Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 245

C. .

: 3RD OFF V. NEDYELKOV


1ST ENG P. KOVALENKO

2002 GAZ SUN


.............................................................................................................................. 6
. ..................................................................... 6
......................................................................................................................................... 7
.................................................................................................................................... 7
.......................................................................................................... 8
..............................................................................11
.................................................................................................................................... 11
.......................................................................................................................................12
.......................................................................................................................................... 13
.............................................................................................................................. 13
(SLUSH).............................................. 13
..................................................................................................... 16
.......................................................................................................................... 17
................................................................................................. 17
................................................................................................................................ 17
, ................................................................................... 18
................................................................................................................................ 19
.............................................................................................. 19
(Brittle Fracture).............................................................................. 20
(sloshing) .......................................................................................................... 20
(rollover)........................................................................................................ 20
................................................................................................................ .20
................................................................................. 23
...................................................................... 23
........................................................... 26
................................................................................................................................ 27
.............................................................................................................................. 27
..........................................................................................................30
............................................................. 32
.............................................................................................. 32
.................................................................................................................... 34
......................................................................................35
........................................................................................................................... 38
....................... 41
................................................................................................ 43
................................................................................................ 43
........................................................ 44
.................................................................................................................................... 44
.................................................................................................................................... 46
................................................................................................. 48
....................................... 50
................................................................................................. 51
........................................................................................................................................ 55
..................................................................................................................... 55
.................................................................................................................... 56
........................................................................................................... 58
- ............................................................................................................................ 59
........................................................................................................... .60
...................................................................... 61

............................................................................................ 62
............................................................................................................... 62
....................................................................................... 65
, ......................................................................... 65
................................................................................................................... 66
.............................................................................................................. 68
........................................................................................................ 74
. .............................................................................................................. 75
.......................................................................................78
.................................................................................................................................... ..78
................................................................................................................... 80
................................................................................ 83
..................................................................................................................................... 84
........................................................................................ 85
................................................................................................... .87
................................................................................................................................................87
................................................................................................................................ 88
...................................................................................................... 88
................................................................................................................................. 90
........................................................................................... 94
............................................................................................... 94
...........................................................................................................................................94
............................................................................ 95
.......................................................................... 99
.................................................................................................................................. 101
..102
................................................................................................. 104
.................................................................................................... 104
..................................................... 105
........................................................................................ 106
...................................................................................................109
....................................................................................... 111
.............................................................. 113
........................................................................................ 114
....................................................... 118
....................................................................................................... 121
......................................................... ..121
.................................................................. 121
................................................. 124
.................................................................................................... 127
............................................................................................128
......................................................................................................................128
....................................... 129
..................................................................... 131
..............................................................................................................................141
.......................................................................... 141
.............................................................................................................. 145
..............................................................................................................................................14 6
....................................................................................................................... 14 7

. ......................................................................... 151
................................................................................................................................15 1
.......................................................................................156
.................................................................................................................................. 157
.............................................................................................. 158
......................................................................................... 158
................................................................................................................ 163
,
..163
.................................................................................. 165
..................................................................................................................... 16 5
............................................................................................................166
.....................................................................................................168
(DILUTION METHOD)................................................................... 170
......................................................................... 174

5
.............................................................180
........................................................................................................................................182
............................................................................... 183
.............................................................................................185
..................................................................................................................186
..................................................................................................... 186
...........................................................................................................................189
............................................................................................................................. 190
................................................................................................................ 190
................................................................................................................................. 191
....................................................................................................................................191
......................................................................................................................................192
..................................................................................192
......................................................................................... 192
. ........................................................................... 194
...........................................................................................................................................2 03

. 2.


.
, ,
, .
, , .
, ,
. , , , , . .
, ,
.
(, , ) .
,
, . ,
, ,
(. 1).

. 1. () ()
( 1 +1). ,
, , ,
, 1,
.
,
.
!
.
,
.
2 ,
8 . ( )
.
(
), .
,

.
.
(. 2) ,
( ).
.
,
. ,
.
, .
, , . .
,
. ,
.

8
() ,
, .



.
( 1/12 ,
12 . . . 1,66 10 24 .
...,
().
, 1/12
.
, () = 15,9994, () = 1,0079.
,
, . ,
2
(2O) = 2 1,0079 + 1 15,9994 = 18,0153.


,
.
! (v) ,
(, , ), 0,012 (12 ) ".
, 1 ,
6,02 1023. ( N, 1/).
1811 ,
.
, ( )
( -). , :
, ,
.
( : 1013
0 ) ,
. , :
! ,
, , .
,
1 .
1 v, 22,4 .
( / /).
( 1013
0 ) 22,4135 0,0006 /. (t =+15 ,
= 1013 ) 1 23,6451 , t=+20 1013 1
24,2 .
( . . .)
.
, 1 ,
, .
, (O2) = 16 . . . 2 = 32 . . ., , 1 32 .
, , .

9

(, , ), (/),
v .
, ,
.
1. - 22 (24). ,
, 5000 3 ,
0 , 1013 .
.
1. :
= 2 12,011 + 4 1,0079 = 28,054 /.
2. :
= M/V = 28,054 : 22,4 = 1,232 /.
3. :
22106 : 1,252= 27544 3.
15000 3. , ,
.
2. , (38)
8000 3, +15 ,
1013 .
.
1. 38
= 3 12,011 + 8 1,0079 = 44,1 /.
2. :
= : v = 44,1 : 23,641 = 1,865 /3.
3. , ,
:
m = v = 1,865 8000 = 14920 15 .


,
. .
, (, , ,
), , . . .
, .
,
.
, ,
. ,
(. 3).

.
m, n, m n .

10
5 ,
200 .

3.
, .
1892
.
(UIPAC).
, .

, . . ,
, . . ,
.
, ,
2,
.
( ).

. ,
.
,
. ( )
:
() ,
() ,
( ),
,
(),
().
.
a. :






. , , , 1 4 , ,
, 5 17 , , ,
17 , .
, 4 ,
, . . .
.
| , ( ),
, .
, 4 10 , 2 , ,
8 18 , 18 .
, , , ., . .
.
, ,
.

, .


n2n+2 , n

11
.

.
. ,
.
.
. ,
, , .
.
| ,
, . .
, .
n2n, n . ():

,
, . , ,
,
, . -

.
| ,
, , .

.
.
nHn+2.
, , 5-
. , , ,
.
: 46,


, ,
.
, , ,
.
.
n2n-2, . . , .

()

12
, .
(l) (VCM),
.
.

13

(, )
, . .
.
,
. ()
.

-.
, ,
. :
nH2n.
:


.
.
.
, ,
. , , , , .
nH2n-6
.
: C 6H6 6H5 -.

( ). 3 ,
-, -
-.
.

. .

! , ,
.
,
, .
.
.
,
.
!
, . . ,
.

14
,
, .
;

(2=l)
(=2)
(2=6)

- (2-l)n - (-2)n
- (65-2)n -

,
, .
,
. - (
) .
,
.
1,3- ( ,
). :

, ,
50 (Part per million).
.

,
, . ,
.

