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Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 4
4.1

Eg

n i2 N c N exp

(b)

kT

300

N cO N O

Eg

exp

kT

kT (eV)

200
400
600

0.01727
0.03453
0.0518

2.5 10 25

1.12 300

0.0259 T
By trial and error, T 417.5 K
_______________________________________

300

2.912 10 38

where N cO and N O are the values at 300 K.

T (K)

n i2 5 10 12

(a) Silicon
n i (cm 3 )

exp

4.4

7.68 10 4
2.38 1012
9.74 10 14

200

300

At T 200 K, kT 0.0259

0.017267
eV

(b) Germanium
n i (cm 3 )

T (K)

2.16 10 10
8.60 10 14
3.82 10 16

(c) GaAs
n i (cm

200
400
600

400

300

At T 400 K, kT 0.0259

0.034533

1.38

3.28 10 9
5.72 1012

eV

7.70 10

200 1.40 10

n i2 400

_______________________________________

2
i

2 2

4.2
Plot
_______________________________________

4.3

Eg
(a) n N c N exp
kT
2
i

5 10
11

300

1.12
exp

0.0259 T 300

200

300

Eg

exp

0.034533
Eg

exp

0.017267

Eg

8 exp

3.025 10 17

0.017267

Eg

0.034533

3.025 10 17 8 exp E g 57.9139 28.9578


or

300

2.5 10 23 2.912 10 38

1.12 300

0.0259 T
By trial and error, T 367.5 K
exp

2.8 1019 1.04 1019

400

300

10 2

3.025 1017
8

E g 28.9561 ln

38.1714

or E g 1.318 eV
Now

7.70 10
10

400

300

N co N o

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
Let E E c x

1.318
exp

0.034533

x
x exp

kT
To find the maximum value:
Then g c f F

5.929 10 21 N co N o 2.370 2.658 10 17

d g c f F 1 1 / 2
x
x
exp

dx
2
kT

so N co N o 9.41 10 cm
_______________________________________
37

1
x
x 1 / 2 exp
0
kT
kT

which yields

1
x1/ 2
kT

x
1/ 2
kT
2
2x
The maximum value occurs at

4.5

1.10
exp

ni B
kT

n i A
0.90
exp

kT
For T 200 K, kT
For T 300 K, kT
For T 400 K, kT

E Ec

0.20

kT

exp

0.017267 eV
0.0259 eV
0.034533 eV

(b)

EF E

kT

g 1 f F E E exp

(a) For T 200 K,

ni B
0.20
6
exp
9.325 10
n i A
0
.
017267

(b) For T 300 K,


ni B
0.20
4
exp
4.43 10
n i A
0
.
0259

(c) For T 400 K,


ni B
0.20
3
exp
3.05 10
n i A
0
.
034533

_______________________________________
4.6
(a) g c f F

E EF

kT

E E

kT

E E exp
E F E

kT

exp

Let E E x

x
x exp

kT
To find the maximum value
Then g 1 f F

d g 1 f F
d

dx
dx

E Ec

kT

Ec E F

kT

x
x exp
0
kT

Same as part (a). Maximum occurs at

E E c exp

E E c exp
exp

kT
2

kT
2

or

kT
2
_______________________________________
E E

4.7

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

n E1

n E 2

E1 E c

kT

E1 E c exp

E2 Ec

kT

E 2 E c exp

where

E1 E c 4kT and E 2 E c
Then

n E1

n E 2

4kT
kT
2

kT
2

E1 E 2

kT

exp

E Fi E midgap

N
1
kT ln
2
Nc

19

1
kT ln 1.04 1019
2
2.8 10

T (K)

kT (eV)

200

0.4952 kT

( E Fi E midgap )
(eV)
0.0086
0.0171
0.0257

0.01727
0.03453
0.0518

400
600

_______________________________________


1
2 2 exp 4 2 2 exp 3.5
2

or

n E1
0.0854
n E 2

4.12

m *p
3

kT ln
m n*
4

3
0.70
0.0259 ln

4
1.21
10.63 meV

(a) E Fi E midgap

_______________________________________
4.8

(b)

