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. .

2006

336
538.8
238

. . : . 2 . /
. . -. , 2006. 258 .
ISBN 5-94356-325-3
, .
, , ,
: . -,
: , , .
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- , ,
-.

. . . .
ISBN 5-94356-325-3
c

, 2006
c . . , 1999

c . . , 2006,

c . . , , 2006



1.
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7. - . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
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.
.

2.
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. , TEM- . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . . .
2.6. . . . .
2.7. T-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8. ( )
2.8.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.2. . . . . . . . .
2.9. TEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.
3.1. .
E- H- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1. H- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2. E- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3. . . . . .

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9
9
11
11
13
15
16
21
26

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28
28
31
37
39
41
45

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. 48
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48
48
50
54
56

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56
66
66
72
75
75
80
83

3.4.
. . . . . . . .
3.5.
3.6. . . . . . . . . .
3.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8. . . . . . . . . . . . .

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84
89
91
94
95

4.
104
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.2. H- . . . . . . 106
4.3. () . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.3.1. . . . . . . . . 110
4.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4.4.1. . . . . . . 114
4.4.2. ()115
4.4.3. . . . . . . . . 116
4.4.4. ()
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.4.5. ,
. . 121
4.4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.4.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.4.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.4.9.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.4.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.5.1.
() . . . . . . . . 130
4.5.2. . . . . . 132
4.5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.6.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.6.2. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.6.5. . . . . . . 143
4.6.6. . . . . . . . . . . 144

4.6.7.
4.6.8.
4.6.9.
4.6.10.

. . . .
. . . .
. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 147
. . . 149
. . . 151
. . . 160

5.
166
5.1. . . . . . . 166
5.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
5.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
6.
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2. .
. . . . . . . . . .
6.3. , .
6.4. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.2. : ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.5. . . . .
6.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.1. . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7. . . . . . . . . . .
6.7.1. . . .
6.7.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7.3. . . . .
6.8. . . . . . . . . . .
6.8.1. . . . . . . . . .
6.8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180
. 180
. 180
. 184
. 187
. 190
. 190
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191
193
195
198
202
207
210
210
211
212

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216
221
223
223
230

7.
231
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
7.2. 239
7.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . 239
7.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . 242
7.3. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
7.4.1. . . . . . . . . . 251
7.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
7.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

257


, , - .-.
. 1967 . 25 . .
. ,
. . .
30 . . ,
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. .
-, - -2, -3, -4,
. . .

. ,
, . . 1998 .
.
010700
, , ,
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,
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, . .
7

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1999 , ,
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, ,

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, . . ,
.
2005 .


.-. . .

1.

1.1.

~ D,
~ H,
~ B,
~ E,
, .
: J~
. , ,
:
~
~ = B ,
rot E
t

~
~ = D + J.
~
rot H
t

+ div J~ = 0,
t
.
, :
~ = 0,
div B

~ = .
div D

~
, J.
, ( ):
~ = E,
~
D

~ = H,
~
B

~
J~ = E.

, , . ,
.

.
9


,
~ = E(r)
~
E
e jt ,
~
E(r)
, . ,
.
e jt , :
~ = j B
~ ,
rot E

~ = j D
~ + J,
~
rot H

.
,

~ = jH,
~
~ = jE
~ + J.
~
rot E
rot H
~ E,
~ B
~ H
~ D
(),


( = 0 j00 , = 0 j00 ).
J~ , :
~ + J~ .
J~ = J~ + J~ = E
J~ ,
~ = jH,
~
rot E

~ = jE
~ + E
~ + J~ .
rot H

:
~ = jk E
~ + J~ ,
rot H

k = j .

, ,
, ,
:
=

1
div J~ .
j
10

1.2.

, 1960 . II . 1963 .
:
, , ;
.
2 4

=
; [] = 2 2 =
.
3



[] =

2 3

.
=
3

, ,
[] =

0 = 4 107

0 =

109

0.884 1011
.
36

r
=

0
= 120 377
0

. ; .
() :
, , , , , . : , 108 , ,
104 . /, / (0.4 102 ).

1.3.

, . .
, :

11

~2 B
~ 1 ) ~n = 0,
1. (B
~1 B
~ 2 1 2, ~n
B
. ~
: B
.
~2 D
~ 1 ) ~n = ,
2. (D
, . . ,
,
1 2. , ~ .
D

~2 E
~ 1 ) = 0,
3. ~n (E
~ . . E
.
~2 H
~ 1 ) = K,
~
4. ~n (H
~ , ~n 1 K
~ . 2. K
l
. ,
~ J~ l.
K,
l 0. J~ , J~ l

~ = lim J~ l.
K
l0

,
.
~2 H
~ 1 ) = 0,
~n (H
~ .
. . H
12

1.4.

, :

Z 2
E
H 2
W =
dV
+
2
2
, ,
.
:

E 2
H 2
+
2
2

Z
dV +

I
~ J~ dV =
E

~ H)
~ ~n dS,
(E
S

V ; ~n , S, .
~=E
~ H
~ . S
: .

. :
~ = jH,
~
rot E

~ = jE
~ + J.
~
rot H


~ H
~ ) = H
~ rot E
~ E
~ rot H
~ ,
div (E
~ - . rot E
~
H
~ ,
rot H
~ H
~ ) = H
~ (jH)
~ E
~ (jE
~ + J~ ) =
div (E
~ 2 j|H|
~ 2 E
~ J~
= j|E|
, .
V ,
S:
13

I
~ H
~ ) ~n dS = 2j
(E
S

~ 2
~ 2
|H|
|E|

2
2

Z
~ J~ dV,
E

dV +
V

~n .
, V .
~ , J~ = E.
2
1
2

~ H
~ ) ~n dS = 1
(E
2

Z
~ dV + j
|E|

~ 2
~ 2
|H|
|E|

2
2

!
dV.

. ,
Z
1
~ 2 dV
P =
|E|
2
V

, V
.

Z

~ 2
|H|
dV = 2WH ,
2

~ 2
|E|
dV = 2WE ,
2

WH WE
. ,
I
1
~ H
~ ) ~n dS = P + 2j (WH WE ).
(E
2
~k = 1 (E
~ H
~ ) S
2
.
; .

14

1.5.

, ,
: .

, S. S ,
Et (, S1 ), Ht ( S2 ).
. :
~ 1, H
~ 1
S E
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~ 1 , E2 , H2 . E = E2 E1 H = H2 H
. ,
~1 E
~ 2 S1 Et , S2 Ht . , E
~
~
S1 , H1 H2 S2 .
~ S2
S1 E,
~
H. V

P + 2j (WH WE ) = 0,
S Et = 0, Ht = 0.
,
P = 0,

WH WE = 0.


Z
~2 E
~ 1 |2 dV = 0.
|E
V

, , V
~2 E
~ 1 |2 = 0.
|E
6= 0,
~2 E
~ 1 = 0.
E

WH WE = 0.
15

WE = 0, WH = 0, ,
~2 H
~ 1 = 0.
H
,
V .

1.6.


~ = jH
~ ,
rot E

~ = jE
~ + J~
rot H

~ H.
~
E
~
, H:
~
~ = 1 rot E
H
j
( = const):
~ = 2 E
~ + jJ.
~
rot rot E

k 2 = 2 .
~ E

~ = grad div E
~ E,
~
rot rot E
~ , Ex , Ey , Ez .
E
~ = ,
, = const, div E

~ + k2 E
~ = grad + jJ.
~
E


j + div J~ = 0

1
~
div J.
j

16

~
E,
~ + k2 E
~ =
E

1
~
(grad div + k 2 )J.
j

,
, J~ = 0.

~ + k2 E
~ = 0.
E
.
~ H
~ E,
.
~ , E
, ( = const)
~ =
E

1
~ 1 J~
rot H
j
j

~ = 2 H
~ + rot J.
~
rot rot H
,
~ = grad div H
~ H
~ = H
~
rot rot H

~ = 0),
(div H

~ + k2 H
~ = rot J.
~
H
, J~ 0, ,
~
E:
~ = 0.
~ + k2 H
H
. ,
~ ,
A
~ = rot A
~
B

~ = 1 rot A.
~
H

:
~ = j rot A
~
rot E

~ + j A)
~ = 0,
rot (E
17


~ + j A
~ = grad ,
E
.

~ = grad j A.
~
E
~ H
~ E
~ :
A
~ = j grad + 2 A
~ + J.
~
rot rot A

~ = grad div A
~ A,
~
rot rot A

~ + k2 A
~ = J~ + grad div A
~ + j grad .
A
~ = 1 rot A
~ A
~ H

, ~ (),
. , A
~ + j = 0.
div A
~
A
~ + k2 A
~ = J.
~
A
. , -
~ ( , A
).
~
A:
=

j
~
div A.

~
E,
~ =
E

1
~
(grad div + k 2 ) A,
j
18

~ H
~
, E,
~
A.
,

+ k 2 = .


~ = 0.
div A
~
A
~ + k2 A
~ = J~ + j grad ,
A
, . . .

~ = j
~ ,
A
~ , ,
~ .
A

~
= div .
~
, J~ =
6 0,
~ + k2
~ =

J~
.
j

J~
. ,
j
~ = E
~ + P~ ,
D

, ,
~ = j E
~ + j (P~ +
rot H

J~
),
j

P~ .
~
,
19


2~

~ + k =

P~
J~
+

!
.

~ .
,
~ .


~ ( ):

~ = 2
~ + grad div ,
~
E
~ = j rot .
~
H
~ H.
~
E
~ = 0 J~ = 0)
, ( div D
~ = rot A
~0.
D

~ = j A
~ 0 grad 0 ,
H

~0,
~ = 1 rot A
E

~ 0 0
A
~0
~ 0 + k2 A
A
0 + k 2 0
~ 0 + j 0
div A

=
=
=

0,
0,
0.

~ 0 = j
~ 0,
A

~ 0,
0 = div

~ 0

~ 0 + k2
~0 = 0 .

20

~ = j rot
~ 0 + (grad div + k 2 ) ,
~
E
~ = j rot
~ + (grad div + k 2 )
~ 0.
H
, , .
:
2
2
2
+
+
,
2
2
x
y
z 2

1 2
2
=
r
+ 2
+
.
r r
r
r 2
z 2
=

1.7.


.
, ,
z,
x0z
(. 1.1),

Ex
Ey
Ez
Hx
Hy
Hz

x
E

z
y

A ejkz + B e jkz ,
0,
0,
0,
r
r
jkz
jkz
= A
e
B
e ,

= 0,

=
=
=
=

H
. 1.1

1 Ex
k = , Hy =
.
j z
,
v = 1/ .
21

, .

Ex = A ejkz ,
r
jkz
Hy = A
e
.

Ex
=
=
Hy

. .
.
, .

.

1
2

(. 1.2):
Ex = ejk1 z ,
r
1 jk1 z
1 jk1 z
Hy =
e
=
e
.
1
1

,

. 1.2

r
Ex = R e jk1 z ,

Hy = R

1
R
e jk1 z = e jk1 z .
1
1


r
jk2 z

Ex = T e

Hy = T

22

2 jk2 z
T
e
=
ejk2 z .
2
2

R T .
Ex Hy . z = 0 Ex Hy
,
1 + R = T,

1
1
(1 R) =
T.
1
2

R T :
R =

2 1
,
2 + 1

T =

2 2
.
2 + 1

2 0, |R| 1, |T | 0, . . . ,
.
, 1 = 0 , 1 = 0 , 2 j ,

0 .
r
r
r
2
j2
2
2 =
=
= (1 + j)
.
2

k2

= 2 2 =
j2 = (1 j)

2
(1 j)
=
.
2


z
j (1j)

= e

z
.

2 ( -).

=

Ex = 2 Hx .
, , .
23

,
.
. || 0 0 ,
. Ex Hy .

Et = Ht
.
:
~ t = (H
~ ~n),
E
~n .
.
-, -
,
.
.
- .
(. . -)

0 .

, ,
0 .

= 5.7 107

5.7 107
=
36 = 6.4 1018 1 ;
0
109

f 1018 , = 3 108 . ,
.
, 0, Et = 0. . Bn
, Bn = 0 ( Hn = 0) . Ht ,
24

.
,
K = Ht .
~ = H
~ ~n.
K
,
. , :
Z
~ =
J~ dz,
K
0

z .
, Ht = K . ,

~ = jE
~ + J~ J.
~
rot H
~ y- .
H
~ = Hy .
Jx = rot x H
z
Jx ,

Kx

Z
Z

Hy

Jx dz =
=
dz = Hy = Hy
= Ht .
z
0
z=0
0

,
~ = H
~ ~n.
K
,
~ = H
~ ~n = K.
~
E
,
r
2
1 + j
= (1 + j)
=
2

25

. ,
,
.
() .
1
~ H)
~ ~n.
Re (E
2

P1 =

~ = (H
~ ~n),
E

P1 =

h
i
1
~ ~n) H
~ ~n = 1 Re |H|2
Re (H
2
2

P1 =

1
1
|Ht |2 =
|K|2 ,
2
2

K
1
1
111111111
000000000
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111

. 1.3

1.8.

. .
1
.
,
,
, , (. 1.3). , , K .

.
.
,
. , ,
26

~ = jH
~ ,
rot E

~ = jE
~
rot H

.

l = l0 L,
L , l0
. ,
~ = e0 E,
~
E

~ = h0 H,
~
H
~ .
e0 h0 , E~ H
,
h0 ~
~ = j e0 l0 E,
~
l0 H, Rot H
e0
h0
Rot .

Rot E~ = j

h0
e0
, a2 = l0
,
e0
h0
.
e0 h0 ,
, a2 = 1.
a1 = l0

h0
= l0 .
e0
a1 ,
a1 = 2 l02 = idem.

2 = k 2 =


l0
= idem.


27

1 + j
Et = (1 + j)
Ht , Et =
Ht .
2

,
1 + j h0 ~
Ht .
E~t =
e0
h0
= l0 ,
e0
l0 ~
E~t = (1 + j)
Ht .

l0
= idem.

/,
,
2 l0

= 2 l02
.

l0
a1 = 2 l02 = idem,

= idem.
l0

= 1,

= idem.
l0

idem idempotent.

2.
2.1.

, z.
, . . ,
28

z ez , . . ,
z.

~
rot E
~
rot H

~
= jH,
~
= jE.

,
. , . . Hz = 0, Ez = 0. , ,
/z = , :
jHx = Ey ,
jHy = Ex ,
Ey
Ex
0 =

,
x
y

jEx = Hy ,
jEy = Hx ,
Hy
Hx
0 =

.
x
y

:
Ey + jHx = 0,
jEy + Hx = 0,

Ex jHy = 0,
jEx Hy = 0.

, . , . , , :
2 + 2 = 0 .
:

= j = jk .
, ; .
, :
r
r
Ex

Ey
=
,
=
.
Hy

Hx

29

Hy /x Hx /y = 0 Hx Hy Ex Ey
,
Ex
Ey
Ey
Ex
+
= 0,

= 0.
x
y
x
y
,
z
z
e
, Ey =
e
,
x
y
x y.
,
Ex =

2
2
+
= 0.
x2
y 2
~
, E
~ = ez grad ,
E

= 0,
.
~ (Et = 0 E
, = const).
, , , , ,
. . -, - . .
, , ( ), , .
, ,
.
( TEM)
. TEM : v = 1/ .
0 .
,
:
30

~ = 1 rot E.
~
H
j
~ , E,
rot ( F~ ) = rot F~ + grad F~ ,

r
~ = grad ez , H
~ = ez ~z0 grad .
E

~z0 z.
~
, , E
~ .
H

2.2.

, TEM-

TEM ,
Z2
~ d~l,
U = E
1

1 2
, ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
I
~ d~l
I =
H
, , . ,

, I .
, TEM- ,
, , , ,
, , .
:
31

U = U0 ejkz ,
I = I0 ejkz .

Z0 =

U
U0
=
I
I0

.
,
TEM- Z0 , . . U I
.

= 1 + j2
. 1 2
= 0

= const
.
, , , 1 2 . , ~ = grad ejkz .
z E

r
r
Ex

Ey
=

=
,
Hy

Hx

~ z ,
H
~
E. U I
, U I .
U/I = Z0 .

TEM. ,
r
r

Hx =
Ey , Hy =
Ex .

32


Hx2 + Hy2 =

(E 2 + Ey2 ) =
E2.
x

,
E 2
H 2
=
,
2
2
. .
TEM- .
.
TEM- C1 L1
1
C1 |U |2 ,
2
1
L1 |I|2 ,
2Wh =
2
We Wh
. , Wh = We ,
2We =

C1 |U |2 = L1 |I|2 ,

r
U
L1
= Z0 =
.
I
C1
, TEM-:
Z
1
~ H
~ ) ~z0 dS,
P =
Re (E
2
S

. . S.
r
r
r
~ ~
~ ~
~ 2

~
~
Ex Ex +
Ey Ey =
(E H ) ~z0 =
|E| .

,
r Z
Z
1
1
E 2
P =
|E|2 dS =
dS =
2

2
S

= 2vWe = 2vWh = v (We + Wh ) = vW,


33

W , v
.
,
:
v =

1
.
L1 C1

,
r
1
1
1 C1
1 |U |2
2
P =
C1 |U | =
|U |2 =
,
2 L1
2 Z0
L1 C1 2

r
1
1 L1 2
1 2
1
|I| Z0 .
P =
|I| =
L1 |I|2 =
2 C1
2
L1 C1 2

1
Re U I .
2
.

P =

TEM ,
(. 2.1).
:

1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
r
0000000000000
1111111111111
2
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000
1111
0000000000000
1111111111111
r
0000
1111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000
1111
0000000000000
1111111111111
1
0000
1111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
2

U
r
ln ,
r1
r2
ln
r2

U .

Er =

. 2.1

34

U 1
U/r
=
=
,
r1 r
r
r
ln
ln 2
r2
r1

r
H =

Er =

U/r
.
r

ln 2
r1


r
I = 2r1 Hr=r1 = 2

U
.
r
ln 2
r1

:
r
U
1

r2
.
Z0 =
=
ln
I
2
r1
,
r
1
0
r2
r2
r2
Z0 =
ln
= 60 ln
= 138 lg
.
2
0
r1
r1
r1
.
r
L1
1
Z0 =
, v =
.
C1
L1 C1

C1 =

1
,
vZ0

L1 =

Z0
.
v

v Z0 ,
C1 =

2
,
r
ln 2
r1

L1 =

r2
ln
.
2
r1

, , ,
, .
, .

35


, . 2.2.
,
TEM-. a b.
.
x
y

000000000000
111111111111
010 H
E1
b
0
1
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111

U = b Ex ;

I = a Hy ,

.
-

. 2.2

Z0

U
b Ex
b
=
=
=
I
a Hy
a


C1 =

1
a
,
= 0
vZ0
b

L1 =

Z0
b
= 0
.
v
a


, . 2.3.

11
00
a 11
00

11
00
00
11

C1 =

b
ln
+
2a

b
2a

.
1

b a :

. 2.3

C1

.
ln b/a
36

, :
r
1
1
b
Z0 =
=
ln .
vC1

a

.

2.3.

TEM
,
. ,
(. 2.4).
dz
Z 1 dz

I
Y1 dz

U+dU
I+dI

. 2.4

:
dU = I Z1 dz,

dI = U Y1 dz,

dU
dI
= I Z1 ,
= U Y1 .
dz
dz
, , I:
d2 U
Z1 Y1 U = 0.
dz 2
2 = Z1 Y1 ,
d2 U
2 U = 0.
dz 2
37


U = Aez + Bez ,
. . , .
:
I =

1 dU
z
z
= A
e
B
e .
Z1 dz
Z1
Z1

r
Z1
Z1
Z1
=
=

Y1
Z1 Y1
, . ,
Z0 =

Z1 = jL1 ,

Y1 = jC1 ,

,
=

p
p
2 L1 C1 = j L1 C1 = jk.