---


,
.
:

,
, .
,

15
. ,
. , ( ,
.) ,
. .
, ,
, .
,
. ,
, 0,20,3%.

,
, , ,
, . ,
, .
,
.

1,3-
100 () ,
( ).
.
,
.
|
.

- Stench agent Odorizer.
, .
,
. , ,
. ,
, (
), (, ).

- (SLUSH)
. ,
,
. ,
.
- ,
104 , .
,
, , .
, ,
() . ,
, , , .
, . ,
6 40 ,

16
580 . ,
, . .
.
, . . , .
. , ,
,
,
.
:
1.
,

-2

0,7

2,7

+3

4,1

+5

5,2

+6

2. ,
6
,

37

-45

1,4

50

-40

110

-30

6,5

150

-25

10

220

-20

16

284

-15

24

420

-10

30

500

-7,5

36

580

-5

52

780

. ,
3

17

1000

-10

13

1300

-5

17

1600

4. ,
( )
,

540

36

576

-45

658

43

701

-40

966

70

1036

-30

1122

81

1203

-25

1235

93

1328

-20

1373

98

1471

-15

1564

115

1679

-10

1587

119

1706

-7,5

1436

107

1543

-5

1134

83

1217

5.

,

488
412
229


218
172
87

705
584
316

-10
-5
0

,
, ,
,
.

18


.
T 6.

X1 9
%.
2 .
.
(PTFE) .
(PVC) .


,
. NH3 .
2 ,

19
.
. .
.
, , 2,5 , .

.



, , ,
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
:
| ,
t- 37,8 2,8 /2.

, .

.
7.


+ 37,8 (100F)

(t -82)

-161

12,9

-43

3,6

-0,5

14,7

-33

5,7

-14

4,0

-5

2,7

10,7

,
, , .

, -
. , ,
,

,
, , , IGC, , IBC (.
).

,
, , ;
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gases ( ),
NGL Natural Gas Liquids ( ),
LEG Liquefied Ethylene Gas ( ),
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas ( ),
N Ammonia (),
l2 Chlorine ().
,
,
, , .
.
. LPG -
. 13%
.

, .
,
. :
,
,
,
,
.
0 -50.
, .
, , , ,
. .
, , ,
.
.
. ,

, .
104, .

, , , , , ,
.

8.
, . . (20;
15; 60F) (4; 15; 20 . .).
.
,
, . (9598%),
: , , , .
-164 .
,
.
, ,
.
33.
, , , .
,
, .
-34.

.


,
-.
. , , , ,
. , , 37,8
2,8 /2.


,
.

(BRITTLE FRACTURE)
.
0 .
10C ,
, ,
.

(164 ).

(SLOSHING)
,
.
,
, ,
, .

.
, .

(ROLLOVER)

,
.
.
.
(LNG). ,
, .

,
, .
, .
(
5-7), .

( 0,25 ),
, ,
. ,
.

, ,
.
,
.
,
,
. , , , , , ,
,
.


,
. ,
.

(
, ).
.

1893 . ,
, ,
.

30- ., SHELL.
, 60- .,
, .


.
.
. ,

, :
;
;
.
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
. , ,
. -,
, , . ,

, , .
.
, :
.
, , ,
.

.
, , ,
, . ,
. ,
, ,
.
, .
.
, :
,
,
,
,
.
, .
, ,
(. .
).
,
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
, , .

,
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
,
.
.
(/).
.
.
3 000 000
/. ,
.
.
. .
, , ,
() .
, ,
, .
, .
, ,
,
.
, .
.
, , ,
.
.
. ,
, . , 60%
, .
,
, ,
. ,
, .
,
, , .
, .
.
, .
,
.
. ,
50
(/) 0,35 .
.
(), .

. , , , .
,
, . ,
. ,
,
0,2 , 600
.
.
.
. .
.
, , , ,

. ,
.
,
. ,
.
, .
, ,
.



,
. ,
, ,
.

.
IBce , ,
, .
.
,
,
.

, ,
( ). ,
, . . , .

, ,
, ,
.
,
(. 4).
.
() .
. ,
, ,
. ,
, .
,
, .
2
. , , ,
, ,
.
,
, , .
.
,
. -
.


. 4.

| 30-
.
,
.
.

, ,
,
, ,
, , , , .
|
.
,

.
.
,

, .

,
.

, ,
- .
,
.

, .
, ,
.
.
:
, ,
,
,
.

, ,
,

. (
) (. 5).
.
, .


.

.

. -
. ,
.
|
.
,
,

(. 6),

. 5.

6.


.
, . . ,
.
| ,

1
/.
:
.
.
.
, .
| , ,
( ),
7 /, .
.
,

( , , )
.
.

, .

, , ( 1983 .).


,
,
,
,
.
().
, .
-162 () 400 , , . .
, .
.
, , . .
.
,
, ,
, , ,
(. ).
, , ,
.
. , ,
, .
,
.
. ()
.
. ,
37,8 .
.

, ,
.
, .
,
. , , .
().
, , ,
.
.
,
, ( ).
,

.
| () ,
,
.
,
.

, .
,
.

, ( 6) ,
. ,
.

.
2025 , .
| ,
,
5 ,
.
.
,
.
.
:
-, ;
,
.
| , ,
,
().
, . .
. ,
- , (. 7).

.
|
,
,
, ().
, . . 21%
.

. 7. .

,
, 10,8%.

, :
,
,
.

.
.

, . .
, (.8),

, ,
2,5% ( ),
.

(
)
1 10%.
,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
. 9.
9.


, %


, 50%
,

2,2

9,5

23

1,9

8,5

26

1,5

7,8

33

.
,
. .
, (. 8 9)
, , , .
. 8.

. 9.

, (),
,
. ,
.
D () ().
.
. 8,
( ) , ,
.

, ,
, 10,8% ,
.
|
(
) 8% .
(. 9), (, )
, .
, F.
F .


.

.
,
.
: .
60.

. - , ,
. 0,007 .
60.
,
.
, , - .
, , ,
,
. 60
.
, , ,
, , .
, , ,

.
, (60),

, .
US Coast Guard. US Coast Guard (USCG)
:
( ) 14 psi; (0,965 );
8,5 psi (0,586 ),
14 psi;
8,5 psi
80F (27) ;
D 80F, 150 F (65);
150F.
, , ,
(psi
pounds per square inch 1 . 1 psi = 0,68948 bar).
.

, . Germanisher Lloyd
(GL) :

0 , 37,8 (100F) (
) 1 . ,
.
K1 , 37,8 ( )
0,35 1 , 21.
2 , 21 55.
55.
. 10
.
10.

,
%

-175

5,314

595

-125

3,112,5

510

-105

2,19,5

468

-60

1,88,5

365

-76

1,88,5

500

-150

3,03,2

453

-180

2,011,1

453

-80

1,69,3

440

-60

2,012,6

418

-50

1,09,7

220

VCM

-78

4,033,0

472

-18

3,0100

429

-37

2,837,0

465

-57

16,025,0

615

.
, , (. 11).
,
.
, .