Plot
_______________________________________

E Fi E midgap

3
0.0259 ln 0.75
4
0.080

43.47 meV
_______________________________________
4.9
Plot
_______________________________________
4.10

m *p
3

E Fi E midgap kT ln
m n*
4

*
*
Silicon: m p 0.56m o , m n 1.08m o
E Fi E midgap 0.0128 eV

4.13
Let g c E K constant
Then

no

m 0.55m o
*
n

E Fi E midgap 0.0077 eV

_______________________________________
4.11

E f F E dE

1
dE
E EF
E c 1 exp

kT

Gallium Arsenide: m *p 0.48m o ,

E Fi E midgap 0.0382 eV

Germanium: m *p 0.37 m o ,

m n* 0.067 m o

Ec

Ec

Let

E EF
dE
kT

exp

E Ec
so that
kT

We can write

dE kT d

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

E E F Ec EF E Ec

so that

Ec E F
E EF
exp
exp

kT
kT

exp

The integral can then be written as

Ec E F

kT

n o K kT exp
which becomes

no

C1

E f F E dE

E EF
E c 1 exp

kT

E E

We have

dE

dE kT d

We can write

r1
m
r o*
ao
m

For germanium, r 16 , m * 0.55m o


Then
1
r1 16
a o 29 0.53
0.55
or
o

E EF
dE
kT

E Ec
so that
kT

Ec E F

kT

r1 15.4 A
The ionization energy can be written as
2

m * o

13.6 eV
E

m o s
0.55
13.6 E 0.029 eV

16 2

exp

Ec

Let

4.15

for E E c

E Ec

_______________________________________

Ec

n o C1 kT exp

exp d

_______________________________________

exp d exp 1
So

Ec EF

kT

4.14
Let g c E C1 E E c
Then

We find that

n o K kT exp

C1

kT exp kT d

E E F E Ec Ec E F

_______________________________________
4.16
We have

r1
m
r o*
ao
m

For gallium arsenide, r 13.1 ,


m * 0.067m o
Then

Then

n o C1 exp

Ec

o
1
0.53 104 A
0.067

r1 13.1

Ec EF

kT

E Ec
E E c exp
dE
kT

or

Ec EF

kT

n o C1 exp

The ionization energy is

m*

mo
or

13.6

0.067

13.1 2

13.6

E 0.0053 eV

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

po
ni

Nc
(a) E c E F kT ln
no

2.8 10

0.0259 ln
15
7 10

0.2148 eV
E

E
(b)
F
E g Ec E F
1.12 0.2148 0.90518
19

eV

E F E

kT

1.04 10

19

2 10 16
10
1.5 10
0.365 eV

0.0259 ln

_______________________________________
4.19

Nc
2.8 10 19
5
2 10

0.0259 ln

0.90518
exp

0.0259

6.90 10 3 cm
(d) Holes

(a) E c E F kT ln

no

p o N exp

(c)

(d) E Fi E F kT ln

4.17

0.8436 eV
E F E E g E c E F

1.12 0.8436
E F E 0.2764 eV

no

(b)

(e) E F E Fi kT ln

ni

7 1015
0.0259 ln
10
1.5 10
0.338 eV

_______________________________________

0.27637
p o 1.04 1019 exp

0.0259
2.414 10 14 cm 3
(c) p-type
_______________________________________
4.20

4.18

N
(a) E F E kT ln
po

375
0.032375 e
300

(a) kT 0.0259

1.04 1019

0.0259 ln
16

2 10

0.162 eV
(b) E c E F E g E F E

1.12 0.162 0.958


eV

0.958
19

(c) n o 2.8 10 exp


0.0259
2.41 10 3 cm 3

3/ 2

375

300

n o 4.7 1017

0.28

0.032375

exp

1.15 10 14 cm

E F E E g E c E F 1.42 0.28
1.14 eV

375

300

3/2

p o 7 10 18

1.14

0.032375

exp

4.99 10 3 cm

(b)