1
=
,
k
L1 C1
:
r
L1
Z0 =
.
C1
v =



U = U + U ,
I = I I =

1
(U U ),
Z0

Z0 .
, ,
:

38

P =
=

1
1
1

Re (U I ) =
Re
(U + U ) (U
U
) =
2
2
Z0

1 1

Re (U U
U U
+ U U
U
U ) =
2 Z0

1 |U |2
1 |U |2

= P P ,
2 Z0
2 Z0
. . .

=

1 |U |2
2 Z0
.
, Z0 (, ).
P =

2.4.

. , (. 2.5).
U
I
, ,
Z
.
Z0 ,
,
. 2.5
.
, U/I = Z . U = U + U
1
I=
(U U ),
Z0
U + U
Z0
= Z
U U

U + U
Z
=
.
U U
Z0
39

U
= ( ),
U
1 +
Z
=
1
Z0

, ,
=

Z Z0
.
Z + Z0

:
U = U ejkz + U e jkz ,
U U ( ) (. 2.6).
:

U
U

U = ejkz (U + U e 2jkz ) .

U e 2jkz .
U U ,
. :
U = |U | + |U | .

. 2.6

, . . z = /4, :
U = |U | |U |.
(. 2.7).
U

z
2

. 2.7

40

|U | + |U |
1 + ||
=
|U | |U |
1 ||

(), . = 1,
= . ,
,
, .

2.5.
, l,
Z.
z
U (z) = Aejkz + Be jkz ,
1
I(z) =
(Aejkz Be jkz ).
Z0
A B
( z = l):
U (l) = Aejkl + Be jkl ,
1
I(l) =
(Aejkl Be jkl ).
Z0
A B,
U (l) + Z0 I(l) jkl
e ,
2
U (l) Z0 I(l) jkl
B =
e
.
2
A =

(z = 0):
U (0) = A + B = U (l) cos kl + jZ0 I(l) sin kl,
1
j
I(0) =
(A B) =
U (l) sin kl + I(l) cos kl.
Z0
Z0
41

, Z(l):
Z(0) =

U (0)
U (l) cos kl + jZ0 I(l) sin kl
=
=
j
I(0)
U (l) sin kl + I(l) cos kl
Z0
= Z0

Z(l) + jZ0 tan kl


.
Z0 + jZ(l) tan kl

,
Z(0) = Z0

Z(l) + jZ0 tan kl


.
Z0 + jZ(l) tan kl


Z(l) = Z = 0.
,
Z = jZ0 tan kl = jX , 0 = 1.
. 2.8.
X

3
4

ZH= 0

|U|

|I|

. 2.8

0
. (2n + 1)/4
.
/4.
42

n/4
. /4, ,
.

Z = (. 2.9).

Z = jZ0 cot kl, = +1.
X

|I|

ZH=

3
4

|U|

. 2.9

,
Z = R (. 2.10):
Z = Z0

R + jZ0 tan kl
.
Z0 + jR tan kl

l = 2n/4 Z = R ; l = (2n + 1)/4 Z = Z02 /R .


, R Z0 .
R
Z02 /R .

43

Z02

Z02

R
|U|
R > Z0
> 0
|I|

Z02

Z02

|I|

R<Z

< 0
|U|

. 2.10

,
Z = jX (. 2.11).
,
Z = jZ0

X + Z0 tan kl
.
Z0 X tan kl

|U|

X>0
|| = 1

|I|

|I|

X<0
|| = 1

|U|

. 2.11

44

X
+ tan kl
Z0
Z = jZ0
= jZ0 tan(kl + ) ,
X
tan kl
1
Z0

= arctan , 6 6
.
Z0
2
2
,
. ,
0 ,
/4.
X . X ,
, /4, /2;
X , ,
/4.

2.6.

,
.

kl = , tan kl = 0.
Z = Z .
,
1.
.

kl =

, tan kl = .
2
Z =

Z02
.
Z

,
, .

45


.
,
, . .
Z01
Z02 (. 2.12).
/4
Z03 ,
Z
Z
Z
01
03
02

2
Z03
= Z01 .
Z02

. 2.12

Z03 =

11111111111111
00000000000000
00000000000000
11111111111111

p
Z01 Z02 .

, ,

(. 2.13), ,
, /4
. ,

. 2.13
.
, .

11111111111111
00000000000000

2.7. T-

.
T-
(. 2.14). :

46

Z = Z1

Z2 (Z1 + Z )
+
=
Z1 + Z2 + Z

, Z :

Z =

Z1 + 2Z2
Z1 + Z2
.
Z
1 +
Z1 + Z2

Z + Z1

Z1

Z1

Z2

Z + jZ0 tan kl
.
j
1 +
Z tan kl
Z0

ZH

. 2.14

,
jZ0 tan kl

j
tan kl
Z0

Z1 + 2Z2
,
Z1 + Z2
1
.
Z1 + Z2

Z1

Z1 Z2
( ):
Z1 = jZ0 tan kl
kl 6= (2n + 1);
Z2 = jZ0 csc kl
Z1 = jZ0 cot kl
kl 6= 2n.
Z2 = jZ0 csc kl
, ,
.

47

2.8.
( )
2.8.1.


=

U
.
U

l ,

U (l) = U ejkl ,
U (l) = U e jkl ,

(l) =

U 2jkl
e
= e2jkl .
U

, || = const, . . ,
2kl.
2.8.2.


, (. 2.15).
X
X = const

R = const

. 2.15

48

,
. , Z
:
Z
1
Z Z0
z 1
Z0
=
=
=
.
Z
Z + Z0
z + 1
+ 1
Z0
. . . || 6 1,
. Z - R > 0
.
.
X = const R = const
.
X = const

to s
our
c

X>0

-1

X=0

+1
Z=

Z=0

to

loa
d

R = const

R=

X<0

. 2.16

(. 2.16)
X = const R = const.
49

, Z0 . -
. -
l
= 2kl = 4 .

.
, , ( ) . ,
,
180o , X B R G. , Y0 .

2.9.

TEM

, ,
, ,
. , .
. . 2.17.


. ( . 2.17
)
X
X
Qi =
Cik Uk , Us =
Psm Qm ,

11
00
11
00
00
00 00
11
00 11
11
11 11
00
00
11

Qi i- ; Us s- ; Cik (
i 6= k); Psm . :
Q = C U ,

U = P Q ,

Q = {Qi }, U = {Us }, C = {Cik }, P = {Psm }


.
50

C P
C P = 1 ,
1 , . . C P :
P = C 1 .
,
X
i =
Lik Ik ,
k

i , i-
, Lik .
= L I.
, :
dU
= jL I ,
dz
dI
= jC U
dz
( ).
:
d2 U
dI
= jL
= 2 LC U ,
dz 2
dz
LC ( L C).
LC, L P .
i k i 6= k (. 2.18).
k- , i-
Ui :
Za
Uki

Eix dx,

=
0

Eix x- , i- . Eix
51

Eix =

1
~ i,
rot x H
j

~ i , i- .
H

1
0
0x i
1
k
0 11
1
00
00
11
0
1
00
00
11
0 11
1
a
0
1
111111111111
000000000000
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000 y
111111111111
. 2.18

Za

Uki =
0

Hz = 0,
~ i = Hiy
rot x H
z

Eix =

1 Hiy
.
j z

1
1 Hiy
dx =
j z
j z

Za
Hiy dx.
0

R
Hiy dx = ik , i- , k- . ik = Lki Ii ,
Uki =

1
Ii
Lki
.
j
z

Ii

z
,
Q
I
+
= 0.
t
z

Ii
= jQi .
z
Uki ,
Uki =

Lki
1
Lki (jQi ) =
Qi .
j

1
, v
v2
. ,
=

Uki = v 2 Lki Qi .
P ,
52

Pki = v 2 Lki

i 6= k.


i = k.
P
.
v2

,
P = v2 L ,

L =

2
d2 U
P C U = k 2 U .
=
2
dz
v

d2 U
+ k 2 U = 0.
dz 2

Ui , Ui , . . .

U = Aejkz + Be jkz ,
U , A, B .

I =

1 1 dU
L
= Z0 1 Aejkz Be jkz
j
dz

Z0 I = Aejkz Be jkz .

L = Z0 (Z0 ,
k
).
, .
z = 0, :

U (0) = A + B,
Z0 I(0) = A B.
53

A B , . .
z = l:
U (l)
Z0 I(l)

= Aejkl + Be jkl ,
= Aejkl Be jkl ,

A
B

U (l) + Z0 I(l)
,
2
U (l) Z0 I(l)
= ejkl
.
2
= e jkl

A B U (0) I(0),
U (0) = U (l) cos kl + jZ0 I(l) sin kl,
I(0) = jZ0 1 U (l) sin kl + I(l) cos kl.
, ,
, . ,

.
,
, .

2.10.

.
p
p
=
Z1 Y 1 =
(jL1 + R1 )(jC1 + G1 ) =
s

R1
G1
=
2 L1 C1 1 +
1 +
=
jL1
jC1
s

p
R1
G1
= j L1 C1
1 +
1 +
.
jL1
jC1
R1 L1 G1 C1 , :
54

2 )
R1
G1
1
R1
G1
+
j L1 C1
+

=
L1
C1
8 2 L1
C1
(

2 )

1
R1
G1
1 R1
G1
= jk 1 +

+
+
= jk 0 + ,
8 2 L1
C1
2 Z0
Y0
r
r
L1
C1
Z0 =
, Y0 =
C1
L1
.
(v = /k 0 ) , . .
. , , :

0
1 R1
G1
U = U0 ez ejk z , =
+
.
2 Z0
Y0
p

1
1 +
2j


. . ,
R1
G1
=
.
L1
C1

= j

R1
R1
L1 C1 1 +
= jk +
.
jL1
Z0

(R1 ), , ( ).
, R1 L1
R1
.
2Z0
R1 -,
.
, . R
G
, 1 = 1 . ,
L1
C1
=

55

L1 /C1 , . . -

. . : d1 = 0.6 , d2 = 4.0 ; Z0 = 75 ; f = 1000 .


l
R10 = 0.0175 ,
S
l (1 ); S , 2
(S = d1 , -).
- f = 1000 2.1 103 .
: R10 4.46 /,
: R100 0.65 /, R1 5.1 /.
5.1
=
= 0.031 / = 0.031 8.69 = 0.29 /.
2 75

3.

3.1.
. E- H-


x
, . y
, z
(. 3.1) .
-

. 3.1
,
.

~ = jH,
~
rot E

~ = jE.
~
rot H

, :
56

~ + k2 E
~ = 0,
E

~ + k2 H
~ = 0.
H

Ez Hz ,

2 Ez
+ k 2 Ez = 0,
z 2
2 Hz
+
+ k 2 Hz = 0,
z 2

Ez +
Hz

, .
:
Ez = E (x, y) Ek (z),

Hz = H (x, y) Hk (z).

,
d2 Ek
2 Ek = 0, E + (k 2 + 2 )E = 0,
dz 2
d 2 Hk
2 Hk = 0, H + (k 2 + 2 )H = 0,
dz 2
.
, z : ez . 6= jk,
, .
, ,
~ t = 0,
E

Hn = 0,

~ t E
, Hn
.
.
,
z ( z ):

57

jHx

jHy

jHz

jEx

jEy

jEz

Ez
+ Ey ,
y
Ez
Ex
,
x
Ey
Ex

;
x
y
Hz
+ Hy ,
y
Hz
,
Hx
x
Hy
Hx

.
x
y


Ex , Ey , Hx , Hy Ez , Hz .
Ey , .
( 2 + 2 )Hx = j

Ez
Hz

y
x

( 2 = k 2 )
Hx =

j Ez

Hz
2
.
k 2 + 2 y
k + 2 x

j Ez

Hz
2
,
2
2
+ x
k + y
j Hz

Ez
= 2
2
,
k + 2 y
k + 2 x
j Hz

Ez
= 2
2
.
k + 2 x
k + 2 y

Hy =
Ex
Ey

k2

Ez Hz :
Ez + k 2 Ez = 0,
Hz + k 2 Hz = 0,
58

, ,

= ,
z

d2 Ez
d2 Ez
+
+ (k 2 + 2 )Ez = 0,
2
dx
dy 2
d 2 Hz
d 2 Hz
+
+ (k 2 + 2 )Hz = 0.
2
dx
dy 2
,
Ex , Ey , Hx Hy .
:
Ez = (k 2 + 2 ) (x, y) ez ,
Hz = (k 2 + 2 ) (x, y) ez ,
(x, y), (x, y) . , ,
x,y + (k 2 + 2 ) = 0,
x,y + (k 2 + 2 ) = 0,
, k 2 + 2 = g 2 ,
x,y + g 2 = 0,
x,y + g 2 = 0.
:

j

ez ,
y
x

Hy = j

ez ,
x
y

Ex = j

ez ,
y
x


ez ,
Ey = j
x
y
Hx =

59

~ = j rot ( ~z0 ez ) + grad div ( ~z0 ez ) + k 2 ez ~z0 ,


H
~ = j rot ( ~z0 ez ) + grad div ( ~z0 ez ) + k 2 ez ~z0 ,
E
~z0 z.
,
grad ( ) = grad + grad ,
rot ( F~ ) = rot F~ + grad F~ ,
div ( F~ ) = div F~ + grad F~ ,

rot ( ~z0 ez ) = ez grad ~z0 ,
grad div ( ~z0 ez ) = ez grad + 2 ~z0 ez .
,
~ = j ez grad ~z0 + (k 2 + 2 )ez ~z0 ez grad ,
H
~ = j ez grad ~z0 + (k 2 + 2 )ez ~z0 ez grad .
E
, ,
.

~ = ~z0 ez

~ 0 = ~z0 ez

.
,
, (z) .
.
~ t Hn E
.
~ t
E
z , ,
60

. . .
. Ez = 0 = 0 C.
~ s , E
~s ~n, ~n
(. 3.2). Ey
( y s, x n)

Es = j

1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
n(x)
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
s (y
0000000000000
1111111111111

.
n
s

= 0 C,
Es = 0, , /n = 0
C.
, Hn = 0
C.
Hn Hx :

. 3.2


.
s
n
,
Hn = j

= 0 C,

= 0 C,
n

x,y + g 2 =
2

x,y + g

0,
0,

g 2 = k 2 + 2 .
: . . ,
z- , -, z-
.
61

, g 2 . . , , .
, . :
Z
I

dC,
( + grad grad ) dS =

n
S

S , C , .
.
Z
I

dC = 0
( + |grad |2 ) dS =

n
S

. , = g 2 .
, ,
R
|grad |2 dS
g2 = S R
,
||2 dS
S
2

, g > 0. , .
,
: g12 , g22 , . . . , gn2 , . . . .
, .
.
, , ,
S:
Z

Z
n m dS = 0,

n m dS = 0,
S

62

2
.
gn2 6= gm

:
Z

I
(n m m n ) dS =

(n

m
n
m
) dC.
n
n


Z
(n m m n ) dS = 0.
S
2
n = gn2 n , m = gm
m ,
Z
2
2
(gn gm ) n m dS = 0.
S
2
,
gn2 6= gm
Z
n m dS = 0.
S

,
Z
n m dS = 0.
S

, . . n m
, .
, , . .
, ,
( ).
n , gn2 :
p
n2 = gn2 k 2 , n = gn2 k 2 .
, n , . .
k 2 > gn2 .
63

:
2 > gn2

gn
>
= n

n- . ,

p
n = jn = j k 2 gn2 .
.
,
n =

2
,
n

k =

2
,

n ,
, .
2
n , (gn =
):
n
s
1
1
1
=
2,
n
2
n

n = r

2
2n

:
v =

n
=
= r
n
2

c
1

2
2n

> c.

, , , (E TM, 0)
(H TE, 0) .
~ n(h) .
~ n(h) , H
~ n(e) E
~ n(e) , H
, E
, ,
64

Z
~n E
~ m dS = 0,
E

Z
~n H
~ m dS = 0,
H

~n H
~ m ) ~z0 dS = 0
(E
S

2
gn2 6= gm
. .

,
.
H- :

~ = j ez grad ~z0 ,
E
~ = ez grad + (k 2 + 2 ) ez ~z0 .
H

,
~ H
~ = grad (grad ~z0 ) = 0.
E
, ( )
~ = Zh H
~ ~z0 ,
E
Zh = j/. Zh :
p
/

Zh =
.
= v = p

1 2 /2n
E-
~ = ez grad + (k 2 + 2 ) ez ~z0 ,
E
~ = j ez grad ~z0 .
H
~ H
~ . ,
E
~ = Ze H
~ ~z0 ,
E
Ze = /j. Ze :
r s

2
1

Ze =
=
=
1 2.

n
65

, ,
gn
> n = ,

gn , g1 . ,
; .
, ,
.

3.2.
3.2.1.


H-

y
a b

H- (. 3.3)
2
2
+
+ g2 = 0
2
x
y 2

b
x
a
. 3.3

= 0.
n


(x, y) = X(x) Y (y).

1 2X
1 2Y
+
= g 2
X x2
Y y 2
, . . :
2X
+ gx2 X = 0
x2

2Y
+ gy2 Y = 0,
y 2

gx2 + gy2 = g 2 .

X = A cos gx x + B sin gx x, Y = C cos gy y + D sin gy y.
66

x = 0

dX
= 0, ,
dx

B = 0, X = cos gx x;
y = 0

dY
= 0, ,
dy
D = 0, Y = cos gy y;

dX
= 0, . . sin gx a = 0,
dx
n
gx a = n gx =
; n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ;
a
dY
y = b
= 0, .. sin gy b = 0,
dy
m
gy b = m gy =
; m = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
b
(x, y):
x = a

n
m
x cos
y
a
b
.
2

gnm
(x, y) = cos

2
gnm
=

n 2
a

m 2
b

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , m = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

, n m
, = const .
( ):

nm =

2
= s
gnm

2
n
a

2
2 = s 2
2 ,
m
m
n
+
b
a
b

. .
.
(x, y), ( ez ):

67

Hz =
Hx =
Hy =
Ex =
Ey =

n 2 m 2
n
m
(k + g )(x, y) =
+
cos
x cos
y,
a
b
a
b

n
n
m
n
n
m

=
sin
x cos
y = j
sin
x cos
y,
x
a
a
b
a
a
b

m
n
m
m
n
m

=
cos
x sin
y = j
cos
x sin
y,
y
b
a
b
b
a
b

m
n
m
j
= j
cos
x sin
y,
y
b
a
b
n
n
m

= j
sin
x cos
y.
j
x
a
a
b
2

, a > b.
. ,
, n m . . ,
a > b, H10 :
10 = 2a.
. , ,
.
H10 :
Hz

Hx

Hy
Ex

=
=

Ey

x,
a

j sin x,
a
a
0,
0,

j sin x.
a
a
a

cos

,
. ,
, .
H10
(. 3.4):
68

Ey

1111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111

11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11

Hx

1111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111

Ey

Hz
1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
000000000000000
111111111111111
000000000000000
111111111111111
000000000000000
111111111111111

. 3.4

, Hz
Hx 90o . . 3.5.

. 3.5

Hn0 n-
H10 x.
Hn0 ,
y. , , ,
b:
n0 = 2 a/n; n = 1, 2, . . . .
69


H10 . ,
.
H11 . y (. 3.6).
, , Ez .

. 3.6

Hnm n-
H11 x m-
y.
.

~ = H
~ ~n,
K
~n , . ,
,
,
.
H10 (. 3.7).
H11
H10 .
Hnm ,
H11 , n m .
,
70

. 3.7

H10 . .
:
P =

1
Re
2

~ H
~ ) ~z0 dS = 1 Re
(E
2

Z
(Ex Hy Ey Hx ) dS.
S

H10 Ey Hx :

sin x,
a
a

= Aj sin .
a
a

Ey = Aj
Hx

Ey Hx ,
2 b
,
4
a
:
s
2
P
a
A =
.
b
P = A2

E0 :
s
E02
2
P =
ab 1 2 ,
4

p
=
/.
71

3.2.2.

