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STATISTICSAND

DATA ANIATTSIS

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IN GE,OLOGY

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S e c o n dc d i t i o n

JohnC. Davis

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JohnWiley and Sons


New York . Chichester. Brisbane
Toronto . Singapore

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P. H. Koaaaon.

|804010000-289
35-90
043(0t)-90
ISBN0-471-0s079-9

ISBNs-247-02123-r

l!7J,^1986 by John Wiley


a n d S o r r s ,I r i c . A I I r i g h t i
reserved. published sei r u l t a n e o u s l yi n C a r r a d a
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mlT: l68:160:1,05.
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coAepx{ar B Tor{Hocr[ oAHv, ABe H
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23

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27

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r { \ , 1 H O } K e c r Bi rop f i N , I b rrx, 1 0 _
)rier 06.rraAa'b pas,rrrrqHbrr{ilcBoricrBarrrri.
Koneunol.-rlllill, oo.r."
o1l

qeN{ TOr{Kll, TaK Kali ogu o6,raAarcr Anttgofi' oplleHTaUHeiI


cr,tolriFlbI,
. O O r s e r C l s e H H O I J X a H a . 1 1 H 36 O , n e e T p y A e H '
t r y e c r o n O 7 1 o ) l i e H l t e x , lC
npIIf OAHbIe A"If H3yqeH14f tt{HO}KeCTB
N{eTOAbl,
il CTaTIICTHI{eCIilie
qeM MeToAbI, IIpeAHa3HaqeHHbIe A,'Ifl r1ccJlepa3Bi,tTbI,
MeHee
;rrrHttii,
jloBilHlti cxeNl roqeri. tr4:yverirrro pacDpeAer'IeHllE A"rus ,tuHnft no'
pa6oru no .rlolHoa*nu,*uo ua.no pa6or. Hci<"roqenrie cocTaBJlarcr
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MeTOJ'.\'
aHa'/rlofuqHylo
peua,rH
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pacnpeAe"IeHIrii
[59'
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aHaJIII3e
B
coceAa,
6.,irr;r<aiiulero
ilod'iHee ocBerueH Boripoc o6 opueHralrnn 'nttsttii'
tgj . gnuuurerbllo
KOrr,pbrrl 6yaer paccNlorpeH B CJIeAyIoUeM rlaparpaQe'
CxeC.rlf'qaiijryrO CXeN{\. .rIHHIIii Mox(Ho onpeAcJIHTb I(al{ ral(}to
6ltrl
M),, n' iioropoii riair(Ioc noilo}KeHUe ,paBHoBepoflrso noxer
nep.,eceueilOnetioropOti ,'IUHlIeil Ij IIO6afi Opl'IeHTaIIHf Cel{,VUIer'tJIIIHtilr rarilKe paBHOBepOfiTHa. TaKae CJIyqaIiHbIe c-xeMbI I\'lo)liHO feilpoueA}'p
t . l r . p i l p o B a T b p a 3 . r I I i r I H b l M I lc n o c o 6 a l { u ; o A H a I I 3 r a l ( l l x
c"'iyqatiHbix
ra6,'prubr
r43
KoopArHar
ilap
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{trrcc,'r rr nocJeA}'!oqe},{ npoBeAeHull qepe3 cooTBercTBylou{ae roqtill
c n o c o 6 c o ' J r o l l r B B b I 6 o p e n p o l ' l 3 B o , ' I b H o ] ' oy r ' r l a
npfl\roii. [pYroii
lla il,locKocTli, IpoBeAeIIrlil npoll3BoJlbiloro paAIIyca BHyTpII sTolo
\ ' i , q i ] ' i l D o B e I e H I ] I I H a n p o I , I 3 B o , { b H o Mp a c c ] c ' I H T I I { o T B e p u I . { I I b I y | . 1 a
llooropln
np:rrrori, ileptleH,4llli)',rnpHoir It BbI6paHllo\ly paAllyc\'.
qllcJIO
pe3v.rlbraTe
B
pa3,
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(' xe I,iy cr a r IIcrllqecKIl IIep a 3 J'Iuqli l't bl x .rlII Hl I i{.
, ' I I IH I l t ' t . a l l : 1 . 1 0 f I l t t H ] ' r o
l"lu tnto;rielt ofi pcr.c,{l't'b il,rcpr'r 'r6111oat"
fl,TorHocrll:
TorleltHofi
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l):rHte

1":2tlA.

(5.32)

Be.rriquuaI/ - o6u1ar A.[i]HaJIrlHuilHa Kapre, IlMeulleii r,roura.1bA; 7,- nzrpauerp,r{oropblironpe4e.rirerOopN{yn}'accoHoBCOX(tlAaTb,nyaccoHoBcKafl


r'.ofo pacnpe.l.e.leililt; ;iiK I'l Cr'IeAOBa'1O
I e] l o r l l x i l a D a M e T p o Bc x e M b I , o 6 '
\ ! o . l e , r b o I I r i c b r B l e rp a c f l p e A e J I e H IM
1)a 3o Ba H}{oii c,r y'.{a il HI'Ilvlll JI?Iflll fi xIu.
Prrrpe4e,reHlre paccrottHllii MelKAy napaMlr ntrst'lr1Moxitlo IIC'
c,rre:oBaTbc noMoir{t,rcil,{ero.4a6nttxtaituero cocella. cHauana npolr:rBo.rJbHo
nr,r6epeuno oAgofi ToLIKe Ha r'IIlHIlffxlilpru. 14: Iiall{,1oli
1Orlt..ilEO rIepnCilAUI(ydItlpyX 5,rnX<atiUeft
BblrlilC,'IfleTCf
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p
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r:e:eri d ecrb cperHec aTlix lr3l{epeHHit.3ra npoueAfpa llpoll"rru'llocrp u p o B a H au a p r t c .5 . 1 6 .
A a c u [ 1 9 ] o n p e a e , ' r u . :crp e A H e ep a c c r o e u H e 6 n o M e r o A v 6 J I I I '
xaiiurero coceAa A,'rq cxeMbI c,,t5rttnrinot",ruugti c.rle4yrculunro6pa'
1o11.'

O: 0,31831/i,
t

(5.3;r)
35

,/",

Tep|IpeTHpyeTcg

-2

aHariloruqHO

IlHAeKCy

A':It

Tor{eqHbIX

II
3ror xpttrepHft npuro4eH A"Ifl MHox{ecrB Kal( npffN{blx' raK
qTo STLIJILIHIIUHe qacTO MeHfl'
yc,'IoBIrII,
11p11
,'TLIHLIIi
ItclipuBIeHHbIX
tt'nUnpu"JreHtie. 3Uaulir, JrltHItItAOJIiKHbI6Urr, no KpaflHeli LIepe
B froJITOpapa3a A!'IHHHee,qeM cpeAHee paccroflHue MeXAy HI',IMII'
IIJIorHOcrb
Ha OAHOtiKapTe Ma,lO, TOOqeHeHHy}O
Ec.tlr .{rtclrOJTLIHI4\I
- r{flcd'Io
n
tre
MHox{I'lreJIeM
cua64urb
Qt-|)ln,
1)erioMeHAverca
raKoBa:
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]'runufi e cxeN{e. OuesNa n!'lorHocrl'Lruultii

)K_,
--7 L

Prc. 5.16. Bsrqtclenne


paccronnuii
MexAy JTHHHSMHrlo MeroAy 6.ltxafi_
uero coceAa.
Touxa, p eur6prtla c.rl.uaiiHo rra .nt_
H I I I | A . I l J H r r ri l | H s r e . t r r i l l J t a , h n C _
3TO IIepaeHAHKy,rlrpbr, IIpoBe,(eHHbre
]13
roqr[ p x 6.nuxafiuurr
I(par",ruuulv.
,taituas n3 Htrx c - paccrorHfie
:o 6rr>xauurero coceAa ,quHurr X. flpouecc noBTOpreTcf c ue,'rbto HaxoxaeHLts pac_
crogHuii no ]rero,[y 6atxairruero
cbce_
,Ia A,'rr scex ,rrrHuir

1: ( ,- - t- l ) t

Prc. _5.17. ClyvafiHoe pacnoJror(eHre


,nuxnfi onpo6oBaHnff(nyHxrup), cexyqrlx cxeMy ,llyHtfi na xapre. Ilepeceue_
H H s n o c r e A H u l r n , r n H H f io n p o 6 o n a H u r
o6pasyror, nocJteAoBare,rbHocrb
r{HTep_
BaroB,AJrqKoropbrxMoxHo nponepnir
ruflore3y o c,tyuafinocrn

o 3 :0 , l 0 1 3 Z1xz

(5 3+)

.ty Arrcnepcrrrcrr quc.ro .nrrsuri B cxeMe, Mo)r{Ho


,.-_T:n::-ry:
Haurn craHlaprxoe orxr,roHeHuesaueii ou,eHKH
cpe.qHefo paccrofl_
Hut ro MeroAy 6luxafiilero
coceAa. Craugsplgse orK,rroHeHr.{e
on_
Pe.4,reuo(iop uy.noli
^
re:

t/' 2,y o;l n.

