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# Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 3
3.1
If a o were to increase, the bandgap energy
would decrease and the material would begin
to behave less like a semiconductor and more
like a metal. If a o were to decrease, the
bandgap energy would increase and the
material would begin to behave more like an
insulator.
_______________________________________
3.2
Schrodinger's wave equation is:

2 2 x, t
V x x, t
2m
x 2

x, t
j
t

E
Eu x exp j kx
t

This equation may be written as

k 2 u x 2 jk

## Setting u x u1 x for region I, the

equation
becomes:

d 2 u1 x
dx 2

E
x, t u x exp j kx
t

## Region I: V x 0 . Substituting the

assumed solution into the wave equation, we
obtain:

u x
exp
x

2m

E
j kx
t

E
j kx t

jk 2 u x exp

u x
exp
x

2 u x
exp

x 2

E
j kx
t

E
j kx t

2mE
2

## Substituting into Schrodinger's wave

equation, we find:

E
j kx t

jk 2 u x exp

2 jk

which becomes

E
x, t u x exp j kx
t

E
j kx t

jE
u x exp

2 jk

Q.E.D.
In Region II, V x VO . Assume the
same
form of the solution:

E
jku x exp j kx t

2m

du1 x
k 2 2 u1 x 0
dx

2 jk

where

2m x

u x 2 u x 2mE

2 u x 0
x
x 2

2 u x
exp
2
x

u x
E
exp j kx
t
x

E
j kx t

E
VO u x exp j kx
t

E
Eu x exp j kx
t

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
This equation can be written as:
2 jk j k A exp j k x

k 2 u x 2 jk

2mVO

u x

u x 2 u x

x
x 2

j k B exp j k x

B exp j k x 0

2mE
u x 0
2

## Setting u x u 2 x for region II, this

equation becomes

d 2u 2 x
dx 2

2 jk

du 2 x
dx

2k k 2 2k k k 2 2
A exp j k x

B exp j k x 0

Q.E.D.
For the differential equation in u 2 x and

2mE
2

Q.E.D.

the
proposed solution, the procedure is exactly
the same as above.
_______________________________________
3.4
We have the solutions

u1 x A exp j k x
B exp j k x

3.3
We have

dx 2

for 0 x a and

du x
2 jk 1 k 2 2 u1 x 0
dx

## Assume the solution is of the form:

u1 x A exp j k x

B exp j k x

u 2 x C exp j k x
D exp j k x

for b x 0 .
The first boundary condition is

u1 0 u 2 0

## The first derivative is

du1 x
j k A exp j k x
dx

j k B exp j k x
and the second derivative becomes

d 2 u1 x
dx

j k A exp j k x
2

j k B exp j k x
2

## Substituting these equations into the

differential equation, we find
2
k A exp j k x
k B exp j k x
2

00

_______________________________________

d 2 u1 x

We find that

where again

2 2k k 2 2k k k 2 2

2mV
k 2 O u 2 x 0

k 2 2 A exp j k x

which yields

A B C D 0

## The second boundary condition is

du1
du 2

dx x 0
dx x 0
which yields
k A k B k C
kD 0
The third boundary condition is

u1 a u 2 b

which yields

A exp j k a B exp j k a
C exp j k b

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
3.7
sin a
D exp j k b
P
cos a cos ka
a
and can be written as
Let ka y , a x
A exp j k a B exp j k a
Then
sin x
C exp j k b
P
cos x cos y
x

D exp j k b 0

## The fourth boundary condition is

du1
du 2

dx x a
dx x b
which yields

j k A exp j k a

j k B exp j k a
j k C exp j k b

j k D exp j k b
and can be written as

k A exp j k a
k B exp j k a
k C exp j k b
k D exp j k b 0

_______________________________________
3.5

## (b) (i) First point: a

Second point: By trial and error,

a 1.729
(ii) First point: a 2

## Second point: By trial and error,

a 2.617

_______________________________________

Consider

d
of this function.
dy

We find

dx
dx
2
1
P 1 x sin x
x cos x

dy
dy

sin x

dx
sin y
dy

Then

dx
dy

cos x
1
sin x sin y
P 2 sin x

x
x

For y ka n , n 0, 1, 2, ...
sin y 0

So that, in general,
dx
d a d
0

dy
d ka
dk
And

2mE
2

So
1 / 2

d 1 2mE
2m dE

2
2
dk
2
dk
This implies that
d
dE
n
0
for k
dk
dk
a
_______________________________________