E-

, ,

2
2
+
+ g2 = 0
2
x
y 2
= 0.

(x, y) = X(x) Y (y).
X Y
X = A cos gx x + B sin gx x, Y = C cos gy y + D sin gy y.
. x = 0 X = 0,
,
A = 0, X = sin gx x;
y = 0 Y = 0,
C = 0, Y = sin gy y;
x = a X = 0, . . sin gx a = 0,
n
; n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ;
a
y = b Y = 0, .. sin gy b = 0,
gx a = n gx =

gy b = m gy =

m
; m = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
b

(x, y)
n
m
x sin
y.
a
b
, n m
,
.
,
(x, y) = sin

72

n 2

2
gnm
=

m 2
b

n = 1, 2, . . . , m = 1, 2, . . . .

( ):

nm =

2
= s
gnm

2
2
2

2 = s 2
2 .
n
n
m
m
+
+
a
b
a
b

:
Hz
Hx
Hy
Ez
Ex
Ey

0,

m
n
m
= j
sin
x cos
y,
y
b
a
b

n
n
m
= j
= j
cos
x sin
y,
x
a a
b
n 2 m 2
n
m
2
2
sin
x sin
y,
= (k + ) (x, y) =
+
a
b
a
b

n
n
m
=
= j
cos
x sin
y,
x
a
a
b

m
n
m
=
= j
sin
x cos
y.
y
b
a
b
=

n m , E11 ,

2
2ab
11 = s
2 = a2 + b2 .
2
1
1
+
a
b

H10 , 2a.
2
, gnm
nm . , .
73

E11
Hz

0,

Hx

Hy

Ez

Ex

Ey

sin x cos y,
b
a
b

j cos x sin y,
b
a a
2
2

+
sin x sin y,
a
b
a
b

j cos x sin y,
a
a
b

j sin x cos y.
b
a
b

E11 (. 3.83.9).
y

11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11

111111111111
000000000000
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000111111111111
111111111111
000000000000
000000000000
111111111111
E x111111111111
000000000000

1111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111
00
11
0000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111
00
11
00
11

11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111

111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111

Ey

11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11

Ez

. 3.8
y



E11 .

.
E- , , , (. 3.10).

x
a

. 3.9

74

11111111111111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000000000000000
11111111111111111111111111111111111111
. 3.10

3.3.
3.3.1.

1 2
1
xy =
r
+ 2
.
r r
r
r 2
,
2
1
1 2
+
+ 2
+ g 2 = 0.
2
r
r r
r 2
. ,
= R(r) ().
R ,
1 d2 R
1 dR
1 d2
+
+ 2
+ g 2 = 0.
2
R dr
rR dr
r d2
:

75

1
R

d2
= 2 ,
d2
d2 R
1 dR
2
+

+ g 2 = 0.
dr2
rR dr
r2


d2
+ 2 = 0.
d2

sin ,
=
cos .
, = 2
2 = 2m, m = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

= m,
m .
R
d2 R
1 dR
m2
+
+ (g 2 2 ) = 0.
2
dr
R dr
r
.
Jm (gr) Nm (gr). ,
( r = 0).
R = Jm (gr).

= 0 .
n

=
. ,
n
r
0
(ga) = 0,
Jm

a .
t0mn :
76

0
gmn
a = t0mn ,

t0mn
, n = 1, 2, . . . .
a
, . mn
0
gmn
=

0
mn = Jm (gmn
r)

cos m,
sin m.

0
, gmn
, m = 0, . .
.
, .

~ = grad + g 2 ~z0 ,
H
~ = j grad ~z0 .
E
, 1
1

grad ( ,
) grad ~z0 (
, ),
r r
r
r
Hz

Hr

Er

0 2
0
r)
gmn
Jm (gmn

cos m,
sin m;

cos m,
0
0
0
= jgmn
Jm
(gmn
r)
sin m;
r

jm
sin m,
0

=
Jm (gmn
r)
cos m;
r
r
j
jm
sin m,
0

=
Jm (gmn
r)
cos m;
r
r

cos m,
0
0
0
r)
(gmn
j
Jm
= jgmn
sin m.
r


77

mn =

2
2a
= 0 .
0
gmn
tmn

t0mn . H11 , t011 1.84.


J10 (t) = 0 (. 3.1).
3.1

0
Jm
(t) = 0

n
1
2
3

3.83
7.016
10.17

1.84
5.33
8.53

3.05
6.71
9.972

4.20
8.01
11.355

5.32
9.286
12.68

6.42
10.52
13.99

m = 1 n = 1 H11 , H10 .

cos ,
0 2
0
Hz = g11
r)
J1 (g11
sin ;
Hr

0
0
= jg11
J10 (g11
r)

Er
E

cos ,
sin ;

j
sin ,
0
r)
J1 (g11
cos ;
r
j
sin ,
0
=
J1 (g11
r)
cos ;
r

0
0
= jg11
J10 (g11
r)

cos ,
sin .

H11 . 3.11.
H 11
H

. 3.11

78

, H11 . ,
90o . , , .
H11
-.
, .

. , (. 3.12), . 3.12
.
Hm1 H11 (. 3.13).

. 3.13

H1n
(. 3.14).
Hmn m > 1, n > 1 . ,
H01 (n = 1).

. 3.14

79


Hz
Hr
H
Er
E

=
=
=
=
=

0
0
g01
J0 (g01
r),
0
0 0
0
0
jg01 J0 (g01 r) = jg01
J1 (g01
r),
0,
0,
0
0
0
0
jg01
J00 (g01
r) = jg01
J1 (g01
r).

. 3.15.
E
H

. 3.15

,
. , (. 3.16).
H01
,
.
H01
(, 2
). , H01
. 3.16
.
3.3.2.

, ,
, . .

80

= Jm (gr)

cos m,
sin m.


= 0 r = a,
. .
Jm (ga) = 0,
a . m- tmn :
gmn a = tmn ,

gmn =

tmn
, n = 1, 2, . . . .
a


mn = Jm (gmn r)

cos m,
sin m.

, m 6= 0 .

E-:
Hz
Hr
H

= 0,
j
jm
sin m,
=
=
Jm (gmn r)
cos m;
r
r

cos m,
0
= j
= j gmn Jm
(gmn r)
sin m;
r

Ez

2
2
Jm (gmn r)
= gmn
gmn

Er

cos m,
sin m;

cos m,
0
= jgmn Jm
(gmn r)
sin m;
r

jm
sin m,

=
Jm (gmn r)
cos m.
r
r

81

E01 :
Hz
Hr
H
Ez
Er
E

= 0,
= 0,
= j g01 J00 (g01 r) = jg01 J1 (g01 r),
2
= g01
J0 (g01 r),
= jg01 J00 (g01 r) = jg01 J1 (g01 r),
= 0.

. 3.17.

01

. 3.17

E0n . E11 (. 3.18).

. 3.18

82

3.2
Jm (t) = 0

m
n
1
2
3

0
2.40
5.52
8.65

3.83
7.016
10.17

5.14
8.42
11.62

6.38
9.76
13.015

7.59
11.06
14.37

8.77
12.34

Jm (x) 3.2.
3.3.3.

TEM- , .
H- .
-
2
1
1 2
+
+ 2
+ g 2 = 0.
2
r
r r
r 2
. , R(r)

d2 R
1 dR
m2
2
+
+
(g

) = 0.
dr2
R dr
r2
(r = 0)
, Jm (gr) Nm (gr):
R = A Jm (gr) + B Nm (gr).

dR
= 0 r = a r = b (b > a), . .
dr
0
0
A Jm
(ga) + B Nm
(ga) = 0,
0
0
A Jm (gb) + B Nm (gb) = 0.


A B
83

0
0
0
0
Jm
(ga) Nm
(gb) Jm
(gb) Nm
(ga) = 0.
0
gmn
, mn . a
b/a (. 3.19).

2a

.
,

11
00
00
11

Jm (ga) Nm (gb) Jm (gb) Nm (ga) = 0.



.
. 3.19
H11 ,

2b

a + b
,
2
. . .
,
. .
11 2

3.4.


. , .
,
.
. , .
84


,
, (. 3.20).
, ,
, , .
(. 3.21)
H11

H11
. 3.20

H01

. 3.21

(. 3.22)
H11

. 3.22

85

E 11

, (. 3.23).

. 3.23

, , . - - (.
. 3.23).

. 3.24

, ,
- (. 3.24).
. .
.
, 86

, .
, , (. 3.25).
,
,
.
(. 3.26).

. 3.25

L1

L1

C1

. 3.26

Z1

jL
,
1

Y1

jC1 +

1
.
jL
1

=
Z1 Y1 =
jL1
jC1 +
s
=

L1

1
jL
1

1
C1 .
L
1

,
1
1
C1 < 0, . . > p
= .

L1
L1 C1
87

,
s
= j

L1

C1

1
L
1

= j

L
C
1
1
1

1
2 L
1 C1

1
1
2
=
, L
C1 = 2 .
1
L
c
1 C1
,
s
2

= j
1
= j.
c
2

2
=

= s

2
1 2

1
2

. . , .
- (. 3.27).
b

2a

. 3.27

88

C1
L
1
2

0 S1
0 a
=
,
g
g
= 0 S = 0 bh (l = 1) ,
g
1
gc2
=
=
=
.
0 a
0 0 abh
abh
0 bh
g
=


s
2c
=
= 2

abh
.
g

, , g,
.
,
. ,

.
H10 (. 3.28).

a
=
.
2
4

, = 2a.
. 3.28

3.5.

, :
Z
1
~ H
~ ) ~z0 dS.
P =
Re (E
2
S

H-.

89

~
E
~
H

= j grad ~z0 ez ,
= ( grad + g 2 ~z0 ) ez .

,
~ H
~ ) ~z0 = j [(grad ~z0 ) grad ] ~z0 ez e
(E
= j (grad )2 e(+

)z

,
Z

1
P =
Re j (grad )2 e(+ )z dS.
2
S

< : = j, = j.
Z
Z
1
1
2
P =
(grad )2 dS =
gm
2 dS.
2
2
S

> . P = 0.
E- ()
Z
1
2
P =
gm
2 dS < .
2
S

,
~ H
~
, E
. , ,
. .
. H-
|E|2
2
|H|2
2

=
=

()2 (grad )2 ,
2
4
{g 2 + 2 (grad )2 }.
2 m
90

, .
, (. . )
. ,
Z

Z
Z
|E|2

2
dS =
()2 (grad )2 dS =
()2 gm
2 dS,
2
2
2
S
S
S
Z
Z
Z
|H|2
4

Wh =
dS = gm 2 dS +
2 (grad )2 dS =
2
2
2
S
S
S
Z
Z
Z
4
2 2
2 2
2
2
=
gm dS +
gm dS =
gm (gm + 2 ) 2 dS.
2
2
2
We =


2
gm
= k 2 + 2 = k 2 2 = 2 2 .

Wh ,
Z
Z
2 2

2
Wh =
gm 2 dS =
()2 gm
2 dS.
2
2
S

, Wh = We .
, ( H-) ( E-)
, .

3.6.


( ):

v = f = s
1

2 = s
1

2 > c.

, , , , .
91

. .

n
e j(1 t1 z) + e j(2 t2 z) = e j(1 t1 z) 1 + e j[(2 1 )t

(2 1 )z]

o
.


(2 1 ) t (2 1 ) z = 0.
, t z,

t = z = 0,

v =

d
dz
=
dt
d

v =

d
1
=
.
d
d/d
s
s

2
2

2
2
2
1
=
=
=
1 =

s
2

2
=
1.

v =

2
2/
2
d
2
1
s
s
=
=
=
2
2
2
d

2
1
1

2
s

1
2 = c s

92

2 .

s
v = c

2
< c.

, (. 3.29):
v v = c2 .
:
v =

P
,
W

P ,
W
.

, ( H-)
P

kp

. 3.29

1
2
gm
2

2
()2 gm
2

2 dS,
S

Z
2 dS.
S

v =

=
.
W

, ,
v =

/ v ,
v v =

1
= c2 .

, , .
93

3.7.

.
, .
.
, H10

Ey =

j
x jz
sin
e
a
a

!
!

x z
x +z

j
j
j
a
=
e a
e
,

2a

. . .
H10 .

,


(
) (. 3.30).
2

, z

,
x

z.

,
= cos ,

. 3.30

= sin .

z ,

.
2
, a,
,
. ,

= a, sin =
.
2
2a
, ,
94

< 2a, . . = 2a.


z:
=

= p
= s

2 .
2
cos
1 sin

, ,

, . . 2
.

v = c cos = c

1 sin = c

2
.

Hmn Emn , z.
, .
, .

3.8.

,
. . ,

, , . -.

. , E~m e0 z , H~m e0 z .
95

~ ez , H
~ ez . : E
,
. , .
, :
~ m e0 z )
rot (E
~ m e0 z )
rot (H
~ ez )
rot (E
~ ez )
rot (H

~ m e0 z ,
= j0 H
~ m e0 z ,
= j0 E
~ z ,
= j0 He
~ z ,
= j0 Ee


rot ( F~ ) = rot F~ + grad F~ ,

~ + 0 ~z0 E
~
rot E
m
m

~m
~m
rot H
+ 0 ~z0 H
~ ~z0 E
~
rot E

~ ~z0 H
~
rot H

=
=

~m
j0 H
,

~ m,
j0 E

~
j0 H,
~
j0 E.

0 = 0 , 0 .

~ + div (E
~ H
~m
~m
) =
H)
div (E

~ rot E
~m
~m
~ + H
~m
~ E
~ rot H
~m
= H
E
rot H
rot E
=

~ (j0 H
~m
~m
~m
~ + ~z0 H)
~
= H
0 ~z0 E
) + E
(j0 E

~m
~ + ~z0 E)
~ E
~ (j0 E
~m
~m
+H
(j0 H
0 ~z0 H
) =

~ (~z0 E
~m
~m
~ + H
~m
~ + 0 E(~
~ z0 H
~m
= 0 H
) E
(~z0 H)
(~z0 E)
) =

~m
~ + ~z0 (E
~m
~ + ~z0 (E
~ H
~m
~ H
~m
= 0 ~z0 (E
H)
H)
) 0 ~z0 (E
) =

~m
~ + E
~ H
~m
= ( 0 ) (E
H
) ~z0 .

:
96

~
~
~
~
~m
~ + E
~ H
~m
(Em H + E Hm ) ~n dC = ( 0 ) (E
H
) ~z0 dS,

H
= 0 + RC
S

~m
~ + E
~ H
~m
(E
H
) ~n dC
H
)~
~m
~ + E
~ H
~m
(E
z0 dS

~n , ; C
, S .

~m
~ ~n dC = 0
(E
H)
C

~m
E
.
, ,

~ t = (H
~ ~n) (H
~ m ~n)
E
C.
, .

I

~ H
~m
(E
) ~n dC =

I
h
i

~ m ~n) H
~m
(H
~n dC = |H~m |2 dC.

~ H
~ E
~m
E
~ m:
H
Z

~m
~ + E
~ H
~m
(E
H
) ~z0 dS

~m
~m + E
~m H
~m
(E
H
) ~z0 dS =
S

~m H
~m
(E
) ~z0 dS .

= 2 Re
S

,
97

H
~ m |2 dC
|H
C
+
.
R
)~
~m H
~m
2 Re (E
z0 dS
S

H
~ m |2 dC
Re |H
1
C
,
R
)~
~m H
~m
2 Re (E
z0 dS
S

H
~ m |2 dC
Im |H
1
C
.
R
~m H
~ ) ~z0 dS
2 Re (E
m
S

,
=

1 + j
,

,
P1 =

1
2

I
~ m |2 dC
|H
C


Z
1

~m H
~m
P =
Re (E
) ~z0 dS
2
S

,
P1
.
2P

= =

P1
P1
=
,
2P
2v W

W =

0
2

Z
~ m |2 dS
|H
S

98

;
s
2
v = c 1 2

.
,
H
1 H ~ 2
~ m |2 dC
|Hm | dC
|H
2 C
1
1
C
s
s
=
=
.
R
~ m |2 dS
2
c
2
2
0
R
|H
0

2
~
2
|H | dSc 1 2
1 2 S
2 S m

1
.
2

,
H
~ m |2 dC
|H

1
C
s
= =
.
R
~ m |2 dS
2 0
2
|H

1 2 S

, . , . :
) ,
) .
, .
H

~m H
~ + E
~ H
~m
(E
) ~n dC
C
.
= 0 + R
)~
H
~ + E
~ H
~m
~m
z0 dS
(E
S

99


~m
H
=

0
~ m.
~z0 E
j0

0 .
~ H
~ m
H
, . ~ E
~ ,
, H
:
~ =
H

~
~z0 E.
j 0

~ E
~ m :
E
H

~m H
~ + E
~ H
~m
j 0 (E
) ~n dC
C

0 =

R
H

~ m |2 + 0 |E
~ m |2 ) dS
(|E

~ + E
~ H
~m
~m
j 0 (E
H
) ~n dC
C
=
.
R
~ m |2 dS
( + 0 ) |E
S

+ 0 ,
H

~m H
~ + E
~ H
~m
j 0 (E
) ~n dC
2 02 =

~ m |2 dS
|E

. 0 = 0. .
, .
.
.
. H10

100

x
cos
,
a
a
j
x
=
sin
,
a
a
= 0.

Hz

Hx
Hy

|H|

4
a

x
cos
+
a

2
sin2

x
.
a

Z
2

|H| dS = b

a 4 a
+
2 a
2

2 )

ab 2 2
2
=
=
+
2 a
a

ab 2 4 2
,
2 a
2

+ 2 = g2 + 2 = k2 =

a

I
|H|2 dC = 2

4
a

4 2
.
2

"
2 #

4
a 4

4a3
=
b + 2
+
2b + 2
=
2
a
a
a

4
a

2
2b + a 2

!
.

,
4

2b + a 2
a


1
s
=

=
2 2
2 0
ab
4
2
1 2
2 a
2

101

2b 2
1 +
a 2

s
=
.
b 0
2
1 2

10 23 2 , ; = 3 , = 0 ,
b = 1 , a = 2.3 , = 4.6 , 0.64 104 , f = 1010 .
3 2
2
4.6
0.64 104 1 + 2.3
4
q
=
3 2 1.14 10 / =
13
1 4.6
= 9.9 104 / = 9.9 102 /.

. 3.31.

kp
. 3.31

. H01

Hz
Hr
E

0
0
r),
J0 (g01
= g01
0
0
= jg01
J1 (g01
r),
0
0
= jg01 J1 (g01
r).

102

z-
(Hz 6= 0),
I
0 4 2 0
|H|2 dC = 2a g01
J0 (g01 a).
C

R
, |H|2 dS S
R
|E|2 dS, E :
S

Z
|H|2 dS =
S

0
0

0 2 2 0 2
0 g01
0

|E|2 dS =
S

2 2 0 2
=
g
c2 01

Z
0
J12 (g01
r)2r dr =
S

Za
0
J12 (g01
r)r dr.
0


Za
0
J12 (g01
r)r dr =
0

a2 2 0
J (g a).
2 0 01

,
Z
2 0 2 2 2 0
g a J0 (g01 a).
|H|2 dS =
c2 01
S

( = 0 ):
=

2c 1

2
2

0
0
a)
J02 (g01
2a g01
=
2
0 2 2 2 0
g a J0 (g01 a)
c2 01

s
a

2
2
2
1 2

,
3/2 ( 1/2 ).
103

, , .
, , , .
,
=

P1
.
2v W


P1

=
2

Z
|E|2 dS,
S

.
Z

W =
E 2 dS,
2
S

=
2v

tan
s
2c 1

tan
s
,

2
1 2

= tan .


, .

4.

4.1.


.
.
, , . .