4.7 10 17
14
1.15 10

E c E F 0.0259 ln

0.2154 eV

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

0.28
1.04 10 19 exp

0.0259
2.10 10 14 cm 3

E F E E g E c E F 1.42 0.2154
1.2046 eV

E c E F E g E F E
1.12 0.28 0.84 eV
Ec E F
n o N c exp

kT

1.2046
p o 7 10 18 exp

0.0259
4.42 10 2 cm 3
_______________________________________

4.21

375
0.032375 e
300

(a) kT 0.0259

0.84
2.8 10 19 exp

0.0259
2.30 10 5 cm 3
_______________________________________

375

300

3/ 2

n o 2.8 10 19

0.28
0
.
032375

exp

6.86 10 15 cm

4.23

E F E E g E c E F 1.12 0.28
0.840 eV

p o 1.04 10

19

3/ 2

375

300

7.84 10 7 cm

E F E Fi

kT

(a) n o n i exp

0.840
exp

0
.032375

E Fi E F

kT

p o n i exp

Nc

(b) E c E F kT ln

no

2.8 10 19
15
6.862 10
0.2153 eV

E F E Fi

kT

(b) n o n i exp

p o 1.04 10

Eg
4

p o N exp

1.12
0.28 eV
4

E F E

kT

0.22

0
.0259
3

E Fi E F

kT

p o n i exp

7.04 10 3 cm 3
_______________________________________

(b) E F E

8.80 10 9 cm

0.904668
exp
0.0259

4.22
(a) p-type

1.8 10 6 exp

E F E 1.12 0.2153 0.9047 eV


19

0.22
1.5 10 10 exp

0.0259
3.07 10 6 cm 3

0.0259 ln

0.22
1.5 10 10 exp

0.0259
7.33 10 13 cm 3

0.22

0.0259

1.8 10 6 exp

3.68 10 2 cm 3
_______________________________________
4.24

(a) E F E kT ln

p
o

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
(b)
19
E c E F 1.12 0.27873 0.84127 e
1.04 10

0.0259 ln
15

V
5 10

(c)
0.1979 eV
0.84127
n o 4.3109 10 19 exp
E

(b)
c
F E g E F E
0.034533

0.92212

0.0259

po
ni

19
(c) n o 2.8 10 exp

9.66 10 cm
(d) Holes
3

(e) E Fi E F kT ln

po
(e) E Fi E F kT ln
ni

1.134 10 9 cm
(d) Holes

1.12 0.19788 0.92212 eV

5 10 15
12
2.381 10
0.2642 eV

0.034533 ln

_______________________________________

5 10 15

0.0259 ln
10
1.5 10
0.3294 eV

4.26

_______________________________________

(a)

0.25
p o 7 1018 exp

0.0259
4.50 10 14 cm 3

E c E F 1.42 0.25 1.17 eV

4.25

400

300

1.17

0.0259

n o 4.7 10 17 exp

400
kT 0.0259
0.034533 eV
300

1.13 10 2 cm

3/ 2

N 1.04 10 19

1.601 10 19 cm

400

300

3/ 2

N c 2.8 1019

(b) kT 0.034533 eV
3

4.3109 1019 cm

n i2 4.3109 1019 1.601 10 19

1.12
0
.
034533

3
3/ 2

400

300

N c 4.7 10 17

7.236 10 17 cm

5.6702 10 24

N
(a) E F E kT ln
po

400

300

1.078 10 19 cm

exp

n i 2.381 10 12 cm

3/ 2

N 7 1018

N
po

E F E kT ln

1.601 1019
0.034533 ln
5 10 15

0.2787 eV

1.078 10 19

14
4.50 10
0.3482 eV
E c E F 1.42 0.3482 1.072

0.034533 ln

eV

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

n o 7.236 10 17

1.07177
exp

0.034533

Then F1 / 2

2.40 10 4 cm 3
_____________________________________

no

0.25
p o 1.04 1019 exp

0.0259
6.68 10 14 cm 3

(b) n o

E c E F 1.12 0.25 0.870

eV

0.870

0.0259

n o 2.8 10 19 exp
n o 7.23 10 4 cm

400

300

1.601 10

19

3/ 2

cm

400

300

5 10 19

3
3/ 2

So

N c 2.8 1019

4.311 10

19

cm

N
po

E F E kT ln

N c F1 / 2 F

4.7 10 1.0
17

N F1 / 2 F

1.04 10 F

19

1/ 2

F1 / 2 F 4.26
E E F

E E F
kT
3.0 0.0259 0.0777

eV
_______________________________________

4.30

E c E F 1.12 0.3482 0.7718 e


V

(a) F

E F E c 4kT

4
kT
kT

Then F1 / 2
no

F 6.0

N c F1 / 2 F

2.8 10 6.0
19

1.90 10 20 cm

4.28

For E F

0.77175
n o 4.311 10 19 exp

0.034533
8.49 10 9 cm 3
_______________________________________

(a) n o

We find F 3.0

1.601 10 19
14
6.68 10
0.3482 eV

0.034533 ln

4.29

(b) kT 0.034533 eV

19

5.30 1017 cm 3
_______________________________________

po

N 1.04 10 19

F 1.0
2
2.8 10 1.0

3.16 10 19 cm

4.27
(a)

