A.

17. (b) : Given, Ex = 0,

rad
N
2 rad
cos 2 106
Ey = 2.5
x ,
t 10

s
m

Ez = 0.
This shows that the wave is propagating along
+ x direction.
Comparing
the
given
equation
with
Ey = E0cos(wt kx), we get

= 2 106 or 2 = 2 106 or = 106 Hz


2
and k = 10 2 or k =
= 10 2

2
= 200 m
or =
10 2
18. (a) : The figure shows incidence from water at
critical angle qc for the limiting case.

Disc

...(i)

55 + 50

55 50
...(ii)
= K
45
2

t

Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq.(ii), we get
5
30 = 12.5 or t = 12.5 or t = 12.5 30 = 50 s
5
30 7.5
7.5
7.5

t
15. (b) : Here, Magnetic field, B = 0.025 T

Radius of the loop, r = 2 cm = 2 102 m

Constant rate at which radius of the loop
dr
shrinks,
= 1 10 3 m s 1
dt

Magnetic flux linked with the loop is

f = BAcosq = B(pr2)cos0 = Bpr2

The magnitude of the induced emf is
d d (
dr
=
=
Br 2 ) = B2r
dt
dt
dt

64 physics for you |

16. (a) : As VL = VC \ XL = XC
The circuit is resonance circuit.

100 V
Current, I =
=2A

50

14. (c) : According to Newtons law of cooling

= 0.025 p 2 2 102 1 103


= p 106 V = p mV

According to the problem


K
h
K
=
or
K =
2K h

2
h 5
h = = m = 2.5 m

2 2
13. (b) : According to law of conservation of linear
momentum, we get
mu

mu + 0 = 0 + Mv2 v2 =

...(i)
M

As per definition,
mu
v2 0 v2
( v2 v1 )
m

(Using(i))
e=
=
=
= M =
u
0u
(u2 u1 )
u
M

february 13

r
h

Air
Water

Light
source

1
1
so that tan c =

( 2 1)1/ 2
r
From figure, tan c =
h
where r is the radius of the disc.
Therefore, diameter of the disc is
2h
2r = 2 h tan c =
( 2 1)1/ 2
19. (d) : Number of spectral lines obtained due to
transition of an electron from nth orbit to lower
orbits is
n(n 1)
N=
2
In the first case, N = 6
n(n 1)
6=
n=4
2
Now, sin c =

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

In the second case, N = 3


n(n 1)
n=3
3=
2
Velocity of an electron in hydrogen atom in nth
orbit is
2 e 2
1
vn =
;v
4 0nh n n

21. (b) : At a point P, midway between the poles,


magnetic field due to each pole is in the same
direction.
m
m

\ B = B1 + B2 = 0 21 + 22
4 r
r
As m1 = m2 and r1 = r2

2 m 10 ( 2 10 )
\ B = 0
= 8 109 T
=
4 r 2
( 5 10 2 )2
22. (a) :

(+q)

6m

(+q)

D
+q/2

C
+q/2

DE = CE = ( AE)2 + ( AD)2 = ( 3)2 + ( 4)2 = 5 m

Potential at E,
q q / 2 q / 2
1 q
VE =
+
+
+
4 0 AE BE DE
CE

1 q q q / 2 q / 2 = 1 2q + q
+ +
+
4 0 3 3
5
5 4 0 3 5

AF = BF = ( AD)2 + (DF )2 = ( 4)2 + ( 3)2 = 5 m


Potential at F,
q q / 2 q / 2
1 q
VF =
+
+
+
4 0 AF BF DF
CF
1 q q q / 2 q / 2 = 1 2q + q
=
+ +
+
4 0 5 3
4 5 5
3
3
0

I1

4 C

2
I3
2

I2 B

5V

Let V be the potential at C.


Applying Kirchhoffs first law at C, we get

I1 + I 2 = I 3
10 V 5 V V 0

+
=
4
2
2
10 V + 10 2V = 2V or V = 4 V

I3 =

4V
= 2A
2

24. (a) : Given: F = 5x 16x3 N


xf

4m

10 V
A

q 1 1
2q

=
4 0 3 5 15 4 0

P
hc /

\ No. of photoelectrons emitted per second
0.5
1
P
=
N=

100
200 hc

1 P

\ Photoelectric current =
e
200 hc
(10 3 ) ( 4560 10 10 ) (1.6 10 19 )
1
=

200
(6.62 10 34 ) ( 3 108 )

6
= 1.836 10 A

No. of photons emitted per second, N =

1 2q q 2q q
+

4 0 3 5 5 3

2
9 109 q = 1.2 109 q volt.
15

23. (c) : The currents through various arms will be as
shown in figure.

v
3
4 =
v3 4

hc
20. (a) : Energy of photon =


Power of lamp = P

VE VF =

W=

xi

Fdx =

0.2

( 5x 16 x

0.1

)dx

0.2

= x2 4x4
0.1
2
5
5
= (0.2)2 4(0.2)4 + (0.1)2 + 4(0.1)4
2
2
= 0.1 0.0064 + 0.025 + 0.0004
= 0.081 = 8.1 102 J

25. (d) : Kinetic energy of the satellite orbiting the


earth is
1

E = mv 2, where v is the orbital velocity.
2
2

\ 2 E = 1 m ( 2 v )
2
2v is the escape velocity of the satellite from the

earth.

\ When the kinetic energy of satellite is made
2E, satellite escapes away.
26. (a) : Force required to keep the belt moving = F
dm

= 0.2 m s1 2 kg s1 = 0.4 N
F=v
dt
27. (a) : From conservation of energy

Potential energy = Translational + Rotational


kinetic energy kinetic energy

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physics for you | february 13

65

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1
1
mv 2 + I 2
2
2
v2
1
1 2
mgh = mv 2 + mR2
2
2 5
R2
1
2 1
2
or mgh = mv + mv
2
5

or

mgh =

mgh =

32. (d) : According to first law of thermodynamics,



For the path acb,

7
10
mv 2 or v 2
gh
10
7


28. (c) : The average translational kinetic energy of a
3
molecule of a gas = kBT which is independent
2
of mass of molecule but depends upon the
temperature of the gas.

29. (d) : y1 = 0.1sin(100pt + )


3
dy
Velocity, v1 = 1
dt


= 0.1 100pcos(100pt + )
3

y = 0.1cospt


or
= 0.1sin(pt + )
2

dy
Velocity, v2 = 2 = 0.1 pcos(pt + )
2
dt

\ Phase difference of the velocity of particle 1
w.r.t. particle 2 is


= (100pt + ) (pt + )
2
3


= 99pt +

3
2
At t = 0, phase difference =

=
3
6
2

30. (b) : Here, l = 30 cm = 30 102 m, v = 330 m s1



In case of an open organ pipe, fundamental
frequency = frequency of 1st harmonic
330
v
1 = =

= 550 Hz
2l 2 30 10 2

The frequncies of 2nd harmonic, 3rd harmonic,
4th harmonic,.... are

2 550 Hz = 1100 Hz;

3 550 Hz = 1650 Hz;

4 550 Hz = 2200 Hz and so on.

Hence, the source of frequency 1.1 kHz i.e.,
1100 Hz will resonantly excite second harmonic.
31. (c) : Here, r = 1.0 mm = 103 m,

S = 0.075 N m1, r = 103 kg m3;

h = 10 cm = 10 102 m

The pressure inside the bubble which is greater
than the atmospheric pressure is
2S

=
+ hg
r
66 physics for you |

february 13

Qacb = DUacb + Wacb


\ DUacb = Qacb Wacb
P
= 60 J 30 J = 30 J
a
d
For the path adb,
V
Qadb = DUadb + Wadb
DUacb = DUadb, change in internal energy is path
independent.
\ Qadb = 30 J + 10 J = 40 J

33. (c) : When capacitor is fully charged, it draws


no current. Hence potential difference across
capacitor = Potential difference across C and F.
3

B
I1

2 0.075

+ 10 10 2 10 3 9.8
10 3
= 150 + 980 = 1130 N m2

A
I
H

3 F

I1

3
I2 3

D I

F
I
G

15 V


Refer figure.

