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UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL

MALAYSIA MELAKA

No Dokumen:
No Isu./Tarikh
SB/MMSB2/DMCS3333/6 1/12-12-2007

SOLID MECHANICS 2
Thin & Thick Cylinders
Analysis

No Semakan/Tarikh
4/22-06-2012

Jumlah
Mukasurat

OBJECTIVES OF EXPERIMENTAL WORK


1. To investigate and analyze the stress systems in thin and thick
cylinders
2. To compare stress systems or distributions between thin and thick
cylinders
LEARNING OUTCOMES (N.B Students should not include these as part of
their report)
At the end of this laboratory session students should be able to
1. apply the thin and thick cylinder formulations to obtain the principle
stresses due to internal pressures.
2. determine the magnitude of stresses in thin cylinder under closed
and open end conditions.
3. analyze the stress distributions of the thick cylinder with respect to
the radial dimension or its wall thickness.
4. understanding of basic laboratory practice, including design of
experiments, write a clear and well-presented technical report,
data acquisition, interpretation and analysis, and the relationship
between experiments and theory.

THEORY
The analysis of the stress distribution in a thin or thick walled cylinder is of
considerable practical importance in pressure vessels and gun barrels.
Strain gauges mounted on various radius and at different alignments
throughout the cylinder wall provide the measurement of the strains. Thus
stress distribution throughout the wall of a cylinder subjected to an
internal pressure could be analyzed.
Theory of Thick Cylinder
H
H

L
R

Material
Element at
radius r
1

Figure 1

Cylinder under Internal

Figure 1 shows a hollow cylinder, which is subjected to a uniformly


distributed internal pressure P. The figure details an element of material at
some radius r, contained within an elemental cylinder. Due to the design of
the SM1011 Thick Cylinder the longitudinal stress L may be ignored (i.e L
= 0) and only a bi-axial stress system be considered. Hence the stress
formulas are shown below and Figure 2 shows the variations of radial
stress R and hoop stress H throughout the cylinder wall.
Maximum R occurs at the inner radius (R1) i.e. R = -P (where P = Internal
Pressure)
Minimum R occurs at the outer radius (R2) i.e. R = 0
Maximum H occurs at the inner radius (R1) i.e. H

K
P
K

2
2

1
1

(1)
Minimum H occurs at the outer radius (R2) i.e. H

2P

(2)
where K

R2
R1

K
K

H
-P

2P

Figure 2

1
1

Stressses variation throughout a


cylinder thickness

Now for a cylinder under internal pressure P (MPa) and free from axial
loading (L = 0), the maximum shear stress will occur at the inner radius.
i.e. Maximum shear stress,max= (difference of the two principal
stresses).
=

R H
2

(3)

Substituting we get:Therefore:

max

P R2 2
=
R22 R12
PK2
= 2
K 1

In the case of the TQ cylinder:

(4)
(5)

K=4.054 and therefore max =1.065P.

Note: The theoretical development of thin cylinder theory may be


found from any reference books for Mechanics of Solids. Students
are required to include this thin cylinder theory as part of their
formal report.

APPARATUS
Thin Cylinder
Cylinder

Mechanical
Pressure
Gauge

Hand
Wheel

Pump
Socket for
Communicatio
n Cable

Diagram,
Indicating
Gauge Factor
Figure 3 Layout of the
SM1007

1.

2.

Figure 3 shows the SM1007 Thin Cylinder apparatus. It consists of a


thin walled aluminum cylinder of 80 mm inside diameter and 3 mm
wall thickness. Operating the hydraulic pump pressurizes the cylinder
with oil.
The cylinder has six sensors on its surface that measure strain. A
mechanical gauge and electronic sensor measure the hydraulic
pressure in the cylinder. The cylinder is held in sturdy frame in which it
is free to move along its axis. The strain (and thus the stress) can be
measured with the cylinder in two configurations:
a. Open ends where the axial loads are taken by the frame (not
the cylinder), therefore there is no direct axial stress
b. Closed ends where the axial loads are taken by the cylinder,
therefore there must be direct axial stress
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The two configurations are achieved using the large hand wheel at the end
of the frame.
3.

In the open ends condition


pushes the two pistons away
is no contact between them.
from the pressurized oil into
Figure 4.

the hand wheel is screwed fully in. This


from the cylinder end caps so that there
Therefore, the axial force is transmitted
the frame rather than the cylinder. See

Pistons
(touching
frame)
End cap

Pistons
(touching end
cap)
End cap
End cap

End cap

Oil under
pressure

Gap

Handwheel
wound in
FrameGap

5.