11. 50%-
, /3, 15

100%

50% ( )

1,55

1,25

2,0

1,5

2,5

1,8

. 11 , , ,
( ),
2 , , (
), 1,5 .
, , .
,
.


, , ,

. , , ,
.
!
.
,
.

, ,
.

, 24 .

, ,
,
.
, ,
,
.


().
,
8 40 .
. 12.
(),
,
(. 12).

8 (),

15
.
, STEL (Short Time Exposure Limit),
4 1 . 15
,
.
. , = 1,000 , VCM 1 .

12. ( )

100% ,

n.d.

1000

1500

1000

11000

1000

5000

800

800

800

1000

80

1000

1-

0,07

1000

-2-

0,6

1000

-2-

0,6

1000

1,3-

(0,1-2)

(150010000)

(0,00190)

25

.
,
Maksimmale Arbeitplatze Koncentration.
.
|
.
.
, , ,
- .

:
, , ,
; ;
, ; ;
, , , ,
;
, , .
, ,
. ,

, , .
,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
, , . ,
(50), ,
. (, ),
, , ,
( , ).
50,
,
,
.
, ,
.
, .
, , ,
. ,
.
, , , ,
, . , ,
, .


, , :
(, .);
( );
(, , );
, . . (, );
;
;
.
, , . ,
, , .
. ,
.
.
:
;
;
( );
;
.
, ,
, , .
, , ,
, , , , .
. . :
, ;
;
, ;
, ;
, .
, , .

,
, . :
, ;
;
;
, ;
.


, . ,
, , ,
, .
().
. ,
19,5%. 16%,
, .

, .
,
(, ) .

,
, , ,
.
, , , .
, ,

( ).

. , ,
.
, ( ), ( ),
.
,
. ,
, .
, ,
, .

.
, ,
. ,
,
.
, .
() , . .
, ,
.
. (
, , . .) .
, ,
, .
.
.
.
.
,
.

. ,

, - , .
-
, .
, ,
.
. , ,
, .
, .
. ,
, , , . ,
.
, .
. ,
, .
,
.
.
, . , ,
VCM,
.
,
. ,
. ,
(), ,
.
,
, , , .
,
.
, .
.
, .
, . .
. :
;
;
;
;
.
, .
.

(). , , 300 ,
2% . ,
, .
, , ,
, , , , , . .,
.
| .
,
. ,
.
.
. 2530%
1516% ,
. , , ,
, , .
.
50% .

.

, , .
:
, .
. .
, , , 4050 ,
, . ,
.
, ,
. -
( ). ,
.
,
(. 13).
13.

0,1 % (1000 )

10%

0,2 % (2000 )

20%

, , ,

0,7 % (7000 )

70%

, ,
15

1 % (10 000 )

100%

,
,
,

2% (20 )

200%

. ,
, , , ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
.
. .
, ,
, , , , , ,
2,0004,000 . 1
(. . 13).
(VCM) .
.
VCM , . VCM
, , .

. VCM , VCM

. VCM 5 ,
0, . . . VCM
, ,
, .
. , ,
.
.

, .
, ,
, , . ,
,
, , , .
( )
, ,
.
, .

. , ,
, , , .
0,3 0,7 /
.
. - .
. ,
, , , ,
.
, .


. , ,
,
()
.

(. 14)
( ,
).
14.

50100

200300

500700

, , 15 ,
3040

700900

10002000

|
.
.
.
, . . ,
.
.
.
.
. ,
. .

,
. : -,
,

( 3 ) .
( ) , .

. , , , ,
, 0,97, +640,
7,512,5% . .
0,02 /. 1015 . :
, , .
, 14%
. ,
, ,
, . 5%.
, .
68% 30
. 10 20%
. 25%
.
.
, .

, .
, , .
,
, , , . .
.
() :
(, , ),
,
,
, , , .
, ,
, .
. ,
, , ,
.
.
,
, .
. -,
, - (), () .
, , ( , ),
, , .
.
,
. , ,
.
. , ,
, (, , .).
, , ,
, .
.

(), , ,
.
. ,
,
.
,
.

, ,
.
.
, .
, , .
. ,
.
, .
.
.
(, , .).
.
.
, .
.
, ( ) .
. ,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
.
.
, , .
, .
.
,
. ().
,
, ,
. , , ,
.
. ,
,
.

:
,
,
,
,
.
, 5,
. ,
. , , , , , .
( )
.
,
. , , (
) , .

. ,
.
. , , , . ,
.
.
-
( ).
, ()
, .
, .

, , , ( ).
, , ,
, ,
, . ,
.
,
. .
.
,
, .
. , ,
, , , .
( , , , ,
, ),
.
,
, , .
.
, .
, .
, , , ,
.
:
,
, ,
,
.
, .

.
, ( ),
.
, , ., ,
.
. .
,
.
,
.
:
,
,
,
,
.

,
. , , .

. , ,
.
| ,
. .
, .

. 10.
:
1) ,
2) ,
3) .
,
, ,
. .
, ,
.
, .
.
.
,
. .
, .
. , ,
1216 . 24
, ,
1216 .
24 ,
.
. , .
, . ,
.
! 80100
. , .
5 15 2 .
(. 10)
, . .
,
, .
:
,
;
, ,
,
;

;
,
.

, , POISON CHEST,
. ,
, .
0,17 .
,
.
(MFAG),
.
, ,

. .

. , ,
. . . . ,
,
. , ,
,
.
.
,
.
,
.



,
, ()
. :
,
.
,
. ,
-, :
,
,
()
(% LEL),
,
.
.

. ,
, VCM
(Long term measuring).
,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
- ,
, ,
.

.
, ,
, , .
().

.
(. 11),
. ,
10,8%
, .

. 11.
.
200320 450 .
, ,
.
, .
, :
4 + 2O2 + 450 + => 2 + 2H2O + 800 .
,
. ,
.

, .
,
-, .
0 ( 0),
, ,
, .
0 100% .

0 10% .


.
()
(), ,
( ).
,
.
,
.
.
.
, , ,
, , .
. ,
.
, 23
, 100% .
2 ,
. :
,
.
,
.


.

(-

)


( 11% ).
. 12.

,
.

.

.
. . ,
.
, , ,
.

, .
- () -
,
, (. 12).

, . ,
, , , ,
.
, . , VCM,
, ., ,
.

, ,
(510 ), .
, .
, (. 15).
15. ,

, %(L.E.L.)

3560

2030

11

45

22

030

10

30

. ,
,
( , ).
, ,
.
.
, .

, , ,
.
. .
() .
,
, .
-.
, ( 1520 ).
, .

.
( , ) .

.

.
(HC-meter), GASSCOPE,
TANKSCOPE.

. 13. ,

,
.
,
(. 14). ,
.
)

. 14. () () Riken

, , ,
. ,

( ) .
,
, .
.
,
. ,
.
.

.
0 ,
0 0,5 %.


, ,
(, ) .

.
:
,
,
.
. ,
.
,
, .
. (. 15, 16),
,
. ,
, , .
, .
. 15. SERVOMEX

. 16.
SERVOMEX

,
.
.