104

, , ejz .
( ).
,
, (. 4.1).
, , .
. 4.1

,
. ,
.
,
. :
, - . ,
.
,

:
b
,
a
a b . , ():
=

|a| + |b|
.
|a| |b|

, ,
. .
,
105

. ,

(Ey = j
, Hx = j
).
x
y
1.

.
, . ,
= . ,
/4 ,
.
, , TEM-, .
. ,
TEM-.

4.2. H-


~
rot E
~
rot H

~
= jH,
~
= jE.

. H- (,
Ez = 0 H )
~
E
~
H

~ = V (z) ~e(x, y),


= E
~ + H
~ z = I(z) ~h(x, y) + H
~ z,
= H
~
~e h .
,
[rot (V ~e )] = j I ~h.
106

, rot (V ~e ) = V rot ~e + grad V ~e.


dV
. grad V =
~z ,
dz 0
dV
~z0 ~e = jI ~h.
dz
~h:
dV
(~e ~h) ~z0 = j (~h)2 I.
dz
:
dI
~ z ] = jV ~e;
(~z0 ~h) + [rot H
dz
~h = grad , rot ~h = 0.
~ z .
, rot H
,
~z
H
~
E

2
= gm
~z0 ez ,

= j rot ( ~z0 ez ),

~ z,
~ = j rot H
E
2
gm

2
2
~ z = gm E
~ = gm V ~e.
rot H
j
j

~e,
2

dI
gm
~
(~e h) ~z0 =
+ j ~e 2 V.
dz
j
S. .

107

P =

Z
Z
1
~ H
~ ) ~z0 dS = 1 Re V I (~e ~h) ~z0 dS.
Re (E
2
2
S

, ~e ~h ,
Z
(~e ~h) ~z0 dS = 1.
S

,
1
|V |2
2

Z
~e 2 dS = We =

C1 |V |2
2

.
Z
C1 =
~e 2 dS
S

.
Z
1 2
L |I|2
Wh =
|I|
~h2 dS = 1
2
2
S

, ;
Z

= ~h2 dS
L1
S

. C1 L1
,
dI
dV
V
I,
.
= jL
= jC1 V
1
2 C
dz
dz
j/gm
1

= 2
= L
1
2 C
gm

C
1
m 1
.

108

dV
dz
dI
dz

jL
I,
1

(jC1 +

1
) V.
jL
1

H- .
E- (
L
C1 ).
1
,
Z1 = jL
,
1

Y1 = jC1 +

1
.
jL
1

,
. , ,
.
. Z1 Y1 ,
(. .
), , . . , .
, . , ( H10 ) .
I . :
1 2
|I| ZI .
2

P =

P =

1
2

Z
Ex Hy dx dy =
S

1
2

Z
A sin
S

ab 2
A .
4

109

x
x
A sin
dx dy =
a
a

Za
I =

Za
Hx dx =

A sin
0

x
2a
dx =
A.
a


ZI =

p
/
2P
2 b
2 b
q
=
=
.
|I|2
8 a
8 a 1 2 /2


:
p
/
|U |2
b
ZU =
= 2 q
.
2P
a 1 2 /2

4.3.

()
, (. 4.2).
,
,

. 4.2

1
2

I
~H
~ )~n dS = P + 2j (Wh We ).
(E
S

, , , .
~ H
~ ,
E
1
U I = P + 2j(Wh We ).
2
.
4.3.1.


:
110

U
I
, Y =
.
I
U

. , U = Z I,
Z =

1 2
|I| Z = P + 2j (Wh We ),
2

Z =

P + 2j(Wh We )
= R + jX.
1 2
|I|
2

, I = Y U ,
Y =

P + 2j(We Wh )
= G + jB.
1
|U |2
2


Z (j) = Z(j),

Y (j) = Y (j),

Z(j) + Z(j)
,
2
Z(j) Z(j)
,
X = Im Z =
2j
Y (j) + Y (j)
G = Re Y =
,
2
Y (j) Y (j)
B = Im Y =
.
2j
R = Re Z =

, R, G , X, B
. :
1) R > 0, P > 0;
2) P = 0, Z ;
3) Wh We = 0, X = 0 B = 0,
.
4.3.2.


. a b.
111

b
.
a

=

1 2
1 2
|a| , P =
|b| .
2
2
, ,
P =

U = p (a + b) = p a(1 + ),
1
1
I =
(a b) =
a(1 ).
p
p
p 1/p .
Z =

U
1 +
= p2
.
I
1

= 0 Z = Z0 , p2 = Z0 .
,
=

Z Z0
.
Z + Z0

, .
, , . ., ,
.
1 +
z 1
, =
.
1
z + 1
.
p, U I ,

z =

(1 + )(1 )

1 2
|a| = P + 2j(We Wh ),
2

112

(1 + )(1 ) =

P + 2j(We Wh )
.
1 2
|a|
2

,
1 =

( ) =

P
,
1 2
|a|
2

2j(We Wh )
.
1 2
|a|
2

P > 0, 6 1 || 6 1.
:
=

1 P 0 e j ,

sin =

Im
P
.
, P0 =
1 2
||
|a|
2

, , .

4.4.

N . S, ,
(. 4.3).

1 X
Un In = P + 2j (Wh We ),
2 n

113

. 4.3

P ; Wh We
; n
.
4.4.1.



X
Znm Im .
Un =
m

Znm
Z = {Znm } ,
.

U = Z I,
U (U1 , U2 , . . . , UN ) I (I1 , I2 , . . . , IN )
. :
I = Y U,
Y = {Ynm } . ,
Y = Z 1 .

1
U I = P + 2j (Wh We )
2
, U = Z I,
114

1
I ZI = P + 2j (Wh We ).
2
4.4.2.

()


.
.
, V
. , ,
1 2 .

~ (1) H
~ (2) ) div (E
~ (2) H
~ (1) ) = H
~ (2) rot E
~ (1) E
~ (1) rot H
~ (2)
div (E
~ (1) rot E
~ (2) + E
~ (2) rot H
~ (1) .
H

~ (2) H
~ (1) j E
~ (1) E
~ (2) + j H
~ (1) H
~ (2) + j E
~ (2) E
~ (1)
j H
, .
,
~ (1) H
~ (2) ) div (E
~ (2) H
~ (1) ) = 0,
div (E

.
V , S,
(
):
I
~ (1) H
~ (2) E
~ (2) H
~ (1) } ~n dS = 0.
{E
S

S , , , .
,
, .

115

, :
X
[Un(1) In(2) Un(2) In(1) ] = 0.
n

n .
, ,
.
:
U (1) I (2) U (2) I (1) = 0.
U I () ,

U = Z I.
,
I (2) Z I (1) I (1) Z I (2) = 0.
,
,
I (1) Z T I (2) I (1) Z I (2) = 0,
Z T .
I (1) I (2) , ,
Z T = Z, . . Z .
, , ,
. Z .
Y .
4.4.3.

, .
, , ( ) .

116

1
1 X
I Znm Im = P + 2j (Wh We ).
I ZI =
2
2 n,m n
P = 0
1 X
I Znm Im = 2j (Wh We ),
2 n,m n
. . . , Znm . ,
, , , . . In = 0,
Ik 6= 0. :
1
Zkk Ik Ik = 2j (Wh We ),
2
, Zkk .
, In ,
Ik 6= 0 Im 6= 0. :
1

{Ik Ik Zkk + Im Im
Zmm + Im
Zmk Ik + Ik Zkm Im } = 2j (Wh We ).
2
Zmk = Zkm ,

Re (Im
Ik + Ik Im )Zmk = 0.

Im
Ik + Ik Im , ,

Re Zmk = 0,
.
, .
4.4.4. ()

()
. , .
117


Z
I ZI = 4j (Wh We ) = j (|H|2 |E|2 ) dV,
V

Wh =

1
2

1
|H|2
dV, We =
2
2

|E|2
dV.
2

V ,
S, , .
, ,
~ =
E

1
~
rot H.
j

~ 2 |rot H|
~ 2 dV =
I ZI = j
|H|
2 2
=

~ 2 |rot H|
~ 2 dV =
k 2 |H|

j 2~ ~
~ rot H
~ dV.
k H H rot H

:
I ZI + I ZI + I ZI =

~ H
~ + k2 H
~ H
~
k2 H

~ rot H
~ rot H
~ rot H
~ dV.
rot H

~ H
~ ) = H
~ rot rot H
~ rot H
~ rot H
~ ,
div (rot H
,
~ rot H
~ = div (rot H
~ H
~ ) H
~ rot rot H,
~
rot H
118

~ rot H
~ = div (rot H
~ H)
~ H
~ rot rot H
~ .
rot H
,
I ZI + I ZI + I ZI =

Z h
~ rot rot H)
~ H
~ +
(k 2 H
V

I h
i
i
~ rot rot H
~ ) H
~ dV
~ H
~ ) ~n + (rot H
~ H)
~ ~n dS.
+ (k 2 H
(rot H
S

~n .
~ = jE,
~ , rot H
:
I ZI + I ZI + I ZI =

Z h
~ rot rot H)
~ H
~ +
(k 2 H

~ rot rot H
~ ) H
~ dV +
+ (k 2 H

I h

i
~ H
~ + E
~ H
~ ~n dS.
E

~
, H
~ rot rot H
~ = 0
k2 H

~ ~n = 0, E
~ ~n = 0
rot H
( ), Z = 0. ,
. ,
, ,

.
, :
I ZI + I ZI + I ZI = I ZI I Z I.
Z = Z.
,

119

I ZI = 0.
Z = 0.
, :
~
1. H
~ rot rot H
~ = 0.
k2 H
~ , , 2. rot H
~ .
E
~
, H
. , Z, , . , .
. , :
I ZI + I ZI + I ZI =

Z h
~ rot rot E)
~ E
~ +
(k 2 E
V

~ rot rot E)
~ E
~
+ (k 2 E

I h
i
~ E
~ + H
~ E
~ ~n dS.
dV +
H
S

Z , ~ . E
~ , E
. , , ~
E.
~
E ,
.
.
, .
, :
~ .
1. E
120

~ S
2. E
.
~
, E
, .

( ).
4.4.5. ,

,
() .
.
, . , ,
Z
~m H
~ k ) ~z0 dS m 6= k,
(E
S

S ; ~z0 z.
, N ,
N .
4.4.6.


, , . .
.

:
Un

In

pn (an + bn ),
1
(an bn ).
pn
121

pn . , ,
p2n = Z0n ,

pn = Z0n . , .
Un

an + bn ,

In

an bn ,

an

bn

1
(Un + In ),
2
1
(Un In ).
2


X
Un =
Znm Im .
m

an bn ,
an
bn

=
=

1
2

Znm Im + In

1 X

!
=

1X
(Znm + nm ) Im ,
2 m

1X
(Znm nm ) Im ,
2 m

!
Znm Im In

nm =

0 n =
6 m,
1 n = m.

:
a =
b =

1
(Z + 1) I,
2
1
(Z 1) I.
2
122

I:
I = 2(Z + 1)1 a.
b,
b = (Z 1)(Z + 1)1 a.

S = (Z 1)(Z + 1)1 ,
,
. , :
S = (1 Y )(1 + Y )1 .

,
, . . , , .
.
4.4.7.

(Z + 1):
(Z + 1) S = (Z + 1)(Z 1)(Z + 1)1 .
, Z + 1 Z 1 .
. ,
(Z + 1) S = (Z 1)(Z + 1)(Z + 1)1
, ,
(Z + 1) S = Z 1.
(Z + 1)1 ,
S = (Z + 1)1 (Z 1).
123

, Z 1 (Z + 1)1 . ,
. , , , , . ,
,
S T = S,
S T .
( ).
4.4.8.


,
1X
(an + bn )(an bn ) = P + 2j (Wh We )
2 n
, ,
1 X
(an an bn bn + an bn an bn ) = P + 2j (Wh We ).
2 n
,
X
(an an bn bn )

2P,

4j (Wh We ).

X
(an bn an bn )
n

:
a a b b
a b a b

= 2P,
= 4j (Wh We ).

, . . P = 0,
|a|2 = |b|2 ,
124

: .
:
a a Sa S a = 2P.
S S T , . . ,
a (1 S T S)a = 2P.
1 , ik (
).
P = 0,
1 S T S = 0,

S T S = 1.
, , . :
1. , :
X
X
|an |2 =
|bn |2 .
n

2. S T S = 1
X
X
T

(S T S)ik =
Sim
Smk =
Smi
Smk = ik .
m

,
X

Sim
Skm = ik .
m

3. 1.
4. .
, . , , .
125


a Sa a S a = 4j (Wh We )

a (S S T )a = 4j (Wh We ).
, S ,
a (S S )a = 4j (Wh We ).
S S .
4.4.9.

an

, bn


ln
(. 4.4).
b = Sa.
b0 = S 0 a0 . an ,
bn , a0n , b0n

an , b n

ln
. 4.4

a0n = an e jn ln , b0n = bn ejn ln ,

a0n = an e jn ln , bn = b0n e jn ln .
L:

L =

e j1 l1

e jn ln

:
a0 = La, b = Lb0 ,

a = L1 a0 , b = Lb0 .
126

,
,
Lb0 = S L1 a0 b0 = L1 S L1 a0 .
,
S 0 = L1 SL1 .
.
4.4.10.

2
4
,
H10 (. 4.5).
1
.
3
. . 4.5
, , . ,
, .

S11 = S22 , S13 = S23 ,
S14 = S24 , S34 = S43 = 0.
, ,
S12 = S21 , S13 = S31 , S14 = S41 , S23 = S32 , S24 = S42 , S34 = S43 .
,

S11

S12

S13

S14

S12
S13 S14

S11
S13 S14
.

S13
S33 0

S14 0
S44
127

,
X
X
Sik Sil = kl ,
Ski Sli = kl .
i

.
1. 3 4, .
.
, , :

S11 S13
+ S12 S13
+ S13 S33
= 0,

S12 S14 S11 S14 S14 S44 = 0.

:
S11 + S12
S11 S12

S13
S33 ,
S13
S14
= S44
,
S14
=

S11
S12

S14
1 S13
+
S
S
33
44 ,

2 S13
S14

S14
1 S13
S

S
=
33
44 ,

2 S13
S14

S33 = S44 = 0, , S11 = 0 S12 = 0.


3 4
S13 S14 .
S11

S12

),
+ S44
(S33
2
1

(S33
S44
).
2

, S11 S12
, S33 = 0 S44 = 0. S33 S44 ,
.
128

2.
( S33 = S44 = 0):
|S13 |2 + |S13 |2
|S14 |

+ |S14 |

1,

1.


1
|S13 | = |S14 | = .
2
:
S33 = S44 = 0 , , 3 4.
, S33 = S44 = 0 , , S11 = 0,
S22 = 0 S12 = S21 = 0, . ,
S11 = S22 = S33 = S44 = S34 = S43 = 0

1
S13 = ,
2

1
S14 = .
2

1
S =
2

0
0
1
1

0
0
1
1

1 1
1 1
0 0
0 0

,
.
, a3 3.
2 , 1 .
, 4:
1
b4 = (a1 a2 ).
2
a2 = 0, 2 . a1
:
129

a1 = b1 .

1
b1 = (a3 a4 ).
2
, 4 .
a4 = 0
1
b1 = a3 .
1
a1 ,
1
1
a1 = a3 , b4 = a3 .
2
2
, 4- 1.
, 1 2 ( ) ,
4 . .

4.5.

4.5.1.
()

~ = jH,
~ rot H
~ = jE.
~
rot E
, . :
rot
rot

~
E

~
H

=
=

~
H
,

~
~ + j E .
jE

~ j
jH

~ , E
~
H
. ( )
130

~
~
~ rot E E
~ rot H = j(|H|
~ 2 + |E|
~ 2)
H

~
~
~ H + rot H
~ E .
rot E

, ,

div

~
E
~
H

~
~ H
+ div E

!
~ 2 + |E|
~ 2 ).
= j(|H|

,
, .
.
,
!

!)
I ( ~
Z
~
E

~
~
~ 2 + |E|
~ 2 ) dV.
H
+ E
~n dS =
j(|H|

~n . , ,
U
I
I + U
= 4j (WH + WE ).

U I ,
1 R |H|2
1 R |E|2
WH =
dV WE =
dV
2V
2
2V 2
.
U = Z I,

U
Z
I
=
I +Z
.

,
131

Z
I
I
I + I Z
+
Z I = 4j (WH + WE )

, Z = Z ,
I

I
I
Z
I + I Z

ZI = 4j (WH + WE ).

Z
I = 4j (WH + WE ).

:
I

Y
U = 4j (WH + WE ).

Y
Zmn
Z
,

Ymn
.

4.5.2.

:
U
I
I + U
= 4j (WH + WE ).

U = a + b, I = a b, , ,

a
b
+

(a b ) + (a + b )

a
b

= 4j (WH + WE ).

,
a
b
b
= 2j (WH + WE ).

b
S
a
, b = S a ,
=
a+S
. ,

a
a
a
S
a
S
a
S a
a + S
= a

a S a S a S
.

132

S
,

:
S

a
a
S
S
a S
a
SS a = a S
a,

S S = 1 .
, ,
:
a

S
a = 2j (WH + WE ).

Z
Y
,

Ymn
Zmn

a S

4.5.3.

()
Z
W
Y
W
= 2j
= 2j
,
.
1
1

II
UU
2
2
:
S = = e j ,

d
a = a
a = a ej je j a = 2j (WH + WE ).

a S

d
W
= ,
d
P
1
aa .
2
. ,
e j1 t e j2 t . , :
P =

133

b = e j(1 t+1 ) + e j(2 t+2 ) = e j(1 t+1 {1 +


)
(
o

)
j(t+
j[(2 1 )t+(2 1 )]
j(1 t+1 )

+e
= e
1 +e
.
,

d
.
d
, , , . . . . ,
=

d
W
= .
d
P
, , , , ( , ).
=

4.6.

4.6.1.

l1

, . , (. 4.6),
,

l2

. 4.6

S11
S =
S21

S12
, S12 = S21 .
S22

.
,
|S11 |2 + |S12 |2 = 1,
134

|S12 |2 + |S22 |2 = 1.
, |S11 | = |S22 |.
, S11 = S22 . , ,
:

S11 S12
+ S12 S22
= 0.

, , S11 = S22 ,

S11 S12
+ S12 S11
= 0,

Re (S11 S12
) = 0.
, , , S11 = S22 , Re S12 = 0, . . S12 = S21 .
,
q
p
2 .
S12 = j 1 |S11 |2 = j 1 S11

,
, |S11 | l1 l2 ,
, S11 = S22 , . .
. ,
S11 .
B, S11
S11 =

1 (1 + jB)
jB
=
1 + 1 + jB
2 + jB

jB =

2S11
.
1 + S11

S11 B.
, . ,
.
, ,
: . ,
, . . ,
135

. .
.
.
4.6.2. ,

,
;
I
II
. 4.7 . ,
. 4.7

, II
I.
.
~ H.
~ ,
E
( ).
I ( )
e1m 1

e2 m 2

11111111111
00000000000
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111

j1 z
~ I = E
~m
E
(e
+ e j1 z ),

~m
~z0 E

~ I = (ej1 z e j1 z )H
~m
H
= (ej1 z e j1 z )
.
ZI

II :

~ II
E

~m
T E
ej2 z ,

~ II
H

~m
~z0 E

~m
T H
ej2 z = T
ej2 z .
ZII

z = 0 (
~z0 )
136


~m
E
(1 + ) =

~
Em
(1 ) =
ZI

~m
TE
,

~
E
T m ,
ZII

1 +
1
ZI

= T,
T
=
.
ZII

,
ZII ZI
.
ZII + ZI
T
=

2ZII
.
ZII + ZI
ZI ZII , , .
T = 1 + =

p
/

=
= p
= p
= p
=
2
2
2
2
2 / 2

k gm
gm
1 gm
p
/
.
= q
1 2 /2


q
p

=
/ 1 2 /2 .


. = 0 j .

ZE =

4.6.3.

