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.. , ..

-
2012



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.. , ..

-
2012

.., .. . :
, 2012. 51 .
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,
230100 231000
.

2009 ,
12 ,
.

20092018 . 2011
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, , 2012
.. , .., 2012


__________________________________________________4
1. ________________________________________ 6
2. _______________________________________9
2.1. __________________________9
2.1. 1. -
. ________________________________9
2.1.2.
_____________________________________________11
2.1.3.
____________________________________________15
2.2. ____________________17
2.2.1.
________________________________18
2.3. c ________________________18
2.4. c _ 19
2.5. _____________________20
3. ________22
4. _______________________________________26
5. __________________________________________29
6. _______________________________30
7. ____________________________________32
8. _______________________________________36
_______________________________________________40
_________________________________________41
_______________________________________________42
1 _____________________________________________43
2 _____________________________________________44


30 50- . XX . 1, . 2, . 3, . 4, .
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( Perl, Java, Phyton, C#, PHP),
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: ={a,b,c,d}, ={0,1}.
a, b, 0, abbcd, 0111000.
() .
S={a, ab, aaa, bc}
L().
S=L( ) ,
.
,
.
6


:
1) (,
) -, .
x|y , x
y x|y=xy, xyyx.
S1|S2=S1S2 S1 S2 -
,
S1 S2.
S1={a, aa, ba}, S2={e, bb, ab}, S1S2={a, aa, ba, abb, aabb, baab, }.
,
:
S1S2 S2S1;
SS S.
2) (S1 S2) (S1+ S2)
S1={a, aa, ba}, S2={e, bb, ab}, S1 S2={a, aa, ba, e, bb, ab}.
:
S1S2=S2S1.
S S=S.
S1 (S2 S3) =( S1 S2 ) S3.
()
S1(S2 S3) = S1S2 S1S3.
3) {S}*
S =, S1=S, S2=SS, S3=SSS.
, ,
.
S1 * (S2 * S3) =( S1 * S2 )* S3.

S1 *(S2 S3) = S1*S2 S1*S3.
a, b ,
(ab)* = (a* b*)* = (a*b*)* =(a*b)*a*;
a*=a*a*=(a*)*=(a a2 .. ak )*;
(a *b)*=(a b)*b.
,
.
,
, ,
, - .
0

1.1.
={0,1}
(0
(1(0)*))=0
10*;
(0
1)* = (0* 1*)*;
(01)*011 - c 0 1, 011;
(ab)(a+b)*=(ab)(a* b*)* - c, c a b;
(0011)*((0110)(0011)*(0110)(0011)*)* - , 0 1.
1.2.
,
[5].
={i, +, -},
i ;
(+, -) .

i , - i , i + i , i - i , - i - i , i + i - i,
p = (+), m=(-).
()
i, mi, ipi, imi, mimi, ipimi,
, ,
L(M)=(mi + i)( ( p + m )i )*.
. ( L())
, , ,

.

2.
2.1.
2.1. 1. -


() [5].
.
M=(Q, , , q0, F),
Q={q0, q1, , qn} ;
={a, b, c, ...} ( );
: Q*  {Pj } , Pj - Q.

:
Q

Pj
qi
a
qj
q0 - ;
F - .
(),
Pj .
(), Pj
.
, Pj
. Pj,
.

,
Q,
Pj.

M, :
a

b c d

( )
,

2.1. ,

qi Q,
qj Q
.
,
F,
.
.
k=(q, ), q- , ,
.
k = (q, ) ;
k0 = (q 0, 0) ;
kf = (q, ), q F, - () ,
.
-
Ki Kj (qi, i )  (qj, j).
, ,
G=(Q, R), Q - , R ,
(qi, qj).
(qi, qj) Q*Q, a (qi, a) = qj.
(qi, qj)
.
2.1.
0

0, 1

0
p

.2.2.

, . 2.2 Q={p, q, r},


={0,1}, p, - r.