Effective resistance of the network between A and
D is
( 3 + 3) 3
R1 =
=2

( 3 + 3) + 3

Total resistance of the circuit = 2 W + 3 W = 5 W
15 V

Current, I =
=3A
5
( 3 A)( 3 )
I1 =
= 1A
3+6

and

I2 =

( 3 A)(6 )
= 2A
3+6



Potential difference across A and D = 3 W 2 A = 6 V

Potential difference across D and F,
VD VF = 3 W 3 A = 9 V

Potential difference across C and D,
VC VD = 3 W 1 A = 3 V

Potential difference across C and F = VC VF

= (VC VD) + (VD VF)

= 3 V + 9 V = 12 V

\ Potential difference across capacitor
= VC VF = 12 V
34. (d) : Magnetic force on a straight wire
F = BIl sin90 = BIl

Weight of the wire, W = mg

Since the wire remains suspended in mid-air so,

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

BIl = mg

mg ( 200 10 3 ) 10
or B =
=
= 0.66 T
Il
2 1.5

35. (c) : If the alternating current in the primary is



I = I0 sinwt, the emf induced in the secondary is
dI
d
s = M P = M [ I 0 sin t ]

dt
dt

s = MI 0cos t = 2 MI 0 cos t [as w = 2pu]

\ (es)max = 2puMI0

Substituting the given data,

(es)max = 2p 50 1.5 1 = 150p = 471 V

Note:

[as (coswt)max = 1]

dI
1
= 300 V is wrong as it
(es)max = M = 1.5
dt
1 1

4 50
will give the average value (over a quarter cycle)
and not the required peak value.

36. (d) : R =

V 100 V
=
= 100
I
1A

Vrms 100 V
=
= 200
0.5 A
I rms

Z=

As R2 + X L2 = Z 2

As XL = wL = 2puL = 2p 50 L

\ L =

37. (d) : l1 = 6000 , n1 = 16 fringes



\ n2 = 24 fringes

As n1l1 = n2l2
1 n2


=
2 n1

6000 24
=
2
16

2 =

= 2 =

1 1
0.75
+

0.25
1
(1)( 0.25)


=14+3=3+3=0
Since, power of the system is zero therefore, the
incident parallel beam of light will remain parallel
after emerging from the system.

40. (c) : The wavelength of the first line of lyman


series for hydrogen atom is
1
1
1 3
4
= R = R or =
2
2

R
4
3
2
1



The wavelength of the second line of Balmer series
for hydrogen like ion is
1
1
1 3 2
16
= Z2 R =
Z R or =
2
2

16

4
3Z 2 R
2
As per question, l = l
4
16
=
or
or Z2 = 4 or Z = 2
3 3Z 2

41. (b) : Let u be the initial velocity and a be uniform


acceleration of the particle.
Using v2 u2 = 2aS

62 u2 = 2a 5
...(i)

and 82 u2 = 2a(5 + 7) = 2a 12
...(ii)

Solving (i) and (ii), we get
a = 2 m s2 and u = 4 m s1
42. (d) : Change in velocity when the particle
completes half revolution is


6000 16 96000
= 4000
=
24
24

38. (b) : Angular frequency,


= 33 sinp 1011 (t

XL
100 3
=
= 0.55 H
100 100

Ey = E0 sin t

x
)
c
d
1
1
39. (a) : Power of system =
+

f1 f2 f1 f2

X L = Z 2 R2 = 200 2 100 2 = 100 3

2 c 2 3 108
=

6 10 3


= p 1011 rad s1

The equation for the electric field, along y-axis in
the electromagnetic wave is

Dv = 5 m s1 ( 5 m s1) = 10 m s1
Time taken to complete the half revolution is
r 5 m
t=
=
= s
v 5 m s 1
v 10 m s 1 10
Average acceleration =
= m s 2
=
s

43. (b) : Horizontal acceleration of the system is


F
F


...(i)
a=
=
2 m + m + 2 m 5m


Let N be the normal reaction between B and C.


C
Free body diagram of C gives
2
N
N = 2 ma = F (Using (i))
5
a

WorldMags.net

physics for you | february 13

67

WorldMags.net


Now B will not slide downward if
mN mBg

or

So

5
2
mg
F mg or F
5
2
Fmin =

5
mg
2

44. (c) : Work done against gravitational force = mgh


= 1000 9.8 20 = 196 103 J
Work done to impart velocity to the body = 1 mv 2
2
1
= 103 16 = 8 103 J
2

Work done against frictional force = 500 20

= 10 103 J
3

Total work done = 214 10 J

45. (a) : Escape velocity, ve =


Velocity of projection, v =

The total energy of the body when it is projected


is
Ei = KE + PE
1
GMm 1 2GM GMm
= mv 2
= m

2
R
2
4R
R

3 GMm
4 R


Let the maximum height attained by the body be
h. At this height, the total energy of the body is
GMm
E f = KE + PE = 0
R+h

=


From the principle of conservation of energy,
Ei = Ef

2GM
R

where M and R are the mass and radius of the


planet respectively.

ve 1 2GM
=
2 2
R

3 GMm
GMm
=
4 R
R+h

or 3(R + h) = 4R or 3 R + 3h = 4 R h =

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february 13

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69

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Cont. from Page No. 28

Voltage gain = 50
Input resistance, Ri = 100 W
Output resistance, Ro = 200 W
200
R
Resistance gain = o =
=2
Ri 100
(Voltage gain)2 50 50
Power gain =
=
= 1250
Resistance gain
2

3R
from the centre
2
of a charged conducting spherical shell of radius
R
R is E. The electric field at a distance
from the
2
centre of the sphere is

49. The electric field at a distance

E
E
(a) zero (b) E
(c)

(d)
2
3

50. A and B are two vectors of equal magnitude and


q is the angle between them. The angle between

A or B with their resultant is

(a)

(b)

(c) 2q
(d) q
4
2

2
2
or mr rr r = m f r f f

where the subscripts r and f denote the rear and


front.
[rr = 2rf (Given)]
m(2rf)2wr = mrf2wf
f
\ 4wr = wf or r =
4
Hence, the angular velocity of rear wheel will be
smaller compared to front wheel.
3. (b) : The frequency of kinetic energy is twice the
frequency of simple harmonic motion.
4. (c) : Let the block and bullet meet after time t, at a
distance x vertically below the top of the cliff.
Taking vertical downwards motion of block for
time t
1
( u = 0) ...(i)

x = 0 + gt 2
2
Taking vertical upwards motion of bullet for time t
1

100 x = 100t gt 2
...(ii)
2
Adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

100 = 100t or t = 1 s

70 physics for you |

february 13

SOLUTIONS
1. (c) : By covering the aperture of diameter d/2,
focal length of lens is not affected. Area reduces
by (1/4)th. So does the intensity.
\ New focal length = f, and
I
3I
=
New intensity = I
4
4
2. (b) : As no external torque acts on the system,
angular momentum will remain conserved.
According to law of conservation of angular
momentum,

I1w1 = I2w2

5. (c) : Here,

6. (d) : According to Keplers third law,


3/ 2

T2 1.02 R
=
= 1.03
T1 R
T T1
Percentage difference = 2
100
T1

T R3/ 2

= 2 1 100
T1

= (1.03 1) 100
= 0.03 100 = 3%

7. (c) : As vmax = Rg tan


For the same banking angle

vmax R

vmax

=
vmax


R
R vmax
or
=
R
R vmax

As per question
10
11
vmax
= vmax +
v
= v
= 1.1 vmax

100 max 10 max


2

R 1.1 vmax
= 1.21
=
R vmax

R = 1.21R = 1.21 20 m = 24.2 m

8. (d) : Here, Vp = 220 V, Is = 2 A, Vs = 440 V


h = 80%, Ip = ?
=

Vs I s
VI
or I p = s s
Vp I p
Vp

Substituting the given values, we get


Ip =

(440 V)(2 A)
=5 A
80

(220 V)
100

9. (a) : As long as the block of mass m remains


stationary, the block of mass M released from
2Mg
(before coming it rest
rest comes down by
k
momentarily again). Thus the maximum extension
in the spring is