, .
137

S1 S2
(. 4.8). .
II
z
, I
;

S2
. S1
.
, . 4.8
, .
I
~ I = (ejz + e jz ) E
~1 +
E

~ n e n z ,
An E

n=2

II
~1 +
~ II = T ejz E
E

~ n en z ,
Bn E

n=2

~ 1, E
~ 2, . . . , E
~ n
E
; ,
, .
:
~I
H
~ II
H

= (ejz e jz )
= T ejz

X
~1
~n
~z0 E
~z0 E
+
An
e n z ,
Z1
Z
n
n=2

X
~1
~n
~z0 E
~z0 E
+
en z .
Bn
Z1
Z
n
n=2

z = 0 ,

138

~1 +
(1 + ) E

~n = T E
~1 +
An E

n=2

~ =
Bn E

n=2

~
E(x,
y) ,
0
.

~
E(x,
y) , . :
~ =
E

Z
~n
E

n=1

~ E
~ n dS,
E
S

~ n ,
E
Z
~n E
~ n dS = 1.
E
S

.
,
Z
~ E
~ 1 dS,
1 + = T =
E
S2

~ E
~ n dS.
E

An = Bn =
S2

,
~
E(x,
y) 0.

, 1+ = T An = Bn . ,
(S2 ):

(1 )

X
X
~1
~n
~1
~n
~z0 E
~z0 E
~z0 E
~z0 E
+
An
= (1 + )
+
An
.
Z1
Zn
Z1
Zn
n=2
n=2

~z0 ,

X
~1
~n
E
E
+
An
= 0.
Z1
Zn
n=2

139

An , ~
E(x,
y):
~ Z
X
~1
En ~ ~
E
E En dS =
.
Z
Z1
n=1 n
S2

,
S2 . . ,
jB ( ), :
1 (1 + jB)
jB
=
,
1 + 1 + jB
2 + jB

jB =

1
2
= jB(1 + ).
1 +
2

,
Z
~ E
~ 1 dS,
E

1 + =
S2

,
1
= jB
2

Z
~ E
~ 1 dS.
E
S2

~
, E(x,
y):
Z
Z

X
2Z1 ~

~
~
~
~ E
~ 1 dS = 0.
En E En dS B E1 E
jZ
n
n=2
S2

S2

~
E(x,
y) ,

. () , , B, . ,
140

( ).
B. ~ (x, y) S2 .
E
Z
Z
Z
Z

X
2Z1
~ E
~ dS = 0.
~ E
~ n dS B E
~ E
~ 1 dS E
~ E
~ n dS E
E
1
jZ
n
n=2
S2

S2

S2

S2

B,

2
R

~ ~

E
dS

X
2Z1 S2
B =

2 .
jZn R

n=2
~ ~

E E1 dS
S2

, ZnE = n /j,
ZnH = j/n , Z1 . ,
, () B, , , ().
,
.
4.6.4.

2
R

~ ~

E En dS

X 2Z1 S2
B =

2
jZn R

n=2
~ ~

E E1 dS
S2

.
~
E(x,
y). ,
~
E(x, y), 4.6.3 , B, . . B
.
141

Z
Z
Z
Z

X
2Z1
~ E
~ n dS E
~ E
~ n dS B E
~ E
~ 1 dS E
~ E
~ 1 dS = 0
E
jZ
n
n=2
S2

S2

S2

S2

~
E:
Z
Z
Z
Z

X
X
2Z1
2Z1
~ E
~ n dS E
~ E
~ n dS +
~ E
~ n dS E
~ E
~ n dS
E
E
jZ
jZ
n
n
n=2
n=2
S2

S2

S2

S2

2
Z

Z
Z

~ E
~ 1 dS E
~ E
~ 1 dS B
~ E
~ 1 dS +

E
B E

S2
S2
S2

Z
Z

~ E
~ 1 dS E
~ E
~ 1 dS
+ E
= 0.

S2

S2

,
:
Z
S2

Z
Z

X
2Z1 ~ ~ ~
~ E
~ 1 dS +
~ 1 E
~
dS E
En E En dS B E

jZn
n=2
S2

S2

Z
Z
Z

2Z1 ~
~
~ E
~ n dS B E
~1 E
~ E
~ 1 dS
+ dS E
En E

jZn
n=2
S2

S2

S2

2
Z

~
~

B E E1 dS = 0.

S2

B
~ ,
E,
. , B (
B)
. , B ,
~
E:
142

Z
Z

X
2Z1 ~
~ E
~ dS B E
~1 E
~ E
~ 1 dS = 0.
En E
n
jZ
n
n=2
S2

S2

(
) , .
~ , E
(
). .
4.6.5.

B
B ,
, ,
. .
.
(. 4.9).
y
, ,
, 00000
11111
d
00000
11111
00000
11111
Hn0 .
00000
11111
00000
11111
000
111
00000
11111
y- 000
111
00000
11111
000
111
00000
11111
~
E:
000
111
00000
11111
z
000
111
00000
11111
000
111
x
r
0
000
111
000
111
2
nx
a
Eny =
sin
x
ab
a
.
. 4.9
B Ey (x) :
(
Ey =

cos

(x x0 )
d

,
.


143

x0 +

In =

d
2

cos
x0

(x x0 )
nx
sin
dx.
d
a

d
2


In =

2
1
nx0
nd
sin
cos
.
2
2
2
d 1/d n /a
a
2a

B (, Zn =
, Z1 =
),
n

n=
X
n=2

2n (1/d2 1/a2 )2
(1/d2 n2 /a2 )2

nd
nx0
cos2
a
2a
,
d
2 x0
sin
cos2
a
2a

sin2

p
2
, n = (n/a)2 k 2 .

, n/a 6= 1/d n.
0

0
nd
, n/a = 1/d ( cos
= 0).
2a
a
,
d
.
=

4.6.6.

, B.
.
~
E(x,
y)

, . . . , ~ B, B E,
.
144

, B . B . .
, , , .
~en (x, y).
N
X

~
E

am~em .

m=1

N
X

~ E
~ dS =
E

In =

m=1

S2

~ dS =
~em E
n

am

N
X

am bmn ,

m=1

S2

Z
~ n dS.
~em E

bmn =
S2

B,

P
2Z1 P
am bmn

jZ
n
m=1
B = n=2
.
2
N
P

am bm1

m=1

:
B

N
X

am bm1

m=1

N
X

as bs1 =

s=1

N
X
X
2Z1 X
am bmn
as bsn .
jZ
n m=1
n=2
s=1

am , as (
B = 0):
)
( N
N
N
N
X
X
X
X
B
am bm1
as bs1 +
am bm1
as bs1 =
m=1

X
2Z1
=
jZn
n=2

s=1
N
X

m=1

am bmn

m=1
N
X

as bsn

s=1

s=1
N
X
m=1

145

am bmn

N
X
s=1

)
as bsn

,
(

N
X

am

m=1

N
X

B bm1

as bs1

s=1

as

N
X

bs1

s=1

N
X
m=1

am bm1

N
X
X
2Z1

bmn
as bsn
jZ
n
n=2
s=1

N
X
2Z1 X

bsn
am bmn
jZn
n=2
m=1

+
)
= 0.

am as
, .
Z1 , Zn (n > 1),

, , ,
N
X

B bs1

am bm1

m=1

X
2Z1 X
bsn
am bmn = 0 s = 1, 2, . . . , N.
jZn
m=1
n=2

(
)
N
X

(
am

m=1

X
2Z1
bsn bmn B bs1 bm1
jZ
n
n=2

)
= 0 s = 1, 2, . . . , N.

N
N am .
, .
, B.
, . , . ,
bs1 . bs1 .
N
X
m=1

(
am

X
2Z1 bsn bmn
B bm1
jZn bs1
n=2

)
= 0 s = 1, 2, . . . , N.

B
146

(
Det cms = Det

X
2Z1 bsn bmn
B bm1
jZn bs1
n=2

)
= 0.

B bm1 s. ,
B . , B
, .
4.6.7.

~
E:
~ Z
X
~
En
~ E
~ n dS E1 = 0.
E
Z
Z1
n=1 n
S2

,
.
~em ,
:
E =

am~em ,

m=1

am . . N
E

N
X

am~em

m=1

. ,
:
Z
~
N
X
~
En X
~ n dS E1 = .
am ~em E
Z
Z1
n=1 n m=1
S2

147

, am ,
e~s (s = 1, 2, . . . , N ) S2 :

Z X
Z
~
N

X
~
En
~ n dS E1 ~es dS = 0, s = 1, 2, . . . , N.
am ~em E

Z
Z1
n=1 n m=1

S2

S2

Z
~ n dS bsn =
~em E

bmn =
S2

~ n dS.
~es E
S2

N
X
bsn X
b
am bmn = s1 ,
Z
Z1
n=1 n m=1

N
X
m=1

am

X
b
bsn bmn
= s1 , s = 1, 2, . . . , N.
Zn
Z1
n=1

N N am . ,
~ B, .
E,

Z
Z

X
2Z1 ~
~ E
~ n dS B E
~1 E
~ E
~ 1 dS = 0.
En E
jZ
n
n=2
S2

S2

N
X

am~em .

m=1

N
N
X
X
2Z1 ~ X
~1
En
am bmn B E
am bm1 = .
jZn
n=2
m=1
m=1

148

~es S2 ( )
N
N

X
X
2Z1 X
bsn
am bmn B bs1
am bm1 = 0
jZn
m=1
m=1
n=2

N
X

(
am

m=1

X
2Z1
bsn bmn B bs1 bm1
jZ
n
n=2

)
= 0 s = 1, 2, . . . , N.

, ,
.
4.6.8.

. ,
. ( )
B =

d
d
x0
cot2
(1 + sec2
cot2
).
a
2a
2a
2a

(. 4.10).
, , .


B =

111111111111
000000000000
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111

4b
d
ln csc
.

2b

. 4.10

b/ . 4.11.
149

b
. 4.11


(. 4.12). , ,
s
s
2

2
a

a0

1
= 0 1
.
b
2a
b
2a0

111111111111
000000000000
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111
b
a
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111

a
. 4.12

, , , b0 0,
= 2a0 , . . a0 = /2.
.

Y = 1 + jQ

2
,
0

0 . Q ( 10) b0 .
150

. ,
(. 4.13).

11
00
00
11
00
11

L
C

. 4.13

.
, /4, .

. , ,
, .
, ,
.
4.6.9.

S1
S2 , . A.

~1 +
(1 + ) E

~n =
An E

n=2

~
E(x,
y)
0

A,
S1 A


~ 10 +
T E

~ n0 =
Bn E

n=2

~
E(x,
y)
0

A,
S2 A

~ n . E
~ n0 II; E(x,
~
I; E
y)

.
,
151

R
R
~ E
~ dS, An = E
~ E
~ n dS,
1 + = E
1
A
A
R
R
~ E
~ 0 dS,
~ E
~ n0 dS.
T = E
Bn = E
A


:
~1
(1 ) H

~n = T H
~ 10 +
An H

n=2

~ n0 ,
Bn H

n=2

X
X
~1
~0
~n
~ n0
~z0 E
~z0 E
~z0 E
~z0 E
1
(1 )

An
= T
+
Bn
.
0
0
Z1
Zn
Z1
Zn
n=2
n=2

Z1 , Zn , Z10 , Zn0 . ~z0


,

X
X
~1
~n
~0
~0
E
E
E
E
1
(1 )

An
= T 0 +
Bn n0 .
Z1
Zn
Z1
Zn
n=2
n=2

, T , An Bn , ~
E(x,
y):
~ Z
~0 Z
X
X
~1
En ~ ~
En ~ ~ 0
2E
E

E
dS
=
E En dS +
.
n
Z
Z0
Z1
n=1 n
n=1 n
A

, , . ~
E
.
1
Z1

Z
~ E
~ 1 dS
E
A

X
X
1
|Bn |2
|An |2
.
= |T |2 0 +
Zn
Z1
Zn0
n=2
n=2

1 + =
R
~E
~ dS:
= E
1
A

152

1 1

1 + Z1

2
Z

X
X

|An |2
|Bn |2
2 1
~ E
~ 1 dS
E
=
|T
|
+
,

Zn
Z10
Zn0

n=2
n=2
A

1
=
1 +

|T |2

P
P
Z1
Z1
Z1
2
|An |2 +
0 +
0 |Bn |
Z
Z1
Z
n
n=2
n=2 n
.

2
R

~ E
~ dS
E
1

1
= Y ,
1+
. ,
Y :

|T |2

Z1
Z10

Y =
2
R

~ E
~ dS
E
1

P
P
Z1
Z1
2
|An |2 +
0 |Bn |
jZ
jZ
n
n
n=2
n=2
+ j
.

2
R

~ E
~ dS
E
1

, H- ZnH =
, E- ZnE = n n
j
.
, S1 S2 , ~ n0 E
~ n Zn0 Zn ).
( E

n:1
Z0 =1 jB

Z 0=1

. 4.14

, .
, , .
, . 4.14.
153

, .
~ E
~1
E
.
,
H10 .
H.
, . 4.15.
y
a

a
z

x
a

. 4.15

Hn0 .
y .
~
~ 1
E(x,
y) E
~ 1 I. E
y,
, .
I ( )
r
2
x
Eym =
cos(2m + 1) ,
ab
a
II
r
2
x
0
Eym =
cos(2m + 1) 0 .
0
ab
a
,

Z
0 m 6= 0,

~
~
E Em dS =
1 m = 0.
A

154

A2m+1 = 0 m 6= 0.
,
r

Z
0
~ E
~m
E
dS =

B2m+1 =

a
cos(2m + 1)
,
0
2
a /4 (2m + 1)2 2

a
.
2a0

m = 0
r
T =

a cos
.
a0 2 /4 2

Z
0 Z
0
Y , 10 = , 10 = n ,
jZn

Z1

0a
Y =
a0

cos
2
/4 2

0
a X 2m+1
cos(2m + 1)
j 0
.
a m=1
2 /4 (2m + 1)2 2

,
, T . . 4.16.

n:1
Y0 =1

Y0 =1

. 4.16

s
n =

0a
a0

cos
2 /4 2

2
.

, :
1.

a
= 1 , a0

sin(2m
+
1)
0
X 2m+1

2
2
Y

m(m + 1)
m=1
2
0

sin

155

E (. 4.17)
y

y
z

b
b

. 4.17

.
, y.
, , .
, , ,
~
E.
~
~
, E y- . , E x
, ,
x.
Ex = 0, y- ,
n = 1, . . x , . , ,
, m (m = 2l).
, , ( ):
(m = 2l)

2
x
2ly
E2ly =
sin
cos
a
b
a g2l ab
l = 0
r
x
2
E0y =
sin
ab
a

156

0
E2ly
=

2
x
2ly
sin
cos 0
0
a
b
a g2l
ab0
r

0
E0y

x
2
sin
a
ab0

(m = 2l)
E2ly =

4l
x
2ly
sin
cos
a
b
b g2l ab

0
E2ly
=

4l
x
2ly
sin
cos 0 ,
0
0
a
b
b g2l ab
0


r
g2l =

2
4 2 l2
0
+
, g2l
=
2
a
b2

2
4 2 l2
+
.
2
a
b0 2

~ , , y-
E,
x , ,
x
: Ex = 0, Ey = E(y) sin
.
a

2
R

~ E
~ 0 dS
E
1

Z
1
G = A
2 0 .
R
Z1
~ E
~ dS
E
1

Z1 = Z10 ( a), E1y =


r
2
x
0
E1y =
sin
.
a
ab0
E :

x
2
sin
,
ab
a

2
2
b
ab0
G =
2 = 0 .
b
2
ab
()

P
P
Z1 R
Z1

E E2l dS +
0

jZ
2l A
l=1
l=1 jZ2l
B =

2
R

E E dS
1

2
R

E E 0 dS
2l

~
E

157

2
x
sin
.
ab
a
An
Ey =

Zb/2
cos

2ly
dy = 0 (l 6= 0),
b

b/2

An = 0.
Bn = B2l .

r
H
B2l

2
2

0
ab ag2l
ab0

Za/2

x
dx
sin
a

Zb/2

a/2

b/2

2ly
2 2 ab0

cos 0 dy =

b
a2 bb0 2l

r
lb
2
b sin l
sin 0 =
,
0
b
ag2l
b0 l
=

b
.
b0
H 2
(B2l
)

b0
2 2
=
2 0 2
b a g2l

sin l
l

2
.

E
B2l

2
2 2l
b sin l
b 8 2 l2
sin l
E 2
=
, (B2l ) = 0 02 0 2
.
0 b0
g2l
b0 l
b b g2l
l


P2l =

Z1
Z1
H 2
E 2
0 H (B2l ) + jZ 0 E (B2l ) .
jZ2l
2l

0
0 H
j 0 E
= 2l .
, Z2l = 0 , Z2l

j
2l
P2l ,

Z1 =

158


1 2 E 2
0 2
H 2
k (B2l ) 2l
(B2l
)
=
0
2l

2 2
2
sin l
b
1
2 8 l
0 2 2
=
k

=
2l
0
0 2
0 2
2l
l
b0
b02 g2l
a2 g2l

0 2
2
2l
1 b 2 2 sin l
2 4l
=
k

.
0 b0 g 0 2
2l
l
b02
a2
2l
P2l =

0 2
0 2
2l
= g2l
k 2 ,

P2l

1 b 2 2
=
0 b0 g 0 2
2l
2l

sin l
l

2
1 0 2
2 4l
2
k 02 2 (g2l k ) .
b
a


4l2
k 2 02
b

0 2
0 2
0 2
1 0 2
1
g2l
g2l
2
2 4l
2 g2l
2 (g2l k ) = k
+

=
k

=
a
b02
a2
a2
2
a2

0 2
g2l
2
g0 2
(k 2 2 ) = 2l2 2 .
2

2
sin l
P2l
.
l
R
B ( , EE1 dS = 1,
A
R

EE2l
dS = 0),
1 b 2 2
=
0 b0 g 0 2
2l
2l

sin l
l

0 2
g2l
2b
2 = 0 0
2
2l b

B =

P2l

2b X 1
= 0
0
b
2l
l=1

l=1

sin l
l

b
b X 1
sin l
Y = 0 + 2j 0
,
0
b
b
2l
l
l=1

q
b
0
0 2 k2 .
,

=
g2l
2l
b0
159

n:1
Y0 =1

Y0 =1
. 4.18

B > 0,
r , . 4.18.
b
n =
.
b0

2
b

, G ,
b
.
b/b0 .
4.6.10.

E,
, TEM . , . . ,
, ,
.
,
, (. 4.19).

Z0

Z1
0

Z2

Zn

Z
n

. 4.19

160

0 , 1 , . . . , n :
i =

Zi+1 Zi
.
Zi+1 + Zi

n .
, , ,
( ):
b =

n
X

m e2jm = ejn

m=0

n
X

m e j(n2m) =

m=0

n
o
= ejn 0 e jn + 1 e j(n2) + . . . + n/2 + . . . + n ejn ,

2d
.

, ,
m = nm .
=

b = 2e

jn

1
0 cos n + 1 cos(n 1) + . . . + n/2 ,
2

. . . cos , cos . cos = x,



|b| = M Pn (x),
Pn (x) n x, .
,
cos , . .
,
. , x,
,
(. 4.20).
161

|b|

x= cos
. 4.20

:
m = Cnm .

b =

n
X

n
= 2n cosn = 2n xn .
m e j(n2m) = e j + ej

m=0

x = 1 ( = 0):
X
b( = 0) =
m = 2n ,
m

m = nT , T =
2
m
.
b = T xn .
1
1
6x6
t
t
t > 1,

x

b =
162

T
.
tn

K = tn ,
, . , . ,

, x = 0, . . = .
2

d = , . .
4
.
. ,
, . Tn (y):
Tn (y) =

1
2n1

Tn (y),

Tn (y) = cos(n arccos y).


