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Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition

Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 5
5.1
(a)

From Figure 5.3, for N a 8 10 16 cm

1
1

19
e n N d
1.6 10
1300 1015

4.808 -cm

we find p 220 cm 2 /V-s which


gives
3

1
1

0.208 ( -cm)

4.8077

(b)

1.6 10
19

1
220 8 1016

(b) e n N d

5.2

1.6 10 19 3800 2 10 17

121.6 ( -cm) 1

5.5

10 1.6 10 19 n N d

From Figure 5.3, for N d 6 10 16 cm


we find n 1050 cm 2 /V-s which
gives
1.6 10 19 1050 6 10 16
3

10.08 ( -cm)

1
e p N a

eN d RA

1.6 10
19

2 .5
2 10 15 70 0.1

1116 cm /V-s
_______________________________________

1.6 10
19

Na
17

cm

5.6
(a) n o N d 1016 cm
and

po

1.6 10 320 10 0.195


19

17

-cm
_______________________________________
5.4
1
e p N a

0.35

we find p 320 cm 2 /V-s which gives

(a)

L
L
L

A A e n N d A

or n

From Figure 5.3, for N a 10

, then n 3800 cm 2 /V-s which gives

_______________________________________

5.3
(a) e n N d

0.20

From Figure 5.3, for N d 2 10 17 cm

1.80

e p
1.6 10 19 380

2.96 10 16 cm 3
_______________________________________

(b)

120 1.6 10 19 n N d

e p N a
or N a

0.355 -cm

_______________________________________

19

Na

n i2
1.8 10 6

no
1016

3.24 10 4

(b)

J e n n o

For GaAs doped at N d 1016 cm 3 ,


n 7500 cm 2 /V-s
Then
J 1.6 10 19 7500 10 16 10
or

1.6 10

cm

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
J 120 A/cm 2
L
L
R

(a)
16
A
e p N a A
(b) (i) p o N a 10 cm 3

n i2
3.24 10 4 cm 3
po

no

For N a 2 10 16 cm

p 400 cm

(ii) For GaAs doped at N a 10 16 cm


3

p 310 cm 2 /V-s

1.6 10

19

, then
2

/V-s

0.075
400 2 1016 8.5 10 4

68.93

V
2

0.0290 A
R
68.93
I 29.0 mA

I
J e p p o

or

1.6 10 19 310 10 16 10
or
J 4.96 A/cm 2
_______________________________________

5.7
(a) V IR 10 0.1 R
or

For (a), J

(b)

L
L

A
RA

10 3
0.01 ( -cm)
100 10 3
(c) e n N d
or

0.01 1.6 10 19 1350 N d

Then

N d 4.63 10 13 cm 3
(d) e p p o
or
0.01 1.6 10 19 480 p o
Then
p o 1.30 1014 cm 3 N a N d
So
N a 1.30 10 14 10 15 1.13 10 15

cm

Note: For the doping concentrations


obtained, the assumed mobility values are
valid.
_______________________________________
5.8