. ,

.
.

(. 17).

,
,
. ,
,
. , ,
,
.
,
: GASTECH-86, GASTECH-400, NEOTOX, DRAGER MULTIWARN (.
18).

. 17.
.

. 18. Drager
Multiwam,

4

,
.
, 0,25% .
, 1% .
, ,
, .
200400 .
,
.
, , , ,
.
.
-
.
,
, .
ORSAT.

.
.
.
VCM. , a VCM
, ,
.

, ORSAT
.
.
, .
,
.
, ,
. ,
. , ,
.
. 19.

ORSAT


,
. , 800
,
.

:
,
,
,
,
,
.

. (.
20)
(. 21) ,
.
,
. ,

( ).
,
, :
1% = 10 000 .

. 20. (a) () :
/ ; 2
; 3

. 21,
. 22.

()
(),

.

,
/, /, /3 /, /3, /3.
1013 20.
, /3, :

() = (24,144 )
()

C(/3)

1: , ,
876 /3.
:
() = (24,1 : 58,1) 876 = 363 ( /3).
, ,
:
C(/) =

()
(24,1 )

. (pp )

2: . 363
() .
:
(/3) = (58,1 : 24,1) . 363 = 876 /3.
, ,
,
. ,
.

, ,
(. 23), LONG TERM TOXIC GAS DETECTOR.

. 23. Drager
Polymer


. ,
.
.
, %
.......................................................... 78,09
................................................. 20,93
......................................................... 0,93
......................................... 0,03
.............................................. 0,02
:
100%
1,3 / 3,
. 5000
0,7 /3, 10 000 0,4 /3.
,
40 / 3, 3% .

, , . .
1 3 ,
. ,
,
.
( ).
, ,
0,01 ,
, .

.
,
, .
, , .
.
,
.

, ,
. ,
-, .
-
.
(. 24)
.
.
,
, . . ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,

.

. 24.


. , 1
3 ( ). ,
, , , ,
.
, ,
. .
,
1 3 , 1 3
.

P PH
.


.
1: 20.
?
: . 16
17,7 /3.
2: 30 13 / 3 .
, ,
-10?
: . 16 ,
=15.
10 ( ) = 2,15 /3.

,
,
:
13 / - 2,15 / = 10,85 /,
. . 10,85 .
3: 10 5 /3 .
.
: . 16 , 10
9,3 /3. :
(5 /3 100%); 9,3 /3 = 53,8%.
4: 1000 3 25 75%.
-40' ?
: 25 , . 16,

23,5 / 3, , 75%

(23,5 /3 75%): 100% = 17,625 /3.


-40 =
0,120 /3. -40:
17,625 /3 - 0,120 /3 - 17,505 /3.
;
17,505 /3 10003 =17 505 - 17,5.
5: 5000 3 20.
-41.
?
: 20 0,92 / 3.
-41
0,11 /3. / 0,81 /3.
0,81 /3 5000 3 = 4050 = 4,0 .

16.

, 10- /3

t,C

,10-3 /3

t,C

,10-3 /3

-50

0,038

-19

1,01

12

10,60

-49

0,43

-18

1,10

13

11,34

-48

0,048

-17

1,20

14

12,14

-47

0,055

-16

1,30

15

13,00

-46

0,061

-15

1,40

16

13,88

-45

0,068

-14

1,52

17

14,79

-44

0,075

-13

1,66

18

15,73

-43

0,084

-12

1,81

19.

16,70

-42

0,094

-11

1,97

20

17,70

-41

0,106

-10

2,15

21

18,80

-40

0,119

-9

2,34

22

19,90

-39

0,132

-8

2,54

23

21,00

-38

0,145

-7

2,75

24

22,20

-37

0,162

-6

2,97

25

23,50

-36

0,180

-5

3,20

26

24,80

-35

0,200

-4

3,46

27

2630

-34

0,220

-3

3,74

28

27,80

-33

0,245

-2

4,04

29

29,30

-32

0,275

-1

4,38

30

31,00

-31

0,305

4,70

31

32,80

-30

0,340

5,07

32

34,80

-29

0,380

5,46

33

36,90

-28

0,420

5,87

34

39,10

-27

0,460

6,30

35

41,50

-26

0,510

6,75

36

43,70

-25

0,560

7,22

37

45,90

-24

0,610

7,71

38

48,10

-23

0,670

8,22

39

50,30

-22

0,750

8,75

40

52,50

-21

0,830

10

9,30

45

67,00

20

0,920

11

9,92

50

83,00

. 25.

Senso

. ,
( ), .
(, )
. ,
. ,
. ,
.
(R22)
. , .
.
(. 25) ,
, . , ,
,
.



, 650
, . ,
, , ,
0,42, VCM 0,97. , , ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
, , , ,

.
.
-. -
(. 26) ,
:

. 26.

( );

( );
( ,
).
, -
:
1. LPG (LPG/ NH).
/ /
.
2. LEG (LEG/LPG/NH).
/ .
3. LNG (LNG/LEG/LPG).
,
4. (l2).
.
5. / (LEG/LPG/NH /Chemicals).
(. 17).
17.


45,

VCM

-0,5
-12
-5
-6
-14
-33
-43
-48

4,3
5,2
5,1
5,2
6,8
17,8
15,5
18,4

-89

-104

/LNG

-161

1- 2- , ,
, , .
- . 3-
;
, ,
.
, , ,
( ).
.


20- ., ,
, (. 27). 60- .
.
, , ,
.

. 27.
2000 3.
,
, . , ,
, ,
, ,
.
18,5 ,
+55.
, ,
, , .
.
, .
, , , ,
.
-- . ,
, .
, .
.
, .
,
.
:
,
.
.
.
, . .
.
,
, .
:
,
.

2000 3.
,
, 17,5 ,
, . . .
.
.

, , 16% -42,
+20.

(

10)
,
,
30:
15 ,

,
, .
,
, .

, ,
.

,
.
.
, .
, .
45, 13,5 .
34, -
.
, .
, ,
( ).
- ,
. ,
.
! -
- .
.
, -, .


(. 28) 1959 .
, .. ,
, , .
2000 25 000 3.
, ,
4 8
( 0 -104). , ,
, . . . ,
,
.

. 28.
, ,
, . ,
,
. ,
, .

, ,
, , . ,
. (. 29),
, . .
, ,
.
200 .
, .
:
, , .
, .
.
.
.
.

. 29.
:


.

15 000 3.
, ,
2% , , . .
.

, ,
.
-
,
, .
, (IGC),
, ( IBC).
5000 8000 3
. 34
. ,
.
, ,
, , .
() , ,
, . .
, .
,
.
,
.

.
,
,
.
,
-, , . ,
, .

, .
.
1961 . 15 000 100 000 3
.
, , ,
0,3 ,
50. ,
(. 30). ,
, . .
(. 31). 2%.

. 30.

. 31.
(. 31)
, .
, ,
.
.
.
, ,
, .

. .
.
, , ,
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
( ).
, ,
.
, ,
100000 3.
:
.

, ,
.

.
:
, ,
.
.
, . . .