, Tn (y)
, 1, y 1 < y < +1.
Tn (y) (. 4.21):
T0
T1
T2
T3
T4

=
=
=
=
=

1,
y,
2y 2 1,
4y 3 3y,
8y 4 8y 2 + 1.

T (x)
n
1
2

n=

n=

Tn+1 = 2Tn y Tn1 .

n=4

x 1 1
( , ), t t

x
1

n=3

-1

-1

b = M Tn (tx).
163

. 4.21

M , . x = 1 b = T .

M = T .
Tn (t)
Tn (tx)
T (tx)
= T
.
|b| = T n
Tn (t)
Tn (t)
Tn (tx) 1,
T
.
Tn (t)

b =

K = Tn (t). ,
(
2n1 ).

:
1
1 1
1 2(1 1/t2 )
1 3(1 1/t2 )

1
3(1 1/t2 )

1,

. . , .
, .. t.
=

2d
.

(. 4.22)
min

2d
1
= arccos ,

2d
1
=
= arccos
=

t
= .

=
min


=
= q

.
. 4.22

164

q
; =
.
1 + q
1 + q

q:
t =

1
=
cos

1
cos

1 + q

2d
=
,

1 + q

d =

q
/
=
=
=
2(1 + q)
2(1 + q)
2(1 + / )

=
2

1
1
1
+

,
4

1
1
=

1
f
= ,

c
c
d =
=
=
,
2(f + f )
4f
4

TEM-

. . .
d
.
: T = 0.5; q = 2; n = 4.

t =

1
cos

= 2.

( )
165

K4 = T4 (2) = 97.

b =

0.5
= 0.005.
97

K4 = 24 = 16.

5.

,
. , ,
.
: () ( ). -, . -
. , .

5.1. .


~ = jH,
~ rot H
~ = jH
~ + J.
~
rot E
.

. . ;
, ,
, , .
.
166

:
~ = jH
~ J~m , rot H
~ = jH
~ + J~e ,
rot E
, J~e

J~m
.

.
.

~ (1) H
~ (2) ) div (E
~ (2) H
~ (1) ) = H
~ (2) rot E
~ (1) E
~ (1) rot H
~ (2)
div (E
~ (1) rot E
~ (2) + E
~ (2) rot H
~ (1) .
H
~ (1) , H
~ (1) E
~ (2) , H
~ (2) , E
(1)

(1)

(2)

(2)

Je , Jm , Je , Jm .
rot ,
h
i
(1)
~ (1) H
~ (2) ) div (E
~ (2) H
~ (1) ) = H
~ (2) jH
~ (1) J~m

div (E
h
i
h
i
(2)
~ (1) jE
~ (2) + J~e(2) H
~ (1) jH
~ (2) J~m
E
+
h
i
(2)
(1)
~ (2) jE
~ (1) + J~e(1) = E
~ (2) J~e(1) E
~ (1) J~e(2) + H
~ (1) J~m
~ (2) J~m
+E
H
.
. V ,
S,
I
~ (1) H
~ (2) E
~ (2) H
~ (1) ) ~n dS =
(E
Z

S
(1)
(2)
~ (2) J~m
~ (1) J~m
~ (1) J~e(2) + H
~ (2) J~e(1) E
) dV,
H
(E

=
V

S, V ,
~n .
.
(2)
(2)
, J~e (~r) = ~a (~r ~r0 ), J~m 0, ~a
; ~r ; ~r0 (
167

~ (2) , H
~ (2) ). , E
, ~r0 ,
~a/j. a:
~ (2) = E
~ a (~r, ~r0 ), H
~ (2) = H
~ a (~r, ~r0 ).
E
(1)
~ (1) = E(~
~ r), H
~ (1) = H(~
~ r), J~(1) = J~e (~r), J~(1) = J~m (~r).
E
e
m

(~n )
I

Z
~ H
~a + H
~ E
~ a ) ~n dS = E(~
~ r0 ) ~a +
(E

~ a J~m H
~ a ) dV,
(J~e E
V


~ r0 ) ~a =
E(~

Z h
i
~ a (~r, ~r0 ) J~m H
~ a (~r, ~r0 ) dV +
J~e E
V

I
~a E
~ E
~ a H)~
~ n dS =
(H

+
S

~ a J~m H
~ a ) dV +
(J~e E

=
V

I h

i
~ ~n) H
~ a + (H
~ ~n) E
~ a dS.
(E

, S ,

~e = H
~ ~n, K
~ m = E
~ ~n,
K
~n . ~r0
:
Z
~ r0 ) ~a =
E(~

Z
~ a J~m H
~ a ) dV +
(J~e E

~e E
~a K
~m H
~ a ) dS.
(K
S

, S
~ H
~ E
.
168

~ ~a. E
~
E
, ~a, ~ a . E
~
Ea (~r, ~r0 ) , .
.
, .
,

S ,
( ). ,
~ a, H
~a
. , E

~ at = 0 S,
E
. . S ( ).
, , .
S:
Z
~ r0 ) ~a =
E(~

I
~ a J~m H
~ a ) dV +
(J~e E

I
~ a J~m H
~ a ) dV
(J~e E

~ ~n) H
~ a dS =
(E

~m H
~ a dS.
K
S


. , .

169

,
(. 5.1).
E
, ,
.
. 5.1

5.2.

, z1 < z <
z2 (. 5.2).
z =0
z1
z2

. 5.2
.
, , , z1
z, z2
z.

X
~ =
~ m em z ,
E
Am E

11111111
00000000
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111

~ =
H

~ m em z ,
Am H


~ =
E

~ m e m z , H
~ =
Bm E

~ m e m z .
Bm H

~ m, H
~ m , E
~ m , H
~ m z.
+z, E

170

= E
,
~ m
~m
E

= H
,
~ m
~m
H

~ = E
~m
E
,
m

~ = H
~m
H
.
m

, ,
, Am Bm .
Am Bm ~ (1) , H
~ (1)
. E
, J~e , J~m :
(2)
~ (2) = E
~ n e n z , H
~ (2) = H
~ n e n z , J~e(2) 0, J~m
E
0.

S , . 5.3 (S = S1 + S2 + S3 ).

S1
S2
S3
(S3 ) ,
00000000
11111111
~ (1)
E
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
~ (2) .
E
n
n
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
S1 S2 :

00000000
11111111

Z " X
~ m H
~ n )~z0 e m z en z +

Bm (E
S1

z1

z2

. 5.3

Z "X
S2

#
~ n H
~ m )~z0 e
Bm (E

m z n z

dS +

~m H
~ n )~z0 e n z em z
Am (E

#
m z n z
~
~
Am (En Hm )~z0 e
e
dS =

~ n J~e e n z H
~ n J~m en z ) dV.
(E

=
V

, , ,
171

S1 , ( m 6= n , m = n ). S2
~n H
~ n )~z0 = (E
~ n H
~ n )~z0 .
, (E

Z

Z
~n H
~ n )~z0 dS =
An (E

2
S

~ n J~e e n z H
~ n J~m e n z ) dV.
(E
V

,
z.

Z
~n H
~ n )~z0 dS
(E
S

~ n = 1 (~z0 E
~ n ),
. H
Zn
R
~ )2 , , (E
~n H
~ n )~z0 dS =
~n H
~ n )~z0 = 1 (E
(E
Zn
S
1 R ~ 2
=
(E ) dS.
Zn S n

Z
~ n )2 dS = 1,
(E
S

~n H
~ n )~z0 dS =
(E
S

1
.
Zn

1
An = Zn
2

Z
~ n J~e e n z H
~ n J~m e n z ) dV.
(E
V

Bn :
1
Bn = Zn
2

Z
~ n J~m en z ) dV.
(E~n J~e en z H
V

172

, . , ,
, (
~ 6= 0).
div E
,
1
An = Zn
2

Z
E~n J~e e n z ) dV,
V

Bn

1
= Zn
2

Z
E~n J~e en z dV.

, , ,
.
( ) (. 5.5).

Et

Km
. 5.4

,
(. 5.4).

.
() . 5.5
, , (.
. 5.5).
173

.
,
(. . 5.5). , .
. S1 , ,
:
~ =
E

~ m e m z E
~ m em z ),
Bm (E

~ =
H

~ m e m z H
~ m em z ).
Bm (H

z = 0.
An
~ (2) = E
~ n e n z E
~ n en z ,
E
~ (2) = H
~ n e n z H
~ n en z .
H
, S1 .
S2 ,
Z h
1
~ n e n z E
~ n en z ) J~e
An = Zn
(E
2
V

i
~ n e n z H
~ n en z ) J~m dV.
(H
, , ,
l . ,
J~e z = l (n = jn ):
Z
1
~ n e jn l E~n ejn l ) J~e dV.
An = Zn (E
2
V

,
En ; En
En .
Z
1
~ n J~e dV =
An = Zn (e jn l ejn l ) E
2
V

174

Z
~ n J~e dV.
E

= jZn sin n l
V

n l = , . . l = .
2
4
, I~e .
Z
~ n I~e dl,
An = jZn sin n l E
l

.
, (. 5.6).
E10

r
E10y =

2
x
sin
.
ab
a

x0

Z10 =

,
= p

1 (/2a)2

. 5.6

r
=

E10y , A10 :
A10 = j p

sin l
1 (/2a)2

175

2
x0
sin
ab
a

Zh
I~e d~l.
0

Zh
I~e d~l = I0 h ,
0

I0 , h .

r
sin l
2
x0
A10 = j p
sin
I 0 h .
2
ab
a
1 (/2a)

E = A10 E10 = j p

sin l
1

(/2a)2

2
x0
x
sin
I0 h sin
.
ab
a
a

5.3.

z1 < z < z2 (. 5.7).

S1

S2

S3

11111111
00000000
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111

z1

z2

S
. 5.7

:
1. S
~
E(x,
y, z) =

o
Xn

~m
~ m
~z .
Am (z) E
(x, y) + Am (z) E
(x, y) + E
m

176

2. S1
~
E(x,
y, z) =

~ m
~z.
Am (z) E
(x, y) + E

3. S2
~
E(x,
y, z) =

~m
~z.
Am (z) E
(x, y) + E

, E

~m
~ m
E
z.
:

1. S
~
H(x,
y, z) =

~ (x, y) + Am (z) H
~ (x, y) + H
~ z.
Am (z) H
m
m

2. S1
~
H(x,
y, z) =

~ m
~ z.
(x, y) + H
Am (z) H

3. S2
~
H(x,
y, z) =

~m
~ z.
Am (z) H
(x, y) + H

Am Am

Z
~ (1) H
~ (2) E
~ (2) H
~ (1) ) ~n dS =
(E

~ (2) J~(1) E
~ (1) J~(2) ) dV.
(E
V

S , ~ (1) , H
~ (1) ,
V ; ~n S ; E
~ (2) , H
~ (2) ,
E
J~(1) , J~(2) .
~ (1) , H
~ (1) .
E
1.

~ (2) = E
~ n e n z , H
~ (2) = H
~ n e n z , J~(2) = 0.
E
177

~ n e n z H
~ n e n z n-
E
, . S S1 .
S3 ,
. ~z H
~ z :
S1 S, E

Z (X

~ m
~ n )~z0 e n z
Am (E
H

S1

~ n H
~ m
Am (E
)~z0 e n z

dS +

Z Xn
o
~ H
~ n )~z0 e n z + Am (E
~ H
~ n )~z0 e n z dS
+
Am (E
m
m
m

Z Xn
o

~ n H
~m
~ n H
~ m
)~z0 e n z + Am (E
)~z0 e n z dS =

Am (E
S

, , .

Z n
o
~ n H
~ n )~z0 e n z An (E
~ n H
~ n )~z0 e n z dS +
An (E
S1

Z n
o
~n H
~ n )~z0 e n z + An (E
~ n H
~ n )~z0 e n z dS
+
An (E
S

Z n
o
~ n H
~ n )~z0 e n z + An (E
~ n H
~ n )~z0 e n z dS =

An (E
S

S1 , S
. S, , n n Hn = Hn ,
En = En
Z
Z
n z
~ n e n z dV.
~
~
J~ E
= 2An e
(En Hn )~z0 dS =
S

V (z1 ,z)


178

~ n e n z dV
J~ E

1
V (z1 ,z)
An (z) = en z R
.
~ n )~z0 dS
~n H
2
(E
S
(2)

n z

(2)

2. E = En e
, H = Hn en z .
S S2 .
R
~ n en z dV
J~ E
1 n z V (z,z2 )
An (z) = e
.
R
~n H
~ n )~z0 dS
2
(E
S


~ = jH,
~ rot H
~ = jE
~ + J.
~
rot E

Ez =
=

1
~ 1 J~z = 1 rot z H
~ 1 J~z =
rot z H
j
j
j
j

o
1 Xn
1 ~

~m
~ m
Jz .
Am (z)rot z H
+ Am (z)rot z H

j m
j

~m
, rot z H
z, Am (z) Am (z) -
rot z .

~ m em z ) = j E
~ m em z ,
rot (H

~ m = j E
~ mz .
rot z H
,
Ez =

[Am (z)Emz + Am (z)Emz ]

1
Jz .
j

, :
179

~
E(x,
y, z) =

i
Xh
~ m + Am (z) E
~ m
Am (z) E
m

1 ~
Jz .
j


~
H(x,
y, z) =

i
Xh
~ m + Am (z) H
~ m .
Am (z) H
m

6.
6.1.

,
, . , ,
, .
, . , . ,
.

6.2.
.

~ =
rot E

~
~
H
~ = E .
, rot H
t
t

~ H
~
E
( )
~ = 0, E
~ t = 0,
~n E
~
~n H = 0, Hn = 0,
180

n .
~ = E(x,
~
E
y, z) e jt ,
~ = H(x,
~
H
y, z) e jt ,
.
,
~ = jH,
~ rot H
~ = jE.
~
rot E
~ , div E
~ = 0, E
~
H
~ = 0,
~ + k2 E
E
k 2 = 2 , , ~
E.

~ k2 E
~ = 0.
rot rot E
. 2
km
k 2 , .
.
~ m (x, y, z) .
~ m (x, y, z) H
E
:
~ k2 H
~ = 0.
rot rot H
, , , . , . :

~m
~ m ) = rot H
~ m rot H
~m
~m
~m =
div (H
rot H
H
rot rot H
2
~ m |2 km
|H~m |2 .
= |rot H

Z
~ m |2 dV =
|H

2
km
V

I
~ m |2 dV
|rot H

~m
~ m )~n dS.
(H
rot H
S

181



R
~ m |2 dV
|rot H
2
= VR
km
.
~ m |2 dV
|H
V

, 2
. km
= 2 , 2 > 0 . , .
:
2
km
.
m = ckm = , m =

km
2
km
. .

2
, km
6= kn2
Z
Z
~
~
~m H
~ n dV = 0,
Em En dV = 0,
H
V

.
, , ~m E
~ n:
E
2 ~
~ m km
Em = 0,
rot rot E
2~
~
rot rot En kn En = 0.


~ n rot E
~ m ) div (E
~ m rot E
~ n ) = rot E
~ mrot E
~n E
~ nrot rot E
~m
div (E
~ n rot E
~m + E
~ m rot rot E
~n = E
~ m rot rot E
~n E
~ n rot rot E
~ m.
rot E
~m E
~ n ,
, E

182

~ m ) div (E
~ m rot E
~ n ) = (k 2 k 2 )E
~ n rot E
~m E
~ n.
div (E
n
m
,
Z
(kn2

I
~ n rot E
~m E
~ m rot E
~ n )~n dS.
(E

~m E
~ n dV =
E

2
km
)
V

:
Z
2
2
~m E
~ n dV = 0,
(kn km ) E
V
2
2
,
6= km
km
Z
~m E
~ n dV = 0 .
E
V

~m E
~ n . E
, ,
, ,
.
~m H
~ m , , E
~m
, . E
~ m ,
H

(i)
(r)
(i)
(r)
~m
~m = H
~m
~m
~m = E
~m
.
+ H
, H
+ E
E

,
~m
E
~
Hm , . .
(r)
(i)
(r)
(i)
~ mt
~ mt
E
= 0, E
= 0, Hmn
= 0, Hmn
= 0

S.

~m H
~ m E
,
(r)

~m
rot E

(i)

(i)

~m ,
= jm H
(r)

~ m = jm E
~m ,
rot H

(i)

(r)

~m ,
~ m = jm H
rot E
(r)

~m
rot H
183

(i)

~m .
= jm E

(r)
(i)
~m
~m
, E
H
, , ~m H
~ m .
E
(i)
(r)
~m
~m
E
H
.
, , (r)
(i)
~m
~m
, E
H
. ,
.
, 90o .
. , , , .
.
2
km
:

Z
~ m |2 dV =
|H

2
km
V

~ m |2 dV.
|rot H
V

2
~ m = jm E
~ m k 2 = m
,
rot H

|Hm |2
dV =
2

|Em |2
dV,
2

. . .
. ,
.

6.3. ,

, . ,
.
, , , .
, , Ex = 0 Ey = 0.
, . , (
184

). , , (/2) (. 6.1).

L
,
, , z
. , , z
z=0
ejz , . 6.1
sin z cos z. ,
.
, , .
( )
Hz = (k 2 2 ) ejz .
( z = 0):

Hz =

1 2
(k 2 ) (ejz ejz ) = j(k 2 ) sin z.
2

,
Hx = j

jz
jz
e
, Hy = j
e
.
x
y


1 jz

Hx = j
(e
+ e jz ) = j
cos z,
2
x
x
1 jz

Hy = j
(e
+ e jz ) = j
cos z.
2
y
y

Ex = j

jz
jz
e
, Ey = j
e
.
y
x


185

1
jz

Ex = j
(e
e jz ) =
sin z,
2
y
y
Ey =

1
jz

j
(e
e jz ) =
sin z.
2
x
x

,

sin L = 0, L = l,
. .

2
= l, L = l , l = 1, 2, . . . .

2
, ,

= k

0 2
gmn
,

2 2

= l ,

l
L

2
.

2 ,

2
0 2
= gmn
kmnl
+

l
L

2
.

, l = 0 ,
, = 0 ( L 6= 0).
:
Ez = (k 2 2 ) cos z,

Ex =
sin z,
x

Ey =
sin z,
y

cos z,
Hx = j
y

cos z.
Hy = j
x

186

z = L sin L = 0,
. . L = l,

2
kmnl

2
gmn

l
L

2
.

l = 0 (. . = 0) . Ex Ey . ,
.
2
2
kmn0
= gmn
,

. . .

6.4. ,



2
gnm
=

n 2
a

m 2
b

2
knml
=

n 2
a

m 2
b

l
L

2
.

, ,
,
z.
(E)
(H)
gnm = gnm ,
( ). , ,
.
, ,
.
.

187

(H)
kmnl 2

(E)

kmnl 2 =

t0mn
a
tmn
a

l
L
l
L

2
,
2
.

, , m 6= 0 ( ).
, . . m = 0.
E010 H01n .
,
2.4
(E)
. t01 2.4. k010
,
a
3
2.4
2
2.6 a = 1.3 d, d 0.75 =
,
=

a
4
( 0.764 ), d .
(. 6.2)
, ,
.
E010 :
Ez = J0 (kr),
r
1 dEz
k 0

H =
=
J0 (kr) = j
J1 (kr).
j dr
j

. 6.2

H01

(H)

k011 2 =

t001
a

2
+

2
L

3.83
a

2
+

2
L

,
.
.
188


,
, .
. , . 6.3.
:

=
2n,
2
4
n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .

L = n

(2n + 1),
4
n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
L =

2n,
4
n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .
L =

. 6.3

.
, (. 6.4).
,
. ,
, . . . 6.4
.
189

. 6.5

(. 6.5).
, .
-.

6.5.

, . , , , , ,
.
6.5.1.

. ,
, .
, .

H

t
.

190

E

, t

~ = J.
~
rot H
, ,

.
, .
.
6.5.2. : ,

.
r
S
, d
S
, S
(. 6.6). d, 2a
dS
S.