Q
p
q
r

0
q
r
r

1
p
p
r
10

,
:
(p, 01001)  (q, 1001)  (p, 001)  (q, 01)  (r, 1)  (r, );
(p, 01001)- ;
(r, ) .
01001 p
q
1001.
0 ,
(q0, 0) *(qf, ),
*( ), ,
q0 qf 0.
L(M), (, )
, .
2.1.2.
. L ,
. ,
, -
,
.
L(M)  M
[5, 6]:
1)
(.1, 1.2)
L(M)=(mi + i)( (p + m) i )*
0 12 3 4 5 6
2) 26+1


. ,
.
:
- ( ) (n+1), (n)
( n=7 );
-
(m) m*s=n+1, s -
( 3m=7 m=]7/3[=3);
- m*s>n+1,
m n+1 (
m=7).
11

,

m
i
1
0
2
m

p
3

p
6

.2.3.

.
.
qi qj,
((qi, ) *(qm, ) (qj, ) * (qn, ) qm qn
F,
C k-, k.
( qi=qj),
k  .
.2.3 {2,3},
{4,5} {2,3} 2, {4,5}3,
1

m
0

m+p
2

.2.4. L(M)



:
- (+)

;
- ,
, ;
-
;
L(M)=(mi + i)( ( p + m )i )*
0 1 2
3 2
12

,
:
L(M)=(mi + i)( ( p + m )i )* =0(m1i + i)2((p + m)3i2)*
0 1 2
32
.2.4.
0. 2.

().
2.2.
L(M)=aa*bd* + ad* = (aa*b + a)d* =(0a1(a1)*b + 0a)2(d2)*
01
2
d

a
0

.2.5. L(M)

()
[7] c ,
. ,
().
:
(0, add)  (1, dd)
 (2, dd)(2, d)(2, ).
2.3. [5]
3 2 ((001)*(100)*(010)*)*.
0 2, 1 ((00)*(111)*)*=(00 +111).
, 00 :
11 (((00)(11)*01*)*.
, :
(0* +11 +101)*.
. ' ,
L(M) = L(M').
. M'.
13

[5] :
i- Qi;
Q0 ;
, Qi, Qi+1. ,
Qi Qi+1.
. 2n-1, n
.
2n-1 ,
n .
, .
2.4. .2.5.
Q0 = {0, 1, 2}
Q1 = {0, 1, 2, {1, 2}}
d
a

1, 2
b,d

b,d

1
b

.2.6.

(. 6) 4
L(M') = L(M).
2.5.
0
q, s
r
s
q

1
q
q, r
p
p

P
Q
R
S
:
Q0 = {p, q, r, s};
Q1 = {p, q, r, s, {q, s}, {r, q}};
Q2 = {p, q, r, s, {q, s}, {r, q}, {r, s}};
Q3 = {p, q, r, s, {q, s}, {r, q}, {q, r, p},{r, s}};
Q4 = {p, q, r, s, {q, s}, {r, q}, {q, r, p},{r, s}, {q, r, s}};
Q5 = Q4;
Q4 = {p, q, r, s, {q, s}, {r, q}, {q, r, p},{r, s}, {q,r,s}} =
14

= {P, Q, R, S, X, Y, Z, M, F}.

P
Q
R
S
X
Y
Z
M
F

0
X
R
S
Q
Y
M
F
X
F

1
Q
Y
P
P
Z
Z
Z
P
Z

9 . S- ,
{S, X, M, F}, S.
2.1.3.
.
L(M).
[5]:

()

( q0), :
qi , qs qj
, :
1) (qi, qs) Qis;
2) (qs, pj) Qsj,
3) s S*;
5) (qi, qj) qs
Qis S*Qsj.
.
. , q0 F, q0 .
- ,
:
(R + SU*T)*SU*.
. 2.7.

15

S
0

1
T

.2.7.

2.6. (.2.2) :
1

0, 1

a)

b)

(0+1)*

1*

0
p

(1*+QpqQqp)*=(1*+01)*

(0+1)*

QpqQqf=00

c)
r

.2.8. :
a) , b) , )

()
:
R=(1* + QpqQqp)*=(1*+01)*
U=(0 + 1)*
S=QpqQqf=00
T
(R + SU*T)*SU*= (1*+01)* 00(0 + 1)*
L(M)=(1*+01)*00(0+1)*
0 0 10 23
qi qj (qi,qj),
,
. .

16

0
q1

q0

0+1

0
q2

q3

. 2.9.


Q0 = {q0, q1, q2, q3}
Q1 = {q0, q1, q2, q3,{q1, 2}}.
q1 q2 q0
. .2.2.
Q1= {q0, q3,{q1, 2}},
.
2.2.
,
.
, L(M)={0n1n, n0}.
.