, .
.

.
-
161
.
, 1959 . METHANE
PIONEER, 4000 3 .
, .
(. 32) 2 -163.
-, , 125 000 3,
300 000 3.
: .
- .
:
,
,
.

. 32. -
, , ,
.
. ,
, , (.
33).
. ,
125 000 3 0,18 0,25% .
, 70
75% ,
,

.

. 33,


135,
.
. 57 /.
,
. ,
, .
,
, .
,
125 000 3 8500 . .



.
,
,
,
,
, .
, ,
;
,
,
,
, ,
.
,
.
, , 0,25 ,
0,7 ,
.
-10,
.
(. 34) (Self-supporting),
, . , , ,
.
.
,
.
Gas Transport .
.
.
(. 35)
, (
) :
;
;
;
;
;
.

. 34.
0,5 ,
( 36% ),
,

.
, , (. 35).
0,25 .

. 35.

,

.

.
,

,
,
.
9%-
3 .
0,25 .
( ) ,
.
,

.
.
1. (. 36) , , .
, , .
. . ,
, .
,
,
. 36.
. ,
,
.
. LPG
, .
, English Conch,
-163. 9%-
. ,
.

. 0,25 .
2. (. 37, 38) , ,
, .

, ,
.
.
0,25 ,
0,7 .

Moss-Rossenberg,
. ,
.
, 9% .
, .
. Leak before failure
( ) .
, , ,
. 37. ( )
. 38.



,
.
,
.
3. ,
. ,
.
.
,
. ,
, , .

,
.
:

1 ,
,
;
2 ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
.
0,25 .

, -
.

.
1G
(, , , .),
(. . 39, 40).

70 .
, ,
,
. , ,
, .

.
,
.
, , .
. . ,

. 39. IG

. 40. 2G, 2PG

3G
,
.
, , . ,
, , ,
. , , .
,
.
,
.

,
.

.
-55
- , 65
2,25%,
-90 3,5%,
-165
9% ,
.
(
),
.

;
;
;

, ;
;
;
;
;
;
, ,
;
. .

-10 ,
.
, ,
.
:

,
,
.
:
,
,
, .

. 0,024
/().
,
. ,
, , . . .

, .
,
. ,
, , , ,
,
.
- ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, .
. ,
, .
,
.
, (, ),
. ,
.
,
. () ,
.
( ),
. , ,
( ) .
,
.
.
,
: .
.

,
( 0,005 ) .
- ( ),
.
1820 /3.
,
1600 . .
. 40
50 /3 .
, ,
,
100 /3.
.
(71%) (16%).
3,5% , 1200 ,
, 10
20 . ,
- , .
3 , .
50 /3.
. ,

.
.
, - , .
.
, -, ,
, . -
, 90%
, .
.

3040 . 40 / 3.
. , .
(), .
, .
.
16 , . . .
24 , .
,
. ,
( ).
.
. ,
.
,
.
, 100%-
.
, , ,
.

. ,
, .
1,0, 1,2, 1,4,
- 50-170.
.
, ,
, .


.
.


. :
.
.
.
.
.
, . .
.
(
).
, ,
(. 41),
.
,
, ,
.
,
. ,
, :
;
;
( );
;
.
.
, . ( )

. ,
.
.
( )
,
.

,
.


.

. 41.

()

,
, .

-
.

,
,

. ,
.
, , .
,
. .
, , ,
, . ,
, .
.
.
. ,
, . , ,
.
,
, . ,
+30, 11 .
, ,
, , .

.
.
( )
.
.
(
, ), , ,
.
,
.
:
;
.
(. ).
. ,
. ,
R22 .

. 42. () ()
:
;
.
, ,
, .

(. 42).
,
.
.
(. 43)
.
0,5%,
(8485%) (1415%).
,
.
,
.
(.44)
, ,
.
-
.
100%
. , ,
5, .
5 7 /3.


20. ,
.
(. )
.

. 43.

. 44.

, %
0,5
0,1
0,1
10

100
14
85

, .

. ,

. ,
,
, .
(
, )
.
,
,
.

. .
,
, 5%
.
. ,

.
. . 43
().
,

. .
,
. .
,
5 .
,
(. 45).
, +5 -60.
, .
, .
.
.



,
.

. 45.

!

.

-
.
.
.

(.
).
- ,
,
. , . .
. ,
(, VCM . .), .
, ,
. ,

.
28 (80- 160
), ,
0,35 .
.
.

. :
PSA (Pressure Swing Absorption),
, ,
4 ;
(. 46).
, ,
.
. 46.


,
. ,
,

,
,

. ,

(. 47),

.

( ,
), ,
.
,
. ,
,
(5).
. ()
(. 48).
, ,
. ,
. , -
, ,

. 47.

.
-. , - (
), ( ).
.
-.
3040 3, 15 18 .
,
.
.

:
(ESD
Emergency Shut Down),
,
,

,
,
,
.



,

-40. ,
,

.

.
.

. 48.

, C.
Example:
Assumed: Seawater consumption : 540 m /h
The cargo to be heated from -30C to 0C at discharging.
Seawater tenperature : 15 C.
Found:
Heating capacity: 187 ton/h
Note:
Seawater temperature out of heater must not be less then +5C

CARGO PROPANE
temperature: -30C

. ,
.
, ,
, . .

. (
.
(ESD).

,
:
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
,
100,
. ,
,
. , , . .
ESD.
, , .
,

, .
,
, .
,
.
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
:
;
;
;

;
, .

, , .
,
, ,
100.

.
, ( ).

. ,
, .
, .

.
.
,
.
(. )
,
. , ,
, , .
,
( )
, .
, (
150 ), ,
.
,
. ,
, , .
. ,
(Gas Detection System).

( ,
, ),
.
,
:
, ;
;
;
;
;
. .
30 .
, ,
. 30% ,
.
.

.
, ,
.
,

() . ,
.
.
,
, ..
,
, .

. ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
. ,
. (
, ) , ,
, ( ).
,
.
.
, . ,
,
,
(. 49).


. ,
,

. ,
,
- ,

,
.


.


.
,

, . .
,

.

, ,

.
(. 50)
,

, ,

.

. ,
,

. 50.

, - ,
.

.


. . 51
.
,

,

. (. 52)
, . . .

. 49.

, ,
(, .),
,
, .

. 51.

. 52.

.
(. 53)
. ,
, .
, , ,
. .
a)

. 53. () , (), .

, .
, , .
. . ,
, , . , ,

. 54.

,
.

.

,
,
,
.
,

(. 54), ,
.
,

.


( )

, ,
.

.
. ,
, .
.
(
) , . ,
1986 .
.
. . ,
, :
, .
, ,
. -,
.



:
;
;
;
, ;
;
, . . ;
;
.

.
, , .
.
.

(. 18). , ,
, .
.
,
, .
, ,
, .
18.

NH

2
02
4
N2
O2
H8
2O
2l

,
132,4
-268,0
-240,0
31,0
-82,1
-147,1
-118,8
96,8
374,0
156,5

,
112,0
2,3
12,8
73,0
45,8
33,9
51,4
42,1
218,0
56,9


(
).