1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

. 6.6

WE

0 E 2
0 E 2
= V
= a2 d
=
2
2
=

a2 0 U 2
CU 2
=
,
d
2
2

a2 0
, U = d E.
d

C =

Z
WH =

0 H 2
dV,
2

VH

H =

I
, dV = 2r dS. ,
2r
191

Z
W =

0 H 2
2r dS =
2

SH

L =

0
I2
I 2 0
2 2 2r dS =
2 4 r
4

SH

dS
LI 2
=
,
r
2

SH

0 R dS
.
4 SH r

C L:
v
v Z
u a2 Z dS
u1
dS
u
0
u
0
= 2c LC = 2ct

= 2at
.
d 2
r
2d
r

SH

SH

SH

dS
S
=
.
r
r

L C,
s
= 2a

S
.
2d r


S
1,
2d r
. . d
S ( d r S).
,
(. 6.7).
. h (
),
.
H =
192

I
.
h


= L I = 0 H S = 0

I
a2
a2 = 0
I.
h
h


a2
.
h
()
L = 0

C = 0

lh
.
d

11111111
00000000
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
a
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
00000000
11111111
000
111
00000000
11111111
000
111
00000000
11111111
000 l
111
d

r
= 2c

a2 lh
0
= 2a
h
d

l
.
d

. 6.7

,
.
6.5.3.

, , .

. . ,
.
.
, . 1 2
(. 6.8).
, , . .
WE1 + WE2 = WH1 + WH2 .
193


(WH1 WE1 ) + (WH2 WE2 ) = 0.

i2

Z1
i1

i1

Z2
i2

. 6.8

WH1 WE1 =

1
1
Z1 |I1 |2 ,
2j
2

WH2 WE2 =

1
1
Z2 |I2 |2 .
2j
2

,
Z1 |I1 |2 + Z2 |I2 |2 = 0,
Z1 Z2 . ,

|I1 | = |I2 |,
.
( ):
Z1 + Z2 = 0.

Y1 + Y2 = 0.
Z1 Z2 ,
. . ,
.

194

6.5.4.

,
Z0 .
.
(. 6.9).

11111111111
00000000000
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
l
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111

Z = jZ0 tan kl,


k =

,
c

Z = jZ0 tan

l.
c

. 6.9

1
+ jZ0 tan l = 0.
jC
c

cot

l = Z0 C.
c

l = x,
c
cot x = Ax.

Z0 C c
C
=
, C1 .
l
C1 l

(. 6.10).
x1 , x2 , . . . , ,
A =

n =

2
l.
xn

x
x1

, , C , .

x2

. 6.10

195

x3



. 6.11.

Z 01

Z 02

l1

l2

l1

l2

. 6.11


jZ01 tan

l1
l2
+ jZ02 tan
= 0
c
c

Z02
l2
l1
tan
= tan
.
Z01
c
c

l1
= x,
c

Z02
l2
tan x = tan x.
Z01
l1

(. 6.12). x, x2
x
.
x1
,
. . . 6.12
, (. 6.13).
( )
196

1
jZ01 tan

l1
c

1
jZ02 tan

Z 01

+ jC = 0.

l2
c

C Z 02
. 6.13

,
E01 , , .. (. 6.14). 1

1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111

1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
2a
2b

Ez = J0 (k1 r).

H =

. 6.14

1 Ez
k1 0
k1
=
J0 (k1 r) =
J1 (k1 r).
j1 r
j1
j1

r = a
I = 2a H = 2a

k1
J1 (k1 a).
j1

1
Z1 =

Ez h
h j1 J0 (k1 a)
=
.
I
2a k1 J1 (k1 a)

2
Ez = A J0 (k2 r) + B N0 (k2 r).
A/B

197

A J0 (k2 b) + B N0 (k2 b) = 0,

B
J0 (k2 b)
=
.
A
N0 (k2 b)
Ez ,
Ez = A

J0 (k2 r) N0 (k2 b) J0 (k2 b) N0 (k2 r)


.
N0 (k2 b)

H =

1 Ez
k2 J00 (k2 r) N0 (k2 b) J0 (k2 b) N00 (k2 r)
= A
.
j2 r
j2
N0 (k2 b)

Z2

h Ez
h j2 J0 (k2 a) N0 (k2 b) J0 (k2 b) N0 (k2 a)
=
=
.
2a H r=a
2a k2 J00 (k2 a) N0 (k2 b) J0 (k2 b) N00 (k2 a)


Z1 + Z2 = 0,
Z1 Z2 ,
r

2 J0 (k2 r) N0 (k2 b) J0 (k2 b) N0 (k2 r)

2 J00 (k2 r) N0 (k2 b) J0 (k2 b) N00 (k2 r)

1 J0 (k1 a)
= 0.
1 J1 (k1 a)

,
. , , , .
6.5.5.


R
|rot H|2 dV
2
,
k = R
|H|2 dV
.
198

~ , H,
~
H,

~ k2 H
~ = 0
rot rot H
~ = 0. , ~n rot H
~
, H
.
.
Z
Z
~ 2 dV.
k 2 |H|2 dV =
|rot H|
V

~ H
~ H,
. , ( )
.
Z
Z
Z
2
2
2
~
~
~ rot H
~ dV.
k
|H| dV + 2k
H H dV = 2 rot H
V


~ rot H)
~ = rot H
~ rot H
~ H
~ rot rot H,
~
div ( H

~ rot H
~ = H
~ rot rot H
~ + div ( H
~ rot H).
~
rot H
,
Z
k

Z
Z
2
2~
~
~ rot H)
~ dV.
~
~
|H| dV = 2 (rot rot H k H) H dV + div ( H

,
Z

Z
~ 2 dV = 2
|H|

k 2
V

I
~ k 2 H)
~ H
~ dV
(rot rot H

~ H
~ dS.
(~n rot H)
S

199

, k 2 = 0 ~ :
H
~ k2 H
~ = 0 V ;
1) rot rot H
~ = 0 S, .
2) ~n rot H
, .

.
~ , k 2 H,
.
, , .
.
. , .
, ,
, V V1
V2 (. 6.15).
,
V
k12 :
V2
V1
R
~ (2) |2 dV
|rot H

1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111

k2 =

V1

~ (2) |2 dV
|H

V1

~ (2) H
~ (2) . k 2 , H
(1)
~
H .

R
~ (1) |2 dV
|rot H
. 6.15

k2

V1

~ (1) |2 dV
|H

V1

200

R
=

~ (1) |2 dV
|rot H
R

~ (1) |2 dV
|rot H

V2

~ (1) |2 dV
|H

~ (1) |2 dV
|H

V2

R (1) 2
R
~ | dV
~ (1) |2 dV
|H
|rot H

V2
V2
2
= k1 1 + R
R
~ (1) |2 dV
~ (1) |2 dV

|H
|rot H

WE WH
= k12 1 +
,
W0

WH =

~ (1) |2 dV ;
|H
V2

WE =

Z
~ (1) |2 dV ,
|E
V2

~ = jE);
~ W0 .
( rot H
,
.
.
,
WE WH
k 2 k12
=
k12
W0
, , k 2 = 2 ,
k 2 k12
2
WE WH

=
.
k12
1
W0
wE wH :
WE WH = (wE wH ) V,
V .
201

1
(w wE ) = p (p
2 H
). ,

WE WH = 2p V,
pV = W0 , W0 .
WE WH = 2W0 .
,

W0
=
,
0
W0
, ,
W0
= const.
0
W0
, (0
) , .

111
000
000
111
000
111

11
00
00
1010 11
0010 1010
1011
1010 1010 1010 1010
10 10 10 10
. 6.16

(. 6.16).

6.6.

, .
, (
202

). , :
Z

Z
~ m |2 dV =
|H

2
km
V

I
~ m |2 dV
|rot H

~m
~ m )~n dS.
(H
rot H
S

~ m = jE
~ m ,
rot H

Z

Z
~ m |2 dV =
|H

2
km
V

~ m |2 dV + j (E
~m H
~m
|rot H
)~n dS.


2
:
. km
R
H

~ m |2 dV
~m H
~m
|rot H
(E
)~n dS
V
S
2
km = R
+ j
,
R
~ m |2 dV
~ m |2 dV
|H
|H
V

,
H
~m H
~ )~n dS
Re (E
2
0 2
km
= km
+ j

~ m |2 dV
|H

V
0 2
km

. ,
. 0 2
0 2
0
m .
km
= m
, m
,

~m H
~m

Re (E
)~n dS

m
S
0
1 + j 0 2
=
km km
R
~ m |2 dV

2km
|H

H
1

~m H
~m

)~n dS
Re (E

2
S
0
= km
1 + j
.
R

~ m |2 dV

2m
|H

2
V
203

1
Re
2

~m H
~m
(E
)~n dS = P
S

, , . . ;
Z
~ 2
|Hm | dV = W
2
V

.
m W
= Q
P
, Pr = m W
. , , .

0
(1 + j
km = km

1
).
2Q

,
e jm t em t/2Q .
, . dt
dW = P dt.
, ,
, . m /Q, m
. ,
dW =

m
W dt,
Q

W = W0 em t/Q ,
Q =

m W
.
P
204

~ mt ,
E
, -.
,
I
I
1
1

~m H
~m
~ m )H
~m
P =
Re (E
)~n dS =
Re (~n E
dS.
2
2
S

,
~m = H
~ m,
~n E
1+j
. =

,
I
I
1
~ m |2 dS = 1
~ m |2 dS.
P =
Re |H
|H
2
2
S

Q,
R
R
~ m |2 dV
~ m |2 dV
|H
|H
2
V
V
.
= m H
~ m |2 dS
1 H ~ 2
|H
|Hm | dS
2 S
S

m
Q =

2
, m = 2
,

,
R
~ m |2 dV
|H
2 V
.
Q =
H
~ m |2 dS
|H
S

, . . ,
:
Q =

2 V |Hm |2V
,
S |Hm |2S
205

V ; S ; |Hm |2V ; |Hm |2S


. A :
2 |Hm |2V = A |Hm |2S .
,
, A .
V
V
A =
A,
S
V
V -. ,
V
= A = 1. Q =
. ,
V
, A . , H0mn
, ( )
,
A 1.
,
, . ,
Q =

V = a3 , S = 6a2 ,

1
V
=
a,
S
6

d3
V
1
, S = d2 ,
=
d.
6
S
6

V =

V
1
=
a .
S
6
,

1 a
A.
6
p
, a , ,
Q

Q 1/2 ,
. . .
206

6.6.1.

E010
z.
r
H = J1 (kr).

Z

Za
~ m |2 dV =
|H

Za
J12 (kr) 2r h dr

J12 (kr)r dr = 2h

= 2 h
0

a2 2
J (ka) =
2 1

= ha2 J12 (ka).



:
Za

I
~ m |2 dS = 2
|H
S

J12 (kr) 2r dr + 2ah J12 (ka) = 2 2


0

a2 2
J (ka) +
2 1

+ 2ah J12 (ka) = 2a(a + h) J12 (ka).


( = )
Q =

2
ha2 J12 (ka)
1 ah
=
.
2a(a + h) J12 (ka)
a + h


, , :
a = 30 , h = 30 , = 80 , = 2.9 104 .
Q=

1 ah
= 5 104 .
a+h
207

, ,


, .
.
:
H
~ m |2 dC
|H

1
C
s
= =
.

2 R |H
~ m |2 dS
2

S
1

, ,
:
R
R
~ m |2 dV
~ m |2 dS
|H
|H
2 V
2 S
Q =
=
.
R
H
~ m |2 dS
~ m |2 dC
|H
|H
S


R
~ m |2 dS
|H

1
S
s
=
H

2 .
~ m |2 dC
2
|H

C
1

,
Q =

2 .

, ,
.
,
~ 01 ,
H

208

s
=

2 .

,
Q =

2
,

. . ( ) 5/2 . , ,
.

= 10 , a = 20 , = 1.64a = 33 , 104 (
).
,
Q = 2 106 .

,
=

R1
,
Z0

R1 . ,

Q =

Z0
.
R1

, ( ) .
.

209

6.6.2.

, .

Z
E 2
P =
dV,
2
V


Z
E 2
W =
dV,
2
V


Q =

=
.
P

/
00
= 0 = tan

,
1
.
tan
,
Q =

Q =

W
P + P

P
P
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
.
Q
W
W
Q
Q
, .
6.6.3.

,
.
.

210

. , ,
W
.
P

Q =

, , Q , ( )
Q0 .
,
1
1
1
=
+
.
Q
Q0
Q
. ,
,
R
|H|2 dV
G = 0 VR
.
|H|2 dS
S

. , :
Q =

G
,

r
=

6.7.

,
.

211

, . . .
,
, .
6.7.1.

, (J~e ) (J~m ) . ,
,
~ m = E
~ ~n,
K
~n .
. , , . , ~ s = 0 div H
~ s = 0,
div E
( ).
X
X
~ =
~ s grad e , H
~ =
~ s grad m .
E
As E
Bs H
s

~ H
~ , , E
,

m
e |S = 0,
= 0.
n S
, . ~ s grad e ):
, div (H
~ s grad e ) = grad e rot H
~ s = js E
~ s grad e .
div (H
,
212

I
~ s grad e ) ~n dS = j
(H
S

~ s grad e dV.
E
V

( )
Z
~ s grad e dV = 0.
E
V


Z
~ s grad m dV = 0.
H
V

e m .
~ = jH
~ J~m ,
rot E
~ = jE
~ + J~e
rot H
.
0

~ div J~e ,
j div H

~ + div J~m .
j div E

~ H:
~
E
j div grad m

div J~m ,

j div grad e

div J~e ,

m =

div J~m
div J~e
, e =
.
j
j

e
+ div J~e = 0,
t
div J~e = je ,
213


m
+ div J~m = 0,
t

div J~m = jm .
, , e m :
e =

e
m
, m =
.

As Bs , :
~ H)
~ = H
~ rot E
~ E
~ rot H,
~
div (E
s
s
s
~ H
~ s ) = H
~ s rot E
~ E
~ rot H
~ s .
div (E
~
~
, Es Hs
~ s = js H
~ s , rot H
~ s = js E
~ s.
rot E
~s H
~ s ,
E
~ s H)
~ = H
~ (js H
~ s ) E
~ s (jE
~ + J~e ) =
div (E
~ H
~ s jE
~ E
~ s J~e E
~ s ,
= js H
~ J~m ) E
~ (js E
~ s ) =
~ s (jH
~ H
~ s ) = H
div (E
~ H
~ s + jE
~ E
~ s J~m H
~ s .
= jH
,
~ E
~ s S (
E
~
~
Et ), E
~ ,
H

Z
~s H
~ s dV jAs
H

js Bs

Z
~s E
~ s dV =
E

~ s dV,
J~e E

~s H
~ s dV + js A
H

jBs
V

~s E
~ s dV =
E
V

214

~ s dV.
J~m H
V


Z
Z
~s E
~ s dV = H
~s H
~ s dV.
E
V

,
j As js Bs = as ,
js As j Bs = bs ,

R
V

~ s dV
J~e E

~ s dV
J~m H

as = R
, bs =
.
R
~s H
~ dV
~s H
~ dV
H
H
s
s
V

As Bs ,
As =

as s bs
s as bs
, Bs =
.
j( 2 s2 )
j( 2 s2 )

, s .
As Bs = s , . .
. .

s2 = s0 2 (1 +

j
),
Qs

2 s2 = 2 s0 2 j

s0 2
.
Qs

,
As Bs . = s
As = Qs

as bs
as bs
, Bs = Q s
,
0
s
s0

. . As = Bs .

215

, , . Qs ,
~ H.
~
E
.
s0 , .

As Bs

s0 (as bs )
2

j( 2 s0 2 ) +
=

s0
Qs

Qs (as bs )/s0
=
Q
1 + j 0 s2 ( 2 s0 2 )
s

Qs (as bs )/s0
,
1 + jQs x

x =

0
2
s
.
0
s

s0

,
Qs .
, As Bs . , ,
,
.
6.7.2.

, ,
.
.
, , ,
, .
R
~ s dV
J~e E
Qs
Qs V
As =
.
as =
R
~s H
~ s dV
s
s H
V

216

, ,
~ s = const.
E
Z
Z
~ dV =
~ s I~e dl,
E
J~e E
s

R
I~e = J~e dS ( ). , , , ,
. , I~e = const

Z
Z
~
~
~ s d~l = Ie Us ,
Es Ie dl = Ie E
L

Us (As = 1).
,
As =

Qs
Us
R
Ie .
s |Hs |2 dV
V


~ = As E
~ s.
E
~ ,
E
U = As Us .
As , ,
,
U =

Qs
|Us |2
R
Ie .
s |Hs |2 dV
V


Z
|H|2 dV = 2Ws ,
V

Ws ,
U
U = Qs

Us2
Us2
I
=
Q
Ie ,
e
s
2s0 Ws
2Prs
217

Prs = s0 Ws
.
Us2
Us2
U2
=
=
2Prs
2s0 Ws
2s0 W
( ).
:
s =

Pr =

U2
.
2s

R = Qs s
.
P
(, Qs = a ) Pr
:
R =

Pr U 2
U2
=
.
Pa 2Pr
2Pa

( )
Pa =

U2
.
2R

,
.
Ie = Iem ejke l ,
ke =

, v .
ve e
Z
Z
~
~
~ s ejke l dl.
Es Ie dl = Iem E
L

, , Es = const.

218

Zd/2

Z
~ s I~e dl = Iem Es
E
L

ejke l dl = Iem Es

d/2

= Iem Es

1
(e jke d/2 ejke d/2 ) =
jke

2 sin ke d/2
sin /2
= Iem Us
,
ke
/2

Us = Es d, = ke d .
U = Iem R

sin /2
.
/2

,
=

sin /2
/2

,
U = Iem R U = Iem R 2 .
,
U = U

R = R 2 .
:
P =

2
U
U2
U 2 2
=
=
.
2R
2R 2
2R



= 2 .
, ,
U =

U
.
1 + jQs x
219

. TEM- (. 6.17).

U = Um sin kz.
dW dz

dW =

2
Um
sin2 kz
C1 dz.
2

. 6.17


Z/4 2
2
Um sin2 kz
C1 Um
W =
C1 dz =
.
2
16
0

2
2
Um
Um
8
=
=
.
2 /16
20 W
20 C1 Um
0 C1

= c/f ,
8
4
=
Z0 ,
2 C1 c

Z0 .
, 2n+1 U
(. 6.18).
. 6.18
2n + 1 . 2n + 1 .
,
2n + 1 .
=

. E010

=

Us2
.
2s Ws
220

t01
2.4

. (r = 0) Ez = 1,
a
a
Us = h. , :

Ez = J0 (g01 r), g01 =

Ws

h
=
2

Za

Za
J02 (g01 r) 2r dr

J02 (g01 r) r dr =

= h
0

ha2 2
J1 (g01 a).
2

,
g01
t01
01 =
= .

a
,
010

h2
=
=
t
ha2 2
2 01
J1 (t01 )
a 2

h
1
.
a t01 J12 (t01 )

, t01 2.4, J1 (t01 ) 0.52,


r
r
r
h
h
h
010 0.49
=
=
.
a
2a
d
. : a = 7.5 , h = 2.5 , = 20 ,
1
= 1.41 104 , 010 = 0.49 377 62 .
3

1 ah
1
7.5 2.5
=
13 103 .
4
a + h
1.4 10
10

Q =

R = 62 13 103 0.8 106 = 0.8 .


6.7.3.

, , ,
.
, :

221

Z
~ s I~e dl,
E
L

. .
R

~ s I~e dl
E

As = R

|Hs |2 dV

Ie

(. 6.19).
,
.
Z
I
~
~
~ s d~l =
Es Ie dl = Ie E
Z

~ s ~n dS = jIe
rot E

= Ie

. 6.19

~ s ~n dS,
H
S

S , , ~n . , Hs const,

Z
~ s I~e dl = js H
~ s ~n S Ie .
E
L

, ~ s .
H
.
, () , .
, .