A H A J I I , I 3 H A N P A B J IE H H b I X N A H H b I X

(5 35)

OHa no3Bo,rtrrer
HaM-Bblq'cJIIrrL npocr'Io Z_crarltctutiy
I,,rfl npo_
Bepxu 3lraqtrMocTrrpa3locTr.r Mex{Iy o}KHAaeMbrM
n Ha"6,rrc4*nn,,rna
cpeAHIrr{ paccrosHHex,r,Bbtrrrrcr,reHHbllr
rro MeroAy 6nli;xafiruero
cocerfa:
.7
L:-

reo,lolaqecKofi
Kareropnl
Hanpan,reHHbre AaHHbIe-BaxHafl
lrntpopnta4urr. Bce o6'L'eKTbl, Talille, liati n,rlocKocrl'I HaIIJIacroBarilrri, cx,ra4qarble noBepxHocrn lI TpeuuHbI, xapaKreplt3ylorcfl 3aJefaHHeM, Bbrpa)KeHHblll ilpocTrlpaHI'le),,I n,'lacroB I1 IIX HaliJloHoM.
roptI30HTbt,
IIcKoIIaeMble
.ileluuriorue
rpeuruHbI, NIapKilpyloulle
Bo]1orl raJIbKa ilMelOT npeO6na4arolliiiioBr.iHbr ll oruluQoBaHHas
lllrre HarrpaBJreHHf opIleHTauuil. <DororpaQIIII, IloflyqeHHble c BO3A Y X a I i C I y T H H K O B ,T a x i r < e r O I { a 3 b l B a l O TH a , ' I I { q U eO p H e H T H p o B a H H b l X
Itccr'IeAoBaHbI
.niruefrHorx cxeM. Vr<asaHHbre o6'berirr'I Mof)'T 6brrb
i i o . r n q e c r B e H H b r M r 4x , r e r o A a M r r , H a n o A o 6 r { e u : u e p e n u f t J p y f t l x r e o ,:roruqecliux cBoricrB, otrHaKo Heo6xoAl.rMo IICro,'tb3oBarb ctreIlH'
a . r r b H b r eC T a T H C r u r i i l , o T p a l K a r o u l t r e q i l t i . q i l q e c K y I O ( u " u l r c Q e p l t u e c KYlo) npupor..v HanpaBreHHblx AaHHbIX.
V q r t r H e a f l n p a r { r x r i y r e o r p a ( r o e , u r , I A o ! ' r N { H L rp a 3 J ' I t t q a r b H a t{l'o
llpe4no,'tcNIzl.t,
npaBJreHHbIe u opilettrHpoBaHHbte o6rexru.

ll

ss

(5.36)

Kpureprlr? sBrflergi ;lBycropoHHrn{. Ec,rrrt BeJr]rqrrHa


Z ne zua,nt_
r'14' To Moxiuo 3a^,'trcqrlTb,qro Ha6,rrcAeHHaq
cxeMa JllrHilr'iHe or' T r r r q r ' r Moar c x e M L r , n o p o x . l e u u o f r c , l y u a l i u u l r ( n y a c c o u o n c x u l r )
pacnpeAelrreuuenr.
lln MoxieM raK}Ke eeecru r.rHAeKC6,qu;xaririlero
coceAa, lricsruqultri ToMy, Koropuli ncnc.,il,3oBa"rc,
rJfl ToqeqHbrx
cxeM, B3flB orllotueHlle Ha6,rtoAeuuoro
tl)H",

paccroauafi no MeroAy6,rrrxafiruer" .".:;;'THi

(5.37)

floocroi.r MeroA Hcc,'leAoBaHI4fl MHo)KecrBa d'II'IHIriiHa Kapre co'


cro,rr B npeo6pa3OBaHHI',llByltepHofi cxeMbI B oAHoMepHylro tloc'renoBareJlbHocrr. Mut MolKeM cAeJIarb 3To, [poBeAtl c"[yqalIHo !'IIlHlrlo Ha KapTe I.I oTMeIIag TOI{KLI,B KOTOpbIX3Ta dtllHntl nepeceliaeT
.r1rrHrrrr3aAaHHOro MHO)KeCTBa.Pacnpe4er'leHUe IlHTepBa'1OB Me)KAy
roqr{aMlr nepeceqeulln BAoJIb npoBeAenuofi' nurtuu Aaer ilHdlopMarlpK) O npOCTpaHcTBeHHOfICxeMe. Mu raoxell [pllMeHI'ITb K I{cCdIIe\'IeTO,Ibl, lI3!'IO.lOBaHLrrO 3TOri OAHOMepHOft IIOCJIeAOBaTeTTIbHOCTLI
iricHHble e r.[. 4. Ec"ru oAsa ceKyxlaf He Aacr AocTaTOr{HofO KO.;rrrqecTBa nepeCeqeHLIfr Lns TorO, qTO6bI MoIKHO 6u.nO npiilleHIITb
HeKoro_pyq_Apyfylo
otrHoMepHble KplireplzH, ro Mox(Ho npoBecrll
c.rl,rraI'rHo opneHrupoBaHHyIo ,'tlIHI.{p H r. A. (p rc. 5.17). tr'lsettnltcu
rbiri nyrb c-er<yuefi iluHurr HarloMfiHaer c,'IyqafiHoe 6rvxAaH[e,
KaK
paccMaTpI.iBaTbcfl
nocJreAoBaTeJIbHocTb nepeceqeHHii uoNer
n ocr'teAoBaTer'rbl{ocTb, p acIIoJlo)KeHH afl B,llo!'lb g1itofi IIp fl Mo ii .rII{HI'II{.
Sror u Apyrse MeroAbI I4ccJIeAoBaHl{q [J-IorHocrI'I cxeMbl .rlllullft
paccMorpeHbl B pa6ore [29].

a Tar(r(e x,Ircllepcrrlo3TO|OcpeAHefo:

36

COBeplIIeHHO

CXEM.

";::X";::

o/

,r1

jl.

ABTO]IO6IT''Ib ABIII{CTCq

HA CCBCP BAO":Ib IIIOCCC; ABII)KEHI{E ABTOI{O.

6 u , r s l t v e e r H a n p a B , ' I e H r eB, T o B p e M f l i ( a K u o c c e c a M o I . r M e e r
To.rrbrioopfieHraqrrlo ceBep- rcr. flpocrupaHrrfl c!'roeB nopoA rr
r p o c . ' i e i l { H B a H I I ce K ' r a A o l { - n p I I M e p b I o p H e H T I J p o B a H H b t fxe o r r o f t r qeclill-\ Ha6,'tto4eHufi,n to BpcMfl KaK
Apyt'{irrrHbIH HeKoTopbrer.rcKoil3elIhIe, TaliHe' I(ali cll.rlbHo cI{pyrleHHble facrpolloA[,I, it],,Ietor
f l p t ' : o B b I p a > K e H H bH
I ea n p a B d ' t e H r r bxtaep a K T e p r r c T i l K J . I .
r\isr ruoxeru raKxie Brrr-le,'ilr'rbsr6,rio:cirrrrr, Koropbre
).Ao6Ho
uso6pax<arb rorrriaMr.rHa oxpy)r(Hocrr.r,IIrtrr Ha6,rrn,{eurifl, ecrecl t s e H H on p e A c r a B , ' r e H H b H
r ea c $ e p e , H a n p r . t \ r e p , u e r a u o p $ u q c c r ( r e
crp\'rirypbr. llepalre r13 ynox,rsHyrbrxAarrHL.rx\.!06Ho uso'6paxaru
r r t l r r i t f p i r t r \ 4 e , H M e n u l e f i S o p n r v q n K , l r r q e c K o fr iu c r o r p a r r , t i u t oul ,r o I)br- rrso6paxarcTcrr ror{rraMrr B npoeKrlr.rHHa no,rycrlepy. Xors
I e o , r i o r l l M H o f n e r o A b l n p e A c r a B J I f l I o rH a r r p a B r ' r e H H bAt a
e H H b I eB T a r i o M B r r A e ,o H r r H e p a s p a 6 0 r a , r u $ o p u a n n H b r x c r a r H c T r . r q e c K unxp o ue-l)'p I,1fl npoBepl{n IICTIlHHocrll3ar(JttoueHnti,IioTopble ltse.tleriaJIIIcL'Ii3 3TL{XAuafpar,lt'1.Taxoe [o,'ro]KeH[teAocrofrso cox(a,rcHrrfl
HC ToiIbl(o fioroM\', tlro 3TI4 KpIITeprlrr no,'Ie3Hbrcrar{H fro ce6e, uo

Ta5.'irrua 5.5
Berrop lranpaurreunfilrrrprrxosKH
JrsAnr.l(a,llsrrepelHurii Ha n,rouraAr,r
l lOxsoii 4ki:,'raxluit (eriave;tra4anul
B rpil:(ycax,
oic'.ier Bed:Icq flporfiB
qaccrcri
crpe.r.,{, Ha.ilr}rafl c caBepa)

1,23
12i:t
126
i 2fi
126
i27
1.27
128
128
129
t32
132
i32
134
13lr
\37
1,44

23
27
i3
58
64
83
85
88
93
99
100
105
ll3
1i3
1t4
l7
121

II IIOTOi4Y,LITO PiI:JB]dTI,IE
T,IHCITIXII3 3TIIX MCTO.IOB6OINO rrgCNIiIII.
potsaHo nepBoHarl;l,llrio rrpo6"leN{flMrr Ili.,r,;Ko 3elr.rie.
Ha plrc.. 5. l8 lrpe:rcras;ena riapra ipau,.,ruorrrocrrr .refHrrrioB,
Har'repeuHoli rra i\r[r.[oir EJrox{a;iil e Io;xHoii
orrnnssxuu
(ra6.r.
5 . 5 ) . H a n p a B . r r e H r r f l , v l { a 3 a F r H b r e' ' ' r l ) r i x a M r r ,
Mo}KI{o u:o6Da:uro
erHIlllqHbIMu BeKTopa)'tIl IL']ir )r{e Ha oKp\';KHccrLI eAnHHr{Horo
panrr'ca (pnc. 5.19, a) . Ec,rH oiip1.)r(Hocrb pa:6nrl
Ha cerMeHrbr r{
IIO-lt-'LIIIT2TbqliC.IIO BetiTopOE B IiAiI(l{O}.{ Cefl,teHTe, TO
De3\:"rrbTa.f