.
(pumping):
L . n,
L mn xyz
, xy
n k0 xykz L.
, y ()
(k0), xykz L
.
, , L(M)={0n1n, n0}, k=n=5, 051
L(M).
:
- , (
,
[5];
- ,
,
17

2.2.1.

S : A1, , An. :
- 1 ;
- ,
.
.
2.7. [8]:
L(), ={a, b, L}.
L(A)=ab + aLb, L .
b

.2.10. L

, L,
L(S) = ab + aabb + aaabbb + = {anbn}, n>0.

:
b

a
B
.2.11.

C
L

b
C
b

2.3. c

,
.
:
- Z,
, ;
- * ,
18

;
- W,
, .
.2.5. Q={A, B, F, D, Z},
*={a, b, d, e}, W={, , }.
W={, , } ={ - , (
) - ,
- }
e/
a, b, d
Z
d,b
e/

e/
a

a, b
d

d, e/

B
b,d
F

q2

a
D

b
e/

.2.12.

2.4. c


.
:
- A=(is A);
- a=(is a);
- =(is ).
:
A=Ae
B=Aa Ba
D=Ba Da
Z=a(b d) Be D(d e) Z(a v b d e)
F= B(b d) F(d v e).
:
=Ae
=Be Ze De
19

=Fe.
,
, W.

,
, , B=Aa Ba, ,
.
Switch-
[9], Q- , Q={A,
B, D, F, Z}={0, 1, 2, 3, 4}.

Q.
is Q
0 1

is a, b, d, e

.2.13. Switch-

is Q, W

2.5.

- ,
() .

.

( )
aabcddbd

.2.14. , W-
, (), V ,
()

KA

ABCC

V
20

K(qi, , w) ,

2.8. [5].
, ,
.
= {i, +, -},
,
.
p(+), m(-).

,
-i + - i - + + - i = mipmimppmi,
,
L(M)= (p+m)*i((p+m)*(p+m)*i)*.
C -i - i + i = mimipi
x/W. W={i, e, mi}
p/e
( ), i/mi mi
.
L(M)=(mi + i)( ( p + m )i )*.
- . 2.15.
p/e

p/e
q0
m/e

q2

p/e
i/i

m/e

i/pi
q1

i/mi
p/e
.2.15.

q4

m/e

m/e

i/mi
m/e

q3

p/e

21

3.


[9].
2.4.
. ,
, -
.
- .
.
- [10].
-
S=A*B, .

:
c =(an-1an-2 a1a0) B=(bn-1bn-2 b1b0) n-
, - , B - .

c :
A* bn-2
A* bn-1
...
A*b1
A*b0
S2n-1 S2n-2 ... S0
, ,
.

.3.1.
, () ()
,
.

. , Q={q0, q1,...,
q5}. ,

{true, false}.
{x1, x2}.

22

q0/

S=0, i=1

q1/

x1:
bn-i=0

true

false

S = S + (A*bn-i )*10

q2/

true

q5/

false

x2:
i=n

q4/

q3/

i++

.3.1. -

, ,
- W={, , , , }
.
:

q0
q1
q2
q3
q4
q5

q0
-


q1
q2
q3
q4

x2
x2

q5
x1
x1
-

-
, ,
[10].
,
- , ,
23


.
- [12].
, -,
.

, :
- ;
-
- ;
- .

,
.

.
,
.
.

*={T, a, b, c, d}, a= 1, b= x1, c= 2, d= x2, q0 - ,
q4 - .

q0
q1
q2
q3
q4
q5

q1
T
-

q2
a
a
-

q3
c
c

q4
d
d

q5
b
b
-


.3.2.

24

b
b

c
5

d
d

. 3.2.

L(M) =(0T1){[(1a2)(((2c3)(3a2))*(2d4)+(2c3)((3b5)(5c3))*(3b5)(5d4) ] +
+(1b5)[((5c3)(3b5))*(5d4)+(5c3)((3b5)(5c3))*((3a2)(2c3))*(3a2)(2d4)]}=
=T[a((ca)*d+c(bc)*bd)+b((cb)*d+c(bc)*(ac)*ad]=
=T[a((ca)*+c(bc)*b)+b((cb)*+c(bc)*(ac)*a]d=
=T[a((ca)* +c(bc)*b) +b((cb)* +c(bc)*(ac)*a]d=
= T[a((ca)* +tb) +b((cb)* +t(ac)*a]d,
t - , ,
c(bc)*.