WorldMags.net

WorldMags.net

2 Mg

...(i)
k


For block of mass m to just move up the incline
kx = mgsin 37 + mmgcos 37

...(ii)
3 3
4
(Using (i))
2 Mg = mg + mg
5 4
5
3
or M = m
5
10. (d) : When the frequency of incident light is
halved, its frequency becomes 0.75u0 which is
less than threshold frequency (u0). Hence, no
photoelectric emission will take place.
x=

D
11. (b) : Cross - sectional area, A =
4

where D is the diameter of the wire.
A 2 D

=
A
D
D 1 A 1
=
= 2% = 1 %
or
D
2 A 2
Poissons ratio, =
or

GMms
rs2

ms vs2
rs

GM
vs =
rs
Kinetic energy of the satellite is
K=

1
1 GM GMms
m v2 = m
=
2 s s 2 s rs
2rs

(i)

(Using (i))

Potential energy of the satellite is


GMms
U=
rs
Total energy of the satellite is
...(i)

E = K +U =

GMms GMms
GMms

=
2rs
rs
2rs

...(ii)


The angular momentum L of the satellite is given
by

D / D
l / l

l D / D
1
=
=
= 2.5 %
l

0.4

(Using (i))

12. (a) : According to definition of centre of mass, we


can imagine one particle of mass (1 + 2 + 3) kg at
(2, 2, 2). Let the second particle of mass 4 kg be
put at (x2, y2, z2).
Given (xCM, yCM, zCM) = (0, 0 , 0)
m x + m2 x2
Using xCM = 1 1
m1 + m2
6 2 + 4 x2
5+4

x2 = 3
Similarly, we get

y2 = 3, z2 = 3
0=

13. (a) 14. (a)


15. (b) : Let e be the emf and r be the internal resistance
of the battery.
As per question
16
12 =
...(i)
16 + r

10

10 + r
Dividing (i) by (ii), we get
12 8(10 + r)
3 2 (10 + r)
=
or
=
11 5(16 + r)
11 5 (16 + r)

and 11 =

15(16 + r) = 22(10 + r)
240 + 15r = 220 + 22r
20

7r = 20 or r =
7
16. (a) : The velocity vs of the satellite is given by

...(ii)

L = msvsrs = ms GM
r
s
2
1/2
= (GMms rs)

1/ 2

rs

(Using(i))
(iii)

From Eqs. (ii) and (iii), we get



L = (2Emsrs2)1/2
17. (a) : Given : x = 36t
and
2y = 96t 9.8t2
or
y = 48t 4.9t2
Let the initial velocity of projectile be u and angle
of projection is q. Then,
Initial horizontal component of velocity,
dx

ux = ucosq =
= 36
dt t =0
or
ucosq = 36
Initial vertical component of velocity,
dy

uy = usinq =
= 48
dt t =0

(i)

or

(ii)

usinq = 48

Dividing (ii) by (i), we get



\

48 4
=
36 3
4
4
sinq =
or q = sin1
5
5

tanq =

18. (d) : Here, body is acting as an observer. According

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to the given case, let u be the velocity of the body.


v u
v + u
and 2 =
Then, 1 =
v
v
\

Du = u2 u1 = u

2u
v

2u
100 =
100 = 2

v
v
300
u=
=
= 3 m s1
100 100
So,

19. (a) : According to lens makers formula


1
1
1
= ( 1)

f
R1 R2
Here, m =
\

5
, R = , R2 = 0.3
3 1

26. (c) : At maximum height h, v = 0



\ Total mechanical energy, E1 = mgh + 0


4
h.
5
4
1
\ Total mechanical energy, E2 = mg h + mv 2
5
2
According to the law conservation of mechanical
energy,
Let v be velocity of stone at height h =

0.9
or f =
= 0.45 m
2
25 N s 1
I
=
= 500 N
20. (a) : Fav =
t
0.05 s

Heat energy
Mass

E2 = E1

4
1
mgh + mv 2 = mgh
5
2

4
2
or v = 2 g h h

2
...(i)
gh
5


Required ratio of kinetic energy to its potential
4
energy at h = h is
5
1
1
2
mgh
K.E. 2 mv
(Using (i))
=
= 5
P.E. 4
4
mgh
mgh

5
5

1

=
4
or v =

[ML2T 2 ]
= [M 0L2T 2 ]
[M]
1
22. (d) : In case of electric dipole, F 3
r
3
1
F 2r
1
F
=
or F =
=
3
F
8
8
1

r

25. (a) : Here, h = 18 105 poise,


r = 0.3 mm = 0.03 cm
v = 1 m s1 = 100 cm s1
According to Stoke law,
Viscous force, F = 6phrv

F = 6p 18 105 poise 0.03 cm 100 cm s1

= 101.73 104 dyne

1
1 5
1
2
=
1
=
f 3
0.3
0.9

21. (c) : Latent heat =

\ Effective resistance between A and D



= 5 W + 10 W + 5 W = 20 W

23. (d) : Here, B = 1 Wb m2 , H = 150 A m1



m0 = 4p 107 H m1
As B = m0mrH

1 Wb m 2
10 5
B
r =
=
=
7
1
1

6
0 H 4 10 H m 150 A m

A
27. (b) : B

24. (b) : The equivalent circuit is as shown in figure a


and b.

A
B

0
0

0
0

1
0

1
0

28. (b) :
2k


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2k

0
1

0
0

k
M

2k

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Springs on the left of the block are in series, hence


their equivalent spring constant is
( 2 k )( 2 k )
=k
k1 =
2k + 2k
Springs on the right of the block are in parallel,
hence their equivalent spring constant is
k2 = k + 2k = 3k
Now again both k1 and k2 are in parallel.
\ keq = k1 + k2 = k + 3k = 4k
Hence, frequency of the system is
1 keq
1 4k
=
=
2 M
2 M
29. (c) : The oscillator frequency should be same as
protons cyclotron frquency.
Bq
Cyclotron frequency, =
2
m
or Bq = 2pmu
...(i)
Kinetic energy of proton is

q 2 B2r 2 ( 2 m)2 r 2
(Using (i))
=
2m
2m


= 2p2mu2r2
Substituting the given values, we get
K=

K=

2 ( 3.14)2 (1.67 10 27 ) (107 )2 (0.5)2

= 5.1 MeV

1.6 10 13

1 T
(i)
2L
where the symbols have their usual meanings.
When the length of a stretched string is shortened
by 40% and the tension is increased by 44%, then
its length and tension becomes
40
3
L = L
L= L
100
5
44
36
T= T
100
25

Dividing (ii) by (i), we get


2
=

1

5
5 6 10 7
=
m = 15 107 m
2
2

= 1.5 106 m = 1.5 mm

33. (a)
A + m
sin
2
34. (b) : =
sin( A / 2)

where m is the refractive index, A is the angle of
prism and dm is the angle of minimum deviation.
Given : A = 60, m = 1.414
60 + m
sin

2
2=
sin 30
1
2

60 + m
60 + m
= sin
or sin 45 = sin

2
2
60 + m
or dm = 90 60 = 30
2

35. (c) : According to Stefans law


dT A 4
=
[T Ts4 ]
dt ms
A
or
s=
[T 4 Ts4 ]
dT
m
dt

Here, A = 19.2 cm2 = 19.2 104 m2,



m = 34.38 g = 34.38 103 kg,
s = 5.73 108 Wm2 K4,

dT
= 0.04C s1
dt

T = 400 K, Ts = 300 K

1 T
2L
1
36 T
2 T

=
3 25 2 L
2 L
5

\ S1P S2P =

Then, final fundamental frequency is

For 3rd dark fringe n = 3

45 =

32. (b) : Here, l = 6000 = 6000 1010 m = 6 107 m


For nth dark fringe,

Path difference, S1P S2P = (2n 1)


2

MeV

30. (a) : Initial fundamental frequency of a stretched


string is

T = T +

31. (a) : The yellow light is scattered less by the fog


particles.

s=
=

(ii)