115
1l--

l.i6
1aJ

i5;r
155
155
tcl

163
165
t7l
172
t79
lBl
lE6
190
212

l,rox{Ho npeAcraBrrrb B BirAe po3br rj,rpi ulKJrHqeciiofi rtrctorparausl


( c v . p u c . 5 . 1 9 , 6 ) . O A u a x o J , ' r f l r o f o , q r o 6 u B b r q f l c ! ' r r 4 r bc r a r r r c r r r i i l r , r { o T o p b r e I a r o T x a p a r \ T e p r r c T r i K n B C e f o I , I H o l . t { e c T B aB e K T o p o B ,
ilrbi Aor't)iiHbI pa6orart
HeitocpeACTBeHlro c caMtrMIi II3MepeHufIlIa,
(Fieo6xo:1uno orMernrb r{To c,teA}'fi corr'ranegflrc Meir(Ay feo.[ofaNlII, \1bt ]t3Mepflet\I \rt,rbI r!l)oruB .taccgr,ifi crpeJii{u or tloJIo}KltreJIbu o r o H a n p a B r T e H t r foi c r r i ' , r . e . o r r r i l L i J l i r B . t c H r irJf la c e B c p ) . B 6 o , - i u lultHcrBe pa6cr no crarilcrutie H:titllaB,,lCilHbrX
r a H H b r x y r ! ' I L , Ir i 3 t i e p q l o r c f l n p o r r i B . I a c o e o i i c r i l e . ' t l . r r 0 T I l o ! ' r c ] . K r r r e , { b H o r oH a n p e B , t e HIIti octz X, t. e. HalpaB.r]eHrrst Ha Eocror(.
f,titsHoe Halpasieu'rC B Hrioropolt Mtro)KecrBe BeriToDoB i!{oxiltr uafirH,
Bbl'.Irrcd-lflff i)e3\..-rbrrrp).Iourtlli Ber(rop - peiy.nlrrHr.
I-]1'crl X n Y - KooprtrrHarbr rioHr{a errrrursHoro Ber(Topa, HanpaB. : , i { f i eK O T O p O T O
3aAaeTCgVrnOll 0:

JI
I
I

X ; : c o s0 ; ,
(5.38)
Yi:sin 0;.
Tlrcre rilrr Bri{Topa
ilpeACraB.'tenbr
Ha p l r c . 5 . 2 0 . T a x x < e r o r ( a 3 i l H
pc3yr'Ibrilpylolqlri BeKTop, ri o,rr1'ueuHu
ii C y l v l M I I p O B a H l l e \ t C t T H y C O Br . I
IiOCxHyCOB XHAIlBlrAya,lbHi)I.\ BetiTOpOB:
lt

vf,l
'\ r::

P r i c 5,18. Kr'.pra,npeAcraBnffrcqacHanpaBJreHfis turpltxoBKIt

,
/*-l

C O SU ; ,

(;.3e)

JteAH!{r{a e rcxHofi
,racrlrOsHrsHauu(51 H 3 M e p e H u e )H a
uroulaAn BF xi,r2

Y-

sin 0r.
I -1

38

39

s,._

\4s pesyJrbrripyrcxteroBeKTopa tt'toxHo no,'tyqurb cpeAuee

00

360"

0, xoropoe fB,IlfieTCflyt,'IoBblN,lcpeAHIlM Bcex BeliToHanpaB,'reHrre


a
r
t
6
o
p
x
l
l
.
O u o c o B e p u e l i H o. a H a r t o f l l q H o c p e A H e M y 3 H a q e H l l l o
pon
\ r H O ) r { e c r B caK a , r fpl H b l x u 3 M e p e H l l l l :
nn

I
I

,l

270'

9o'

6 - 1 n 1 - r( Y , l X , ) :

tan-t (

c o so ,
).

s i n (' l;A/, !

L;

l=

i=l

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T a r i x a i i n a A e H H ec q r r r a e r c f l B e r ( T o p o MK
uri;riseri norycSepe, To Berirop R eocroqHofo rr 3airaAHoro ilaAeH r r r ' i6 y , 1 e r H a n p a B , r r e H
B e p r u K a a b H os H u s ! K o u e u H o , A J T H H aR 6 ) , {er 6,lrr:xa ri Hvd'r}o,Tar( rrro cQeprruecxafl Auclepcrrr 6yAer 6onr,u r o i i , y x a s u B a f l H a x p a i i n e B b r c o K y r oA u c f l e p c u r o c p e . u r B e x r o p o B .
. u c , r r Ig T H n a A e H l i f l p a c c M a r p u B a r b H e K a K B e K T o p b I ,a K a r { H e H I N P a B . T - I H H T , I CO C H , T O A B A

Puc. 5.28. O6o:ra,{euln ars rpexMepHOrO


Bexropa, xapaKr'epH3yroulero
npocTfipaHr{e

( 5.4e)

KOHIIA

6YAYT

NPOCI(TI,IPOBATbCfl

B e p r H r o i ou H H X { H r o I n
o o n y c $ e p n ; o q e B H A I r oq, r o J I u H I , r Hn,p e A c r a B .rrfllorlrre BocrorrHoe rr 3atla;(Hoe ttai],eHHq,TecHo cBrr3ausl. CpelHflq ocb, BbrrrucreHHaqc rtoMorlbo Mero.r,oBTeoptril co6creeH]Ilir
BC1,:TOllrB.
r|t.rtolKeHHotililDrie, 61"rer roprieoHra,llnofi U 61'ter
i r i )) x u t i t T b I I C i ) ( ' 3
n!qot: or'cii Ia.1eHHfl.
lVtarpuuHoetrpeAcraBJreHrre
BeKTopcB
B r.,r. 3 (cu. riu. 1) )rxic orr/reqa.rrocb,rrro cl porirr N{arpuilbt
i p r i Q u u e c x n M o f y r 6 s i r n n p c A c r a B J r e H bBr e r { r o p a M r . {O. 6 p a r u o I ' r opeACTaBIlTb
B I,IaTpItr{" ' I O B b l e. X a p a K T e p r r c T f l l iBr re r ( T o p o Bv r 0 r . r ( H n
H o i i $ o p n r e . C o 6 c r s e u H b r e3 H a q e H u s n c o 6 c r B e n r J b r eB e K r o p b r r a rioii rr:rrpnrlr,r Aalor lrHQopuar-iaioo pa3N{eilleHxrrBer(TopoBB nlloc ' f p a H c T B eo. 4 u a x o i l p e ) K l e r r e M o x a p a K T e p r r 3 o B a l bn p e A c T a B r . r e H r r e
\ ' t i r o ) K e c r B aB e r i r o p o B B M a r p r r q H o f i Q o p t r e , n p i i B e A e x {o 6 s o p i l c " t t o ; , i r e H rfrei io t , t e r p l u t ,H a r I u H a f cl A B y M e p H o t oc J I y q a g .
leOl\'leTpllqeCKOe
COOTHOlUeHile,
AaIOU-(eeBe"II{qHHy IIpOet(qliH
O.l.HOI0 BeliTOpa

Ha

HanpaBd'leHlte

rI,p)'fOfO, -

9TO CI{a/rlflpHOe IIpO-

l l 3 B e A e H r . rAeB y x B e x r o p o B ( p u c . 5 . 2 9 ) . E c , r r r r p , { r r o r ' r o ) K H r br ,{ r o
o 6 a e e r i r o p a c 1 r i H r i q H b r eT, o A c r ( a p r o B b rK o o p A r r H a r b r r x K o H r I e B b r x

Plrc. 5.29. fipoexrtr.rn


Bei{ropaa, b x a n e l i rcp u, a.
,r].,rriiranpoer iiuu a, b ill u, Ll p i l B H : r

I
I
i

---:-.- -.-

lr:rccroffHl.tc getiTCha lioriIt goii rr l r i t r J


4. lt
( _ ) TB e t i T O p : t u , L t i ) : ) B H O
d

i\\,

lBl:ntll-lrl,
r.ir: ? - Ma'ipilua pa:JMepa 3X3 cvllm I'.Ba-lparoBl1
n p o r r t r B e A e H t t i ru a i t p a n l f l t o u { l t x I { o c 1 1 H ' ' ' c o B c i i r o i - , o B

ii'\.

""t

i
.4'

", n-;',J'L'
\

tl

t,, -?.

-t-=-,-*-r

Iloelt) \it' ltarpt{tIa B itlttelct glrA

ir

l-n

ToLlex 6j -lir rai(Ite iiie, i.;iiri Itx Irarip.tB"tsto[Il.te


iiocllHycbl
HorucHriic i.i ocfiM .y n y.ITpoei<qua paBHa

lo

oi_

I:au*bu,
(S.bl)
/
p,riiTopaa, b ua Beri,.optt,
:,urra
Fpoeiillri,
1:e
c,. ?ro rari) r ( c c T b t . t i l H a -

i l p o c , \ r t i l i r t t , ; . tu a a , l t .
Ha pril' 5'29 nlrlno' qro BeKTop a,b
e c r b f r z r r o T e H y 3 ar p r N r o yfolbitofo
Tpe)'fo.rjrrrJuria, cTopoHLr ;ioTopofo
ecrr npoe,rl1ns / ga
BCKrop

u, o n nepreH.qnrivnnp
tl. I1o reopelre [rr6a'ropinuryuu_

C},I COOl'HO[ICHI,IC

d,_I _ 12:1 _ (auIbu)2.

(b.52)

' I I n 6 0 e ! i l c . ' r o B e i i ' i o p o B - i , ' 0 ; r ( Hcon D o e i ( T i r D o B a . r b


Ha .,jiiriiio ,, u c
I l o l v l o x i b t oy p a B H e H r r f l( 5 5 1 ) , r r r i a a 4 p a
r r r i . x p a c c r ' a u. 'l ir,i"i u ruprr r ,orui r H r r r L r , o o r p e A e j r r i { r . r c nv p a B H e i i u e M
(5.521. at;;;
p a ccrr.,rrti.ili6y4er
n

,w -- \- rti
i=]

.i

u
L@ t

b ;r ) 2 ,

(5.r3)

ee \{o;iiHo pitcct,{aTpilB3tb Iiar.i IIOMeHT


IiHepIIHH iioHeqHrrrxToqeJ{
B e K T O p o B o . i r i o c i i T e J b H o . . i i i i l f ir r t t ,
u . 3 t o ) p a B F i e r J r r ci r o ; t u o o 6 o O _
IlIr.rrb ri:r Tpe.x],repHbrii c.rryuaii tr
norrotilbro BBe.l.errl;t rperleli
np,_,crp a HcrBeiIirofi rtoopAl Hari,r

.,u:f .,
r*"ta'i

f_l.

lL-

= b , < t!