25

4.

,
[5].
,
.
-
() () =W.
: Q* Q.
: Q* K* , K -
( : L - , R - , N -
)
:
- .

K,
;
,
.
,
(), ,
(
).
K(qi,s), qi , s - .
.


- .
:
.
(
) ,
. ,
.

,
( ).
()
, ,
,
26

.

.
4.1.
e

e
q0
a)

a/

q1
b/

a/

b/,R

a/,R

b/

a/

q0

q2
)

a/,R

q1

a/,R
b/,R

q2

.4.1.
) , )

-

,
, .
[11] .

..
.

():

( )
.
,
(
). ,
, ..
, .
,
, .
,
,
.
4.2.
C PASCAL,
.
ASSEMBLER,
27


,
. ,
.
.

28

5.

.

( , ).
,
.
.
:
Shr ;
Shl ;
Wr1 ,
0, 1,
1, ;
Wr0 ,
1, 0,
0, ;
Jmp j0, j1 - ,
0, j0,
1, j1;
Stop .
,
.
()
,
S. ,

.
,

.

29

6.
. .
.
P Q - P
Q.
P Q P Q,
.

- .

A ~ Q
.
:
- ;
- ;
- , , .
:
1. ..
={a, b, c}.

b acc
ca accc
aa
bb
cccc
- ;
-
bb accb accacc aaccccc aacccccccc cccc cccc cccc
2. ..6
={a, b, c, d, e}

ac ca
ad da
bc cb
bd db
abac abace
eca ae
edb be
30

abcde acbde cabde cadbe


3.

.
R S , (),
R S.
[12]
.
4.
[13,14].
,
,
.
, .
,
, ,
.

31

7.
r , R

r- .
, R A
.

.
()
( ).
,
.
, ,
- .
1. Nn= Nn-1 +1, N0=0;
Nn-1, Nn-2, N4, N3, N2, N1, N0=0
Nn
2. n {a1, a2, , an}: Sn = Sn-1 + an ,, S1=S0+a1, S0=0;
:
1) S(x) = x+1 -
;
2) 0(x) = 0 ;
3) Im(x1x2..xn) = xm - xm n .
:
1) H(x, y) = f(x) ,
y f(x);
2) (x) = g(f(x)) - , (x)
y = f(x) g(y);
3) () (0) = - , (x+1) = f(x,(x))
() , .
.
,
.

(N),
(N-1), , (0).
- :
- , ;
- (N), .
32

, ,
.

:
1. - (x, C) = x+C x
(0, C) = C ,
(x+1, C) = (x, C) +1.
2. - (x, C) = x * C
x
(0, C) = 0
(x+1, C) = (x, C) +.
3. - (x) = x!
(0) = 1
(x+1) = (x+1)*(x).
4. (x, C) = x!Cx+1
(0, C)=C
(x+1, C) = (x+1)*(x, C)*C.
5. (x, C) = Cx
(0, C) =1
(x+1, C) = (x, C)*C.
4) - ,
, .
6. [logr(y)] = x(r(x+1) > y) , y - .
7. [y1/r] = x((x+1)r > y).
,
.

,
,
.
(
) ..7.
,
, .

33


1. :
(0) =1
(x+1) = (x+1)*(x).

(10) =10* (9) = 10*(9* (8)) =10*(9*(8* 1* (0)
.

for(int i=1 ; S=1; i<11; i++)
S=S*i;
2. F1, F2,, Fn:
Fn=Fn-1 +Fn-2, n 2;

n ( ) n
1+ 5
Fn =
, =
.
2 1
2
3. :
An, An-1,.A1, A0 :
- An= An-1+d;
- An= An-1*d;
- :
- An= A0+d(n-1);
- An= A0dn-1.
4. .


.


.
7.1.
am-1am-2 ..a1a0
N
m-1

N= aidi = am-110m-1 + am-210m-2 + + a110 + a0=


i=0

= (((0+ am-1 )10 + am-2 )10 ++ a1)10 + a0.


8 [15],
34

,
,
.
Si-1=Si*10 + ai-1, i=m, m-1,..., 0, Sm=0.