3.6

## (b) (i) First point: a

Second point: By trial and error,

a 1.515

## (ii) First point: a 2

Second point: By trial and error,

a 2.375

_______________________________________

d
1
P x sin x cos x sin y
dy

3.8
(a) 1 a

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

2 m o E1
2

2 1.054 10 34
2 2
E1

2m o a 2
2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

3.4114 10 19 J
From Problem 3.5

E2

1.729 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

1.0198 10 18 J
E E 2 E1

6.7868 10 19
4.24 eV
1.6 10 19
(b) 3 a 2
or E

2
E3

a 2

2 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10

31

4.2 10

2
E4

2.617 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10

31

4.2 10

10 2

2.3364 10 18 J

E E 4 E 3

2.3364 10 18 1.3646 10 18
9.718 10 19 J
or E

9.718 10 19
6.07 eV
1.6 10 19

_______________________________________

2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

0.859 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

2.5172 10 19 J

E E 1 E o

3.4114 10 19 2.5172 10 19
8.942 10 20 J

8.942 10 20
0.559 eV
1.6 10 19
(b) At ka 2 , 3 a 2
or E

2m o E 3
2
E3

a 2.617

3.4114 10 19 J
At ka 0 , By trial and error,
o a 0.859

10 2

1.3646 10 18 J
From Problem 3.5,
4 a 2.617

2m o E 4

2 m o E1

Eo

1.0198 10 18 3.4114 10 19
6.7868 10 19 J

2m o E 3

E1

a 1.729

3.9
(a) At ka , 1 a

2 a 1.729

2m o E 2

a 2

2 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

1.3646 10 18 J
At ka . From Problem 3.5,
2 a 1.729

2m o E 2
2
E2

a 1.729

1.729 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

1.0198 10 18 J

E E 3 E 2

1.3646 10 18 1.0198 10 18
3.4474 10 19 J

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

3.4474 10 19
2.15 eV
1.6 10 19

or E

_______________________________________

E4

2.375 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

1.9242 10 18 J

E E 4 E 3

1.9242 10 18 1.3646 10 18
5.597 10 19 J
or E

3.10
(a) 1 a

2 m o E1
2
E1

_____________________________________

2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

3.4114 10 19 J
From Problem 3.6, 2 a 1.515

2m o E 2
2

E2

2m o E1
2

E E 2 E1

7.830 10
3.4114 10
4.4186 10 19 J
19

4.4186 10
1.6 10 19
(b) 3 a 2
or E

2
Eo

a 2

a 0.727

0.727 2 1.054 10 34 2

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

1.8030 10 19 J
E E1 E o

1.3646 10 18 J
From Problem 3.6, 4 a 2.375

a 2.375

2m o E o

2.76 eV

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

19

2 2 1.054 10 34 2

2m o E 4

2 1.054 10 34 2

o a 0.727

19

E3

E1

3.4114 10 19 J
At ka 0 , By trial and error,

7.830 10 19 J

a 1.515

2 9.11 10 31 4.2 10 10

2m o E 3

3.11
(a) At ka , 1 a

1.515 2 1.054 10 34 2

5.597 10 19
3.50 eV
1.6 10 19

3.4114 10 19 1.8030 10 19
1.6084 10 19 J
or

1.6084 10 19
1.005 eV
1.6 10 19
(b) At ka 2 , 3 a 2
E

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
2m o E 3

a 2

E3

d 2E
d 2E

curve
A

curve B
dk 2
dk 2

2 2 1.054 10

2 9.11 10

31

## so that m * curve A m * curve B

_______________________________________

34 2

4.2 10
10

18

J
1.3646 10
At ka , From Problem 3.6,

3.14
The effective mass for a hole is given by
1 d 2E
m 2

dk 2

*
p

2 a 1.515

2m o E 2
2
E2

1.515 2 1.054 10 34 2

## so that m *p curve A m *p curve B

_______________________________________
3.15

7.830 10 19 J
E E 3 E 2

dE
0 velocity in -x
dk

Points A,B:

1.3646 10 18 7.830 10 19
5.816 10 19 J
or E

We have that
2
d 2E
curve A d E2 curve B
2
dk
dk

a 1.515

2 9.11 10 34 4.2 10 10

5.816 10 19
3.635 eV
1.6 10 19

_______________________________________

direction

dE
0 velocity in +x
dk

Points C,D:
direction

d 2E
0
dk 2

Points A,D:

## negative effective mass

d 2E
Points B,C:
0
dk 2
positive effective mass
_______________________________________

3.12
For T 100 K,

E g 1.170

4.73 10 100
4

636 100

3.16
For A: E C i k 2

E g 1.164 eV

T
T
T
T
T

200 K,
300 K,
400 K,
500 K,
600 K,

E g 1.147 eV

E g 1.125 eV
E g 1.097 eV

E g 1.066 eV
E g 1.032 eV

_______________________________________
3.13
The effective mass is given by

1 d E

m * 2
2
dk
We have
2

At k 0.08 10 10 m

, E 0.05

eV
Or
E 0.05 1.6 10 19 8 10 21 J

So 8 10 21 C1 0.08 1010

C1 1.25 10 38

1.054 10 34
2
Now m

2C1
2 1.25 10 38

4.44 10
or m

31

kg

31

4.4437 10
mo
9.11 10 31

m 0.488 m o

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
(a) (i) E h
For B: E C i k 2
At k 0.08 10 10 m

, E 0.5

eV
Or
E 0.5 1.6 10 19 8 10 20 J

So 8 10

20

C1 0.08 10

10

4.44 10

32

hc c
3 10 10

E 3.429 10 14
8.75 10 5 cm 875 nm

(b) (i)

4.4437 10 32
or m
mo
9.11 10 31

(ii)

## 0.025 1.6 10 19 C 2 0.08 10 10

8.8873 10

3.19
(c) Curve A: Effective mass is a constant
Curve B: Effective mass is positive
around k 0 , and is negative
around k

2 1.054 10 34
m

2C 2
2 6.25 10 39

31

3.20

kg

E E O E1 cos k k O

Then
dE
E1 sin k k O
dk

m 0.976 m o

E1 sin k k O

For B: E E C 2 k 2

0.3 1.6 10

C 0.08 10
10

and

d 2E
E1 2 cos k k O
2
dk

C 2 7.5 10 38

2 1.054 10 34

2C 2
2 7.5 10 38

7.406 10

32

32

7.406 10
or m
9.11 10 31

kg

Then

1
1 d 2E

m * 2 dk 2

mo

m 0.0813 m o
_______________________________________

3.18

.
2

_______________________________________

8.8873 10 31
or m
mo
9.11 10 31

19

c
3 10 10

2.705 10 14

nm
_______________________________________

3.17
For A: E E C 2 k 2

C 2 6.25 10 39

1.109 10 4 cm 1109

m 0.0488 m o
_______________________________________

E 1.12 1.6 10 19

h
6.625 10 34

2.705 10 14 Hz

kg

(ii)

1.054 10 34
2
Now m

2C1
2 1.25 10 37

E 1.42 1.6 10 19

h
6.625 10 34

3.429 10 14 Hz

C1 1.25 10 37

or

or

m*

2
E1 2

k ko

E1 2
2

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
2 X
2Y
2Z
YZ

XZ

XY
x 2
y 2
z 2
3.21

m dn
4 2 / 3 mt ml

(a)

1/ 3

4 2 / 3 0.082m o 1.64m o
m

(b)
3

dn

1/ 3

0.56m o

24.39 0.6098

mo
mo

m cn
0.12m o
_______________________________________

3.22

(a) m dp
m hh

0.45m o

0.082m o

dp

cp

3/ 2 2/3
2/3

0.45 3 / 2 0.082 3 / 2
0.45 1 / 2 0.082 1 / 2

mo

mo

_______________________________________
3.23
For the 3-dimensional infinite potential well,
V x 0 when 0 x a , 0 y a , and
0 z a . In this region, the wave equation
is:

2 x, y, z
y

1 2 X
2 X
2 k x2
k x2 X 0
2
X x
x

## The solution is of the form:

X x A sin k x x B cos k x x
Since x, y , z 0 at x 0 , then

Similarly, we have
1 2Y
1 2Z

k y2 and
2 k z2
2
Y y
Z z
From the boundary conditions, we find
k y a n y and k z a n z
where
n y 1, 2, 3, ... and

n z 1, 2, 3, ...

m cp
0.34m o

Let

n x 1, 2, 3, ...

m hh 3 / 2 mlh 3 / 2

m hh 1 / 2 mlh 1 / 2

2 x, y, z

1 2 X 1 2 Y 1 2 Z 2mE

2 0
X x 2 Y y 2 Z z 2

so that B 0 .
Also, x, y , z 0 at x a , so that
X a 0 . Then k x a n x where

0.473m o

XYZ , we obtain

X 0 0

3/2 2/3

0.30187 0.02348

(b)

3/ 2

m lh

3/ 2

2mE
XYZ 0
2
Dividing by

2
1
2
1

m t ml
0.082m o 1.64m o

cn

2 x, y, z
z

2mE
x, y , z 0
2

## Use separation of variables technique, so let

x, y , z X x Y y Z z
Substituting into the wave equation, we have

k x2 k y2 k z2

2mE
0
2

## The energy can be written as

2

n x2 n 2y n z2

2m
a
_______________________________________
E E nx n y nz

3.24
The total number of quantum states in the
3-dimensional potential well is given
(in k-space) by

g T k dk
where

k2

2mE
2

k 2 dk 3
a
3

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
We can then write

g T E dE

2mE

2m n
2a 1

dE
2
E

## Taking the differential, we obtain

g E

2m n
1

1
1 1
1
m
2m
dE
dE

2
E
E
Substituting these expressions into the density
of states function, we have

dk

a
g T E dE 3

m
2mE 1
dE

2
2E

Noting that
h

2
this density of states function can be
simplified and written as

g T E dE

4 a 3
h

2m 3 / 2

E dE

states so that

4 2m
g E
h3

So

g E

2 dk

Now

1
2m n E

1 1 2m n
dk
dE
2
E

Then

3/ 2

E Ec

h3

3 / 2 E c 2 kT

h3

4 2m n

E E c dE

Ec

3/2

h3

4 2m n

4 2m n

gc

## Distance between quantum states

k n 1 k n n 1
n

a
a
a

Now

g T k dk

1.055 10

gc E

n 2 2
k2
2
a

18

3.26
(a) Silicon, m n 1.08m o

3.25
For a one-dimensional infinite potential well,

2m n E

m 3 J 1
E
_______________________________________

3/ 2

_______________________________________

2 0.067 9.11 10 31

1.054 10 34

g E

2
3/ 2
E Ec
3

4 2m
h

3/ 2
n

Ec

2
3/ 2
2kT
3

4 21.08 9.11 10 31

6.625 10

3/ 2

34 3

E c 2 kT

7.953 10 55 2kT

2
3/ 2
2kT
3

3/ 2

## (i) At T 300 K, kT 0.0259 eV

0.0259 1.6 10 19

4.144 10 21 J
Then

g c 7.953 10 55 2 4.144 10 21
6.0 10 25 m

3/ 2

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

g c 6.0 10 19 cm
(ii) At T 400 K,
400
kT 0.0259

300

or

0.034533 eV

5.5253 10 21 J

Then

g c 7.953 10 55 2 5.5253 10 21
9.239 10 25 m

g c 9.24 10 19 cm

or

3/ 2

6.625 10

1.2288 10 54 2kT

3/ 2

2
3/ 2
2kT
3

9.272 10 23 m

3/ 2

4 2m p
h3

3/ 2

3/ 2

3/ 2

## (b) GaAs, m p 0.48m o

4 2 0.48 9.11 10 31

6.625 10

34 3

3/ 2

2
3/ 2
3kT
3

3/ 2

3/ 2