),(uiu

i-:i

L=l

V
- t rt ._o -p.n...r ., ,. o, , ! t\ -l i. -r .l ,)
t r o i r i r r i ) B b r pa 3 i r T b
L i t a r r a , r t i l I i o o p ^ q l { H a T L I. , i I H I t H 3AIAIOTC-A

c,w)2

(5.51)

n varpuunofl rlopne"
BeKTop-ct.o!-r6\o*t
u:

{ul

ILII

.-l

it

cr

t"t'

L(e I
53

[OilapHLIX

i ) a; ) a,1,,-Y,r'c, I
lrl i \ /,,a;s ,? ) D,,', I
i ) r,o, ) r,i,, ) ,,; I

ttt

I
!

marpnuy B:
A/istrar<>xeonpeAer'ILiM

IDJ

- 2o',

b; Zb,c,i

2', o, ) i:;l'" t;

- \ i r - , r / r e H TI r H e p u t i l l i . , r r o O o "

i,i'iiclo M : lU l' LBll,Ul

-. ttici i

Zo,b,

I t?J

orHocltreJlbHo tlaflpeB,rleHUfl Ir]

ecrb

flpeNae qeM orIpeAe,'Ifrb Mot{er{T oTHocure.rlbHo Helioropoil


JIIIrri'tr,lisso.tlruori,'utHtril [ UJ, rrrsr MoiKeM uaftrtr eAUHCTBeHHy]o
o r o p o i i N l o t r T c l {ITI H e p u l l l l 6 y a e r M a K C H M e . r I b H i t i o , o r F r o c i l T e J ' I b Ht iO
ur,rrt. I(oopluHarbI aroii,rtrsttu 3aAalorcfi nepBbIM co6crBeuHutvt
t s e r i r o p o MI \ T a r p u r r b lI B ] . E c , ' r r r7 u - n e p e o e c o 6 c t n e t l u o e 3 H a q c H l l e
i ciirop-cro.rli B l u I-bt ital t i c o o r B e l c r e s ' r o r - q l r iei . ' t y c o 6 _ c r e q q q b i f B
o r l , t e q a " t o c t rn r n . 3 , ) ' r : [ D ' ] ] [ B l I b r ] , r . j . ] , e c r u
i;eii, 't'o,
] l O l , i C l l T I I H e p I I I I U B e l i T o p O B O T H O C I I ' l e , ' I b H nOe p B O f O C O O _ C T B e H H O f O
Fe;iTopa. 3'rc :]uaqlrt, tlro c)'MMa i'BaAparoB paccroqilrlli or KoIIuoB naHHrilx Ilcli.fopoB Ao ltepBofo co6creeHHoro Beiiropa Mai(clli \ i : : . r b l i o B 0 3 h i c ; r i H a - f l ,r r J l L r q r O c O 6 r r e e u t i l t t i B e l i T C p o A H O B p e M e H r l o
l r r i r d r : l : i r l e . l b H o l r e p n e F l r t j r . , \ ' J l t t i t e HK o B C e \ , 11 1 3 n a H H b i x B e t i r o p o B ,
1 1 : r1. i 0 . ' i b l i O3 T O B O 3 N t O ) K H O .
M o r r e u r r i H e p q f i l t B T o p o f o c o 6 c ' r e e H r t o r o B e i . : T C p a- t l a t t 6 o l l '
n ;rrc5Ofi rtllHlili, cj icioii::.ribHoii nepeoul'
r u r r r i r r . ; B o : l N { c } I ( H b l x; 1 " 1
c o i c r B c l i r i c i i v B e K l o p ) , . T p e r t i r i c o 6 c . r e e u H L r r in e x r o p : o ; l r x e s 6 l i r n
olr ioftrilS,IibHLlI,l AByM Ap)'fllN{ II ,l.O,'l}:(eHTalix{e yqtlTblBaTbCtr LJlfl
BeiiropoB.
s,tx
ocra.ibHbrx IiBa.,I.paroBpacc'r'cRuitfi ,1o Bepuilrl
I : r r ' i . : , i l i : r ' ;r r T p u c o 6 c r B e H H I ' r x E ei i r o p a o t t p e r c J f l o r o p r o i o i l a , r b i t i , ra i i ' r r : u c , n o , q H o c T t , I o e x n r i s a r e u l H s u : l
lJCXo.lircN{y x,{Ho;l{ecTBV
- r i ' , i a r ) T o B b i xo ' : e f i , r o r p e r H i r c o 6 c r e e u H o r i l e e t $ o p ; l o J I l K e H o i l p e A e .:i', ir ;iliHIll..-l, BIO"rIb t,lOrOpOii ],{(-rMeHTIlllCpt{lln ,YIlHli!.1a"iIeH. To
ecrb, ilH 51-,rcr optteHTI'tpoBalITaK, rillt fi1':1ro oH o.llloBpeMeHilc
i - ) ' ' l i i : l O i i H A i ' i ' O " [ b K O ,f { 3 C i r C , I l b i . 3OT O B O 3 \ 1 O } l ' ' l l O
l i ,O B C e N { 3 T I l ] v I B e l i 'l (-,rl
a Nl.
tic,ru 4e a BeKrop a rri a \{erp a,TbHo II p olr'rBofiod'Iox{Hbt ( ptlc. 5.30),
olrtt oulzr 6yai'r I.rr{erb oiltrr{atioBbte A"rtrrHr,rnepfleHIxtiy"IgpoB
BHe
' . ' o S c r e e r r H o r on e x r o p a
[ b ] r r o J , r r H a t i o B o e B , ' I H f f H r l eH a p a c i l o , ' I o x { e r.o

PNc. 5.30. llpoexqun AByx AraMerpaJrbHO npoTnBonoJloxHbrx BexTopoB Ha


c o d c r s e H H b r f in e x r o p b 1 .
paccroqlrurl d1 u d2 IlIeHTriqHln u HtreKir oAlrHar{oBbrit spaqarellnsrri

volreHr

i\

{r-e K T O p a .3 r O S H a q r i r , q T O H a i l p a B r ' r e H r {Bee K T O H H e C O 6 C T B e H H OB| O


poB repseT cMbrcJr;oHrr HeoT.rrlrqxMbr
oT ocer?. flo erori lpuqriHe
NleroAbr reopHu co6crBeHHbrx BerrropoB npeAnoqTlrreJrbHee nplI
r xa c Q e p e , B r e x c J r y q a f l x ,
r r c c d r r e A o B a HA
r JarH
r H b r x ,p a c n p e A e , ' i e H H b H
r,{e HeoAHo3HaqHocTb
cooTBeTcTByerpa3,rrflqliroMe}KAy BeKropaN{H
c KoHuaMHB BepxHerirr Hrr){(Heiino!'r}'cQepax.
Co6creeuHr,re Ber{ropbr o6ecileqriBar.ornpflMyFo uHQopMaurrrc o
p a c n p e A e J r e H u us r r J X B e K r o p o B . M a p A u a [ 5 1 ] p a 3 J r u q a e r q e r b r p e
cnyqafl.
l. 1,1BeJIrlKO,B To BpeN,ltlKaK Lz Ia 1,3 Ma,IIbI.3ro guaqnr, qro
M e ) K A y K o H u e B b r M rrro q K a M H
c y M M a K B a A p a T o Bn e p n e H A l r K l , r ' r t p o B
BeKTOpOBrr OCbrO,COOTBerCrBylOqeri
[epBoMy CO6CTBeHH0N{y
BeriTOpy, orIeHb Be,'tLIKa.
EO,rlurvucrBo Ha6r'IroAesHr?
Ao,rxHo Jre)KaTb
B i r J r o c K o c T Hc, o A e p ) K a u e i i c o 6 c r B e H H b r eB e r i r o p b r c H o u e p a u l r 2
(prrc. 5.31,
u 3 , 1 4 o 6 p a 3 o B b r B a r bo n o f l c r , r B a r o u e ep a c n p e A e J r e H r r e
a).
2 . ) q i l I ' z o 6 a B e , ' I t ] K t tB
, ro Bpeufl Kar{ },e Ma'lo. PaccrorHle
no neplleHAlrKyrTflpyor KoHIIeBbrxToueK .r,o nepBoro u Broporo
paccroqco6crBeHHbIXBeriropoB Ao,'r)'r{Ho
6r,rrt oqesl 6o,lrrurrirr, a -MaJrL,|\{.
HHe AO rpeTbefo co6cTBeHHofo Ber(Topa Ao,TlKHo 6urrl
Ha6,rpAeurzqco6nparorcs B lvqor{ BoKpyf KoHrIarperbero co6crB e H H o r o B e K r o p a ( c v . p l r c . 5 . 3 1, 6 , a ) . I ( a x 6 u v o r l a l l H o e , r a K u
paCnpeAe,rleHirfl
vHIIMOAaT'Ir,HOe
AaFoT o.t HHaxonurfi pe3)'"rtbTaT;oHtr
I\{OlyT pa3,rI'IIIaTbct 3HaqeHrreMR, KoTopoe I,'1fl yHlrMoIa,'rbHofo
c,ryqafl 6yAer 66,rrujuM.
3 . , 4 s a c o 6 c r B c H n b r x3 H a r r e r { r r rcro B n a r , a r o r .3 r ' o H a c a t r { o Ma e l a c T H L I i ic , l y u a r i c r y r l a f f 1 . H a 6 l t o , l e H l r a o 6 p a : y r c r
re HetioTopbtiq
c r ( M M e T p r . { q e c K rf ri o
i i q c B o x p y r o c ! ] , c o o r B e T C T B y ] o u l c rei . l l i H c T B e H n o M y c o 6 c r B e H H o M3yH a q e H r r r(oc n r .p l c . 5 . 3 1 ,a ) .
4 . B c e r p u c o 6 c r B e H H b r x3 H a q e H t r f lo r u H a r i o B r , r .P a c n p e , l e . r e HHe paBHOMepHOe
r a, K r i a r i i l e p n c H A r r r i y , ' r q p H bHr ea I ] l ] a B r e H H t rl ] . J r f l
60