E F E c kT 2

0. 5
kT
kT

N c F1 / 2 F

E c kT 2 ,

(b) n o

4.7 10 6.0
17

3.18 10 18 cm 3
_______________________________________
4.31
For the electron concentration

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

n E g c E f F E

The Boltzmann approximation applies, so

n E

4 2m
h

* 3/2
n
3

p E

E EF

kT

4 2m

kT

Ec E F

kT

E Ec
kT

n E n x K

x exp x

To find maximum n E n x , set


dn x
1 1 / 2
0 K
x
exp x
dx
2

p x K x exp x

To find maximum value of p E p x ,


set

dp x
0 Using the results from above,
dx

1
kT
2
_______________________________________
E E

4.32
(a) Silicon: We have

Ec E F

kT

n o N c exp

x 1 / 2 1 exp x

We can write

or
1

x
2

0 Kx 1 / 2 exp x
which yields

1 E Ec
1

E E c kT
2
kT
2

Ec E F Ec Ed Ed E F

For

E c E d 0.045 eV and
E d E F 3kT eV
we can write

2.8 10 exp 4.737

0.045

n o 2.8 10 19 exp
3
0
.
0259

For the hole concentration

p E g E 1 f F E

Using the Boltzmann approximation

p E

4 2m *p
h

3/ 2

E E

EF E

kT

exp
or

E E
kT

we find the maximum at

Then

exp

Then

Define

E F E

kT

3/2

Define

exp

E Ec
E Ec
exp

kT
kT

E E
E E
exp

kT
kT

kT

or

n E

E Ec

exp

* 3/ 2
n
3

4 2m *p

19

or

n o 2.45 10 17 cm
We also have

E F E

kT

p o N exp

Again, we can write

E F E E F E a E a E

For

E F E a 3kT and
E a E 0.045 eV
Then

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

p o 1.04 10 19

n i 7.334 10 11 cm

0.045
exp 3
0.0259

p o N a 4 10 15 cm

no

or

p o 9.12 10 16 cm

cm
(e)

(b) GaAs: assume E c E d 0.0058 eV


Then
0.0058

n o 4.7 10 17 exp
3
0.0259

4.7 10 exp 3.224

1.12 300

0.0259 450

p o 9.20 10 cm 3
_______________________________________
4.33
Plot
_______________________________________

3 10

15

3 10 cm
15

po

7.5 10 cm

4.35
(a)

10 2

po

3 1016

1.722 10 13

1.722 10

13 2

1.029 10

14

n i2
1.8 10 6

po
3 10 15

no

2.88 1012

1.08 10 3 c

1.8 10

6 2

7.5 10 cm
3

po

3 1016

1.08 10 4 cm

(c) n o p o n i 1.5 10 10 cm
(d)

375

300

n i2 2.8 10 19 1.04 10 19

1.12 300

0.0259 375

exp

(c) n o p o n i 1.8 10 6 cm
(d)

(b) n o N d 3 10 16 cm

p o N a N d 4 10 15 1015
3 10 15 cm

1.5 10

cm 3
_______________________________________

(b) n o N d 3 1016 cm

1.029 10 14 cm

16

no

10 14

10 14
no

or

1.5 10

450

300

exp

18

10 2

7 10 exp 4.332

p o 4 15 10

n i 1.722 10 13 cm

Assume E a E 0.0345 eV
Then
0.0345

p o 7 10 18 exp
3
0.0259

15

1.34 10 8

4 1015

n i2 2.8 10 19 1.04 10 19

or

4.34
(a)

17

n o 1.87 1016 cm

7.334 10

11 2

1.04 10 19 exp 4.737

375

300

n i2 4.7 1017 7.0 1018

1.42 300

0.0259 375

exp

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

n i 7.580 10 8 cm
p o N a 4 10 15 cm

no

7.580 10

8 2

4 10

(ii) p o N a N d 3 10 15 cm

no

1.44 10 2

15

450

300

4.37
(a) For the donor level

1.42 300

0.0259 450

nd

Nd

exp

n i 3.853 10 cm
n o N d 10 cm
14

10 2

po

10

1.48 10 7

14

(i) n o

Nd
N
d
2
2

2 10 15

or

cm 3
_______________________________________
4.36
(a) Ge: n i 2.4 10 13 cm

1
E EF
1
1 exp d
2
kT

1
0.20
1 exp

2
0.0259

3.853 10

1.08 10 3 cm

(c) The result implies that there is only one


minority carrier in a volume of 10 3 cm 3 .
_______________________________________

n i2 4.7 10 17 7.0 10 18

10

3 10

15

cm
(e)