29.0 10 3
34.12
8.5 10 4

A/cm 2
Then

or

V
2

0.00967 A
R
206.79
I 9.67 mA

or
(c) J ep o d

R 100

(b)
R L R 68.93 3 206.79

J
34.12

ep o
1.6 10 19 2 1016

1.066 10 cm/s
4

For (b), J

9.67 10 3
11.38 A/cm
8.5 10 4

11.38
1.6 10 19 2 10 16

3.55 10 cm/s
_______________________________________
3

5.9
(a) For N d 2 10 15 cm

, then

n 8000 cm 2 /V-s
V
5

200
I
25 10 3
L
R
e n N d A
R

or L e n N d RA

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

1.6 10

19

8000 2 10 200 5 10

0.0256 cm

(b) Silicon: For 50 kV/cm,


d 9.5 10 6 cm/s
Then

I
(b) J
en o d
A
I
or d
A en o

10 4
1.05 10 11 s
9.5 10 6
For GaAs: d 7 10 6 cm/s
tt

25 10 3
1.6 10 19 2 10 15

5 10
5

Then

1.56 10 cm/s

(c) I en o d A

10 4
1.43 10 11 s
6
7 10

tt

d
10 4

1.33 10 11 s
6
d
7.5 10

tt

15

_______________________________________

1.6 10 19 2 10 15 5 10 6 5 10 5

0.080 A
or I 80 mA

5.12

_______________________________________

1
1

e n n o e p p o e n p n i

(a) N a N d 10 14 cm

n 1350 cm 2 /V-s
p 480 cm 2 /V-s

5.10

1.6 10
19

1
1350 480 1.5 1010

2.28 10 -cm
5

V
3
(a)
3 V/cm
L 1

d n n
or

d 10 4

(b) N a N d 10 16 cm

n 1250 cm 2 /V-s
p 410 cm 2 /V-s

n 3333 cm 2 /V-s

(b)

d n 800 3

or

d 2.4 10 3 cm/s
_______________________________________
5.11
(a) Silicon: For

1.6 10
19

For GaAs: d 7.5 10 cm/s


Then
6

-cm

(c) N a N d 10 cm
18

n 290 cm 2 /V-s
p 130 cm 2 /V-s

d 1.2 10 6 cm/s
d
10 4
tt

8.33 10 11 s
d 1.2 10 6

2.51 10

1 kV/cm,

Then

1
1250 410 1.5 1010

1.6 10
19

1
290 130 1.5 1010

9.92 10 -cm
_______________________________________
5

5.13
(a) GaAs:

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

e p p o 5 1.6 10 19 p p o
From Figure 5.3, and using trial and error, we
find
p o 1.3 10 17 cm 3 and

p 240 cm 2
/V-s
Then

no

n i2
1.8 10 6

po
1.3 1017

2.49 10 5

which gives
E g 1.122 eV
Now

10 19

1.122

0.0259 500 300

exp

or

n i (500 K) 2.27 10 13 cm

Then

1
1

e n
8 1.6 10 19 1350

n o 5.79 10 14 cm
and

cm

3.91 10 9

5.15 10 26

which gives

po

19 2

n i2 (500K)

cm 3
(b) Silicon:
1
e n n o

or

no

10

0.0259 ln

i 1.6 10 19 2.27 10 13 1000 600


which gives
i (500 K) 5.81 10 3 ( -cm)
1

_______________________________________

n i2
1.5 10 10

3.89 10 5
no
5.79 1014

Note: For the doping concentrations obtained


in part (b), the assumed mobility values are
valid.
_______________________________________

5.15
(a) (i) Silicon: i en i n p

i 1.6 10 19 1.5 10 10 1350 480


or

i 4.39 10 6 ( -cm) 1
(ii) Ge:

i 1.6 10 19 2.4 10 13 3900 1900


or

i 2.23 10 2 ( -cm) 1
(iii) GaAs:

5.14

i eni n p

Then

10

i 1.6 10 19 1.8 10 6 8500 400

1.6 10 1000 600 n


19

or

i 2.56 10 9 ( -cm) 1

or

n i (300 K) 3.91 10 9 cm

Now

Eg
n i2 N c N exp
kT
or

n i2

(b) R

L
A

(i) Si:

N c N

E g kT ln

200 10 4
5.36 10 9
6
8
4.39 10
85 10

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Ge:
_______________________________________

200 10 4
1.06 10 6
2.23 10 2 85 10 8

(iii) GaAs:

200 10 4
9.19 1012
9
8
2.56 10
85 10

_______________________________________
5.16
(a) e n N d

0.25 1.6 10

19

From Figure 5.3, for N d 1.2 10 15 cm


3

0.2496 ( -cm) 1

V
2

133.3 V/cm
L 150 10 4
(b) x e n N d x
(a)

avg

1
e n
T

Nd

, then n 1300 cm 2 /V-s


So
1.6 10 19 1300 1.2 10 15

5.18

(b) Using Figure 5.2,


(i) For T 250 K ( 23 C),
n 1800 cm 2 /V-s

1.6 10 19 1800 1.2 10 15

0.346 ( -cm) 1
(ii) For T 400 K ( 127 C),
n 670 cm 2 /V-s

1.6 10 19 670 1.2 10 15

2 10 1 1.111T dx
16

e n 2 10 16
x2

T
21.111T

T
0

e n 2 10 16
T2
T

T
21.111T

e n 2 1016 0.55

1.6 10 19 750 2 10 16 0.55

avg 1.32 ( -cm)

(c)

avg A
L

1.32 7.5 10 4 10 4 2
150 10 4

1.32 10 5 A
or I 13.2 A
(d) Top surface;
1.6 10 19 750 2 10 16

2.4 ( -cm) 1

0.129 ( -cm) 1

J 2.4 133.3 320 A/cm

_______________________________________
2

5.17

Bottom surface:
1.6 10 19 750 2 10 15

avg

x dx
t 0

2
t
0

1
exp
d

20 0.3 1 exp

1.5

3.97 ( -cm) 1

0.24 ( -cm)
J 0.24 133.3 32 A/cm

1
x

o exp
dx
t 0
d

x
o d exp

t
d
od
t

1. 5

0.3

_______________________________________
5.19
Plot
_______________________________________
5.20
(a) 10 V/cm
so

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

d n 1350 10 1.35 10 4

1.05 10

cm/s
or
Then

1 * 2
m n d
2

2 10

1
1.08 9.11 10 31 1.35 10 2 2
2
or
T 8.97 10 27 J 5.60 10 8 eV

1 kV/cm

(b)

5 1013

5 1013

n i2

and yields
n i2 5.25 10 26

d 1.35 10 2 m/s
T

14

d 1350 1000 1.35 10 6 cm/s

19

110
19

300

Eg

exp

kT

or
3

T
1.10
exp

300
0.0259 T 300
By trial and error, we find
T 456 K
_______________________________________

2.625 10 12

or

d 1.35 10 4 m/s
Then

1
1.08 9.11 10 31 1.35 10 4
2

or

T 8.97 10 23 J 5.60 10 4 eV
_______________________________________
5.21

Eg
2
(a) n i N c N exp
kT

1.10

0.0259

For N d 10 cm
cm

Then

e n ni2
e p p o
po

which yields

p o ni n
p

or
3

1/ 2

(Answer to part (b))

Substituting into the conductivity expression

>> n i n o 10

14

min

e n n i2

n
i

1.6 10 19 1000 10 14 100

or

(b) A 5% increase is due to a 5% increase in


electron concentration, so

n o 1.05 10
which becomes

p 1 / 2

N
Nd
d

2
2

which simplifies to
min 2en i

n p

The intrinsic conductivity is defined as

J 1.60 A/cm 2

14

e p n i n p

Then

J e n n o

ni2
po

1 e n ni2
d
0
e p
dp o
p o2

7.18 10 19

14

(a) e n n o e p p o and n o

To find the minimum conductivity, set

2 10 19 1 10 19 exp

n i 8.47 10 9 cm

5.22

2
i

i en i n p en i

i
n p

The minimum conductivity can then be


written as


1/ 2

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
120
2 i n p
13.6 V/cm
n-type:
min
8.8
n p
120
_______________________________________
93.75 V/cm
p-type:
1.28
5.23
120
25 V/cm
compensated:
16

3
(a) n-type: n o N d 5 10 cm
4.8
_______________________________________
2
10 2

ni
1.5 10

no
5 1016

po

5.24

1
1
1
1

1 2 3

4.5 10 cm
3

p-type: p o N a 2 10 16 cm

1.5 10

10 2

no

2 10 16

0.00050 0.000667 0.0020

1.125 10 cm
4

compensated: n o N d N a

5 10 16 2 10 16
3 1016 cm

1.5 10

10 2

po

3 10

16

7.5 10 3

or
1

0.003167

Then
316 cm 2 /V-s
_______________________________________
5.25

300

n 1300

cm

1
1
1

2000 1500 500

3 / 2

(a) At T 200 K,
300

200

n 1300

(b) From Figure 5.3,


n-type: n 1100 cm 2 /V-s
p-type: p 400 cm 2 /V-s
(c) n-type: e n n o

8.8 ( -cm)

e p p o
p-type:

1.6 10 19 400 2 10 16

1.28 ( -cm) 1
compensated: e n n o

1.6 10 19 1000 3 10 16

4.8 ( -cm) 1

(d) J

3/ 2

2388 cm

/V-s

(b) At T 400 K, n 844 cm 2 /V-s


_______________________________________

compensated: n 1000 cm 2 /V-s

1.6 10 19 1100 5 10 16

3 / 2

300

1300

5.26

1
1
1
1
1

0.006
1 2 250 500
Then
167 cm 2 /V-s
_______________________________________
5.27
Plot
_______________________________________
5.28
Plot
_______________________________________
5.29

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

J n eD n

5 1014 n 0
dn

eD n

dx
0.01 0

5 10 n 0

0.010

14

0.19 1.6 10 19 25

eD p
(a) For x 0 ,

Then

0.19 0.010
1.6 10 19 25

dp
d
x
16
eD p
10 1
dx
dx
L

J p eD p

5 10 14 n 0

Jp

_______________________________________

Jp

_______________________________________
5.31

10

15

n x1

4 10 3 4.8 10 3 4.8 10 18 n x1
which yields

n x1 1.67 10 14 cm 3

10 15 n x1

4
0 20 10

4 10 3 3.68 10 2 3.68 10 17 n x1
n x1 8.91 10 14 cm 3

_______________________________________
5.32

dn
d
eD n
10 15 e x / Ln
dx
dx

eDn 1015 e x / Ln

Ln
At x 0 ,
1.6 10 19 25 1015
Jn
2
2 10 3

A/cm 2
For holes:

dp
d
x / Lp
eD p
5 10 15 e
dx
dx

x / Lp

Lp

For x 0 ,

Jp

eD p 5 10 15 e

19

5.33
For electrons:

J p eD p

2 1.6 10 230

4
0 20 10

(b)

1.6 10 19 10 10 16 2 1

12

12 10 4
13.3 A/cm 2

J n eD n

dn
n
eD n
dx
x

_______________________________________

J n 5.4 A/cm 2

2 1.6 10 19 30

1.6 10 19 10 1016 2
12 10 4

(c) For x 12 m,
Jp 0

2 10 16 5 1015

0 0.012

J n 1.6 10 19 27

(a) J n eD n

10
x

2 1
L
L

dn
n
J n eD n
eD n
dx
x

16

(b) For x 6 m,

5.30

26.7 A/cm 2

which yields

n 0 0.25 10 14 cm

1.6 10 19 10 5 10 15

5 10 4

16 A/cm 2

J Total J n x 0 J p x 0

2 16 18 A/cm 2
_______________________________________

5.34

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
or
dp
d

x
/
L
x
p
J p eD p
eD p
5 1015 e
14.5 26.0 exp

dx
dx
18
_______________________________________

eD p 5 10 15 e

x / Lp

Lp
(a) (i)

Jp

1.6 10 10 5 10
19

15

50 10 4

5.36
(a)