6.

Gap Handwheel
wound out

Frame
Figure 5 Closed Ends
Condition

Path of load
Figure 4 Open Ends
Condition
4.

Oil under
pressure

In the closed ends condition the hand wheel is wound out. This
allows the pistons to move outward against the cylinder end caps
so that there is no contact with the frame. Therefore the axial
force is transmitted from the pressurized oil into the cylinder
itself. See Figure 5.
In relation to stress analysis, cylinders are divided into two
groups: thin and thick. The distinction between the two relates to
the ratio of internal diameter to wall thickness of a particular
cylinder.
A cylinder with a diameter to thickness ratio of more than 20 is
considered to be thin. A ratio of less than 20 is considered to be
thick. This distinction is made as the analysis of a cylinder can be
simplified by assuming it is thin. The SM1007 cylinder has a ratio
of approximately 27, which is well above the ratio for being
considered thin.

PROCEDURES
Experiment 1 Thin Cylinder with Open Ends
In this experiment we will pressurize the cylinder in the open ends
condition taking readings from all six strain gauges, we will then analyze
the results in various ways to establish some important relationships.
Examine the cylinder and the diagram on the front panel to understand the
notation and placement of the strain gauges in relation to the axis of the
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cylinder. The experimental method utilizes the SM1007 software to display


and take readings.
1. Having set up and familiarized yourself with the equipment open the
pump release valve and screw in the hand wheel to set up the open
ends condition.
2. In the SM1007 software choose OPEN ENDS CONDITION from the
EXPERIMENTS menu option. Then connect the SM1007 unit by selecting
CONNECT TO SM1007 from the same menu. The virtual meters on the
screen should now display values of pressure and strain.
3. Close the pump release valve and zero the readings by selecting ZERO
ALL GAUGES from the EXPERIMENTS menu option. All the virtual strain
meters should now read 00.3, and the pressure meter should read
00.01MPa.
4. Take the first set of readings (at zero) into the data table by selecting
RECORD GAUGE READINGS from the EXPERIMENTS menu option.
Display the data table by selecting DATA TABLE in the RESULTS menu.
5. Pump the handle slowly until a pressure of around 0.5 MPa and record
the readings into the data table again by selecting RECORD GAUGE
READINGS from the EXPERIMENT menu option. Wait a few seconds
between pumps for the gauges to stabilize.
6. Carefully increase the pressure in 0.5 MPa increment, record the
readings into the data table until you have reached a value of 3 MPa
(Do not exceed a maximum cylinder pressure of 3.5 MPa).
7. You may print the data table if desired by pressing the printer button in
the top left corner of the table.
8. Disconnect the communications between the PC and the apparatus by
selecting DISCONNECT THE SM1007 from the EXPERIMENT menu
option.
Experiment 2 Thin Cylinder with Closed Ends
Having completed the analysis of the open ends condition; we will now test
the cylinder taking the same readings as in experiment 1 but with the
cylinder in the closed ends condition to show the effect of the biaxial stress
system.
1. Open the pump release valve and carefully unscrew the hand wheel
enough to set up the closed ends condition. To check that the frame is
not transmitting any load, close the pump release valve and pump the
handle and observe the pressure gauge, you may need to pump a
number of times as the oil pushes the pistons outward.
2. Once a pressure of around 3 MPa has been achieved, gently push and
pull the cylinder along its axis, the cylinder should move in the frame
indicating that the frame is not transmitting any load. If it doesnt
move, wind the hand wheel out some and try again.
3. Release the pressure from cylinder by opening the pump release valve.
4. In the SM1007 software choose CLOSED ENDS CONDITION from the
EXPERIMENTS menu option. Then connect the SM1007 unit by selecting
CONNECT TO SM1007 from the same menu. The virtual meters on the
screen should now display values of pressure and strain.
5. Repeat steps 3 to 8 in Experiment 1.