35

8. [4]

(P-, NP-,
.).
- ,
. ,
(,
0 1),
. ( )
,
.
X P(x),
O(f(n))
, n x.
(
) (
).
P , ,
,
(,
),
NP ,

, ,
. NP ,

, , .
, NP ,
. P NP.
NP- ,
, .

: ,
.
P NP,
NP
.
, NP-
P-.
36

P NP ( P-
NP-)
. .
P NP
NP- . NP- NP , NP-
. , NP-
P-, P-
NP. NP-
.

n ( , ..
, n ):
(1) -
. ,
. , 1
.
, log2n,
(logarithmic). ,
, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8,
.
.
O(log2n).
(nlog2n) ,
"" , 9 , n - .
(n) - .
, -
;
, (n2),
(quadratic). ;
10 - , n
; 11 -
, n - [16].
n. ,
n ,
.
(cubic) ,
(n3), . , n
37

, .
(

. 1962 12
13) (n3).
(2n)
(exponential complexity). ,
n.
,
.
(n!) - ,
, ,
.
8.1 n2 nlog2n. ,
(nlog2n),
. , 10 000
100 000 000,
,
132 000. 750
.
8.1
n
5
10
100
1000
10000

n log2n
n2
25
11,6
100
33,2
10000
664,3
1000000
9965,7
100000000 132877,1
8.2

n
2
4
8
16
32
128
1024
65536

lg2n
1
2
3
4
5
7
10
16

n lg2n
2
8
24
64
160
896
10240
1048576

n2

n3

2n

4
8
4
16
64
16
64
512
256
256
4096
65536
1024
32768
4294967296
16384
2097152
3.4 1038
1048576
1073741824 1.8 10308
4294967296 2.8 1014
!
38

8.2 , , ,

n. ,
, n
.



(. 8.3, ,
1
Q n). , ,
,
,
1/2 . . [17].
8.3.
Q(n)

n1

100n1

1000n1

n2

n2

10n2

31,6n2

4,64n

10n3

2 = 100 1 = l000 1

2n
n4
6,64 + n4
9,97 + n4
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2n
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1 = 1 3 = 1 ,
10,
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100
2100 .
-

( ,
.) , ,
.

39


,
()
.

, , ,
.

, ,
.
,
.

, ,
, .

40


1.

(. Alan Mathison Turing; 23.06.1912


7.06.1954) , , ,
.
,
-
.
2.
(. Post Emil Leon; 11.02.1897 21.04.1954)
.
3.
(. Alonzo Church; 14.06.1903 11.08.1995)
,
.
4.
(. Norbert Wiener; 26.11.1894 18.03.1964)
, ,
.
5.

(2.06.185620.07.1922) ,
, ,
.
6.

(. 1936)
.

7.

(19312010)
.

8.

(. Horner William George, 1786 - 22.9.1837) .


9.
(. Joseph Bernard Kruskal;
29.01.192819.09.2010) , .
10.
(. Edsger Wybe Dijkstra, 11.05.1930,
6.08.2002) ,
,
.
11.
(. Robert Clay Prim, . 1921)
.
12.

(. Robert Floyd; 8.06.1936 25.09.2001)


.
.

13.

(. Stephen Warshall; 1935 11.12.2006)


,
, .
41


1. . . . 1.
. 3- . .: , 2006 720 .
2. ., . ,
. 1. :, 1978 612 .
3. . :, 1976
320 c.
4. . http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/
5. ., ., .
, . 2- . - .:
"", 2002 528 .
6. . / . . .: ,
1971. 2: . 304 .
7. . . . .: , 2004 160 .
8. .
. .:, 1977 288 .
9. .. .
. .: , 2000 780 .
10. / ..
, .. , .. . . .. . .:
.., 1972. 344 .
11. .., ..
. . : , 2010 208 .
12. . . . .:
., 1974 200 .
13. .., .., ..
,
. :, 2010 - 184 c.
14. ., ., .
, : , 1979 536 .
15. . . : .
.: , 2006 576 .
16. . , . , . , . . .
. 4- . .: , 2011 1296 .
17. . . :
. . 4- ., . . .: - . . .
, 2009. 430 .
42