1.8 10

6 2

nd
8.85 10 4
Nd
(b) We have

f F E

n i2

1 exp

1
E EF
kT

Now

2 10 15

2.4 10

13

E E F E Ec Ec E F

or

E E F kT 0.245

or

n o N d 2 1015 cm

po

n i2
2.4 1013

no
2 10 15

2.88 10 11 cm

3
2

Then

f F E

(ii) p o N a N d 10 16 7 10 15

3 10 15 cm

1.92 10 11 cm

n2
2.4 1013
no i
po
3 10 15
(b) GaAs: n i 1.8 10 6 cm
6 2

po

2 10 15

f F E 2.87 10 5
_______________________________________
4.38
(a) N a N d p-type
(b) Silicon:

1.62 10

0.245

1 exp 1

0
.0259

or

(i) n o N d 2 10 15 cm

1.8 10

cm

p o N a N d 2.5 1013 1 10 13
or

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

p o 1.5 10 13 cm
Then

n2
1.5 1010
no i
po
1.5 1013

no
2

1.5 10

4.40

Germanium:

po

4 10

5.625 10 4

15

cm 3
_______________________________________

cm

1.5 10

10 2

Na Nd
N Nd
a
2
2

n2
1.5 1010
no i
po
2 10 5

n i2

1.125 10 15 cm

1.5 10 13
2

1.5 10 13

2.4 10 13

or

p o 3.26 1013 cm
Then

no

n o p o n-type

_______________________________________
4.41

n i2
2.4 1013

1.76 1013 cm
po
3.264 10 13

Gallium Arsenide:
p o N a N d 1.5 10 13 cm
and

0.66

0.0259 250 300

1.8936 10 24

n i 1.376 1012 cm

4.39
(a) N d N a n-type
(b)
n o N d N a 2 1015 1.2 10 15

po

no

n i2
n2
1
i n o2 ni2
p o 4n o
4

1
ni
2
n o 6.88 10 11 cm

So

Then p o 2.75 10

po

Na
N
a
2
2

10 2

2.81 10 5 cm

no

n
1.5 10

no
8 10 14

_______________________________________

2
i

250

300

exp

n2
1.8 10 6
no i
0.216 cm 3
po
1.5 1013

8 10 14 cm

n i2 1.04 10 19 6.0 1018

2.752 10 12

cm

n i2

Na
2

Na
2

12

1.8936 10 24

Na

7.5735 10 24 2.752 1012 N a


(c)

p o N a N a N d

4 10

15

N a 1.2 10

15

2 10

N a 4.8 10 cm
15

15

Na

2

1.8936 10 24

so that N a 2.064 10 12 cm 3
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
So N a 3.5 10 16 cm

4.42
Plot
_______________________________________
4.43
Plot
_______________________________________

1.5 10
10

no

5 10

4.5 10 3 cm

16

_______________________________________

4.44
Plot
_______________________________________
4.45

N Na
N Na
no d
d

2
2

1.1 1014

2 10

2 10 14 1.2 10 14

1.110

14

4 10 13

4.9 10

27

14

n i2

1.2 10
2

4.47
(a)

14

(b) p o

1.6 10

1.5 10

10 2

4 1013

27

n i2
n2
no i
no
po

no

n i2

so n i 5.74 10 13 cm

2 10

n i2

1.125 10 16 cm 3

electrons are majority carriers

2
i

p o 2 10 4 cm 3
holes are minority carriers
n

Nd Na
(c)
o

n i2 3.3 10 27
po

3 1013 cm
14
no
1.1 10

1.125 1016 N d 7 10 15

_______________________________________
4.46
(a)

p o n i n-type

so N d 1.825 1016 cm 3
_______________________________________
4.48

N a N d p-type

po
ni

E Fi E F kT ln

Majority carriers are holes

p o N a N d 3 10

16

1.5 10

16

1.5 10 cm 3
Minority carriers are electrons
16

n2
1.5 10 10
no i
po
1.5 10 16

For Germanium
T (K)
kT (eV)
200

1.5 10

400

0.01727
0.03453

600

0.0518

cm 3
(b) Boron atoms must be added

po

p o N a N a N d

Na
N
a
2
2

n i (cm

2.16 10
8.60 10 14
3.82 10 16
10

n i2 and

N a 10 15 cm
3

5 10

16

N a 3 10

16

1.5 10

16

T (K)

p o (cm

E Fi E F (eV)