: , ;
v, ,

,
/3;

, .

. 55.
;pV-nRT P=RT
= / , ;

, ;
, /,
R 8,314 ;

/(-) = 8,314 (/ )
, . . , ,
.
, , ,
.
. . .

. 56.
,

.
, ,
, .
,

, .
:
1)
, ;
2) .
1: 96 3 (300000 )
77 ?
: 1. , 96 .
, 15,9994.
, (6,02 10 23 ) -16 .
, , 32 /.
2. , 96 .
96 : 32 / = 3 .
3. , , :
V = mRT
M

V = mRT
p

, = , = /3.

2: , ( ) 5000 3
(610), 0,1 ,
5?
:
:

V = m
M

R T

m = V M
RT


: = 1013 + 100 = 1,11 , 1,11 10 5 , = 273 + 5 .
(1), ,
:
m = 1.11 105 5 10 58,1 = 0,0138 108 = 13 8
8,31434. 278


- .
, , ,
. .
T
. , ,
:
;

,
( ),
.

.
,
.
,
, .

( ).
, ,
, :
, ;
, ;
v, / , /3.
,
, .
.
:
;

.
.
, ,
.
-
,

.
,
, . . .
, ,

.
U = m cv T ,
T . ; , ; cv
(v=const), /( ).
1 ;
= U
m

/,

.
V
, :
H = U +pV

h = u + v /.


, 1 2,
:

= u2 1 = cv (2 T1);
12

h = h2 h1 = cp (2 T1),
12

cp = cv + R ( = const), R
, /( ).
:
U
Q, ,
,
,

U = Q - .
,
,
E = m h,
12

12

m , h

(h2 h1)
12
, ,
(. 1).
,
.
. Q
, .

.

().
, , , , ,
. :
Q1 + Q2 + ... + Qn = 0,
n , .
, ,
1 1 (),
, /( ).
,
,
Q = T,

; ; T= 2 T1 2 > T1,
2 < T1
. 19 .
,
.
19. (Latent
Heat of Vaporization)

,
/

1,2-
1,3-

1706
1625
1652
1616
1514
1480
1483
2079
1446
1426


=101,3250
(/ )

3807
2476
2366
2366

2443
2237
4693
2262
2124

489,36
425,73
385,26
366,40
482,77
437,88
390,60
1366
449,60
418,70


, ,
.
, , . .
. ,
. , .
, , ,
.
, ,
.

.
,
. ,
, .

:
m1 C1 T1 = 2 c2 T2,
(1)
,
. .
: 5 tp = -40 8 tb
=2 . p = 2476 / , b = 2366 / .
m.
: , b > m > p ,
Tp

= (Tm-Tp), a

b = (Tb --Tm),


Tp

(Tm - 233);

Tb

= (275 - Tm).

(1):

mp cp = Tp = mb cb Tb = 5 2476 (m -233) = 8 2366 (275 - m) = 12380 m - 2884540 =


= 5205200 - 18928 m

31308 m = 8089740,

m = 8089740 = 258,39 = 258,4 273 = -14,6C


31308
:

PT ; pA + pB -- ; n
; n ; R
, 8,314 /( ); ; V
, 3.
,
.
( )
.
gi
ri,
gi = Gi / Gcm ,

ri = ni / ncm ,

Gi Gcm ; ni ncm
().
,
. .
,
, .
: , 100 400 ,
8 (. ).
,
, 3,69 . 0,78 .
(. . )
.
: .
C3H8 C4H10.
, 12,01115 /,
1,00797 /.

12,01115 / 3

= 36,03345 /

1,00797 / 8

= 8,06376 /
44,09721 / = 44,1 /;

12,01115 / 4 = 48,0446 /
1,00797 / 10 = 10,0797 /
58,1243 / = 58,1 /.

.
100 : 400; , , 100 : 400.
() ;
n = /r, n ; Mr ; m .


100 : 44,1 / - 2,27 ;


400 : 58,1 / = 6,88 ;
9,15

, :
: 2,27= 0,248, 24,8%.
9,15
: 6,88 = 0,752, 75,2%.
9,15
:
:

0,248 3,69 = 0,915 ;


0,752 0,78 = 0,587 .


()

1,502 ,

0,5 .

( ) :
: 0,915 : 1,502 = 0,60 60,9%;
: 0,587 : 1,502 = 0,391 39,1%.
, , , 60,9%
39,1% , , 24,8%
.
,
(MARVS Maximum Allowed Relieve Valve Setting)
,
, .
, , ,
. , 95 98% , 13%
1% .


(. 57),
.
:
;
.
, , ,
, . .
,
.
, ,
, .
,
, .
, ,
.


.
,
, .
.
, ,
, , . , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
().
r /.
, .

. 57 .
. ,
, .
,
.

,
, .
,
, .
, , :
p =p + ( g h),

b ; h ;
; g ; b
; g h
.


,
. (. 38).
, , ,
. . ,

28 65 ,
40
0,0738 . 5000

513 , . 58. ,

82 .

, . . ,
.
,
, :
Q= r .

(.
).


, ,
. ^
V^ L (. 59). ,
, (. 60):
A =F L=p S L = p V,

= ,

F , , ; L , , ; S
, 2; , ; ^ , 3.
,
0.
(. . )
(. 61).

. 59.

. 60.

. 61.


, , , ,
.
, (>0),
(<0).

S ,
. .



, .
S /( ).
,
S = CV ln T2 + R 1n V2
T1
V1

12

v , /(-); R , /( ).
, , V, .

T s.

,

.
()
.
.
,
.
.
, , ,
,
.
.
.

.


:
Q=

A (T1-2)

, ; , /(-); Q
, ;
, 2; T1, , ; 2
, .
.
. ,
75 000 3. , ,
100 ; - 690 2.
30 , -40 .
1. .20 : 0,023 /().
2. (. ):
Q = (0,023 690 70) : 0,1 = 11 109 = 11,11 .

3. (,
), , ,
, .
50,2 /- (. 20).
20.

,
/- .

,
/3

,
/-

0,024

1,29

1,0

()

0,038

25

1,34

()

0,029

65

1,38

()

0,023

40

1,26

PVC
()

0,033

40

1,34

0,041

32

1,34

()

0.035

20

0,84

()

0,041

60

0,84

()

0,035

45

0,84

()

0,041

100

0,84

0,035

50

0,84

50,2

7800

0,46

4. 20 (. 21)
Q = (50,2 690 . 70) : 0,02 = 121 233 000 = 121 233 .
21.

1000000000000
1000000000
1 000000
1000

1012
109

10
10

100

10

10

10

-1

0,1

10

0,01

10-2

0,001
0,000001

-3

-6

10
10

0,000000001

10-

0,000000000001

10-12

, ,
10- . , ,
. , ,
, .
.



.
,
, , .
. (. 62), ,
(. 63).
( log)
, h (. . 62, 63).
, 0,1 = 1 , .
/.
( , ,
).
, .
,
. , , ,
, , (. 63).