1
.
1. ((0+10)*11(01(0+1))*
2. (1( 0 + 1)* 0(0* 10( 0 +1)))*
3. (01 + 10)* (10+01)0*
4. (((0 + 1)* 10)*10(10)*11)*
5. (0+10)*1(00+10)(0+10)*
6. ((01 +1)*0(0+1)10(0 +1))*
7. 0*(1(0+1)0(1+01)*
8. (0+ 11)* 1(01*1+(01*10( 0 +1))*)
9. (111*0)*10(1(0+1))*
10. (0*((1+0)1))* 1(11*01)*11*
11. ((10 +01)*(11+00)(10)*1
12. ((a+ba)*bb(ab(a+b))*
13. (b( a + b)* a(a* ba( a +b)))*
14. (ab + ba)* (ba+ab)a*
15. (((a + b)* ba)*ba(ba)*bb)*
16. (a+ba)*b(aa+ba)(a+ba)*
17. ((ab +b)*a(a+b)ba (a +b))*
18. a*(b(a+b)a(b+ab)*
19. (a+ bb)* b(ab*b+(ab*ba( a +b))*)
20. (bbb*a)*ba(b(a+b))*
21. (a*((b+a)b))* b(bb*ab)*bb*
22. ((ba +ab)*(bb+aa)(ba)*b

43

2
-.
, , ,
,
, -
.
1 Qi
A
B
C
D

5 Qi
A
B
C
D

9 Qi
A
B
C
D
E

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
B
--C
A
-D
B
D

2 Qi

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
B
A
C
D
-D
B
--

6 Qi

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
B
C
D
B
E
--A
--D

10 Qi

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D
E

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
--C
A
-D
D
B

3 Qi

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
A
D
C
-D
B
--

7 Qi

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
D
C
A
E
--A
--D

11 Qi

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D
E

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
B
D
B
C
A
C
A
--

4 Qi

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
A
B
C
B
A
D
C
--

8 Qi

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
A
B
D
-D
C
E
C
--

12 Qi

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D
E

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
D
B
C
A
C
-B

a
b
A
B
a
b
a
b

Qj
A
B
C
B
D
A
-C

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
B
D
C
B
E
--A
--D

44

13 Qi
A
B
C
D

17 Qi
A
B
C
D

21 Qi
A
B
C
D

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
A
C
A
D
-B
C

14 Qi

a
b
A
b
A
b
A
b

Qj
D
B
C
A
-D
B
D

18 Qi

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
C
C
A
-D
B
--

22 Qi

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
A
B
C
A
D
-B
D

15 Qi

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
A
B
C
A
B
D
C
--

19 Qi

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
-A
C
D
B
D
A

23 Qi

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
-A
C
D
B
D
A

16 Qi
A

a
b
a
b
A
B
A
B

Qj
A
B
C
D
B
D
C
--

20 Qi
A

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
C
A
C
D
B
D
A

24 Qi
A

B
C
D

B
C
D

B
C
D

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
B
-A
C
D
B
A
D

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Qj
B
C
C
B
-D
B
--

a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b

Qj
B
D
C
A
D
-B
C

1) .
Qi
A a
b
B a
b
C a
b
D a
b

Qj
B
-A
C
D
B
D
A

2) .
a

A
b
C

B
b

a
D

45

3) .
S=(((A aB)(BaA))*(AaB)((BbC)(CbB))*(BbC)(CaD)(DaD)*(DbA))*
= ((a a)* a (b b)* b a a* b)* = ((a a)* a(bb)* baa*b)*
A B
ABC BCD DA
4) -.
)
A
a

a
b

B
b

b
a

) (Switch),

A
b

S
a
B
S
b

b
D

C
a
S

,
.
46

c) ,
{A, B, C, D},
{e}
{F}, (
, L(M).
(
), E,
.
(be) ,
e Dbe, -


, ,

Fe= e Dbe=(C Db)e.
Ee= Fe.
Fe (Fe)
-,
. (Fe)
.
A
e

Error

Fe=(C Db)e

a
B

S
b

a
a

b
D

C
a
S

Fe

e
S

b
D0

a, b

47

48

2009 ,
12 ,
.

20092018 . 2011
-
,


1937
-
.
.. , .. , .. , ..
.
..
.. , .. , .. , ..
.. , .. .


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, ,
..

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, , , , , , , ,
, , . ,
.

49

..

..
- -
,

.
00408 05.11.99


250 .

..

50