H a e A n H l . l q H o fci $ e p e :
Pnc. 5'31' CxemsrnexropoB
d - c x e M a l l a c T l l q H o r o o f l o f l c b l B a H l l q B I t J o c l i o c T I I ' c o p ' e p x aourlHeo' fci .l l.r.eoJ6bcirl o
t ^ ec o
u6
Hcl rt e cn H
e t- i pacnpeAe"'lenu"^utntopo"
co6'toost 2 u 3; 6 -y,,"toL'''i"oe
u'"ntopou orHocllre'lbno
p
o
t
n
p
"
S
t
'
*
i
t
o
r
'
l
'
l
o
,
r
a
;
'
s
H
o
e
Hoi,l eeKropa 3; e
corepxauell
- c i e " a n o ' ' t t t o t o ' o n o q c b l B a H I r f le [ " I o c t i o c r f i '
crBeHHoro eexropa g; e
--io6cteeHnl'te
c O 6 c r e e ] l H l t e e e r i r o p l t 2 r . r 3 ; u x c o 6 c r s e H u H e ^ . n o u " " ' " I i A e H T l3I iql aHrbl el ititl .i ql l tn6p' u
l u6:' lr it it tBce
' otnp*'1t'rerrre'
]i lro\I]'; d - paaHoltepuot p
p
a
B
t
l
l
j
3llTeJbHO

'rpex toqeii orrrHarioBbr


A r r r B C e r T p e x o p r o f o r { a J r b H b r xo c e f i . H a
e ; 1 r r r r r r , ; t r ocrQi e p e u e r n p e A n o q r r l r e . r r b H o f op a 3 N r e u e u u ai o u e n ( c u .
p i r c . 5 . 3 1 ,d ) .
B,, -rriorr [B I ] o6o6urn,rr 3r]' ri,riiccrid.rrrxaqrrrc,
ttpeAcraBr.iBf paQ r u , i e c i i r r . ' i o r a p t r Q t uo trru o i l e i l r r r j c o 6 c l e e r r H L , l3xr r a q e n n r i( l n ) " r ) / 1 , 2
t j : i : 1 8 ; rrfr M o c r r . o
t r ( l n l " z )l ) " s . H a e f o t r u a f p a M M e B C e B o 3 M o ) K H b r e
c x e x ' r L rt r' o q e K u a c r l e p e u o r r a - { a i o r n c r r e q u r p l r u e c r v roc6 r a c r n . 3 r a
r f o p r r a r p a $ n u e c x o f o a H a , [ r r 3 aM o ; . t i e '6f t r r l o c o 6 e H H on o r e 3 H a n p t r
p a 6 o r e c r i e r p o r e i i r o r r r l q e c l i u M rAr a H H b r M r rH. a p l r c . 5 . 3 2 n p e n c r a a / r c H i t : r ; l H a i l 3 . r y r r a f p a M uB y r t l < o i i a .

i . .. . J

//. /

t:=2

llpeS.crae'reHI'teci$epHqecKIlxAaHHb'lx
X o r q l { s o 6 p a X { e H H e B i i C p C I I e K T I 4 B e H a e / I I I H I t t i H o'fere.'Ib'
liC{l]epeno.
Mo>Ker nepeAarb
ua'itati ltJ"rilocrpa[l]ll' oHo He
.lc3;^an"
B^liropoB'IIo nptiHnroN{y Coii\'Io rlHQOpMaul{}oo pacEpe.Ie"leHUil
t
o
t
i
a3aHbl B npoeKlruu Hx KoH'
,lir'ua"tir' rpexorepnre neriroprt
Ha
Iax xaii artl roqxrt !.eficiBrlTe'nbHorexaT
iloB Ha flJIOCI(OCTb.
rPelr3NrepeHHtx
s
i1B)'x
.qr.pot, npeAcraB'neHrieIrx
;l:;.;r;";;;;i
ilpoel{lIIiu' leo'rora rpar'liunoHHo
y
p
a
B
I
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e
H
I
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t
c
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b
3
o
B
a
H
I
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l
t
{
6J'er

,"'-'

ux npoeKql{ilHa panHonJouaaHyrc
Plic. 5.33. Bexropu BHyrpHeAt*rn'tHofrc$epur n
IloJrqpHyloAuarpaMMy

-\'
'..':

./'
!
i{
P r c . i . 3 2 . l ( n a i c u C p r a x a q l q c x . M B e K r c i l o B n a e , q u n n q H o i ic t l e p e , c o o i r e r c r B y r c r q a r l
norapu{rmam oruoruesurl lrx cc6clneHHtrx ara,reHxfi [gl].
! , ' i ; t 1 ; . t : . ' i l i ' , H b t xo r H o u e - r t H t i y r a s a u s l r I i I r I I r r H t . r en e r l o r e r . : T o H r { r r e c r i ! rres a r p a r . r } 1 b r .
( - o r H o u t e H u e1 n( i 1 , / i , i l n ( L z , /, 1 , : , \
A9

Psc' 5.34. Ilpoer<ruporan[e noJrncoBHa [JrocKocr'Il:


- no"Ilocbln']ocKocrl'r'cnpoa - rr,'tocKocrbH ee floJllocblHa eAIlHIItlHoiictpepe; 6
a - npoexullf Ha BepxTouxa
paBHon,'IoulaAH)'Io
Allafpaunay'
ciirHooBaHrrbrc
''
r{a
"
"-";;;
no'tiycQepy
HI{xHIoIo
Ha
npoexqur
b
rouita
;;r;;o;py'
63

LIcIIoJrb3)ilor
paBrroil,'rot4aArrVrc
11o,ryrrpHyro
11poeriqH]o,IIana6epa,Noropafl orHocrircfl K cerrr
Kplcra,,i,rrorpaQst
npeAroqrrra_
.lUlrriara.
IOT [orrflpHyIO CTepe^OrpaQtuuecriltlo
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paccToflHHs BAOIF,BCeX paAfiyCOBH3MeHflrOTCfl
rj, KOHeqHO,COOTBercrByrorqne npeo6pasoBaHurr @ypte 6yayr pa3rar{HbrMH. Ec.nu
Mbr nolKe,rraeMcpaBHarb Hecrio.rrbr{o
pas,lagubrx Qopu, Mbr AoJIx(HbI
oyAeM oTo)KAecTBHTbsKBr.iBaJreHTHbre
TotrKLr BlryrpH KaxAoft
Ltg
Hr{x, cqr.rTarrnx ueHTpaMH COOTBeTCTByIOqIX
KOOpAT{HaTHHX
CIICreu. Ec.nu 3TOrO He cAer'raTb,To Mbr He cMoxeM cKa3aTb, flr,Lfl,rorct rtH BHAI.{Mblepa3.tuqaq Me}KAy cne6TpaMH Oyple gr'I6ACTBTI69

eM pa3d'rr{quftQopMbr rrJrH )Ke oHH npolrcreKaror u3-3a Harrrefo


Bbr6opa UeHrpa.
B uexoropux npr,rJroxeHlrrxr.rMeercrreAr{HcrBeHHaflToqr(a BH,vrpr{ riai*(Aofi Soplttt, Koropafl MO;,r(ercJty)Klrrb HaqaroM norflpHoi'r
cucreMbr KoopAHHar. Taxue npxMepbr nprrBoAflr I(ec,rep u Vorepc
1 4 2 1. O n u l r i l l e p a r c r p a A r . r y c bor r ' p 1 ' 6 u a o r n e r { a r K a M y c K y , r a p a IilruIKoBbIx paqKoB Ao KoHrypa i.ix paKoBlHbr. K
coxa.rreHrno,
6o.uluuHcreo Sopu (sepua reci{a, faJrbria, rioHTypbr co,riflHbixriorreri) ne xMeror spr{o Bbrpa}KeHuL,tx
roqeri, liolopbre I,ro;xuo 6u,'ro
(rn. cqnrart ueHTpaMrrorcqera. A{u lrclNelr, oAHaKo, BHyrpr{ iiax{,toft eauxuyroii Qoprrlu npor.r3Bo,irbHo
nor6part roqKy, xoropaa 6y.
;leT_C.{yxarb Harrar'roMcHcTeMbIKoopAaHaT.
IJ,eurpor4-sro
ueHrp rs>rccr.li r]roprru, oH eAr.rHcrBeueH
Alrfl
K a l K A o r o o 6 t e x r a . E c l n r i o u r 5 r pH e t ( o t o p o r o o 6 t e x r a n p e l c r a s . r r r e r c a u a 6 0 p o M n e K a p r o B b l x l ( o o p x r r H a r , a H a J o f l r r I H b r Mn o p o x r i L r H I I o M y K o M r r b r o r e p o M , _ Tr o
r,eHrporrA
M o ) K e r 6 u r r r r a i i A e Hn H T e f p t j p o _
B a H r r e r rt i o o p A t r H a r x u Y . l l p o c r a a n p o q e A y p a r r H r e r p l i p o B a r r u r r
IlocrpoeHaHa rrcfrorrb3oBaHlM
i r .er r o A a r p a n e q n l : r .
P t 4 t r r o u e K p a 3 M e u { a } o r c f lH a r p a u u u e o 6 r e r r a ( p u c . b . 3 6 ) .
rpaneqttrl ircIIo,lb3yiorcrr IIapbr 31'uX TOqeri B
AJI-fl OnpeAeJ'reHI{g
xot'r6usau,un c ocflMLI. Bur6pae ilpou3Bo,'rbH),.to
Ha!taJrbHyroTor{Ky,
n o c r p o r . i Mc e p u r c r p a n e u u r l , p a c n o , r r o x { e H H b rHxa p r . r c y H K en p o . r r r B
.Jacoeoi{ crper'rr{H.Moxuo irarirH rreHrp rff}Kecrn -xaxAori
rpaile_
T\IIVI, U XO,IT6HTTAqU' 3TIIX

UCHTPOB Tfl)KCCT}I AACT

I{EHTP Tfl)KCCTI-i

pacc[[arpriBaeuoir
Qzrypu. KoopAliHarrrlueHrpor14a
ererypu ecrl
X:2XtAtl (lAt),
(5.56)

V:{YtAl (x.4;),

(5.57)

fAe X; - xoopArrHarbr X qeurpoa4a l-fi rpaneg]/.u, Yi - ee KoopAHHarbr 1" At- rrJroulaAbTpaneqr{I,{.