## (i)At T 300 K, kT 4.144 10 21 J

g 2.3564 10 55 3 4.144 10 21
3.266 10 25 m
or g 3.27 10 19 cm

E E

E 3 kT

2
3/ 2
3kT
3

## (ii)At T 400 K, kT 5.5253 10 21

J

3.27
(a) Silicon, m p 0.56m o
3

3/ 2

2.3564 10 55 3kT

g c 1.43 1018 cm 3
_______________________________________

3/2

or g 4.12 10 19 cm

4 2m

2.969 10 55 3kT

or g 6.34 10 19 cm

g c 1.2288 10 54 2 5.5253 10 21

g E

6.625 10

6.337 10 25 m

kT 5.5253 10 21 J

3/ 2
p

34 3

(ii) At T 400 K,

1.427 10 24 m

2
3/ 2

3kT
3

E 3 kT

g 2.969 10 55 3 5.5253 10 21

g c 1.2288 10 54 2 4.144 10 21

4 2 0.56 9.11 10 31

3/ 2

## (i) At T 300 K, kT 4.144 10 21 J

or g c 9.27 1017 cm

3/ 2
p

g 2.969 10 55 3 4.144 10 21

34 3

4 2m

2
3/ 2

E E
3

4.116 10 25 m

4 2 0.067 9.11 10 31

3/ 2

gc

## (i)At T 300 K, kT 4.144 10 21 J

0.034533 1.6 10 19

4 2m p

E E dE

3/2

(ii)At T 400 K,

kT 5.5253 10 21 J

g 2.3564 10 55 3 5.5253 10 21
5.029 10 25 m

or g 5.03 10 19 cm 3
_______________________________________

3/ 2

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
3.28
3/ 2
3.30
4 2m n
Plot
(a) g c E
E

E
c
3
_______________________________________
h

4 21.08 9.11 10 31

6.625 10

E Ec

34 3

1.1929 10 56

For E E c ;

3.31

3/ 2

E Ec

gc 0

3

E E c 0.2 eV;
3

E E c 0.3 eV;
3

Wi

2.614 10 46

(ii)

3.018 10

4 2m p

46

E E

h3

31

6.625 10

4.4541 10 55

For E E ;

E E

E E

1

7.968 10 45

E E 0.3 eV;
m

9.758 10 45

E E 0.4 eV;

120

12!
121110!

## 10!12 10! 10! 21

66

12!
12 1110 9 8!

8!12 8!
8! 4 3 21
495

f E

3/ 2

1.127 10 46

1
E EF
1 exp

kT

(a) E E F kT , f E

g 0

E E 0.2 eV;

10 9 8
3 21

3.32

34 3

Wi

_______________________________________

3/ 2

4 2 0.56 9.11 10

(b) (i)

(b) g

10 9 8 7!
7! 3!

2.134 10 46

E E c 0.4 eV;
m

gi!
10!

N i ! g i N i ! 7!10 7 !

(a) Wi

f E 0.269

1 exp1

(b) E E F 5kT ,
1
f E

1 exp 5

f E 6.69 10 3

(c) E E F 10kT ,
1
f E

1 exp10

f E 4.54 10 5

m 3 J 1
_______________________________________

_______________________________________

3.29

3.33

(a)
(b)

3/ 2
n
3/ 2

gc
m

g
mp

3/ 2
n
3/2

gc
m

g
mp

1.08

0.56

0.067

0.48

3/ 2

2.68

1 f E 1
or

3/2

0.0521

1 exp

1
E EF
kT

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1
EF E

kT

1 f E

1 exp

1
E

kT
(a)
, f E 0.269
F

## (b) E F E 5kT , 1 f E 6.69 10 3

(c) E F E 10kT ,

1 f E 4.54 10 5

0.25

0.0259

E E ; 1 f F exp

6.43 10 5
kT
;
E
2
0.25 0.0259 2
1 f F exp

0.0259

_______________________________________

3.90 10 5

E kT ;

0.25 0.0259

0.0259

1 f F exp

3.34

E EF
(a) f F exp

kT

2.36 10 5

E Ec ;
0.30
6
9.32 10
0.0259

f F exp

kT
;
2
0.30 0.0259 2
f F exp

0.0259

6
5.66 10
E c kT ;
Ec

0.30 0.0259

0.0259

f F exp

3kT
;
2

0.25 3 0.0259 2

0.0259

1 f F exp
E 2kT ;