(19.2 10 4 )( 5.73 10 8 )[( 400)4 ( 300)4 ]


34.38 10 3 0.04

(19.2 10 4 )( 5.73 10 8 )108 [( 4)4 ( 3)4 ]


34.38 10 3 0.04

= 1400 K

36. (d) : From N = N0 elt


N0
= N0el5
e

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1
5
The activity reduces to half its initial value in half
life period,
ln 2 ln 2
T1/ 2 =
=
= 5 ln 2

1/ 5
5l = 1 or l =

37. (b) : The magnetic field


at the centre O due to
current in the inner coil is
10 2 0.2

B1 = 0
4
0.2

0.3 A

0.2A
O

AT BT 2
V
AT BT 2
or V =
P

41. (b) : P =

Since P is constant
AdT 2 BTdT
P
or PdV = (A 2BT) dT

\ dV =

Workdone, W = PdV =

0.2 m

0.4 m

The magnetic field at the


centre O due to current in
the outer coil is
10 2 0.3

B2 = 0
4
0.4

200
=
4

+
30
30
15 P 14 Si + e

positron

43. (c) :

Net magnetic field at the centre O is


B = B1 B2

[Since B1 and B2 are in opposite directions]

Q 8 10 4 cal
=
T
273 K
= 293 cal K1

2C

E
B

2C

2C/3

6
6

= 1000 10 10 V
0.2

2C/3

The equivalent capacitance between A and B is

= 10 103 V = 10 mV
40. (b) : Number of neutrons in 126 C = 12 6 = 6

february 13

B
N B
N B
Initial
= Final
t
t

74 physics for you |


= 2 105 500 104 cos180 = 106 Wb
The average induced emf in the coil is

Number of neutrons in

C
G

The equivalent circuit diagrams are as shown in


the figure below.


= 2 105 500 104 cos0 = 106 Wb
Final flux after rotation
fBFinal = BAcos180

39. (b) : Here, N = 1000, A = 500 cm = 500 10 m



B = 2 105 Wb m2
Initial flux through the coil
fBInitial = BAcosq
2

Change in entropy, S =

D
C

3 5
1 4 = 4 0 T

38. (d) : Heat required to melt 1 kg ice at 0C into


water at 0C is
Q = mice Lice = (1 kg) (80 cal g1)
= (1000 g) (80 cal g1) = 8 104 cal

( A 2 BT )dT

T1

= A(T2 T1) B(T22 T12)


42. (d) :

T2

14
6C

= 14 6 = 8

CAB =

2C 2C 4C
+
=
3
3
3

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44. (b) : y = bx2

Differentiating w.r.t to t on both sides, we get

dy
dx
= b2 x
dt
dt

(iii) Angular wave number, k = 2 rad m1

vy = 2bxvx

Again, differentiating w.r.t. to t on both sides, we


get
dvy

dv
dx
= 2bvx
+ 2bx x = 2 bvx2 + 0
dt
dt
dt

dvx
= 0, because the particle has constant
dt
acceleration along y-direction]
[

As per question
dvy

2
= a = 2bvx2 or vx =

a
or vx =
2b

dt
45. (c) : Here, G = 50 W, Ig = 0.05 A , I = 5 A,

a
2b

A = 2.97 10 2 cm2 = 2.97 102 104 m2


= 2.97 106 m2
r = 5 10 7 W m
I gG
0.05 50 50
=
=
S=

I Ig
5 0.05 99
Now, S =
\ l=

1
m = 10 cm
10
(ii) Angular frequency, w = 60 rad s1
(i) Amplitude , A =

l
SA
or l =
A

50 ( 2.97 10 6 )

= 3.0 m
99
( 5 10 7 )

46. (c) :

According to steady flow, A1v1 = A2v2 + A3v3


or A3v3 = A1v1 A2v2
1
or v3 =
[ A v A2 v2 ]
A3 1 1
1
[0.2 4 0.2 2] = 1 m s 1
=
0.4
47. (c) : The given wave equation is
1
y=
sin( 60t + 2 x)
10
Compare it with the standard wave equation
y = Asin(wt + kx)

\ Velocity of the wave,


60 rad s 1
=
= 30 m s 1
k 2 rad m 1

v=

\ Frequency of the wave,


60 30
=
=
=
Hz

2 2

2 2
=
= m
k
2
As there is positive sign between t and x terms, the
given wave is moving in the negative x direction.
\ Wavelength of the wave, =

48. (d) : Here, n1 = 4, T1 = 400 K


n2 = 2, T2 = 700 K

The temperature of the mixture is


Tmixture =

n1T1 + n2T2
n1 + n2

4 400 K + 2 700 K
4+2

1600 K + 1400 K
= 500 K
6

49. (a) : Electric field at a point inside the charged


conducting spherical shell is zero as charge only
resides on the outer surface of the conducting
spherical shell.

50. (b) : Here, A = B

Let the resultant R


makes an angle a

with the vector A .


Then

tan =

B sin
A sin
=
A = B Given
A + B cos A + A cos

2 sin cos
sin
2
2 = tan
=
=
1 + cos
2
2
2 cos
2

=
2
mmm

We get,
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february 13

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units & measurements

kinematics

Physical quantity = Numerical value unit


Homogeneity Principle

Dimensions of [LHS] = Dimensions of [RHS]


Mean absolute error

| a1 | + | a2 | +... + | an |
n
1 n
= | ai |
n i =1

amean =
amean

Instantaneous speed

a + a2 + .... + an
Arithmetic mean amean = 1
amean =

1
ai
n i
=1

total path length


Speed =
time taken
total distance travelled
Average speed =
total time taken
s1 + s2 + s3 ......
i.e. vav =
t1 + t2 + t3 ......

Relative error or fractional error

mean absolute error amean


=
amean
mean value

amean
100%
Percentage error a =
amean
=

If in a vernier callipers n VSD coincide with (n 1)

MSD, then vernier constant or its least count is

n 1
1
VC = 1
(value of 1 MSD) or
(value of
n
n

MSD).
Least count of screw gauge or spherometer

Pitch
and
Number of divisions on circular scale

Pitch =

Number of divisions moved on linear scale


Number of rotaations given

= Linear distance moved in one rotation.

n , where n = number of events


or n = number of quantities.
of curvature using spherometer
Radius
Random error =

R=

l2 h
+
6h 2

= lim

t 0 t

ds
dt

displacement

time taken
total displacement
Average velocity =
total time taken
Velocity =

Acceleration a =

Change in velocity
time taken

Average acceleration

aav =
t

Instantaneous acceleration

v
a = lim .
t 0 t

Equation of motion for a uniform accelerated

motion

v = u + at

1 2
at
2
2
2
v u = 2as
a
sn = u + ( 2n 1)
2

where u is initial velocity, v is final velocity, a is
uniform acceleration, s is distance travelled in time
t, sn is distance covered in nth second. These
equations are not valid if the acceleration is nonuniform.
Equation of motion for a body under gravity
v = u + gt
s = ut +

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1 2
gt
2
2
2
v u = 2gh
1
hn = u + g( 2n 1)
2
Relative velocity
If two bodies are moving along the same line
in the same direction with velocities vA and vB
relative to earth, the velocity of B relative to A
will be given by vBA = vB vA.
If the bodies are moving towards or away
from each other as directions of vA and vB
are opposite velocity of B relative to A will be
vBA = vB (vA) = vB + vA.
Relative velocity of rain

vm
vr
Where, vm = velocity of man vr = velocity of rain
and a is the angle with the vertical direction at
which man should hold umbrella to save himself
from the rain.

a
^
Unit vector, a =
|a|
where, a^ is the unit vector drawn in the direction

of a and| a |is the magnitude of the vector.


Dot or scalar product

a b = ab cos ,
0qp
Properties of dot product

a b = b a

a ( b + c ) = a b + a c




m( a b ) = ma b = a ( mb ) = ( a b )m
where m is a scalar
tan =

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^

i i = j j = k k = 1,
i j = j k = k j = 0

If a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k

a b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3




a a = a 2 = a12 + a22 + a33 .


b b = b 2 = b12 + b22 + b33 .