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1.0 10 15
1.49 10 15
3.87 10 16

200
400
600

0.1855
0.01898
0.000674

1.12

0.0259 T 300

exp

_______________________________________
4.49

Nc
(a) E c E F kT ln
Nd

By trial and error, T 536.5 K


(b) At T 300 K,

Nc
no

, E c E F 0.2056 eV

, E c E F 0.1459 eV

E c E F kT ln

, E F E Fi 0.2280 eV

cm

, E F E Fi 0.2877

10 16 cm

, E F E Fi 0.3473

cm

, E F E Fi 0.4070

10

15

eV
eV

10

17

eV
_______________________________________
4.50
(a) n o

Nd
N
d
2
2

n i2

0.5 10

15 2

0.5 10 15

Nc
no

300

6.696 1019
15
1.05 10

0.5124 eV

then E c E F 0.2472 eV
(c) Closer to the intrinsic energy level.
_______________________________________

E Fi E F kT ln

n i2 2.8 10 19 1.04 10 19

E c E F 0.046318 ln

po
ni

n i2

3/ 2

4.51

so n i2 5.25 10 28
Now

536.5

300

E c E F kT ln

n o 1.05 N d 1.05 10 cm
15

6.696 1019 cm

15

1.05 10

N c 2.8 10 19

cm

For 10

2.8 1019
10 15

0.2652 eV
At T 536.5 K,

1.5 10

536.5
0.046318 eV
300

14

kT 0.0259

Nd
10

E c E F 0.0259 ln

Nd

(b) E F E Fi kT ln

ni

exp

For 10 14 cm 3 , E c E F 0.3249 eV
10 15 cm 3 , E c E F 0.2652 eV

0.0259 ln

300

12972.973

2.8 10 19
0.0259 ln
Nd

10 16 cm
10 17 cm

5.25 10 28 2.912 10 38

At T 200 K, kT 0.017267 eV
T 400 K, kT 0.034533 eV
T 600 K, kT 0.0518 eV
At T 200 K,

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

200

300

For N a 1014 cm

n i2 2.8 10 19 1.04 10 19

2
i

2.8 10

19

N a 1015 cm

1.04 10

16

N a 1017 cm

2
i

2.8 10

19

N
Na

For N a 10
600

300

3 10 15

eV

16

N a 1017 cm

E F E 0.1100 eV
_______________________________________
4.53

n i2

m *p
3

kT ln
m n*
4

3
0.0259 ln 10
4

(a) E Fi E midgap

3 10 15

15

cm

9.740 10 14

or

E Fi E midgap 0.0447 eV
(b) Impurity atoms to be added so
E midgap E F 0.45 eV

T 400 K, E Fi E F 0.2465

(i) p-type, so add acceptor atoms


(ii)

E Fi E F 0.0447 0.45 0.4947 eV

T 600 K, E Fi E F 0.0630

Then

eV
_______________________________________

E EF
p o n i exp Fi
kT

4.52
(a)

Na
ni

E Fi E F kT ln

N a 10 cm 3 ,
E F E 0.1697 eV

Then, T 200 K, E Fi E F 0.4212


eV

E F E 0.2293 eV

3.288 10

cm

N a 1015 cm

n i 9.740 10 14 cm 3
At T 200 K and T 400 K,
p o N a 310 15 cm 3
At T 600 K,
Na
N
a
2
2

14

7.0 1018
Na

0.0259 ln

E F E 0.2889 eV

1.12
exp

0.0518

po

E F E kT ln

1.04 10
19

(b)

1.12
0
.
034533

n i 2.381 10 cm
At T 600 K,

E Fi E F 0.6408 eV

exp
12

N a 10 cm 3 ,
E F 0.5811 eV

E Fi
400

300

E Fi E F 0.5215 eV

19

E Fi E F 0.4619 eV

1.12
exp

0.017267

n i 7.638 10 4 cm
At T 400 K,

1.8 10

Na
6

0.4947
10 5 exp

0.0259

0.0259 ln

or

p o N a 1.97 10 13 cm 3
_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

4.54

0.13346

0.0259

N d 4.7 1017 exp

Ec E F
n o N d N a N c exp

kT

so

0.215
N d 5 10 15 2.8 10 19 exp

0.0259
5 10 15 6.95 10 15
or

N d 1.2 1016 cm 3
_______________________________________

Nc
Nd

(i) E c E F kT ln

N d 10 15
N d 1.718 10 15 cm 3
Additional
donor atoms
_______________________________________
4.56