, .
* .
1: , 2 (0,2 ), ,
(. 64).
1 2 .
, .
, , ,
460 /. , (
2 ) 460 . , 10
4600 .
(2
). .
, 1 870 .

* (. ).
. 64. 1

. 65. 2

, / (/)

. 63.
(. 65) , ,
. , 0,1 ,
1 9 .
( ).
.
( ), .
, ,
. ,
. , ,
, ,
.
2: , 1 ( ,
). 7,5 , ()
635 /.
, , .
: (7,5 )
(635 /). ,
0,2. , , , ,
2 (20%) , 8 (80%) .

,
60 F, 15,5 (
).
,
( ) , 1,013 .
,
1 . , ,
7,5 , 6,5 .
,
. ,
, , ( ),
, . .
, (,
).
,
. 66. 3
,
.
. 6265,

.

Ib/ft3.

16,02 (1,0 Ib/ft3 =
16,02 /3).
3:

0,95 49 (120 F).



.
66.
.

,

.
,

.
,

.

,

.
. 67. 4
, .
.
,
ph.
4: -20' .
.
, '
.

, . 980 .
.
(. 1), .
-20 2,44526 .

2,44526


0,980

(
)
1,46526

, , , -20
554,48 /3. ,
5,60 /3. 476,2 /, 876,8 /.
(876,8 - 476,2) = 400,6 /.

.



,
.
.
,
, .
(. 68).

. 68.

. 69.


.
(. 69) ,
, , ,
, .

.

( ,
).
, -
.
. ,
,
.
. 69, TS ,
Qg /.
.
, ,
ph ( ). ,

,
(), RELIQUEFACTION PLANT.
.
(-, -, )
.

(. 70) ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
.

. 70.
, . 71.
1 .
12 ,
.
. 23
t.
, . .
( 34) (45),
K tK.
56 .
, - ,
(
) X = const, 6.
( 61), .
.
1.
.
....................................................... 1000
.................................... -5
................. 6
................ 6,95
..............t =55
()..... 350 /
...................................-10
.......................................... 1 .


:

.
. 71.

.
(. 72).
1. -5
0 = 4,06 ()

.
2. = 6,95

()

= 7,95 ().
3. 0 = 4,06 tBC= 6 2,
.
, , -
,
.
(. 1), ( ).
( )

/3,


.
4. K = 7,95
tH = 55 3,

.
5. 4 5

.
6.
,

6,

, 5
.
=
0,18,
. 72. 1

.
t = 18 (
) t0 = 5 , 82%
, .
7, t0 = -5 .
, . ,
,

Q,

Q0 ( ):
=Q / Q0.
t0 = -5 h7 = 511,6 / ( ),
t = -10 h8 = 499,5 /. 8

h8= -10 . ,
, ! ,
Q =( h7 h8 ) mr = ( 561,6 499,5 ) 1000 10 = 12100 10
, 1
7, (h1 h6) .

Q =( h7 h8 ) Vs s ,

Vs , s ( 2).
, ,
, (. 1).
Q0 = (893,2 - 570,2) 350 8,3 = 938315 /.
, , -5 -10 , :
= Q / Q0 = (12 100 103): 938 315 = 12,9 13 .
2.
(. 73).
. ,
! ,
.
,

.

c .
, ( ,
).
10 . (.
1) 8 , ,
h9 = h6 = 544,2 / (. 74).
55'
, 5'6',
22', 2'3'.
. 74, 6,
, ,
1 90%.

. 73.
, ,
.
h6
,
Q0 =( h1 h6 ) Vs s = (893,2 544,2) 350 8,3 = 1 013 845 /.
, -5 -10 ,
= Q / Q0 = (12 100 103): 1 013 845= 11,9

, 1
.

,


t = t.. +(67)C,

t.. = tBX t
2

.

,
,
,

,

. 74.

. , ,
.

, .
,
( ), ,
. ,

,
.
, ,
, .

. ,
, ,
6,5 ,

.
, , ,
.
3.
.
1. t0 = 5 ,
t. = 8. tk = t. +10 =
18 .
tk = 18 =>
t0 = -5 =>

k = 7,95 ;
0 = 4,06 .

p = pk - p0 = 3,89 < p = 6,5 .

,
.
2. t0 = -40 , t. = 27 ,
tk = t. + 10 =
27 + 10 = 37.
:
t = 37 => pk = 12,8 ;
t0 = -40 => p0 = 1,11 .

p = pk - p0 = 11,69 > p = 6,5 .

,
, .
3. t^= 27 ^ = 37
, . ,
tk = 37 =>

pk = 12,8 ;

p0 = pk - p = 12,8 - 6,5 = 6,3 .


6,3 11 , . .
(-40).
,
.

. ,
, 1- (. 75).
(12) (. 76).
n (23)
(). ,
(34),
.
(45).
(56).
:

. 76.
. 75.


4.

(. 77).
30

-40.
1- t0 = -25.
1- pH
4,5 . 1-
t1 = 50 .
2- pH = 10,9 .
2-
t2= 78 .
11 .

. 77. 4
. 1) t0,
p :
p0 = 1,68 (t = -30 ),
p = 5,5 (t= 4 ),
pk = 11,9 (tk =34 ).
2) p0 =1,68 tBC = -25C
(. 77, 2).
.
3) 3 5,
, p = 5,5 pk = 11,9
t1 = 50 t2 =78 .
4) 4, ,
, 5'
.
5) 7,
.
, t= 11 ,
.
6) , , 8, ,
, 7 p0 = 1,68
().
. ,
500 3/. ,
1000 , -30 ,
40 .
, (
), ,
.
, 1:

= Q / Q0

Q , ; Q0
- 500 /
.
Q =( h h ) mr = (453,1 430,1) 106 = 23 . 106 ;
Q0 = 3 Vs s ( h1 h8 ) = 3 500 (864,1 551,8) 3,75 =1,76 106

/;

T= 13,06.
5.
.
1) , , :
Q = 23 106 .
2) (7233'6 8'),
Q0 = 3 Vs s ( h1 hA) = 3 500 3,75 (864,1 614,4) = 1,40 106 /.

T= 16,4.


.
. .
1) 3, : ,
t0 = -40, tk = 37,
t= 11 .

tk = 37 , pk = 12,8 ;
t0 = -40 , p0 = 1,11 ;
t = 11 , p = 6,65 ;
p1 = pk p = 6,24 < p = 6,5

p2 = p p0 = 5,45 < p = 6,5


,
.
2) /=
-40 , tk = 7 , t = 12 .

tk = 7 , pk = 47,9 ;
t0 = -40 , p0 = 14,5 ;
t =-12 , p = 30,8 ;

p1 = pk p = 17,1> p = 6,5
p2 = p p0 = 16,3 > p = 6,5
, ,
,
.