I-IeHrpou4u n,rourareii ipaneqnfi B cBoro oqepeAb HaxoAflrcff
c noMolrbio npocrbrx feoMerplqecriux rrpoueAyp. Ka>xrar rpane_
t1l'rr pas6rrn-aercfl Ha IlpflMoyfoJrr]Hrrri rr npflMoyronrur,rir rpeyfoJrbHr{K. LI,eurporr4 npfMoyfo,'rbHrlKa pacnoJrox{eH nocepeAuHe,
B Tor{r{e nepec_eqeHr{s
I]apaJrJIe,relicropoHaM, npoxoAqrq]rx qepe3
rtx cepe.TnH-br.
lJ,eurpou4 rpevroJrbHoii qacril pacnoJrolKeHHa paccroflHtili l/3 nyrlr Me)KAy npriMbrM yf,'ro}r rr AByMr ocrpbrMH yr,,raNIIr. l_{eHrpoilJbrjlByx qacTer'rxonr6uur.rpyrorcFc BecaMr.r,cooTBcrcrByroqrnt{u l,rx orHoctlTed'rbubrM
nr'touraAqM.Orn onepaqHH MofyT
6strs crior'r6uHrponauu z ynpoxreHbr Ao Bbrpaxesufi' cJreAyroqefo
BI,I.{A:

A t : i ( Yt + r * Y , ) ( X , - X , + , ) ,
1^
xt At :7 {x?*, I Xi+tX t 1,-X, (y,+, -y,),
V, e, :]70

(Y',*,* Y i+,Y t * Y?)6t -_ X,+r).

9ra npoueAypa Moxer 6urr JIerKo npoAeJlaHa 3BM, Koropan


Aacr rIoJIo)KeHHer{eHrpor.rAa c,rox{noii Snrypu. To,rHocrl floJloxeHHfl 3aBr.r.CHT
OT qr.rcJraroqeK, pa3MeUIeHHbIXnO nepliMeTpy.
Tenepr Mr,I ycraHoBrrJrx noJrroxeHneIreHrpolr4a QIarypbl Il Mo'
xeM rlpoBecrH paAr-rycbrri3 ueHTpollAa K roqKaM nepurraerpa Qt'trypu. !,.nHHH erax paAHycoB BMecre c I4x yrrloBofi opueHraureft
AaIoT napbr nonrrpHbrx KoopAHHar, KoTopble MoxHo aHaJII43LIpoBarb
MeroAaMH Oypre, paccMorpeHHbrMr.r
B flpeAblAyuretirrase. AHaJHs
3
a
M
x
H
y
r
o
i
l
c
r
e
K
r
p
x
H3 orofo cnexrpa MbI MoxeM
Aacr
Surypn,
BbIBecrH Muoro uurepecHsrx Csoficre Qopuu $urypu. Llax.rtnqecruufi cnerrp @ypre fiMeer BCe xeJiaeML,recBoricrBa, KaK H o6bltlHuri cnerrp @ypre: os coAepxur BCro HHQopuaunrc, coAepxaulyrocfl B Hcxo4Hoii Qurype, ilocJreAoBarer'rbHbre
rapMoHI4KLIHe 3aBLIcflr lp),,r oT Apyra rr r{axAoe crreKTpa,rrbHoe
3HarreHHeecTb Mepa
BKJraAa coorBercrByroqerl rapMoHlrqecxoft Qopuu B o6uylo Aucrrepcl{rc.
roro, .{ro6H CAeJarb III1KJHr]ecKHfianantz 4pyple IIpHeM.L[,.nR
yrJroBbIMHnpu!'reMbrM,paAirycbr Ao,'rxHbi nsr6uparrca c paBHbrMr.r
pautreHi]filvlK
r ra. r < B 0 6 b r . r r r o Ma H a J r r r 3 e@ y p r e , n p o 6 u p a B H o M e p H o
pa3MeulaloTcfl Bo BpeMeHHrrJrf I]pocTpaHcrBe. K coxa,renu]o, HeBepoflrHo, qro6u KoopAanarbr IrcxoAnbrx roqeK Ha nepxMerpe 0ufypbI, IlcIro"{n:1rsN46ta
A,'Ifl oIIpeAeJeHIiq IIeHTpoHAa,pa3MeUIanHCb
'rax, uro6H coorBercrByrourne nM paAuycu o6pasonuBaJru paBubre
yr.ru. Mu Ao,,ix{Hbrnafitu BAoJrb fiep]rMerpa HoBoe MHoxecrBo
roqeK, r{oTopbreonpeAeJrgroTpaBHbre yrJrbr oTHocareJlbHoAaHHofo
r{cHrpouAa .rru6o ocyqecrBrrrb Hoesrri psA r{3Mepeluuftunu HHrepIIOJ'IfIIIilO Me>KAy 3TII Mll TOTIKaMH.

OAgaro Ka)KAas npoueAypa BBoAr4


T HoBbIe ycJro)KHeHr.rfl,
TaK
KaK qeHTporrA,BblqlrcJrenssrirno HoBoMy prAy rorreK, He o6ssaTCJIbHO B TOTIHOCTII COBNAAACT C UCHTPOI,IAOM, ONPC.4CJIEHHbIM AJIfl

rrcxoAHoro lvlHoxecTBaToqeK. Ec.nn pa4uycbr H3MepflIoTcflHe or


I { c r H H H o r oq e H T p a , r o B c n e K r p @ y p r e B B o / t , u r c r cr u e q e H H e . 3 Q r{o,'recy, KoTopoe
$exr or srofo auar'rorr4qeHHer{eHTpr.rpoBaHnoMy
B o c b M e p K aA a e r
!.ae'r BocbMepxy npH r\aiKAoMnpauieHHu.3ra
Rr(/tar-lB rlcpB)/Io fap],roHilri)" rioTopafl IIHaqe paBHfJIacb 6lt Hy.ltto,
T a i < x a n o 6 b r q H oA . x f f c p a B H e H r r qc i l e r i r p c r a H A a p r r . t 3 y e r c sT, o H a Jiurlre Jrox{Hoirnepnofi rapMoHrrKfl yMeHbuaer orHocureJrbHbleBer'rHrrHrrbr
ocra,'rbHbrxfapMoHrrr(. B crarre [9] onacaHa r4TepaurroHrrafl rrpou,eAypa,Koroparr Aaer r{a ria}KAoM [rare Bce 6o,tee 6rusriyio aIIi]poKCrrMarIHro
K HCrilHHo],1y
u,eHrpotrAypflAa roqer(, pacI]or'lox<eHHbrxBAo!'rbnepIIMeTpa o6t,exra Tar{, qTo cooTBeTcTBy}oxIHe
irM paAuycbr o6pa3yror paBHbrcyfdrr,r
IIpeo6pasoBarr4fl rrpflMoyi'o/'rbHoirorcrenrn
xoopAuHar B noJ I f l p H y I oA a r o r < < p a 3 B e p r r ( y3>a M K n y r o r o K o H r y p a ( p u c . 5 . 3 7 ) . M e ro4u o6rruHoro aHar'r[sa @ypre oqeBHAHo npHMeHnMbI AJrrr Hepa3BepHyrort QurypEr.
-l

I(ax H s o6Hr{HoM aHa!'ru3eOyple, ern Bbrpaxeuug MoxHo ynpocrl'Irb: po paBHo HyJIIo,a a0 paBHo cpeAHeMypaALIyCy:
-f-.l
f :

I
MexAy no,rcpHbrMlt r.t AeKaproBbIMu npeAcraBfleHuqMU KOOpArrHar:
KOHryp 3epHa, npelctasneuHltii B IIortpHbl-{ KoopAuHarax; 6 - no;tnpulte
r or apryveurl 0
K o o p A l I H a r b rH a H e c e H buI a r p a Q u x x a i i Q 1 ' H t t L t t t R

Psc. 5.37. SxgusareHrnocrb


4 -

HanouHlrlr, rrro B f.lt. 4 pa3rox{eHue B ps,r, <Dypte 3aIIHCbrBa-

a,,cos(40); pusin(&g),

t
tu"

\-n)

j=r

(s.5s)

:lx,sin
R .!-)

I 2njk \
\r?i

(5.60)

raK, rlro6bl oHII no3Bo3ru ypanueHurrMolKHo rvto4utpuqxpoBarb


JrrJru ltonyqarb pa3,'Io)KeHI{eB psA Oypte !,d'rq3aMKHyrutx cpuryp.
Ec.uu pacnoJro)Kurb KoHubI /, paAlrycoB BAoJIb Bceii oKpy)KHocrt'l
Ha oAIHaKOBOMyAa,'reHIIIrApyf Or Apyfa, ro yfoJl MexAy Ka)KAoI'i
napofi paAuycoB 6yaer paBeH 2nfn. [TozroMy yfoJl or HcxoAHoro
paAnyca Ao i-ro paBeH 2njln. O6osHaqas yfJloBoe HarpaBJIeHIie
i-ro paanyca qepe3 07, a efo I.,JlLlHy9epe3 r; I{ noAcraBJlst Hx B
y p a B H e H r . r (r 5 . 5 9 ) u ( 5 . 6 0 ) , n o r r y q a e M
n

au:4
Kh,/tt

| r;cosftor,

(5.61)

i=L
n

2Fr
^
F
)
' K* : - - ;
R

./-,)
t-L

72

(5.65)

HofO pflAa.