1.6 A/cm 2
(ii)

Jp

15

19

Jp

1.6 10 10 5 10 e

15

50 10

0.589 A/cm 2
(ii)

Jp

dn
d
eD n
2 10 15 e x / L
dx
dx

eDn 2 1015 e x / L

22.5 10 4

17.07 A/cm
(b) (i)

J n eD n

1.6 10 48 5 10

19

1.6 10 19 27 2 10 15 e x / L

15 10 4
5.76e x / L

1.6 10 48 5 10 e
19

15

22.5 10

(b)
J p J Total J n 10 5.76e x / L

6.28 A/cm
_______________________________________
2

5.76e

x / L

10 A/cm

(c) We have J p e p p o

5.76e x / L 10 1.6 10 19 420 10 16

5.35

J n e n n eDn

or

5.37

x
40 1.6 10 19 960 10 16 exp

18

1.6 10

So 8.57e x / L 14.88 V/cm


_______________________________________

dn
dx

19

25 10

16

1
x

exp

4
18 10
18

(a) J e n n x eD n

We have n 8000 cm 2 /V-s, so that

D n 0.0259 8000 207 cm 2 /s

Then
100 1.6 10 19 8000 12 n x

1.6 10 19 207

Then

x
x
40 1.536 exp
22.22 exp

18
18

We find
22.22 exp x 40
18

1.536 exp x
18

dn x
dx

dn x
dx

which yields

100 1.536 10 14 n x 3.312 10 17


Solution is of the form
x
n x A B exp

d
so that

dndx x

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
At x 50 m,
dn x
B
x

exp

J drf e n n 50
dx
d
d
Substituting into the differential equation, we
have

x
100 1.536 10 14 A B exp

d

3.312 10 B exp

17

J diff x 50 4.92 A/cm 2

5.38

E E Fi
n n i exp F

kT

(a) E F E Fi ax b , b 0.4

Also

1.536 10

_______________________________________

14

J diff x 50 100 95.08

or

This equation is valid for all x, so


100 1.536 10 14 A
or
A 6.51 10 15

1.6 10 19 8000 6.19 10 15 12


or
J drf x 50 95.08 A/cm 2
Then

0.15 a 10 3 0.4
which yields
a 2.5 10 2

x
B exp

3.312 10 B exp
17

x
0
d

which yields
d 2.156 10 3 cm
At x 0 , e n n 0 50
so that
50 1.6 10 19 8000 12 A B
which yields
B 3.255 10 15
Then

x
n x 6.51 10 15 3.255 1015 exp

d
cm 3
(b)
At x 0 ,
n 0 6.51 10 15 3.255 10 15

Or

n 0 3.26 10
At x 50 m,

n 50 6.51 10
or

15

15

cm

n 50 6.19 10 15 cm

(c)

2.5 10 2
kT

15

50
exp

21.56

0.4 2.5 10 2 x
exp

kT

Assume T 300 K, so kT 0.0259 eV


and
n i 1.5 1010 cm 3
Then
eD n n i

Jn

3.255 10

Then
E F E Fi 0.4 2.5 10 2 x
so
0.4 2.5 10 2 x

n n i exp

kT

dn
(b) J n eD n
dx

1.6 10 19 25 1.5 1010 2.5 10 2


0.0259

0.4 2.5 10 2 x

exp

0.0259

or

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

J n 5.79 10 4

0.0259 d

N do e x / L
x / L
dx
N do e

0.4 2.5 10 2 x

exp

0.0259

(i) At x 0 , J n 2.95 10 3 A/cm 2

(ii) At x 5 m, J n 23.7 A/cm 2


_______________________________________

0.0259 1
x / L

N do e
N do e x / L L

0.0259
0.0259

L
10 10 4

5.39
(a) J n e n n eD n

or

dn
dx

(b) X dx 25.9 L 0

80 1.6 10 19 1000 10 16 1
L

1016
L

1.6 10 19 25.9

X 25.9 V/cm

where L 10 10 4 10 3 cm
We find

x
80 1.6 1.6
41.44
3
10

5.41
From Example 5.6

0.0259 1019 0.0259 10 3

10

16

10 19 x

1 10 x
3

10 4

or

1 41.44
L

Solving for the electric field, we find


24.1

x
V/cm
1

25.9 10 10 4 0.0259 V
or 25.9 mV
_______________________________________

80 1.6

dx

0.0259 10

10 4

dx
1 10 3 x

10
1
3
ln 1 10 x
3
0
10
0.0259 ln 1 0.1 ln 1

0.0259 10 3

or

(b) For J n 20 A/cm 2

1 41.44
L

20 1.6

V 2.73 mV
_______________________________________

Then

13.3
x V/cm
1
L

_______________________________________

5.40

dN d x
1
kT


dx
e N d x

(a) X

5.42

dN d x
1
kT


dx
e N d x

For N d x N do e x / L

0.0259
500 V/cm
L
Which yields L 5.18 10 5 cm
_______________________________________
So X