1.43 10 5

0.25 2 0.0259

0.0259

1 f F exp

8.70 10 6
_______________________________________

3.43 10 6

Ec

3kT
;
2

0.30 3 0.0259 2

0.0259

f F exp

E c 2kT ;

2.08 10 6

0.30 2 0.0259

0.0259

f F exp

1.26 10 6
(b)

1 f F 1

1 exp

1
E EF
kT

EF E

kT

exp

3.35

E c kT E F
E EF
exp

kT
kT

f F exp
and

EF E

kT

1 f F exp

E F E kT

kT

exp

E c kT E F

kT

So exp

E F E kT

kT

exp

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
Then E c kT E F E F E kT
Or E F

E F 2.35 eV

E c E
E midgap
2

_______________________________________

## (b) For 13 electrons, the 13th electron

occupies the quantum state
n x 3, n y 2, n z 3 ; so

1.054 10 3 2 3

29.11 10 12 10
34 2

3.36

E13

n
2ma 2
For n 6 , Filled state
2

En

1.054 10 6
2 9.11 10 12 10
2

10 2

31

1.5044 10 18 J

1.5044 10 18
9.40 eV
1.6 10 19
For n 7 , Empty state
or E 6

E7

1.054 10 7
2 9.11 10 12 10
34 2

10 2

31

2.048 10 18 J

2.048 10 18
12.8 eV
1.6 10 19
Therefore 9.40 E F 12.8 eV
or

E7

_______________________________________

10 2

31

2mE

n x2 n 2y n z2

a
For 5 electrons, the 5th electron occupies
the quantum state n x 2, n y 2, n z 1 ;
so

2 2

n x n 2y n z2

2m
a

or E13

9.194 10 19
5.746 eV
1.6 10 19

## The 14th electron would occupy the quantum

state n x 2, n y 3, n z 3 . This state is
at the same energy, so
E F 5.746 eV
_______________________________________
3.38
The probability of a state at E1 E F E
being occupied is

f 1 E1

1
E1 E F
kT

E
1 exp

kT

## The probability of a state at E 2 E F E

1 exp

being empty is

3.37
(a) For a 3-D infinite potential well

E5

9.194 10 19 J
34 2

E6

1 f 2 E2 1

1
E EF
1 exp 2
kT

E
exp

1
kT
1

E
E
1 exp
1 exp

kT
kT
or

1.054 10 2 2 1

2 9.11 10 12 10
34 2

31

10 2

3.761 10 19 J
or

E5

1 f 2 E2

3.761 10 19
2.35 eV
1.6 10 19

## For the next quantum state, which is empty,

the quantum state is n x 1, n y 2, n z 2 .
This quantum state is at the same energy, so

1
E
1 exp

kT

so f 1 E1 1 f 2 E 2
Q.E.D.
_______________________________________
3.39
(a) At energy E1 , we want

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1
E EF
exp 1
kT

1 exp

1 exp

1
E1 E F
kT

1
E1 E F
kT

0.25

kT

0.02 exp

0.01

1
0.25
0.02 50
kT

or exp

0.25
ln 50
kT

## This expression can be written as

E EF
1 exp 1

kT

1 0.01
E1 E F
exp

kT

or

E EF
1 0.01 exp 1
kT

Then

E1 E F kT ln 100

or

E1 E F 4.6kT

(b)
At E E F 4.6kT ,

f E1

1
1

1 exp 4.6
E EF
1 exp 1

kT

which yields

f E1 0.00990 0.01

_______________________________________
3.40
(a)

E EF
5.80 5.50
exp

kT
0.0259

f F exp

9.32 10 6
700
0.060433
300

(b) kT 0.0259
eV

0.30
3
6.98 10
0.060433

f F exp

EF E

kT

(c) 1 f F exp

or

kT

0.25
T
0.063906 0.0259

ln 50
300

## which yields T 740 K

_______________________________________
3.41
(a)

1
0.00304
7
.15 7.0
1 exp

0.0259
or 0.304%
(b) At T 1000 K, kT 0.08633 eV
Then

f E

1
0.1496
7.15 7.0
1 exp

0.08633
or 14.96%
(c)
1
f E
0.997
6.85 7.0
1 exp

0.0259
or 99.7%
(d)
1
At E E F , f E
for all
2
temperatures
_______________________________________
f E