(a) E Fi E F kT ln

N
a

1.04 1019
16
2 10

0.1620 eV

0.2188

eV
(ii)

E c E F 0.2188 0.0259 0.1929

Ec E F
N d N c exp

kT

Nc

(b) E F E Fi kT ln

N
d

2.8 1019
16
2 10

0.0259 ln

V
(c) For part (a);
p o 2 10 16 cm

1.125 10 4 cm

For part (b):

15

N d 1.031 1016 cm 3
Additional
donor atoms
(b) GaAs
4.7 1017

0
.
0259

ln
(i) c
F

10 15

0.15936 eV
(ii)
E c E F 0.15936 0.0259 0.13346
eV

0.1876 e

0.1929

0.0259

N d 1.631 10 16 cm

n2
1.5 1010
no i
po
2 10 16

2.8 1019 exp

N d 6 10

2.8 1019
15
6 10

0.0259 ln

0.0259 ln

4.55
(a) Silicon

eV

2.718 10 15 cm

n o 2 1016 cm

n2
1.5 1010
po i
no
2 10 16

1.125 10 4 cm 3
_______________________________________
4.57

E F E Fi

kT

n o n i exp

0.55
1.8 10 6 exp

0.0259
3.0 1015 cm 3

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
Add additional acceptor impurities

no N d N a
3 10

15

7 10

15

7.0 10 18
15
3 10

Na

N a 4 10 cm
_______________________________________

V
(b)

4.58

E F E 0.0259 ln

15

po
(a) E Fi E F kT ln
ni

0.0259 ln

0.2009 e

7.0 10 18
4
1.08 10

1.360 eV

(c) E F E 0.0259 ln

3 10
0.0259 ln
10
1.5 10
15

0.3161 e

7.0 10 18
6
1.8 10

0.7508 eV

375

300

(d) E F E 0.0259

no

(b) E F E Fi kT ln

ni

7.0 10 18 375 300 3 / 2

ln

3 10 16
0.0259 ln
10
1.5 10

0.3758 e

V
(c) E F E Fi

4 10 15

0.2526 eV
450

300

(e) E F E 0.0259

7.0 1018 450 300 3 / 2

ln

1.48 10 7

1.068 eV
_______________________________________

po
ni

(d) E Fi E F kT ln

4 10 15
375
ln
11
300
7.334 10
0.2786 eV

0.0259

(e) E F E Fi kT ln

ni

1.029 10 14
450
ln
13
300
1.722 10
0.06945 eV

0.0259

4.60
n-type

_______________________________________

no
ni

E F E Fi kT ln

(a) E F E kT ln

po

1.125 10 16

0.0259 ln

4.59

1.5 10 10

0.3504 e

V
______________________________________
4.61

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 4
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
donor
2
N
N
p o a a n i2
2
2
N d 0.05 7 10 15 3.5 10 14 cm

5.08 10

15

5 10 15

Replace As atoms

5 10
2

5.08 10

2.5 10 15

2.5 10

15

15

acceptor

n i2

(b) N a N d p-type
(c)

p o N a N d 6.65 10 15 3.5 10 14

n i2 4.064 10 29

6.3 10 15 cm

Eg

ni2 N c N exp

kT
350
kT 0.0259
0.030217 eV
300

350

300

1.633 10

350

300

N 1.8 10 19

6.3 10 15
6
1.8 10

0.0259 ln

2.45 10 19 cm

4.064 10 29 1.633 10 19 2.45 10 19

Eg

0.030217

So

1.633 10 19 2.45 1019

4.064 10 29

E g 0.030217 ln

E g 0.6257 eV
_______________________________________

4.62
(a) Replace Ga atoms

Silicon acts as a

0.5692 e

V
_______________________________________

Now

exp

po
ni

(d) E Fi E F kT ln

2
19

n i2
1.8 10 6
no

5.14 10 4 c
15
po
6.3 10

N a 0.95 7 10 15 6.65 10 15 cm

6.6564 10 30 6.25 10 30 n i2

N c 1.2 10

Silicon acts as an

15

n i2

19

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