If a b = 0 and a and b are not null vectors, then

a and b are perpendicular.


Cross or vector product

^
a b = ab sin n .

0qp

Properties of vector product

a b = b a

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february 13




m( a b ) = ( ma ) b = a ( mb ) = ( a b )m ,
where m is a scalar.
a ( b + c ) = a b + a c

h = ut +

If a = a1i + a2 j + a3 k

^
^
^
and b = b1i + b2 j + b3k , then
^

i
j

a b = a1 a2
b1 b2

k
a3
b3

a and b .


If a b = 0 and a and b are not null vectors,

then a and b are parallel.


Parallelogram law of vector addition

R = a + b , then R = a 2 + b 2 + 2 ab cos
b sin
and tan =
a + b cos


If R = a b = a + ( b )
a b = the area of a parallelogram with sides

then R = a 2 + b 2 2 ab cos
b sin(180 )
b sin
=
and tan =
a + b cos(180 ) a b cos

Where, q is the angle between a and b .


Equation of trajectory

y = x tan

gx 2
2u2 cos 2

Where u is initial velocity makes an angle q with


the horizontal.
Time of flight
2u sin
T=
g

Horizontal range
R=

u2 sin 2
g

Range will be maximum.

If q = 45 2
u
Rmax =
g

If angle of projection is changed from q to

q = (90 q) then range

R =

u2 sin 2 u2 sin[2(90 )] u2 sin 2


=
=R
=
g
g
g

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Maximum Height

Centripetal acceleration

u2 sin 2
H=
2g

Height attained by projectile is maximum if
q = 90
u2 Rmax
H max =
=
2g
2

Here, range of projectile
u2 sin 2 90
=0
g

When the range is maximum, (q = 45)

at = ra
Resultant acceleration
a = ac2 + at2
a
tan = t .
ac


Centripetal force

u2 sin 2 45 u2 Rmax
=
=
2g
4g
4

F=

(Motion up the Plane)


2u sin( )
Time of flight T =
g cos
Range

Linear momentum

p = mv

Where, m is mass of a body moving with velocity

v.

u2 [sin( 2 ) sin ]

g cos 2
R will be maximum
maximum.
i.e. sin(2q b) = 1
Rmax =

Newtons second law

when

sin(2q b)

is

u2
up the plane
g(1 + sin )

Motion down the plane


Time of flight T =

2u sin( + )
g cos

u2 sin( 2 + ) + sin

g
1 sin 2

R will be maximum, if sin(2q + b) = 1

Range, R =

1 + sin
u2
down the plane

=
2
1 sin g(1 sin )
At the highest point of a projectile motion given
angular projection, the angular momentum of
projectile.
Rmax =

u2
g

L = mu cos

u2 sin 2
2g

In case of angular projection, the angle between

velocity and acceleration varies from 0 < q < 180.


Angular acceleration

d d 2
=
dt dt 2
When a body moves in a circular path with
increasing angular velocity, it has two linear
acceleration.
=

mv 2
.
r
Laws of Motion

Projectile on an inclined plane

R=

v2
= r 2 = v = v( 2 )2
r

Tangential acceleration

R=

H=

ac =

Force, F = rate of change of linear momentum

dp
=
= ma.
dt

Where a is acceleration produced in the body.


Impulse = Change in linear momentum

= F t = m(v u)
Equilibrium of concurrent forces :


F1 + F2 + F3 + .... + Fn = 0
Lamis theorem :
F
F1
F
= 2 = 3


sin sin sin


where, = angle between F2 and F3

= angle between F3 and F1



= angle between F1 and F2




Apparent weight of a man in a lift :
When the lift is at rest or moving with
constant velocity, the apparent weight
= mg. Thus apparent weight = true weight.
When the lift is accelerating upwards
with acceleration a, then apparent weight
= m(g + a).
Thus apparent weight is more than the true
weight.
When the lift is accelerating downwards
with acceleration a, then apparent weight
= m(g a).

Thus apparent weight is less than the true
weight of man.

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In the cable supporting the lift breaks, the lift falls

freely with a = g, then apparent weight


= m(g g) = 0.

When a person of mass m climbs up a rope

with acceleration a, the tension in the rope is


T = m(g + a).

When

the person climbs down the rope


with acceleration a, the tension in the rope is
T = m(g a).

v2
rg
Circular turning of roads
The velocity with which a car can take a circular
path of radius r without slipping is given by

vmax = s rg

slipping,

speed, the tension in the rope is T = mg.

Thrust on the rocket F = u


fk = mk R
where mk is coefficient of kinetic friction.
Acceleration of a body down a rough inclined
plane, a = g(sinq mcosq)

where, q is the angle of inclination and m is the


coefficient of friction.
Angle of repose
m = tana
Where, a is angle of repose
Work done in moving a body over a rough
horizontal surface.

W = mR s = mmg s
Where, R is normal reaction and s is distance
moved by body.
Work done in moving a body up a rough inclined
plane.
80 physics for you |

february 13

rg( s + tan )
vmax =

1 s tan

1/ 2

v2
or tan = 0
rg
v02
h
tan =
=
rg
b2 h2
v02 = rg tanq

Motion in a vertical circle


Tension at any position of angular displacement,

(q) along a vertical circle is given by

mv 2
+ mg cos
r
At the lowest point of vertical circle, q = 0
Tension at the lowest point is given by

Laws of friction :
The magnitude of the force of static friction

between any two surfaces in contact can have


the values
fs  ms R

...(i)
where the dimensionless constant ms is called the
coefficient of static friction, R is the magnitude of
normal reaction force. The equality in equation
holds when the surfaces are on the verge of
slipping i.e.,
fs = (fs)max = (fl) ms R.
The magnitude of the force of kinetic friction
acting between two surfaces is

angle of bending tan =

The maximum permissible speed to avoid

When the person climbs up or down with uniform

dm
dt
dm
Where,
is mass of burnt gases escaping per
dt
second and u = exhaust speed of the burnt gases.
Velocity of rocket at any time t.
m
v = u log e 0
m
Acceleration of rocket at any instant
upthrust weight
a=
mass

W = (mgsinq + mR)s.

Bending cyclist,

T=

mvL2
TL =
+ mg

r
At the highest point of the vertical circle,
q = 180. Tension at the highest point is given
by
2
mvH
TH =
mg
r

Minimum velocity at the highest point,

vH = gr

Minimum velocity at the lowest point for

looping the loop, vL = 5 gr .

When the string is horizontal, q = 90, minimum

velocity, v = 3 gr .

Height through which a body should fall for

looping the vertical loop h = 5r/2.

WORK, ENERGY AND POWER



W = F S = FS cos


Where q is angle between F and S
Work done by a variable force, W =

xf

F( x)dx

xi

1 2
mv .
2
Relation between kinetic energy (K) and linear
momentum (p)
Kinetic energy : K =

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A ball dropped from a height h and rebounding.

p2
or p = 2mK
2m

Work done by a spring force

W = Fspring ds


Work energy theorem : W = Kf Ki

K=

The time taken by the ball in rising to height h1

ROTATIONAL MOTION
The coordinates of centre of mass are given by

Elastic potential energy : U = 1 kx 2

XCM =

Gravitational potential energy : U = mgh

W
Power, P = total
t

dW d s
Instantaneous power, P =
= F
= Fv
dt
dt

(m1 m2 )u1 2m2u2


+
m1 + m2
(m1 + m2 )

v2 =

2m1u1
(m m1 )
u
+ 2
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 2

i =1
N

mi

mi xi
i =1

mi yi mi yi
i =1
N

mi

i =1

i =1

v1 =

mi xi

i =1
N

YCM =

Elastic collision in one dimension

2 h1
2h
= 2e
.
g
g

and coming back is 2

ZCM =

Perfectly inelastic collision in one dimension

mi zi mi zi
i =1
N

mi

i =1

i =1

where M = m1 + m2 + m3 ..... mN (total mass of


system)