3.42
(a) For E E1

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

f E

1 exp

1
E1 E F
kT

E1 E F
exp

kT

Then

f E 9.32 10 6

At E E 2 ,

So

For E E 2 ,

Then

1 f E 1

1
0.82
1 exp

0.0259

or

EF E2

kT

1 f E exp

0.30
6
f E1 exp
9.32 10
0.0259

1.12
exp

0.0259
or

1 f E 1.66 10 19

## (b) For E F E 2 0.4 ,

E1 E F 1.02
eV
At E E1 ,

0.82
1 f E 1 1 exp

0.0259

0.82
14
exp
1.78 10
0.0259
(b) For E F E 2 0.4 eV,

E1 E F
1.02
exp

kT
0.0259

f E exp
or

f E 7.88 10 18

At E E 2 ,

E1 E F 0.72 eV
At E E1 ,

EF E2

kT

1 f E exp

E1 E F
0.72
exp

kT
0.0259

f E exp
or

f E 8.45 10 13

At E E 2 ,

EF E2

kT

1 f E exp

0.4
exp

0.0259
or

0.4
exp

0.0259

or 1 f E 1.96 10 7
_______________________________________
3.44

E EF
f E 1 exp
kT

E1 E F
0.30
exp

kT
0.0259

or

df E
E EF
1 1 exp
dE
kT

_______________________________________

f E exp

so

1 f E 1.96 10 7

3.43
(a) At E E1

1
exp
kT

or

E EF
kT

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

df E

dE

E EF
1

exp
kT
kT

E EF
1 exp
kT

(a) At T 0 K, For

f E

df
E E F exp 0
0
dE
df
E E F exp
0
dE
df

At E E F
dE
(b) At T 300 K, kT 0.0259 eV
df
0
For E E F ,
dE
df
0
For E E F ,
dE
At E E F ,

1
df
0.0259

9.65
dE
1 1 2

(eV)

1
1

E EF
Eg
1 exp

1 exp
kT

2kT

## Si: E g 1.12 eV,

f E

1.12

2 0.0259

1 exp
or

f E 4.07 10 10

Ge: E g 0.66 eV

f E

0.66

2 0.0259

1 exp
or

f E 2.93 10 6

GaAs: E g 1.42 eV

f E

1.42
2

0
.0259

1 exp

or

f E 1.24 10 12

## (b) Using the results of Problem 3.38, the

answers to part (b) are exactly the same as
those given in part (a).
_______________________________________

## (c) At T 500 K, kT 0.04317 eV

df
0
For E E F ,
dE
df
0
For E E F ,
dE
At E E F ,

1
1
df
0
.
04317
(eV)

5.79
2
dE
1 1

3.46
(a)

0.60

kT

10 8 exp

_______________________________________
3.45
(a) At E E midgap ,

E EF

kT

f F exp

or

0.60
ln 10 8
kT

kT

0.60
0.032572 eV
ln 10 8

300

0.032572 0.0259

## Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 3
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
so T 377 K
0.60
6
(b) 10 exp

kT

0.60
ln 10 6
kT
0.60
kT
0.043429
ln 10 6

300

0.043429 0.0259

or T 503 K
_______________________________________
3.47
(a) At T 200 K,

200
0.017267 eV
300

kT 0.0259

f F 0.05

1 exp

E EF
exp
kT

1
E EF
kT

1
1 19
0.05

E E F kT ln 19 0.017267 ln 19
0.05084 eV
By symmetry, for f F 0.95 ,
E E F 0.05084 eV

## Then E 2 0.05084 0.1017 eV

(b) T 400 K, kT 0.034533 eV
For f F 0.05 , from part (a),

E E F kT ln 19 0.034533 ln 19
0.10168 eV

## Then E 2 0.10168 0.2034 eV

_______________________________________