O6uqHo AJrfl riocrpoeHrr 3HeprerlrqecKoro Hntr AHcnepcHoHHoro cneKrpa npuxolurcs xou6uurzpoearl


xoeQQtqxeuru
d Lt P.
3ro nossorqeT fipflMo orlenr4Tr,BKr'raAxaxAofi rapMoHr.rKrin Qoptvry
tfrrrypu. lloc,reAosareJrbHble npu6.nuxeuna aHa,rusupyeuoft Qop\ibr Mo)KHo nocrporaTb c noMoulbro no,I,craHoBKr.l
rioeQQuuHeHToBcc
rr p n ypaBHeHr.re@ypre. flo naepeyBeJrr4qeHlsrrr.rcJra fapMoHnri
rrccJreAyeMar $opua Bocnpou3BoArrrcs co Bce 6o.nuruefi AeraJrbHocrbro, noKa He 6yaer [oJryqeH r.rcxoAHuftoutaQpoBaHuuft o6pas.
3 r o c . n y u a e r c f ln p r r q a c r o r e H a f i x n n c r a , K o r A a k : n - l .
Ha pnc.
5.38 lpeacraBJreHaperioHcrpyr{q[q necquHxn. Hy,rennre fapMoHHlitr Aaror oKpy>KHocrb,ArzaMerp xoroporl paBeH cpeAHeMy AHaMerp-\' HcxoAHoro KoHrypa. 3Aecl nepBaff rapMoHHKa orcyrcrByer,
raK KaK rrecr*rHKa coorBercrByrourriM o6paeou rleHTpr.rpoBaHa
orH o c r r r e r ' r b HcoB o e r o U e H T p o n A a .B r o p a l
rapMoHr.rKa npeBpaxlaer
rrPex{Hro}oper{oHcTp}ripoBaHHyroQopruy B 3drIJI}rilc,
TpeTbfl fapNlourrria go6aBJIfieT Tpeyfod'IbHvroKoMrroHerrTy,qerBepTafl- l(BaApar r r r H y r o K o r \ { n o H e H rH
y r. n. (puc. 5.39).
llponopurra eapnaquii Qoprr.ru, Bbr3brBaeMbrx rrocJre!,oBare!'rbH b r M r . fr a p M o H r . r r ( a M uA,a e T c r r 3 H e p r e T r l q e c K H M
cneKTpoM.o6uqso
14eJIOe qllcd'lO HIi3IIIIIX

/.rSlIlBU;.

(5.64)

3'ru coorHoueHllfl B Tor{Hocrlt raKlre >Ke, KaK coorHoueHnt, AaHlrF,reB npeAbrA)-uII4xpa3AeJIax Ar'rfl cneKTpa AucKpeTHoro BpeMeH-

ll

2tiky
aK, R. -/ _-_1J r- \ ' F ' c o s 1

Au:{{*8,
(Dr:arctg
(t)

(,-r58)

l p u q e M x o : Q Q l r u u e H r b tH a x o A n , r u c bn o Q o p u y l a u
9r

(5.63)

f ;lll.

3rpScxl pa3Mepa Moxer 6url ucx.urorreHI.i3 aHaJru3a AeJreHrreM


BCex paAHycoB Ha cpeAHr.rfipaArrvc, rorAa ao 6yAer BcefAa paBHo
e A H H u r r e .l l o n p n u a u a M , y r i a s a H H b r Mp a H e e , x o e @ Q a u H e H r b Ir r e p eorl rapl,loHrrrru,q,t H Br, AoJrx<HbIpaBHfTbcg Hyd'iloB cJlyllae, ecJIH
paArrycbr l.r3MepfrorcfloT I{eHrpor.rAa.
Kax ronnxo Arrq pqAa rapMoHxK orpeAeJreHbrKooQQHIIIleHTrI
.t H P, IrHrepltperarlurr qrdKJn{trecKofocrreKrpa @ypre npoBoAr..rrcff
iirrar'roruqHouHrepnperaqlau o6nuHofo cneKrpa @ypte. Aunlnry-lLr (tra3oBbrxyrnoB noJIflpHbrx fapMoHHK Mo>xHo Bbrpasr4Tbqepe3
iiolrp$HqueHru tDypre:

"TIOCb B BI.TAC

f :

\
^A

(5.62)

faDX,iOHHK VTIHTbIBaeTCfl n[!fl

IIOqTi]

BCeX

eapHaquii ilpocrblx Sop*, raKrrx, KaK npoeKqIIHKoHTypoB3epclr


rrecKa (pnc. 5.40). Br'rcuue fapMoHaKrr orpaxalor Bce 6o.nee
Me"rrKteAeTaJrHxoHTypaH noroMy HcnoJrb3yloTcr
ceAHMeHToJIota73

o r\
e>p
rl

r\

tl

l+l

l+l

\_/

\_/

t'l
\-/

\/

6
/)

Q-(

t\

(*l

(+(

./\
/\

l+l

\\/. /
\ , \-/
/

Fuc. 5.39. CpanueHueoqusposaHno


ro xoHrypa necqr{Hxr.r
(a) c nynenofi rapmosl.rxoii xlu oKpyx{Hocrbn cpeAHeropaAuyca (6) u c KoHrypoM,nocrpoeHHbrM
no
Iltec Tll rapuontxam (a)

(*l

\l

\,

0,,0[I

\_/

6
/\

(.)
\__/

siliil
sll

/)
\

*(

\1
\_/

\/

4-

._\

l+)
\ , -\--rl
/

t1
1+l
\t

Puc. 5.40. Cnexrp oquSponannofi


necqHHxH, npe,qcraueHuofi Ha
puc. 5.39

\_,/

..[/]z

>K
/t/\'"

/\
/\

\+)
\/
\__,/

"L- !I
tl

*'''[iiii
frLl

/(

\+\
\(

\l

\-./

pnc. 5.38. BoccraHos.leHue QopUur necql4HKtl C noMOlIIbn noncpHbtx prAou <Dypre:


rapMoHItKa (c.lera), Bropatl rapMoHllKa nJIo9 oKlylKHocTb' coorBerc-Bropafl
(ueHrp), KyMyIqrHBHatl
crsvrculin cpeAHc\Iy paArlycy, u,lr.t HyJreB3r f apMoHlrKa
- coorBerclBeHHo TpeTbt, uerBepTafl, flqratl
c y : * r r n ar a p i v o l r r r x ( c n p a e a ) ; 6 - d
Ir uecTaq rapMoHHK]l

,L,'_Ll
r.rhcno

aapvorrrt

\rrr KaK MepbrnoBepxnocrHoftor(pyfJrocrt.r.


fonopnr, qro BbrcrlrHe
f apMoHriKH
KoHTypoB
3epeHr(Bapr{aoTpax{arorrrpoHcxoxAeHHe
uJltr
rrcropHroltepeHoca(vuorae pa5-ornrua 3ry reMy urrrrrpyrorcri
3prnxorvr,EpaynonaH flpyc61a [26.]), oAHaKorat<afl,HHreprperaquq qacreri clleKrpa rpe6yer ltpeAocropox<nocreri.
Craugapr.Huc
<Dypne or{eHb Berr1tig u trlieoTIi!'toHeHHfl oIIeHoti xo:QQlrqgcuroo
ro'f roT >xe rropflAoK, rn'o r.r crar\{rrorIeHKH. Bucruze
fapMoHHrill
lioHTypoB 3epeH HMetoT orleHb H113i{)rrccTeIIeHb BJtRflHHt, B03lv{O}KHo, Ha rqrb u,rII 6o.lee ncpi;t.lrroB Hl.ttl<c c.TcileHil BjilIgHHfi HIJ3IIIItx
f apMoHHK. O4Horo B3fr'tFAa Ha craHAaprrlute orr(d'toIleHl{fl jt,ocratorrHo, qro6ot nolrrirb, rrro In,t I{eirL3rr lrpuAaBarb 6onluroe 3Haqerrrie. Io6anHM
K 3ro[iy, rrro rTo)Kr]L.re
:Srpexru
iraia6o,ree aprio
B b l r i a ) K e H b rn p r . r B b t c o K r . r x : { a c T o T a x . q T o 3 : ' T p y l l H r I C T O n p c A e . r r e H r r t '
r.{c rtr i-irJbtx cfl er(Tp a,rbllttx eH a.IeHuri.
f l o . l n p n o e n p e o 6 p a : o n a H n e @ y p r e r r p H N { e } r u h l r rop a H e r . i G l o D L , r x
, ) r l . ) a r r r i q e i l l i t r , u a i i 6 0 , ' i c c c i l i I L F r L I i , { r r 3 r i o T C p b I X f f B J I f i ei - c r i o . t i { o qro paAlryc,
ririrrtH0crb aHa.rir3lip\ievofo I{o}trypa. 3ro 3Haqnr,
ril)oBeAerrHbrrl xs qeHrpouAa, .{oJtx<eH nepeceKaTb nepr.rMeTp jrHIxb

xpeMHnePxc, 5.48. Kouryp HaxoHeqHHKa


aofi crpeau nosAneronaJreoJIHTa:
s o6blqHoN{
o - Qeprrla, npeAcraB,'IeHHas
sule; 6 -npeo6pasonague, cocrotlqee Bo
apauleHrru no,toBltHbr $urypu BAo,'IbocI'I
CUMMETPHII

Pnc. 5,41. Ilpruepu Sopu, roropue HeJrb3saHalr.r3upoBa?b


c nououlbro no.rcppaAnycoB:
Horo MeroAa @ypre ra-ea HaJrlrqllqABysHaqHHx
qacrn Taxoro oKeana;6-npoexqtx
a- 6eperonafl JrLtrr1fl.
aro,'Lla B rleuTpa,'rbnofi
KoHoAoHTaLigonodina; 6-KoHTyp rpannrrnofo nJryroga s Ioxuoft qacru OHTapBo

6
180
90

-90

r e p n p e r n p y e M b l M ,T a K K a K 3 A e C b [ e p e M e H H a f Y u e p a c c r o q H H e ,
a npupaueHfie yfd'ra. 3ro n aHaJlofnqHblenpeo6pasoBaHl,lflo6cyx-

- 180

A a r o r c rnr I l a l .

Pnc. 5.42. flpeo6pasonanuequ$ponux KoopAr{HarB yrJtoBbreorKroHen[c:


a - [prMble nuHIiH npeAcra.B"r.glor
co6ofi annpoKcr.rMarrulo,
o6paaooanHyrooquQponannoil ucxolnofi Qopuoii B paBHoMepHopacnoJ'roxeuHbrx
roqKax. I4er4eHeHus
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79

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Haq Ha ocHoBaHLru celicuuqecxux
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pnc. 5.100 (6). 3aurpuxonaHu n,noulagxn,
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HbIX.