For a continuous distribution of mass, the

coordinates of centre of mass are given by

v=

1
1
1
x dm; YCM =
y dm ; ZCM =
z dm
M
M
M
Velocity of centre of mass is given by
XCM =

m1u1 + m2u2
(m1 + m2 )


Loss in kinetic energy in elastic collision is
1 m1m2
(u u2 )2
K =
2 (m1 + m2 ) 1


Coefficient of restitution
v v1
e= 2
u1 u2


Kinetic energy lost in inelastic collision is

1 m1m2
(u u2 )2 (1 e 2 )
K =
2 (m1 + m2 ) 1

A ball falls from a height h, it strikes the ground

with a velocity u = 2 gh . Let it rebound with a


velocity v and rise to a height h1.

e=
or

v
=
u

2 gh1
2 gh

h1 = e h

h1
h
or

h1 = e 2 h.

vCM =

i =1
N

mi vi

mi

mi vi
i =1

i =1

Acceleration of centre of mass is given by


N

aCM

mi ai mi ai
i =1
N

mi

i =1

i =1

Angular velocity : =

d
dt

d
dt
Equations of rotational motion
w = w0 + at
1 2
= 0 t + t
2
w
2 w02 = 2aq
Angular acceleration : =

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81

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Theorem of perpendicular axis : Iz = Ix + Iy

Torque = r F

In magnitude t = rF sinq

Angular momentum L = r p

In magnitude, L = rp sin q
Relationship between torque
momentum

dL
i.e., ext =


dt

where, x and y are two perpendicular to axes in


the plane and z axis is perpendicular to its plane.

Moment of inertia : I =

and

angular

Theorem of parallel axes : I = ICM + Md2

miri2

where, ICM is the moment of inertia of the body


about an axis passing through the centre of mass
and d is the perpendicular distance between two
parallel axis.

i =1

S.No.

Body

Axis of rotation

Moment of
inertia (I)

Radius of
gyration (K)

MR2

(ii) about a diameter

1
MR 2
2

(iii) about a tangent in its own plane

3
MR 2
2

3
R
2

(iv) about a tangent perpendicular to its


plane

2MR2

R 2

(i) about an axis passing through its centre


and perpendicular to its plane

1
MR 2
2

(ii) about a diameter

1
MR 2
4

R
2

(iii) about a tangent in its own plane

5
MR 2
4

(iv) about a tangent perpendicular to its


own plane

3
MR 2
2

(i) about an axis passing through its centre


and perpendicular to its plane

1.

2.

3.

4.

Uniform
circular
ring of mass M and
radius R

Uniform
circular
disc of mass M and
radius R

Solid sphere of
radius R and mass
M

Hollow sphere of
radius R and mass
M

82 physics for you |

february 13

R
2

3
R
2

(i) about its diameter

2
MR 2
5

2
R
5

(ii) about a tangential axis

7
MR 2
5

7
R
5

(i) about its diameter

2
MR 2
3

2
R
3

(ii) about a tangential axis

5
MR 2
3

5
R
3

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83

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5.

6.

(i) about its own axis

1
MR 2
2

Solid cylinder of (ii) about an axis passing through its centre


length l, radius R and perpendicular to its own axis
and mass M

l2 R2
M +

12 4

l2 R2
+
12 4

(iii) about the diameter of one of the faces


of cylinder

l2 R2
M +

4
3

l2 R2
+
3
4

(i) about an axis through its centre and


perpendicular to the rod

ML2
12

(ii) about an axis through one end and


perpendicular to the rod

ML2
3

Thin rod of length L

Relation between torque and moment of inertia

Torque t = Ia

where a is the angular acceleration.


between angular momentum and
moment of inertia, L = Iw
1
Kinetic energy of rotational motion, K R = I 2 .
2
Kinetic energy of a rolling body = translational kinetic
energy (KT) + rotational kinetic energy (KR)
Relation

K2
1
1
1
Mv 2 + I 2 = Mv 2 1 +

2
2
2
R 2

When a body rolls down an inclined plane of


inclination q without slipping its velocity at the
=

2 gh

bottom of incline is given by v =

1+

R2

without slipping, its acceleration down the


g sin
.
inclined plane is given by a =
K2
1+
R2
When a body rolls down on an inclined plane
without slipping, time taken by the body to reach

the bottom is given by t =


K2
2l 1 +

R2

g sin

g=

GMe
Re2

4
G Re3 4
= 3
= GRe
3
Re2

The acceleration due to gravity at height h above

the surface of earth is given by

gh =

h
= g 1 +
2
Re

( Re + h)
GMe

GMe
g = 2

Re

For h << Re

2h
gh = g 1
Re

The acceleration due to gravity at a depth d below


the surface of earth is given by


february 13

12

where Me is the mass of the earth, Re is the radius


of the earth and r is the uniform density of the
material of the earth.

where l is the length of the inclined plane.

84 physics for you |

gravitation
Newtons universal law of gravitation
Gm1m2
F=
r2

Where, r is the separation between masses of
objects m1 and m2.
Acceleration due to gravity
GM
g=
.
R2

Where M and R are the mass and radius of Earth
respectively.
Relationship between g and G

where h is the height of the incline.

When a body rolls down on an inclined plane

gd =

GMe
Re3

R d
( Re d ) = g e
=
Re

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d
g 1
Re

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At the centre, d = Re \ gd = 0.

Gravitational potential energy of a body of mass

m on the surface of the earth is given by

Gravitational field intensity

Gm
E=
r2
Where, m is test mass.
The gravitational field intensity due to spherical
shell of radius R and mass M at a point distant r
from the centre of the shell is given as follows:
At a point outside the shell i.e. r > R

E=

GM


r2
At a point on the surface of the shell i.e. r = R

GM
E=

R2
At a point inside the shell i.e. r < R, E = 0
For solid sphere gravitational field intensity
change only at a point inside the sphere
i.e., r < R.
GMr
E=


R3
GM
Gravitational potential : V =
r
The gravitational potential due to a spherical shell
of radius R and mass M at a point distant r from
the centre of the shell is given as follows:
At a point outside the shell i.e. r > R
GM
V=


r
At a point on the surface of the shell i.e. r = R

GM
V=

R
At a point inside the shell i.e. r < R

GM( 3R 2 r 2 )

V=

2R3
Relation between gravitational field intensity and
gravitational potential

vo =

dV
dr

Time period of a satellite :

T = 2

( Re + h)3 2 ( Re + h)3
=
GMe
Re
g


Height of satellite above the earths surface
T 2R2 g
e
h=

4 2

GMm

m at height h above the surface of the earth is


given by
GMe m
Uh =
(
Re + h)

1/ 3

Re

Angular momentum of a satellite

GM
= [m2GMr ]1/ 2
r

L = mvo r = mr

Kinetic energy of a satellite,

1 2 1 GMe m |U |
.
mv =
=
2 o 2 ( Re + h)
2
GMe m
Potential energy of a satellite, U =
.
Re + h
K=

Total energy (mechanical) of a satellite

GMe m
2( Re + h)

Escape speed : ve =

2GMe
Re

PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
restoring
area

Stress =

Longitudinal Stress =

FN
A

FV
A
FT
Tangential Stress =
A
change in length L
Longitudinal strain =
=
original length
L

Gravitational potential energy : U =


r
Gravitational potential energy of a body of mass

GMe
As g = 2

Re

GMe
g
= Re
Re + h
Re + h

E = K +U =

GM
V=


R
The gravitational potential due to a solid sphere
at a point inside the sphere i.e. r < R

E=

GMe m
Re
Orbital speed of satellite, when it is revolving
around earth at a height h is given by
Us =

Volumetric Stress =

Volumetric strain =

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change in volume V
=
original volume
V
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85

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Stress
=E
Strain
normal stress
Youngs modulus, Y =
longitudinal strain

Hookes law : Stress = E Strain or

ve sign shows that volume is decreasing when


force is applied.
tangential stress
Modulus of rigidity (h) =
shearing strain

F/A
F
=
=
.

