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# Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 1
2 atoms per cell, so atom vol
4 r 3

2
3

Problem Solutions
1.1
(a) fcc: 8 corner atoms 1 / 8 1 atom
6 face atoms 1 / 2 3 atoms
Total of 4 atoms per unit cell
(b) bcc: 8 corner atoms 1 / 8 1 atom
1 enclosed atom
=1 atom
Total of 2 atoms per unit cell
(c) Diamond: 8 corner atoms 1 / 8 1
atom
6 face atoms 1 / 2 3 atoms
4 enclosed atoms = 4 atoms
Total of 8 atoms per unit cell
_______________________________________

Then

Ratio

4 r
3

Then
Ratio

4 r 3

8r

100% 52.4%

d
d 4r a 2 a
2 2 r
2
Unit cell vol

a3 2 2 r

16 2 r 3

## Unit cell vol a

100% 68%

3
(d) Diamond lattice
Body diagonal
d 8r a 3 a

8
3

8r

## 8 atoms per cell, so atom vol

4 r 3

Then
3

8 4 r
3
100% 34%
Ratio
3
8r

_______________________________________
1.3

## 4 atoms per cell, so atom vol

4 r 3

4
3

Then
3

4 4 r
Ratio
3

100% 74%
16 2 r 3
(c) Body-centered cubic lattice
4
d 4r a 3 a
r
3
3

4r

1.2
(a) Simple cubic lattice: a 2r
3
Unit cell vol a 3 2r 8r 3
1 atom per cell, so atom vol 1

4 r 3
3

## (a) a 5.43 A ; From Problem 1.2d,

a

8
3

5.43 3 1.176 Ao
a 3

8
8
Center of one silicon atom to center of

Then r

## nearest neighbor 2r 2.35 A

(b) Number density
8

5 10 22 cm
3
5.43 10 8
(c) Mass density

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

5 10 22 28.09
N At.Wt.

NA
6.02 10 23

1.7
o

## (a) Simple cubic: a 2r 3.9 A

2.33 grams/cm 3

(b) fcc: a

_______________________________________

(c) bcc: a

4r
2
4r
3

(d) diamond: a

2 4r

9.007 A

1.8
(a) 21.035 2 21.035 2rB

5.65 10

8 3

## Density of Ga atoms 2.22 10 22

cm

4.503 A

3
_______________________________________

1.4
(a) 4 Ga atoms per unit cell
Number density

5.515 A

rB 0.4287 A

## 4 As atoms per unit cell

Density of As atoms 2.22 10 22
cm 3
(b) 8 Ge atoms per unit cell
8
Number density
3
5.65 10 8

## (b) a 21.035 2.07 A

(c) A-atoms: # of atoms 8
Density

cm 3
_______________________________________

8 3

3.38 10 cm 3
_______________________________________
23

3
0.4330 a
2

1.9
o

## 0.4330 5.65 d 2.447 A

(b) d

2.07 10

1.5
a

(a) d
2

1.13 10 23 cm 3
1
B-atoms: # of atoms 6 3
2
3
Density
3
2.07 10 8

1
1
8

(a) a 2r 4.5 A

2 0.7071 a

# of atoms 8
o

## 0.7071 5.65 d 3.995 A

1
1
8

Number density

4.5 10

8 3

1.097 10 22 cm

_______________________________________
3

1.6

a
2

sin 2

a
2
3
2
109.5

54.74
3
2

_______________________________________

Mass density

N At.Wt.
NA

1.0974 10 12.5
22

6.02 10 23
0.228 gm/cm 3

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
o
o
4r
Then a 4.62 A
5.196 A
(b) a
3
Density of A:
1
1
# of atoms 8 1 2

1.01 10 22 cm
8
8 3
4.62 10
2

3
Number density
3
5.196 10 8
Density of B:
22
cm
1
1.4257 10

1.01 10 22 cm
3
8 3
4.62 10
Mass density
3

1.4257 10 12.5
22

6.02 10
0.296 gm/cm 3
23

_______________________________________
1.10
From Problem 1.2, percent volume of fcc
atoms is 74%; Therefore after coffee is
ground,
Volume = 0.74 cm 3
_______________________________________

## (b) Same as (a)

(c) Same material
_______________________________________
1.13

2 2.2 21.8

3
(a) For 1.12(a), A-atoms
Surface density
1
1
2
2
a
4.619 10 8

4.619 A

4.687 10 14 cm
1.11

(c) Na: Density

Surface density

1 / 2

2.8 10

8 3

1
4.687 10 14
a2

cm

2.28 10 22 cm
3

## Cl: Density 2.28 10 22 cm

(d) Na: At. Wt. = 22.99
Cl: At. Wt. = 35.45
So, mass per unit cell

1
1
22.99 35.45
2
2

4.85 10 23
23
6.02 10
Then mass density

4.85 10 23

2.8 10

8 3

2.21 grams/cm

_______________________________________

Surface density
1
2
3.315 10 14
a
2
cm 2
B-atoms;
Surface density
1
2
3.315 10 14 cm
a
2
2
o