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r p r ' P . I a r p e T a e f i c r e r r c H f i ( N o a { r r f r u q r a e n r13olICr!",TrotreH
D3 paccrrorpernn) f58l

3. Armstrong Xl., labin R. Variogram models must be posiLive-deiinite.


, .455-459.
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2tj8 p.
pacnpeAereltulMil npocrpatrcrBeHHofi
3aBLKpnreprlr, orHoclillrrecr K ToqerrrrbtM
* l)el-iloila,{bilolry
cur'rocru,o6cyx4arcrca B 3roNr c6opHDKecrareH, nocBru{enHbtx
itila,llI3v)>.

5 . ' B a l s c i r c l . et .t S t a t i s l i c a ln r e t h o d si o r t h e a r r : i l y s i so f p r o b i e l r r si n a t r u t r t a l
o r i e n t a t i o n a r r , - ic e r t a i n b i o l o g i c a l r h y i h n t s . A n t e r i c a n I n s t i t u i e o i B i o l o g i c a l
. a s h i l g t o n , D . C , 1 9 6 5 ,5 7 p .
S c i e n c e sr l i o n o g r a p h W
6 . B e n . n e i . t - 1 1S
. 7p. a t i a it i r n e s e r " i e sa,n a l y s i s - i u r e c a s t i n g - c u r r t r o iP. i o l l L t d . ,
L ( ) 1 r L l o r1,9 7 9 ,6 7 4 p .
i i , r E c i r u l . . , ri i I J I i I C B L ; f U C r : C U U u r!i i i l p u - i j ' : l : l f i D . l l H t ) l iu - \ i C H l l l i r o - i l l . i ) - i e \ ' : ; p l l
il:tclrt'I c l1),liii 3pcxiij.I I!.:laccllllecl{(jfo illlJl.ijl3a iljru\lellHLlx iJfliloB.

'i.
Spaiiai anal.'sis,a reailer jn st:itl:,'.ilri
itcrrg Li.J. L., ,'v)arbleD. lr. (e11s.).
, 12 p.
, i t g l e t l o o dC i i f i s . N . J . , 1 9 d 8 5
g c o g i : : p i t . ,I,r.i t : r ; l i c c - i i : r i li ,i i c : . E
, . O O l H r r I l C l l o ! ' j . r ( r . l ; , . l; o t l l l i X e I J l C i l , i l l ' C | ' T L B ' l l O U { l l i rl : { T e f L c , i J K j : , l e u \ ) - ' 1r3 iilr-{ ll3u.leqcubr liJ He,iiuci}'ilHlt.\ ltcl'otlHuii'Jts.
iirti ii /t.,rri t'eotp:r(lire. IlHofile
q;. ts.rklLoil G., ,\iansii.citi /1:tri1c cicrr:ci,is. ioilr.
Cotniratibic tt'iargiil:i

, 3 . 1 9 7 4 ,p . 5 3 1 - 5 5 3 .
. , i : , r r : e i r i n i i c,ai n
l a i y s i s a n c iA p p l i c a i i o n s , 4 7N

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a. lie.rosori
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r,rei*i,r.)'Ko3qlQriUueHraMu rpeHAa o6ocuoeaHHbr, ec,rrrl A,rfl nocrpoei l 1 1 f i c p a B H r . i B a e M b I Xf r o B e f x H o c l e i i . r f e r r , i a r c n o . r r b 3 o B a . I r u c bo A r r r r f i
i e ) K e B b r 6 o p o q r J b r eA a H r r b r e . I . a l e e , a 6 c o J r o r r r b r e 3 r r a q e H i l f l x o s Q gil[]reHroB pefpeccrrrr rrFroiAa fio,t{Bep)KC}ihlfrr.irbrrhrr.,{
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r l 3 6 r r t r o r ] i r b r ] :D a : l p f i l l o B .
. v T u q l a r { ' r o p b I o I p a t I L i q t I B a } o T f r p r i M c H r r } J o c T b . I l i l H r r o i ol , { e t . o l l a c 0 a B r r o u H f lr { a p I n o B e p \ r i o c i c i i .

CnHCOK /TIITEPATYPiTI
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O5ruuii _ir6s.op,nx,rrcuarcu1tiiHecr{o.rbKo
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| r c r e n c c t o i { s u s c s i n e c o n o m i c s c. a m b r i d g e u n i v . p r e s s c a m b r i d g e ,
1,6p.

Nrir.Terllarrrriectiilx ilpliHrirriroB, ,[e>Kaqlrx ii (]cHi)iic ii.ll o'


IlclpoOiroe
o6cyxleiltre
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ironi
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i 9 7 9 ,1 2 9p .
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200

201

J l e H l r a r < ( f I p o c r P a H C T B e l l l l b l e . . p a c n p e A e ' r e Hlut t c o o r H o [ r e H I l t ) ) ' ] t M e e T H a H 6 o " l b l r l e e


y T O Uf " l a B b l .
o-^"-tA-.
T H O U r e r r nK
e N ' l a r e p t l a , r l3

lV' I''
i. O.,I1irhs lV.,McGougttR' I', Melv E', Piers.on
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observation
lrom clataobtainedby the stereowave
ili'.4 ... as Jetern,ineri
N 6 , 1 9 6 08' 8 . p '
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KOMnbIO,Tepll\l]r'
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Kpatrfur{f! Anfi ttoAc,iera sinacoe. Hecxo,rlro nporpa}IM na OOPTPAHe BKJI}orle-

"H-b I

B TCIiCT,

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HeO6xO4UltUe

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oueHKuMecropoxnayunsiriypoeenr.
4eHufi.XapaxrepeHBbrcoKr.{fi
42. Kaesler R. L., Vaters ,I. .4. Fourier analysis of the osiracode margin.
G e o l .S o c .A m e r i c aB u l l e t i n , 8 3 , 1 9 7 2 p
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43. Kendall M. G., Moran P. A. P. Geometric probability. Hainer Fubl. Co.,
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lnasa 2 Kacaercflpacnpele.rreHufl
ToqeKHa n,rocKocrr.t.
!4.^K.i.ngI _J. Statistical analysis in geography. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Engle* o o d C l i f i s ,N . J , 1 9 6 9 2, 8 8 p .
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45. Koch G. S. Ir., Link R. F. Statistical analysis of geological data.
Dover Publications,Inc., New York, 1980,850 p.

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Revielv,6r, N 4. 1970,p. 555-563.
50.'Li f . C. R. Sdatistical inierence, v. 2. Edrvards Bros, Inc., Ann Arbor,
M i c h . . 1 9 6 4 ,5 7 5 p .
perpeccun, Iioropble AonycKalor
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60. l{r//s F. C. Statistical methods, 3rd ed. Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
Nerr York, 1955,p. 842.
6).,\loellering H., Ragner "I. 1y'.Measuretnentof shape in gerjgraphy and
c a r t o g r a p h yO
. s l o S t a t e U n i v . , R e p o r t o f t h e N u m e r i c a lC a r t o g r a p h -Lv a b o r a t o r y ,
N S F G l a n t N o . S O C 7 7 - 1 1 3 1 81, 9 7 9 .1 0 9o .
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6 2 . O l c a R . l . O p i i m u m m a p p i n g t e c h n i q u e su s i n g r e d i o n a l i z e dv a r i a b l e
t h e o r l ' .I ( a u s a s G e o l o g i c a lS u n ' e 1 'S e r i c s o n S p , r l i r l A n l l v s i s . N 2 , 1 9 7 5 ,1 3 7 p .
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l u r v e v G r o u n d \ \ I a i e r S e r i e s ,N 7 . 1 9 8 2 .7 3 p
J i a n s a s l.( a n s a sC e o l o g i c a S
64. Rauner ,I. .&t.An introduction to spectral anali'sis. Pion Ltd., London.
1 9 7 1 . 1 7 4p .
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66. Robinson "f. E. Computer applications in petroleum geologv. Hutchin.
s o n R o s sP u b l C o , N e g , Y o r l < 1
, 9 8 2 ,1 6 4p .
3.revenrapuaa KHrra, flocBqlleHnaao6pi6orrie Sali.nosHeSrnuux AaHHbrxfi MeToAarr naprrrpoBagr.rq.
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rfu.lrrpalrull67. Roblnson I E., Charlesaortlt H. A. K., Eltis M. "I. Siructural analvsis
u s i n g s p a t i a l f i l t e r i n g i n i n t e r i o r p l a i n s o f s o u t h - c e n t r aAl l g e b r a .B u l l . A m e r i c a n
Assoc.Petroleum Geologists,53, 1959,p. 2341-2367
Onrrc-agne
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-69 Sanpsoi R. /. The SURFACE II graphics s),stem.in Davis J C. and
I ' l c C r i 1 1 a gM
h J (eds.). Displal' and analtsis of ipaiial data lVilev InterI ondor. 1975,p. 244-266
scncr.r.('.
70 Si/t' .r Siatistici:1Conceptsin Geography.George Allen and Unrvin Ltd.,
L o n d o n . 1 9 7 9 . 2 7 6p .
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1 9 6 9 ,I - 6 9 , 1 0 0 p .
72. slephens M. l. Tesis for randomnessof directions against t,',o ciicular
a l i e r n a t i v e s J. o u r . A m e r i c a n S t a t i s t i e a lA s s o c i a t i o n 6
, 4 , N A 2 5 , 1 9 6 9 ,p . 2 g 0 _
289.
73. Stenhens,44.,4. Tests for the dispersion and for the no<Jalvector of a
dislrilrrrtionon a .-.nhere.
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74. Tipper .I c. surface moderling techniques.Kansas Geological Survey
o n S p a t i a lA n a l ' , ' s i 5N, 4 . ! 9 7 9 , l 0 B r r .
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205

fnasa 6

75. Unwin D. Iniroductory spatial analysis. Methuen and Co., Ltd, London,
1 9 8 1 , 2 1 2p .
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76. Uspenshg./. V. Introduction to math6riraticalprobability. McGrarv-Hill.
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Assoc.PetroieumGeologists,53, 1969,p.2324*2340.
ycrapBuee.Ho no"'re3Hoe
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78. lValson G. S. Orientation statistics in the Earth sciences.Bull. Geolosical
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79. IYTatsonO. S. Trend-surfaceanalysis. Jour. Int'l Assoc. Mathernatical
G e o l o g y ,J , N 3 , 1 9 7 1 ,p . 2 1 5 - 2 2 6 .
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