A


In case of a solids and liquids bulk modulus is
almost constant.
In case of a gas, it is process dependent
In isothermal process, K = Ki = P
In adiabatic process K = Ka = gP

1
Bulk modulus (B)
when pressure is applied on a substance, its
volume decreases while mass remains constant.
Compressibility =

Hence, its density will increases,

P P
=
or 1 +
<< 1
if
1 P / B
B
B

Poissons ratio (P) :

lateral strain
r / r
=
longitudinal strain L / L

L =

Mg( L / 2) MgL gL2


=
=
AY
2 AY
2Y

3B 2
,
2 + 6B

L and radius r, elastic restoring couple per unit


twist is given by

r 4
2L

where h is modulus of rigidity of the material of wire.
Interatomic force constant (k)
C=

interatomic force
F0
change in interatomic distance = r = Yr0
Depression of a beam loaded at the middle by a
load W and supported at the ends

k=

WL3
48YI g


Depression of a cantilever at a free end
=

Breaking force = Breaking stress Area of cross



section of the wire.
Every wire is like a spring whose force constant
is equal to
YA
1
or K
L
L

Work done in a stretched wire,

86 physics for you |

m(mass)
V (volume)

Density , =

Relative density =

density of a substance
density of water at 4C

thrust ( F ) F
=
area ( A)
A

For a point at a depth h below the surface of a

WL3
3YI g

PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

Pressure P =

9 1 3
= +
Y B

K=

M = AL

In case of twisting of a cylinder (or wire) of length

Relations among elastic constants (Y, B, h and s)

Y
= 3B(1 2s),
Y = 2h(1 + s),
=

W=

F/A
FL
FL
=
=
L / L AL r 2 L
1
1
normal stress
F / A
PV
u = stress strain = Y (strain )2
Bulk modulus, B =
=
= .
2
2
volumetric strain V / V
V

In case of elongation by its own weight,
F (= Mg) will act at centre of gravity of the wire, so
normal stress
F / A
PV
B=
=
=
.
that length of wire which is stretched is (L/2).
volumetric

strain V / V
V

1
stress strain volume
2

1 F L
1
1
=

AL = F L = load elongation
2A L
2
2
Elastic potential energy stored per unit volume of
a stretched wire,

february 13

liquid of density r, hydrostatic pressure P is given


by P = P0 + hrg

where P0 represents the atmospheric pressure.

When a body of density rB (which may be different

from the density of material of body) and volume


V is completely immersed in a liquid of density s,
following two forces act on the body :
weight of body W = VrBg acting vertically
downwards through the centre of gravity.

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Buoyant force or upward thrust W = Vsg

equal to weight of the liquid displaced, acting


vertically upwards through the centre of
buoyancy.

Depending upon relative magnitudes of above

two forces, following three cases are possible:

The density of body is greater than that of liquid

(i.e., rB > s). In this situation as weight will be


more than upthrust, the body will sink.
The density of body is equal to the density
of liquid (i.e., rB = s). In this situation
W = W so the body will float fully submerged
anywhere in the liquid.
The density of body is lesser than that
of liquid (i.e. rB < s). In this situation
W < W so the body will move upwards and
in equilibrium will float partially immersed in
the liquid such that

2S
P=
.
r
When an air bubble of radius r is at depth h below
the free surface of liquid of density r and surface
tension S, then the excess pressure inside the
bubble,
2S
P=
+ hg.

r
If r1 and r2 are the radii of curved liquid surface,
then excess pressure inside the liquid surface is
given by
1 1
P = S + .
r1 r2

When two soap bubbles of radii r1 and r2 coalesce
to form a new soap bubble of radius r, under

isothermal conditions then r = r12 + r22 .


When two soap bubbles of radii r1 and r2 are in

Force
F
Surface tension, S =
=
Length L
Work done in forming a liquid drop of radius r,
surface tension S is, W = 4pr2S.
Work done in forming a soap bubble of radius r,
surface tension S is,

given by

W = Vinsg or VrBg = Vinsg or VrB = Vins

Equation of continuity A1v1 = A2v2

Excess pressure inside an air bubble in a liquid is

W = 2 4pr2S = 8pr2S.

Work done in increasing the radius of a liquid

contact with each other and r is the radius of the


r1r2
.
interface, then r =
r2 r1

The total pressure inside an air bubble of radius r

at a depth h below the surface of liquid of density


r is
2S
P = P0 + hg +
r
The rise or fall in a capillary tube is given by

drop from r1 to r2 is

W = 4 S

r22

h=

).

r12

Work done in increasing the radius of a soap

bubble from r1 to r2 is

r
cos =
R

where is the angle of contact.

According to Newton viscous force (F) of a liquid

W = 8 S r22 r12

When n number of smaller drops of a liquid, each
of radius r, surface tension S are combined to
form a bigger drop of radius R, then

2S cos
2S
=
rg
Rg

between two layers is given by


dv
F = A
dx
where h = coefficient of viscosity of the liquid

Pr 4
P
=
8 l
R
8 l
R =

is called liquid resistance.
r 4
Stokes law : F = 6rv.


R = n1/3r
The surface area of bigger drop = 4pR2 = 4pn2/3r2. It
is less than the area of n smaller drops.
Work done in breaking a liquid drop of radius R
into n equal small drops

Poiseuilles equation : Q =

Terminal velocity : v =
T


W = 4pR2 (n1/3 1) S
where S is the surface tension.
Excess pressure inside a liquid drop is given by
2S
P=
.
r

Excess pressure inside a soap bubble is given by

4S
P=
.
r

2r 2 ( ) g
.
9
K
Critical velocity : vc =
r
Reynold number : vc =

Dvc
NR
or NR =
D

Bernoullis theorem :

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87

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1
P + gh + v 2 = constant
2
1
1
or P1 + gh11 + v12 = P2 + gh2 + v22
2
2

Velocity of efflux v = 2 gh

Time after which liquid strikes the horizontal

surface

t =

2( H h)

g

where, K = thermal conductivity

and s = electrical conductivity

Thermal resistance of the bar, RH =


Stefan Boltzmann law : E = sT4

Range = R = vt =

2 gh 2 h( H h)
H
Rmax = H at h =
2
If the hole is at the bottom of the tank, time t
taken by the tank to emptied.

where a is the area of the hole.
A
t=
2H/ g
a
THERMAL, PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Relationship between different temperature scales:

KA(T1 T2 )
L
K
Wiedemann-Franz law :
= a constant, where K = therm
T
H=

TC 0 TF 32 TR 0 TRa 460 TK 273.15


=
=
=
=
100
180
80
212
100

If the body is not a perfectly black body, then


E = esT4
The energy radiated per second by a body of area
A = eAsT4
Newtons law of cooling :

dQ
= k(T TS )
dt

Wiens displacement law : T = constant .


m

R 2S
Temperature of sun is given by T =

R 2
s

increase in area
A
=
=
original area rise in temperature AT
Coefficient of volume expansion of a solid,
increase in volume
V
=
original volume rise in temperature V T
Relation between a, b and g
=


= .
2 3
The specific heat of a substance is given by
1 Q
s=
m T
The molar specific heat of a substance is given by
1 Q
C=
T

Thermal capacity, S = s m
Q
The latent heat of a substances given by L =
m
Principal of calorimetry :
=

Heat lost by one body = Heat gained by the


other.
When a bar of length L and uniform area of cross
section A with its ends maintained at temperatures
T1 and T2, the rate of flow of heat (or heat current)
H is given by
88 physics for you |

february 13

1/ 4

THERMODYNAMICS

Coefficient of linear expansion of a solid,

increase in length
L
=
=
original length rise in temperature LT
Coefficient of area expansion of a solid,

L
.
KA

The work done by a gas is W =

Vf

dW = PdV
Vi

where Vi and Vf are the initial and final volume of


the gas.
First law of thermodynamics : DQ = DU + DW
Equation of isothermal process PV = constant.
Work done during isothermal process,
P
Vf
i
W = RT ln ; W = RT ln P
V
f

Equation of adiabatic process, PV g = constant

where g = CP/CV.