1.12
o

Surface density

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
1
2
3.315 10 14
a
2
1.17

2
cm
1 1 1
, ,
Intercepts: 2, 4, 3
B-atoms;
2 4 3
Surface density
(634) plane
1
2
3.315 10 14 cm
_______________________________________
a
2
2
1.18
o
For 1.12(a) and (b), Same material
(a) d a 5.28 A
_______________________________________
o
a 2
(b) d
3.734 A
1.14
2
1
o
a 3
(a) Vol. Density 3
(c) d
3.048 A
ao
3
1
_______________________________________
Surface Density 2
ao 2
1.19
(b) Same as (a)
1 (a) Simple cubic
_______________________________________
(i) (100) plane:
Surface density
1.15
1
1
(i) (110) plane
2
2
a
(see Figure 1.10(b))
4.73 10 8

## (ii) (111) plane

(see Figure 1.10(c))
(iii) (220) plane
1 1

, , 1, 1, 0

2
2

## Same as (110) plane and [110] direction

1 1 1
, , 2, 3, 6
(iv) (321) plane
3 2 1
Intercepts of plane at

4.47 10 14 cm
Surface density

1 1 1
, , 121

4 2 4

2
2

## (iii) (111) plane:

Area of plane

1
bh
2
o

where b a 2 6.689 A
Now

h a 2
2

So h

_______________________________________

(b)

1
2

3.16 10 14 cm

(321) plane

1 1 1
, , 313
1 3 1

## (ii) (110) plane:

p 2, q 3, s 6

1.16
(a)

a 2

3
a 2
4

o
6
4.73 5.793 A
2

Area of plane

1
6.68923 10 8 5.79304 10 8
2
19.3755 10 16 cm 2

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1
Surface density
6

19.3755 10 16
3

2.58 10 14 cm
2

## (c) (111) plane:

Surface density
2

3 2 5.43 10 8

7.83 10 14 cm 2
_______________________________________

(b) bcc
(i) (100) plane:
Surface density

1
4.47 10 14
2
a

cm 2
(ii) (110) plane:
Surface density

2
a

1.21

4r

2
(a) #/cm 3
2

6.32 1014 cm
(iii) (111) plane:

1
Surface density
6

19.3755 10 16

2.58 10

cm

14

(b) #/cm

(c) fcc
(i) (100) plane:

1
1
6
4
8
2
3
a
6.703 10 8

cm 2
(ii) (110) plane:

6.703 A

1.328 10 22 cm

2
14
Surface density 2 8.94 10
a

4 2.37

1
1
2
4
2
2
a 2
2

6.703 10
8

3.148 10

14

cm

a 2
6.703 2 4.74 Ao

2
2
1
1
(d) # of atoms 3 3 2
6
2
Area of plane: (see Problem 1.19)
(c) d

Surface density

2
a

6.32 1014 cm
(iii) (111) plane:

b a 2 9.4786 A

1
1
3
Surface density
6
2

19.3755 10 16
3

1.03 10 cm
_______________________________________
1.20
(a) (100) plane: - similar to a fcc:
2
Surface density
5.43 10 8

2 5.43 10 8

9.59 10 14 cm

2
3.8909 10 15

= 5.14 10 14 cm

6.703 3 3.87 Ao
a 3

3
3
_______________________________________
d

1
1
bh
9.4786 10 8 8.2099 10 8
2
2
3.8909 10 15 cm 2

#/cm 2

6.78 10 14 cm

o
6a
8.2099 A
2

Area

15

Surface density

1.22

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 1
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
Density of silicon atoms 5 10 22 cm 3
1
15
Volume density 3 4 10 cm 3
and
d
4 valence electrons per atom, so
o
So d 6.30 10 6 cm d 630 A
Density of valence electrons 2 10 23 cm
o

_______________________________________
1.23
Density of GaAs atoms
8

4.44 10 22 cm
8 3
5.65 10

## An average of 4 valence electrons per atom,

So
Density of valence electrons
1.77 10 23 cm 3
_______________________________________
1.24

5 1017
100% 10 3 %
5 10 22
2 1015
(b)
100% 4 10 6 %
5 10 22
(a)

_______________________________________
1.25
(a) Fraction by weight

2 10 10.82 1.542 10

5 10 28.06
16

22

## (b) Fraction by weight

10 30.98 2.208 10
5 10 28.06
18

22

_______________________________________
1.26
Volume density

1
2 1016 cm 3
d3
o

So d 3.684 10 6 cm d 368.4 A
o

We have a 5.43 A
o

d
368.4

67.85
ao
5.43
_______________________________________
Then

1.27

We have a 5.43 A
o

d
630

116
ao
5.43
_______________________________________
Then