222

6.8.

, , ,
.
6.8.1.

,
S
S1

S, z
(. 6.20). S1 .
. 6.20
,
. , . . .
,
S1 ,
.
~s
E
~
Hs . S1 ,
.
,
. S1 ,

~ st = 0, H
~ st = j1s ~h(x, y),
E
~h(x, y) ~ st , H
~ st ; E
e , 1s , . , 1s ~ st .
. H
. S1 ( )
223

~ = U1 ~e(x, y), H
~ = I1 ~h(x, y).
E

, S1 .
S1
S1 :
~e = H
~ ~n = H
~ ~z0 ,
K
~ m = E
~ ~n = E
~ ~z0 ,
K
~z0 .
6.7,

~ = Bs H
~ s.
H
Bs :
Bs =

as bs s
,
j( 2 s2 )

R
S1

~ eE
~ s dS
K

S1

~ mH
~ s dS
K

as = R
, bs =
.
R
~ sH
~ s dV
~ sH
~ s dV
H
H
V

~s = E
~ st = 0 S1 .
, as = 0, E
H S1
,
~ = Bs H
~ s = Bs H
~ st = Bs jk1s ~h(x, y).
H
~ ,
H
I1 = j Bs 1s .
Bs U1 , ,
S1 .
Bs , bs ~m = E
~ ~z0 :
K
224

R
bs =

~ mH
~ s dS
K

1
=
R
~ sH
~ s dV
H

S1

~ ~z0 )H
~ s dS
(E

S1

R
~ sH
~ s dV
H

~ H
~ s )~z0 dS
(E

R
~ sH
~ s dV
H

jk1s U1 (~e ~h)~z0 dS


S1

R
~ s dV
~ sH
H
V

~ s = H
~ s , H
~ s .
, H
~
~e h, bs
bs =

j1s U1
.
~ sH
~ s dV
H
R

Bs ,
Bs =

U1 1s s
1
.
R
2
2
~ sH
~ s dV
s H
V

,
I1 = j Bs 1s =

1
21s s
U .
R
2
2
~
~ s dV 1
j( s ) Hs H
V

, ( ) :
Y1 =

I1
21s s
1
.
=
R
~ sH
~ s dV
U1
j( 2 s2 ) H
V

,
Y1 =

1
Qs 21s
.
R
~ sH
~ s dV
1 + jQs x s H
V

,
G1 =

Qs 21s
R
~ sH
~ s dV
s H
V

225

. , 1s .
, :
~ st = j1s ~h(x, y).
H

( ), , Hst
, ~h , 1s .
, S1
G1
.
1 + jQs x
,
S1 ( 6.21).
S2 , S1 /4, . .
.

Y1 =

C1
L1
G1

. 6.21

Z2 =

Z02
Z02 G1
R2
= Z02 Y1 =
=
.
Z1
1 + jQs x
1 + jQs x

,
S2 (. 6.22).

, C
L
R

s0 .
. 6.22
.
, , .
,
, . 6.23.
R
, Z0 .
2

226

Z0

. 6.23

PZ0
R
Y0
=
=
.
PR
Z0
G

PZ0
Q0
=
.
PR
Q
,
Q0
R
Y0
=
=
.
Q
Z0
G
:
=

Q0
R
Y0
PZ0
=
=
=
.
Q
Z0
G
PR


1
1
1
1
Q0
1
=
+
=
(1 +
) =
(1 + ),
Q
Q0
Q
Q0
Q
Q0

Q =

Q0
.
1 +

, Y0 :
Y0 Yk
,
Y0 + Yk
Yk
=

Yk = G (1 + jQ0 x),
G = 1/R.
227

x = 0,
Y0 G
Y0 /G 1
1
=
=
.
Y0 + G
Y0 /G + 1
+ 1

0 =

:
0 =

1 + |0 |
+ 1 + | 1|
=
.
1 |0 |
+ 1 | 1|

> 1 ( )
0 =

+ 1 + 1
= .
+ 1 + 1

< 1 ( )
0 =

1
+ 1 + 1
= .
+ 1 + 1

(
) 0 = 1, . . = 1.
.
x 6= 0

=
=

Y0 G (1 + jQ0 x)
2Y0 [Y0 + G (1 + jQ0 x)]
=
=
Y0 + G (1 + jQ0 x)
Y0 + G (1 + jQ0 x)
2Y0
2Y0
1 =
1,
Y0 + G (1 + jQ0 x)
Y0 + G + jGQ0 x)

0 + 1
1,
1 + jQ x
2Y0
Y
Q0
0 + 1 =
, 0 = , Q =
.
Y0 + G G
1+
(. 6.24).

:
=

+ 1 =

0 + 1
.
1 + jQ x

228

x=0

1
0

P0 = 1/2P (x = x )
1/2

. 6.24

S2 . + 1
. > 1, 0 > 0
. < 1, 0 < 0
. = 1
( = 0).
, :

0
||2 =

P = P (1 ||2 ).
2
+ 1 1 jQ x
2 + Q2 x2
.
= 0

1 + jQ x
1 + Q2 x2

P ,
P = P (1

1 20
20 + Q2 x2
)
=
P
=

1 + Q2 x2
1 + Q2 x2
=

P0
.
1 + Q2 x2

P0 = P (1 20 ) ,
.
,
Q x = 1,
229


x1/2 =

6.8.2.

2f1/2
1
=
.
f0
Q

,
.
,
(. 6.25).

1
2 .
, . .

. 6.25

10 =

Q00
= 1.
Q1

Q00 Q0 Q2 :
1
1
1
1
Q0
1 + 2
=
+
=
(1 +
) =
.
0
Q0
Q2
Q0
Q0
Q2
Q0

Q00 =

Q0
.
1 + 2

,
Q0
= 1,
Q1 (1 + 2 )

1
= 1.
1 + 2
230

1 2
.
1 1 2 1,
1 2 .

.
, ,

Q0
= 2 .
Q2

2
2
=
.
1 + 2
1
1 1, 2 1 1 2 ,
1.
,
=

1
1
1
1
1
=
+
+
=
(1 + 1 + 2 ),
Q
Q1
Q2
Q0
Q0

Q0
.
1 + 1 + 2
.
. ,
, , .
, .
Q =

7.

- ,

231

.
.

7.1.

,
. . .
. :
~
m
~ e = K,
e
1.76 1011 / =
m
.
~
H,

~
T~ = 0 (m
~ e H),


~
dK
~
= T~ = 0 (m
~ e H).
dt
~ ( m
~ e = K,
)
~
dK
~ K.
~
= 0 H
dt
~ , K
~
H ( )
~
0 = 0 |H|,
~ .
H

232

n,
n ,
~ (M
~ = nm
M
~ e ):
~
dM
~ M
~ ).
= 0 (H
dt
,
0 .
, .
,
.
~
0 . , H
~
z, K
dKx
= 0 Ky ,
dt
dKy
= 0 Kx ,
dt
, Kx Ky ,
d2 Kx
+ 02 Kx = 0,
dt2
d2 Ky
+ 02 Ky = 0,
dt2
. . .
~.
M
, , . . . . ,
, .
~ 0
M
~ 0,
H
.

233

~h, , m.
~ m
~ ~h
.
~ 0 .
z H

~ = ~h + H
~ 0, M
~ = m
~ 0,
H
~ + M
~0 M
~ 0 z- .
H
, j. , ,
~
M
jmx = 0 (my H0 hy M0 ),
jmy = 0 (mx H0 hx M0 ),
jmz = 0.
mx my :
20 2 M0 H0
0 M0
hx j 2
hy ,
2 20 2 H02
20 2 H02
20 2 M0 H0
0 M0
h

hy ,
= j 2
x
20 2 H02
2 20 2 H02
= 0.

mx =
my
mz


0 = 0 H0 , M = 0 M0 ,

0

hx j 2 2 hy ,
2 02
0

0
= j 2 2 hx 2
hy ,
0
02
= 0.

mx =
my
mz

234

, ,
~b = 0 (~h + m).
~

= 0 (1

0
)
02

k = 0


,
2 02


bx = hx jk hy ,
by = jk hx + hy ,
bz = 0 hz .
0 z ,
0 .
~b ~h

:
~b =
~h,

jk 0

=
jk
.
0
0
z
. = 0 = 0 H0 .
. ,
. ~ , , H
~
, H
.
, (. 7.1),
hy = jhx

( hx = jhy ).
235

bx by ,
bx = hx jkhy = hx khx = ( k) hx ,
by = jkhx + hy = khy + hy = ( k) hy .
,

z
Ho

hy
y

hx

=
0
0

0
k
0

0
0
z

z- ,
+
:

x
. 7.1

+ = k = 0 (1

0
2 2 ) = 0 (1
).
2 02
0
0


hy = jhx

( hx = jhy ).

bx by ,
bx = hx jkhy = hx + khx = ( + k) hx ,
by = jkhx + hy = khy + hy = ( + k) hy ,

+k

=
0
0

0
+k
0

0
0
z

= + k = 0 (1

+ 2 2 ) = 0 (1 +
).
2 02
0
+ 0
236

+ , m
0 (1 +
)
0

. 7.2

+ , . 7.2.
, + ,
.
. .

:
~
dM
~ M
~ ) + R.
~
= 0 (H
dt
. 1935 .:
~ = 0 (M
~ (H
~ M
~ )).
R
~|
|M
.

( ) , .
, .
.
,
2
+ = 0+ j00+ ,

237

( 2 02 )( + 0 )
),
( 2 02 )2 + 4 2 02 2

0+ = 0 (1
00+ = 0

( + 0 )2
.
( 2 02 )2 + 4 2 02 2


= 0 j00 ,

( 2 02 )( 0 )
),
( 2 02 )2 + 4 2 02 2

0 = 0 (1
00 = 0

( 2

( 0 )2
.
02 )2 + 4 2 02 2

. 7.3.
+ , +
+
+

. 7.3

, + , .
238

7.2.

7.2.1.

,
z.
z.

~e = ~e0 ez , ~h = ~h0 ez , ~b = ~b0 ez ,

= 0,
= 0,
= .
x
y
z
:
rot ~e = j ~b,
rot ~h = j ~e.
~e,
rot rot ~h 2 ~b = 0.
:
grad div ~h h 2 ~b = 0.
,
div ~h =

hx
hy
hz
+
+
.
x
y
z

= 0,
= 0,
= ,
x
y
z

div ~h = hz .
239

grad z- ,
:
2 hx + 2 bx = 0,
2 hy + 2 by = 0,
2 hz + 2 hz + 2 bz = 0.
, bz = z hz = 0, hz = 0,
. . . ,

.
bx by
hx hy :
bx = m hx jk hy ,
by = jk hx + hy ,

( 2 + 2 ) hx j 2 k hy = 0,
j 2 k hx + ( 2 + 2 ) hy = 0.
hx ,
hy
( 2 + 2 )2 ( 2 k)2 = 0,

2 + 2 = 2 k,

2 = 2 ( k),
. .
= j

( k) = j ,
240


+ =

( k), =

( + k).

+
2 k hx j 2 k hy = 0,
hx = j hy .
, Hz .

+ = k.

( + k)
hx = j hy ,

. . .
, ,
( ) .


.

= l (+ ).

l
= (+ ).
2
2
0 < , < , ,
=

0 (1 +
)

+ 0 (1

);
2

0 (1 +
).
2

0 (1

lh

0 (1 ) 0 (1 + ) =
2
2
2
241

0 ,
2
. . . , .

.
, , -
. -.
, ,
.
.
.
, , .
=

7.2.2.



y, .. (. 7.4).

z
Ho
y

~e = ~e0 ey , ~h = ~h0 ey , ~b = ~b0 ey .

= 0,
= 0,
= .
x
z
y

x
. 7.4


rot rot ~h 2 ~b = 0

~h + 2 ~b grad div ~h = 0.
, grad div ~h y- ,
2 hy .
242

2 hx + 2 bx = 0,
2 hy + 2 by 2 hy = 0,
2 hz + 2 bz = 0.
~b.
hx ( 2 + 2 ) j 2 k hy = 0,
jk hx + hy = 0,
hz ( + 2 z ) = 0.
hy ,
2 k 2
) = 0,

+ 2 z ) = 0.

hx ( 2 + 2
hz ( 2

hx 6= 0,
2 k 2
= 0,

2 + 2

s
1 = j

2 k 2
.

, hz = 0, . . ~ 0 ( ). ,
H

=

2 k 2
.

hz 6= 0, hx = hy = 0.

2 + 2 z = 0,

243


= j z .
~ 0.
H
, .
, hx hy ,
90o hx .
2 k 2
( k) ( + k)
+
=
=
.


. k = z .
=

7.3. ,

A
S

11
00
00
11
00
11
. 7.5

,
(. 7.5).
.
~ m, H
~ m , 0
E
~ H,
~
, E,
.

, 0 = j0 , = j.

rot ( F~ ) = rot F~ + grad F~ ,
e jz ejz

~m
~m
~m
rot E
+ j0 ~z0 E
= j0 H
,

~m
~m
~m
rot H
+ j0 ~z0 H
= j0 E
,

~ j ~z0 E
~ = j H,
~
rot E
~ j ~z0 H
~ = j E.
~
rot H
244

A,
A;

A,
A.

, ,

~m
~ + div (E
~ H
~m
~ rot E
~m
~m
~ +
div (E
H)
) = H
E
rot H

~ rot E
~ E
~ rot H
~.
+H
m
m
rot ,

~ + div (E
~ H
~m
~
~m
~m
~
H)
) = H(j
z0 E
)
div (E
0 Hm j0 ~

~m
~ + j~z0 H)
~ + H
~m
~ + j~z0 E)
~
(jE
(jH
E

~
~
~m
~m
~ j E
~m
~
E(j
z0 H
) = j H
( 0 )H
( 0 )E
0 Em j0 ~

~ (~z0 H)
~ j( 0 )E(~
~ z0 H
~ ).
j( 0 )E
m
m
.
.

0 =

Z h
i

~ dS +
~ + E
~m
~m
( 0 ) E
( 0 ) H
H
S

Z h

+ ( 0 )

~m
~ + E
~ H
~m
E
H
~z0 dS,

, , 0 6= 0 0 6= 0
A,

= 0

i
Rh

~ m (
~ + E
~m
~ dS
H
0 ) H
(
0 ) E
i
+ A
.
Rh
H
~
~m
~ + E
~ H
~m
E
z0 dS
S

245

, ~ H.
~ , E

.
, : H11 , , . . 7.6.
,
2b

~ H
~ m,
, . . H
~ E
~ m , E
,
.
:

111
000
000
111
000
111

2a
. 7.6

Z
= 2Re

~ H
~ + E
~ H
~ ~z0 dS
E
m
m

~m
~m + E
~m H
~m
E
H
~z0 dS =

~m H
~m
~z0 dS =
E

Zm

Z
2

| dS,
|Em
S

Zm =

j0
0
=
0
0

.
.
,
:
~hi = ~he N
m.
~
i
~
~
h ; he ,

; m
~ ; N
.
246

, 1
, Nxx = Nyy = , Nzz = 0. 2
:
m
~ =
~hi ,
:

0
.
0
,

~hi = ~he N

~hi .
~hi ,
~hi = (1 + N
)
1 ~he .
~ m , H,
~
H
. .
~ = (1 + N
)
~ m.
H
1 H

( ),
:

0
0
0
0

= 0 0 ,

=
0 0 ,

0
0
0 z
0 z

0
.
0
,

1

0
2

1
N
= 0

0
0

247

.
0

Hx =

1
1
1 +
2

Hmx , Hy =
1 +

Hmy , Hz = Hmz .


1
1
1 +
2

1
20
=
,
1 0
+ 0
1 +
2
0

Hx =

20
20
Hmx , Hy =
Hmy , Hz = Hmz .
+ 0
+ 0


Ex =

20
20
Emx , Ey =
Emy .
+ 0
+ 0

H11
0
0
r)
J10 (g11
Hr = j0 g11

cos ,
sin ;

j0
sin ,
0
J1 (g11
r)
cos ;
r
j0
sin ,
0
=
J1 (g11
r)
cos ;
r

H =
Er

0
0
E = j0 g11
J10 (g11
r)

cos ,
sin .

, 0
0
r)
r) J10 (g11
. J1 (g11
r r :

248

1
cos ,
0
Hr = j0 g11
sin ;
2
1
sin ,
0
H = j0 g11
cos ;
2
1
sin ,
0
Er = j0 g11
cos ;
2
1
cos ,
0
E = j0 g11
sin .
2
,
.
1
0 j
e
Hr = j0 g11
,
2
1
0 j
H = 0 g11
e
,
2
1
0 j
Er = j0 g11
e
,
2
1
0 j
E = 0 g11
e
.
2

Hx
Hy
Ex
Ey

=
=
=
=

Hr cos H sin ,
Hr sin + H cos ,
Er cos E sin ,
Er sin + E cos .


1
0
Hx = j0 g11
,
2
1
0
Hy = 0 g11
,
2
1
0
Ex = j0 g11
,
2
1
0
.
Ey = 0 g11
2
249

, , . ,
+ .
:
Hx =

0
j0 0 g11
,
+ 0

Hy =

0
0 0 g11
,
+ 0

Ex =

0
j0 0 g11
,
+ 0

Ey =

0
0 0 g11
.
+ 0

,
. 0
, g11
= 1.84/a ,
0

b2
+ 2.1 0 2
a

0
k 2 0
+ 02
+ 0
0 + 0

, k02 = 2 0 0 .

,
, . :

l (+ )
b2
k 0
= 4.2 0 l 2
.
2
a (+ + 0 )( + 0 )

,
+ + 0 = 0 (2

0
), + 0 = 0 (2 +
), k = 2 2 .
0
+ 0
0

( 0 )
2

k0 20 ; (+ + 0 ) ( + 0 ) 20 (4
).

2
250

b2
4.2 0 l 2
a

20 (4

)
2

0 l

b2
.
a2

,
v
, ( ).

0 =

7.4.

, .
. ( ).
().
.
7.4.1.

, , .
H10 :

Hx

x
,
a
a
j
x
=
sin
.
a
a

Hz =

cos

90o
90o . ,
. ,

2
a

cos

x
=
sin
.
a
a
a


251

tan

=
= ,
a
a
2a

.
x, ,

x =

arctan
=
arctan ,

2a

x
x =

( arctan
) =
( arctan ).

2a

arctan 0 /2.
, .

, .
,
0 = 0 H0 ,
, . 0.50.7 ,
2530 .
. ,
, .
.

. .
+ = 0 (1

) 0,
0

0 = ,
. . , 0 = .
252

+ , . , ,
(. 7.7).

Ey
H0
,


,

X
. 0.5

1 , 2030 .
. 7.7
.
7.4.2.


,
H0

.

, (. 7.8).
,
. 7.8
. .
7.4.3.


, ,
, (
).
. - .
253

, .
.
. 7.9. E110 ,
Ez .
, . : Hr H . .
, .
z
Ho
2a
b

. 7.9

. .
()
E110 . . , , .
,
. ,
.
, , E110
.

. , , , 120o ,
.
254

E110
, . . 7.10. II III
.

III

III

II
I

II
I

. 7.10

,
E110 . .
30o .
II . , I
II. .
. , .
, .
. ,
, , , . . . .
, ,
= arctan Qx,
Q ; x =
255

; = 0 ; 0 . ,
, .

. 7.11.
.

H1

E1

E2

H2

(180)

. 7.11

, , H1 , ,
.
( 180o
, ).
(
). ,
, , H2 .
H2 , , 180o . , , E1 .
, H1 H2 E1 E2 H1 . . .
. .

3- , .

256


. . . .: ,
1988.
. .: . , 1951.
. . . .: , 1966.
. .
. .; .: , 1963.
. . .; .: : , 1948.
. ., . . .
.: , 1982.
. . .: , 1968.
. . .: - . .,
1954.

257

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