Experiment 3 Thick Cylinder


Strain distribution
Select this option to create the Strain Table and determine the difference
between measured and theoretical strain values through the cylinder wall.
1. Ensure the cylinder is at zero pressure by checking that the hand wheel
turns freely and the pressure gauge reads zero.
2. Select ZERO READINGS to zero the pressure and strain signals.
3. Increase the pressure to about 6.5 MPa, allowing about 5 seconds for
the pressure and strain readings to stabilize and then select TAKE
READING to copy the current readings to the data table.
4. Select PRINT to print the data table if desired, ensure a printer is
connected, on-line and correctly set up.
5. Select GRAPH to draw a graph of strain distribution through the cylinder
wall. Experimental hoop strains are shown by green circles,
experimental radial strains by blue circles and theoretical
measurements by white circles.
6. Select PRINT to print the graph if desired.
Stress distribution
Select this option to create the Stress Table and display and print graphs
showing stress distribution through the cylinder wall and calculated
stresses against a Lame line. The following steps should be taken:
1. Select PRINT to print the data table if desired, ensure a printer is
connected, on-line and correctly set-up.
2. Select GRAPH to show a graph of stress distribution through the
cylinder wall. Experimental hoop stresses are shown by green circles,
experimental radial stresses by blue circles and theoretical stresses by
white circles.
3. Select LAME GRAPH to show a graph of calculated stresses against a
Lame line for the thick cylinder at the pressure used. The Lame line is
shown as a black line and the experimental data is shown as blue and
green circles. Note that, in order to obtain a straight-line relationship,
the X-axis of the graph is 1 r 2 .
4. Select PRINT to print the graph that is currently displayed if desired.
5. Finally select EXIT to return to the main screen.
6. Once the strain table has been created, the results from it may be used
to calculate the principal stresses on the thick cylinder. The calculation
is shown on screen and select PRINT to print out the result.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
1. Thin Cylinder with Open Ends
a. The stress relationship

The data table calculates the hoop stress for each pressure reading.
Select one pressure reading (other than zero) and check the
calculation of stress using the equations given in the previous
section and the data on the front panel of the SM1007.
From your examination of the positioning of the strain gauges you
will have noticed that gauges 1 and 6 have been placed so that
they are measuring the hoop strain in the cylinder. Examine the
results for gauges 1 and 6, what can you say about the magnitude
of the hoop strain as you move along the axis of the cylinder?
Plot a graph of Average Hoop Stress versus Hoop Strain and find a
value of the Youngs Modulus for the cylinder material from the
graph.
b. The Ratio of Hoop Strain to Longitudinal Strain in an Open
Cylinder
Plot a graph of the Longitudinal Strain Versus Average Hoop Strain
and find gradient of the graph (magnitude of the gradient/slope is
called Poissons ratio, ).
2. Thin Cylinder with Closed Ends
Calculate theoretical principle strains with a pressure 3 MPa, a Poissons
ratio, = 0.33 and a Youngs Modulu,s E = 70 MPa.
3. Thick cylinder
In all calculations the following values for Youngs Modulus and Poissons
ratio are used:
E = 73.1 GPa
= 0.33
a. Outlines the method for calculating the theoretical strain values from
the theory outlined earlier. Calculate the values for H and R and
tabulate them along with the measured values in table below.
b. Plot the two (experimental & theoretical) strain distributions.
c. Outlines the method for calculating the theoretical stress values and
also the method of calculating the derived stress values from the
measured strains. Tabulate the two set of value for H and R in a
table below.
d.

Plot the two (experimental & theoretical) stress distributions.

DISCUSSION (N.B. This


discuss the following,
must be done in the
format)

part of the report must at least describe or


but not necessarily limited to those ideas. This
paragraphs format rather than the points form

Explain and discuss the main results and observations obtained in


this work and explain any discrepancies observed.
In experiment 1, the Youngs Modulus varies from material to
material but is a constant for each material, so as long as it has
uniform properties (homogenous and isotropic). For the aluminum
alloy used for the thin cylinder, the Youngs Modulus is nominally 70
GPa. Does the value of Youngs Modulus from your graph agree with
the theoretical value stated? If there is discrepancy between the
values then name any sources of error that may be present.
In thin cylinder analysis (open ends), the thin cylinder is
manufactured from an aluminum alloy that has a Poissons ratio of
0.33. Compare this to the gradient of your graph and give your
comment about the differences.

CONCLUSION
Give your conclusion and summary of this experimental work. State
whether its main objectives have been achieved or not.
QUESTIONS (For FORMAL report only)
1. Steel is approximately three times stiffer than aluminum having a
Youngs Modulus of 210 GPa. If the cylinder had been made of steel
would the measured strain be higher or lower for the same stress?
Justify your answer.
2. In experiment 1, there is no direct longitudinal strain (L) in the open
ends conditions. However, the gauge, which measures the
longitudinal strain, does not register zero reading. Explain this
phenomenon and give your reason why it happened.
3. Give two examples for each category of pressure vessels in industry
that you could consider as the thin and thick cylinders.
REFERENCES (For FORMAL Report Only)
List at least 3 main references that have been referred to write the formal
report of this laboratory exercise.
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