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Atmosphere Part 2

Variation in Global Insolation

the characteristics of material affect both how much insolation the material absorbs and how the absorbed energy affects the temperature.

water and land warm up and cool off at different rates.

Because water has a high specific heat, it

can absorb large amounts of heat energy before it begins to get hot. It also means that water releases heat energy slowly when situations cause it to cool. Water's high specific heat allows for the moderation of the Earth's climate and

hel

s or

anisms re

ulate their bod

Summer Temperature How do coastal temperatures compare with inland temperatures?

Summer Temperature How do coastal temperatures compare with inland temperatures? http://www.mattnoyes.net/.a/6a00d83451c01c69e2016305b5efeb970d-500wi

http://www.mattnoyes.net/.a/6a00d83451c01c69e2016305b5efeb970d-500wi

Winter Temperature How do coastal temperatures compare with inland temperatures?

Winter Temperature How do coastal temperatures compare with inland temperatures? http://contours.weatherforyou.com/contours/wx4u_320x240/currents/usme_temperature_i5_points.png

http://contours.weatherforyou.com/contours/wx4u_320x240/currents/usme_temperature_i5_points.png

Factors that affect the intensity of insolation

depends on the angle at which sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface.

at 90 degrees angle, the Earth receives the maximum amount of energy.

as the angle of insolation decreases, the energy per unit area decreases (rays are spread out over large area and travels farther through the atmosphere)

Factors that affect the intensity of insolation

Time of the day: the intensity of insolation is greatest at noon; the highest temperature is in the afternoon.

Latitude: differences between equator and poles because of the angle of sun rays.

Time of year: seasonal changes in the amount of sunlight reaching locations on Earth.

Cloud cover: clouds reflect a significant amount of insolation back into space.

Occur because the earth’s axis is tilted

Creates opposite seasons in the northern and southern hemisphere

Seasonal

Changes

• Occur because the earth’s axis is tilted • Creates opposite seasons in the northern and

Factor that determines global air circulation patterns

http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g110_w08/lecture_notes/sun_angle/agburt02_12

http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g110_w08/lecture_notes/sun_angle/agburt02_12

Air Pressure and Wind

Air pressure = the weight of the atmosphere as it pushes down upon Earth’s surface.

decreases as elevation increases (50% for each 5 km elevation)

temperature and humidity affect air pressure as well: warm air=less pressure; cool air=more pressure; more water in the atmosphere=less pressure

Changes in air pressure = a way of forecasting the weather

a decrease in air pressure signals the approach of warmer, more humid air, along with rain or snow.

an increase in air pressure signals the arrival of cooler, dry air and fair weather.

Changes in air pressure = a way of forecasting the weather • a decrease in air

Isobar=a line that joins points having the same air pressure

High pressure area or high= area defined by isobars where air pressure steadily increases toward the center of a closed isobar.

Air pressure decreases toward the center of a set of closed isobars and the area inclosed is a low pressure area or low

closely spaced isobars=strong pressure gradient and strong winds widely spaced isobars=week pressure gradient and week winds

• Isobar =a line that joins points having the same air pressure • High pressure area

Wind

winds are caused by unequal heating of Earth’s surface; move from high pressure to low pressure areas.

Factors affecting winds

The Coriolis Effect = the tendency of an object moving freely over Earth’s surface to curve away from it’s path of travel.

Factors affecting winds • The Coriolis Effect = the tendency of an object moving freely over

in the Northern Hemisphere - the path will curve to the right.

in the Southern Hemisphere - the path will curve to the left.

Factors affecting winds • The Coriolis Effect = the tendency of an object moving freely over

Coriolis effect on wind

Global wind Patterns

Because the Earth rotates, the Coriolis effect prevents air from flowing straight from the equator to the poles;

air flowing northward from the equator is deflected to its right

air flowing southward from the equator is deflected to the left.

the air cools and sinks before it reaches the polar regions.

Global Air Circulation

60°N Cold deserts Air cools and descends at lower latitudes. Westerlies Forests Northeast tradesHot deserts 30°N
60°N
Cold deserts
Air cools and
descends at
lower
latitudes.
Westerlies Forests
Northeast tradesHot deserts
30°N
Warm air rises
and moves
toward the
poles.
Forests
Solar energy
Equator
Air cools and
descends at
lower
latitudes.
Southeast trades Hot deserts
Westerlies
30°S
Cold deserts Forests
60°S
The highest
solar energy
input is at the
equator.

Fig. 7-3, p. 142

Three-celled Circulation Model

Review

answer all questions in your binder

What factors affect global insolation? How does the angle at which sunlight strikes the Earth’s surface affect the intensity of the sunlight? Why is it warmer near the equator than near the poles? Compare and contrast a sea-breeze circulation with a land- breeze circulation. What is air pressure? How does air pressure vary with elevation? Compare and contrast high and low pressure areas Explain why humid air is lighter than dry air. Describe the three-celled circulation model.