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
(a) (i) D n 0.0259 1150 29.8 cm

5.43
(a) We have

J diff eDn

(ii) D n 0.0259 6200 160.6

dN d x
dn
eD n
dx
dx

cm 2 /s

8
308.9 cm 2 /V-s
0.0259
35
1351 cm 2 /V-s
(ii) p
0.0259
_______________________________________

eD n
x
N do exp

L
L

(b) (i) p

We have

kT
6000 0.0259
e

Dn n
or

5.46

D n 155.4 cm 2 /s

Then

/s

L 10 1 cm, W 10 2 cm,
d 10 3 cm
(a)

1.6 10 19 155.4 5 10 16
x
J diff
exp

3
2
4
0.1 10
L V I X B Z 1.2 10 5 10
H
or
ned
2 10 22 1.6 10 19 10 5
J diff

x
1.243 10 5 exp
A/cm
L

VH
1.875 10 3

0.1875 V
W
10 2

/cm
_______________________________________

x
1.6 10 19 6000 5 10 16 exp

L

or

x
J drf 48 exp

L

5.47
(a) V H

We have
J drf J diff

or

so

x
x
5
exp
1.243 10 exp

L
L

which yields
2.59 10 3 V/cm
_______________________________________

5.44
Plot
_______________________________________

I x Bz
ned

250 10 6 5 10 2
5 10 21 1.6 10 19 5 10 5

V H 0.3125 mV

(b)

48

5.45

1.875 10 V
or V H 1.875 mV
(b)

Now
J drf e n n

(b)
0 J drf J diff

H
or

VH
0.3125 10 3

W
2 10 2

H 1.56 10 2 V/cm
(c)

IxL
enV xWd

250 10 10
5 10 0.1 2 10 5 10
6

1.6 10

19

21

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________
or

n 0.1015 m 2 /V-s 1015 cm 2 /Vs


_______________________________________

n 0.3125 m 2 /V-s 3125 cm 2 /V-

s
_______________________________________
5.48
(a) V H 0 n-type
(b)

I X BZ
0.50 10 3 0.10
n

edV H
1.6 10 19 10 5 5.2 10 3

6.01 10 m
or n 6.01 10 15 cm

IX L
enV X Wd

(c) n

0.5 10 10
6.0110 15 10 10
3

1.6 10

19

21

21

5.50
(a) V H negative
(b) n

0.03466 m 2 /V-s
or n 346.6 cm 2 /V-s

V H H W 16.5 10 3 5 10 2

cm

n 4.924 10 21 m
4.924 10 15 cm 3
(d)

or

20

1
2

0.0110
2

n 0.8182 m 2 /V-s 8182 cm 2 /V-

s
(d)

IxL
n
enV xWd

1
e n n

8182 8.68 10
1.6 10
0.5 10 0.5 10
or
4.924 10 1.25 5 10 5 10 0.88 ( -cm)
3

19

19

0.05 10

8.68 10 14

2.5 10 0.5 10
1.6 10 8.68 10 2.2
3

IxL
enV x Wd

or

or

0.5 10 3 6.5 10 2
1.6 10 19 5 10 5 0.825 10 3

1.6 10

(c)

V H 0.825 mV
(b) V H negative n-type
I x Bz
(c) n
edV H

n 8.68 10 20 m

or

or

5.49
(a)

I x Bz
edV H

2.5 10 3 2.5 10 2
1.6 10 19 0.01 10 2 4.5 10 3

_______________________________________

n-type

21

19

14

_______________________________________

Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition


Chapter 5
By D. A. Neamen
Problem Solutions
______________________________________________________________________________________

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