Work done during adiabatic process,

W=

( PV
i i Pf V f )
( 1)

; W=

R(Ti T f )

1
V
Equation of isobaric process
= constant.
T
Work done during isobaric process,

W = P(Vf Vi) = mR(Tf Ti).
Efficiency of a heat engine,
Q
work done
W Q1 Q2
=
=
=
=1 2

heat absorbed Q1
Q1
Q1
The coefficient of performance of a refrigerator,
=

heat extracted from the reservoir at low temperature T2



work done to transfer the heat

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=

Q2
Q2
=
W Q1 Q2

( rigid diatomic ) =

The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given,

Boltzmann constant

R

NA

NA is the Avogadros number.
m
N

Here, =
=
M NA

where, m is the mass of the gas containing N
molecules, M is the molar mass
Equation of a real gas :

2 a
P + 2 (V b) = RT
V

kB =

where, a and b are Van der waals constants


8a
Critical temperature : TC =
27 Rb
Critical pressure : PC =

a
27 b 2

According to kinetic theory of an ideal gas

pressure exerted by an ideal gas is given by

1
P = mn v 2


3
Root mean square speed,
3RT
=
M

3kBT
m
8 kBT
.
m

Most probable speed, vmp =

2 RT
=
M

vrms > v > vmp

3
k T
2 B
The molar specific heats are given by
5
CV ( rigid diatomic ) = R
2
7
CP ( rigid diatomic ) = R
2


v = A2 x 2
Acceleration of a particle in S.H.M. is given by

a = w2x

The kinetic energy of a particle in S.H.M. is given by

1
m 2 ( A2 x 2 )
2
The potential energy of a particle in S.H.M. is
1
given by, = m 2 A2 sin 2 (t + )
2
Total energy of a particle in S.H.M. is given by
1
E = m 2 A2

2
Spring pendulum
K=

m
k
The time period of a simple pendulum is given by

T = 2

If the length of a simple pendulum is comparable

with the radius of earth (Re), then time period T


is given by
1
T = 2
1 1
g +
L Re

is accelerating downwards with an acceleration a,


then its time period is given by
T = 2

2 kBT
.
m

Average translational kinetic energy of a gas

molecule is E =

2
T
Velocity of a particle in S.H.M. is given by
Angular frequency w = 2pu =

If a simple pendulum is suspended in a lift and lift

8 RT
=
M

Average speed, v =

2nd 2

T = 2 L / g .

Critical volume : VC = 3b

vrms =

OSCILLATIONS

Equation of an ideal gas : PV = RT = kBNT

The mean free path, =

T
= 1 2
T1
KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

7
5

L
ga

For upwards motion, T = 2

L
g+a

For upwards or downwards with constant velocity

v, T = 2 L
g
If a simple pendulum is suspended in a lift and

lift is freely falling with acceleration g, then its


L
time period is given by T = 2
=
gg

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89

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If a simple pendulum is suspended in a carriage

containing capacitance C and inductance L is


given by

which is accelerating horizontally with an


acceleration a, then its time period is given by
T = 2

T = 2 LC

If a wire of length L, area of cross-section A,

Youngs modulus Y is stretched by suspending


a mass m, then the mass can oscillate with time
period

( g 2 + a2 )

If a simple pendulum is suspended from the roof

of a trolley which is moving down an inclined


plane of inclination q, then the time period is given by
T = 2

L
g cos

If a gas is enclosed in a cylinder of volume V fitted

with piston of cross section area A and mass M and


the piston is slightly depressed and released,
the piston can oscillate with a time period

If a simple pendulum whose bob is of density r

oscillates in a non-viscous liquid of density s(s < r),


then its time period is given by
T = 2

Torsional pendulum :

L

1 g

T = 2

Speed, frequency and wavelength relation

I
C
where I is the moment of inertia of the disc about
the suspension wire as axis of rotation and C is the
restoring torque per unit twist.
r 4
2L
where r is the radius, L is the length and h is the
modulus of rigidity of a wire respectively.
The time period of oscillation of a liquid in U-tube
is given by
C=

L
h
T = 2
= 2
2g
g
where L = total length of liquid column in a U-tube,
h = height of liquid column in each limb of U-tube
Also h = L/2
The time period of oscillation of floating cylinder
m
Ag
where m is the mass of a cylinder, A is the area
of cross section of a cylinder, s is the density of a
liquid
h
h
= 2
g
g
where h is the height of cylinder of density r and
s is the density of a liquid in which cylinder is
floating, h is the height of the cylinder inside the
liquid.
Time period of LC oscillations of a circuit
february 13

v = lu

Intensity of a wave :

I = 2p2u2A2rv
where u is the frequency, A is the amplitude,
v is the velocity of the wave, r is the density of the
medium.
Energy density of wave


u = 2p2A2u2r

where r is the density of the medium.

Wave velocity, v =

Particle velocity,

dy
dy
= A cos( kx t + ) =
k dx
dt
2
d y
Particle acceleration, a =
= 2 y
dt 2
Relationship between phase difference, path
difference and time difference
2
Phase difference =
path difference

2
Phase difference =
time difference
T

Speed
of a transverse waves on a stretched string
T
is given by v =

where T is the tension in the string, m is the mass


per unit length of the string called linear density.
Speed of a transverse wave in a solid is given by

vparticle =

in a liquid is given by T = 2

90 physics for you |

MV
BA2

WAVES

T = 2

or T = 2

mL
YA

T = 2

where h is the modulus of rigidity, r is the density


of a solid.
v=

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Speed of a longitudinal wave in a medium is

E
given by v =

where E is the modulus of elasticity and r is the


density of the medium.

4L

For nth mode, n =


( 2n )

1 =

Speed of a longitudinal wave in a metallic bar is

where Y is the Youngs modulus and r is the


density of material of a metallic bar.
Speed of a longitudinal wave in a fluid is given
B
by v =

where B is the bulk modulus and r is density of


a fluid.
given by v =

Newtons formula : v =

Speed of sound in a gas, v =

.
v
3 rms

frequency of a closed organ pipe is given by


v
v
C =
=
4[L + e ] 4[L + 0.6r ]

Due to the end correction, the fundamental

frequency of an open pipe is given by


v
v
O =
=
2[L + 2 e ] 2[L + 1.2r ]

Speed of sound in air at room temperature using

resonance tube is given by


v = 2u(L2 L1)

Beat frequency = no. of beats/sec = (u1 u2)

frequency and frequency of a tuning fork of


arm length L and thickness d in the direction of
vibration is given by

where v0 is the speed of sound in the gas at 0C.

Effect of pressure : The speed of sound in a gas

d
d
= v =
L2
L2

is given by

Vibrations in a stretched string of length L fixed


at both ends.
Fundamental frequency
v=

1 =

v
v
1 T
=
=
1 2 L 2 L

For the nth mode, n = 2L/n

Frequency of nth mode

Y
since v =

According to Dopplers effect the apparent

frequency heard by the observer is given by


v vo
=

v vs

where vs, vo and v are the speed of source, observer


and sound relative to air.

The upper sign on vs (or vo) is used when source
(observer) moves towards the observer (source)
while lower sign is used when it moves away.
If the wind blows with speed vw in the direction
of sound, v is replaced by v + vw in the above
equation. If the wind blows with speed vw in a
direction opposite to that of sound, v is replaced
by v vw in the above equation.
A practical and small unit of loudness of sound is

v
nv
n T
n =
where n = 1, 2, 3, ....
=
= n1 =
n 2L
2L
p T,
p =
2L
where p = number of loops.
Vibrations of a closed organ pipe

= difference in frequencies.

Tuning fork is a source of sound of single

P
RT
=

M
Speed of sound in gas is independent of the
pressure of the gas, provided temperature
remains constant.
Effect of humidity : With increase in humidity,
density of air decreases

v
v
=
1 4 L

v( 2n 1)
v
=
= ( 2n 1)v1
n
4L

Due to the end correction the fundamental

Effect of temperature : vt = v0 1 +
546

v=

Frequency, n =

decibel (dB). 1 decibel = 1/10 bel.

In decibel the loudness of a sound of intensity I is

I
given by L = 10 log10 .
I0
mmm

WorldMags.net

physics for you | february 13

91

WorldMags.net

92 physics for you |

february 13

WorldMags.net