(. 78) , -102 ,
,
-50 .
, .
6,5

70 , ,

. 78.
6,5 , 30.
13
140 , ,
90 .
.
- , R22
-49 ,
43 .
:
, PB1 6,5 ,
-64 . ,
, -55
2 1,12 .
102 .
R22 , -, . -
30 0,7

4 . 70
3 .
10 75
,

. 22
( 10 ) , ,
4 0,7 , -. R22
49 , . 3 .
7. , , .
(. 79) (
):
p0 = 1,12 => t0 = -102 ;
pk = 13,0 a => tk = -50
p = 6,50 => t = -64
(. . I):
2, ,
p0 , t1 =
50 . 3 4 p = 6,5 t1 = 70 , t2= 30 .
pk = 13 t2 = 140 (
) 5 . 6
( pk = 13
t = 90 ). 7
( pk =13 t= 40 ). , , 10
( pk = 13 tk= -55 ).
911 1
1012 2 ,
- -102 .
R22.
6 , -,
.
. ,

.

. 79.


. ,
,
, .
:
;
;
;
;
(, ).
:
;
;
;
.

.
, ,

= Q + Qi + QL + QA,
Qnet + QTR
QT , ; Qi
, ; QL ,
; QA , ; QTR
, ; Qnet
;
().

QT = mT cT (t1 t2)
Qi = mi ci (t1 t2)
QA = VT A hA
mT ; mL ; cT ;
mi ; ci ; VT ; hA
, , ; A
; hL
; t1 ; t2
.
, QT,
, ,
.
, Qi

. 0,5,
( ), (
).
, , , QL

:
QL = mL hA
,

, ,

. ,

15
0,1 .

-23
1,19 .
,
, ,
. 80. Q.

:
h = (940 - 469,2) = 470,8 /.

. 1,95 / 3.
(1000 3), ,
. , , QTR
(
-), 0,5,
, , .
(. 1) (, 1 = 1 /).
,
:
Qnet = Vs s h ,

Vs ; s ; h
.

8. 100% .
. .
(6 )................................ 5200 3
.........................................2707
.......................................... 11
............................. 0,1
............................... 18
................................... 10
............................. -4
..................................... 740
............................. 0,419 /
.................................. 14,4
..........................0,84 /
: ...................................... 3
.................... 3,15
............................. 7,6
.....................................................2
....................................................58
............... 410 /
........................................... 1000
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. 1 ,
.
5. .
6. , ,
.
:
1. QT = mT cT (t1 t2) = 740 103 0,419 (291 - 269) = 6,82 106 .
2. Qi = mi ci (t1 t2) 0,5 = 14,4 . 103 0,840 (291 - 269) 0,5 = 0,13 106 .
3. QL = m h = 2,707 . 106 (549,3 - 514,0) = 95,56 106 .
4. QA

VT A hA = 5,200 1,95 (945 - 514) = 4,37 106 .

5. QTR = 19 kW. 0,5 = 9,5 = 9,5 3600 = 0,034 106 /.


6. Qnet = VS S h = 410 8,8 (894,2 - 578,3) = 1,14 10 6/,
,
t = QT + Qi + QL + QA = (6,82 + 0,13 + 95.56 + 4,37) 106 = 31,6
Qnet - QTR
(3 1,14 - 0,034) 106/



,
. :
;
.
.
,
.
, ,
. :

;
;
;
.
.
,
.
( ), .
:
;
(, , );
- (-, -).

, , :
;
;
;
;
;
.
. :
;
.
, .
. Q (/, /, /)
, -
:

Q = QT 0
0 = Q/QT .
:
G = Q /,
, /3.

= gz + pH + pB (vH + vB)
2
z()
; pH , pB , ;
vH ,vB , /.
() ,
, .
( g z), , ( (vH - vB)/2),
, (pH - pB),
.

p = pH - pB .
.
: .
,
, , .


(HT), .
,
:
H = HT ,
= / HT .
pB = 0,
:
= ,
g

HB = B - B - v ,
g

2g

B , (1 = 0,102 . .).

, .

.
HB .
, , .
:
;
;
.
NT .

NT = g QT HT , .
NT , ,
, .

N = g Q H , .
, , ,
:
N = g Q H

( = ) ;
M =

N NM
, ,
;
NM , .



. ,
. ()
, .
(. 81), ,
: 1; 2,
3, 4; 5, 6.

,
,
()

.
,
.
.
, , ,
.

, ,
.
,
, .
,
,
-,
,

, , ,
,
.

. 81.

, ,
.
,
, .

- (.
82).

.
.

.
.

,
,

.
(inducer) .

.


.
.
. 82.

. 83.

. 84.

,
.
7.
7,
,
.

. 85.


,
,
, ,

.


2.
3 4,
, .
5.
.
,
. , ,
,
.
, ,
(
), .

(2528 ).

(. 83) (. 84) .
,
. .
.
(. 85).
7
.
.
.
.

, ,
. . ,
.

. ,
, ,
(. 8688).
:
H = k H _

(1)

HT- ; k ,
,
; .
,
HT_ = + + QT,

(2)

= u2 l g ; = (u2 l g f2) ctg 2


; u2 ; f2
;
; QT
; g .
,
u2 = const. f2 = const, b 2 = const, = const = const.
(2)
.
, (. 87),
^.
2<90 , . . ,
, = 90
, ^>90 , . .
.

(2),

2 <90
, . . ,
, 2
= 90

, 2 >90
, . .
.

(2),

H=k (A+B QT).


, 2 >90,
. 86.

:
H = k (A-B QT) ,
. 87,
, .

',
, , . ,
, QP, , . . ,
(23%).

max - HP
max

max - HP
opt

.
. 87. .
H0

; max
; H P, Q P ,

.
1 ; 2



; 3 ; 4
; 5 ; 6
Q , H =f( Q)
1,15 ,
1,15 .
, .
,

.
.

(. 88)
, .



.

, .
.
, . .

.
,
. ,
, ,
, . 89.

.
0 10088.
200
300 400 500
600 700 800

. 89.

1, 2
;
1 + 2

. 90.
, .
, ,
,
,
. ,

,

,
.

.
.

.

,
.
, . 90.
. Q,
() . Q,
.



.

= HT. + .
HT., .
.

. 91.


:
HT. = zH + ( - T) / g,
zH .
HT. = zH

(. 91)
HT. = l v + l v ,
T
d g 2g
, ; ; , ,
; l, d
; v .
,
,
v = 4Q Q = d v
d
4

HT. = W Q
W
.
HT. = HT. + W Q

. 92.

. 93.


(. 92).

(. 93).
, , ,
. 94.

, .
,
. ,

(. 94).

1 2

k-4.
1, 2
Q1, Qk (
3 -
)
2, 3 k-4,
5
.


.
,
QH.
,
.


(. 95).

,

.

,
.
. 95.


(. 96).

. 96. , ,

(. 97)


.
. 97. ,
.

:
;
();
().

,

(. 98).

. 99. ()
():
1, 1, Q2, 2

= 1 - 2

,

,
,
,
.

. 100.


()


.
,
.
: .
.
.
, ,
, . ,
:
h = Pb / pg + vb / 2g -

P / pg

1
2
Pb vb ; P
.

. 101.

(Atmospheric
pressure)

; + h
(Liquid head and
trim)
;
TVP (True
vapour pressure)

;
NPSH
(Net
positive suction
head)

; LF
(Line ftiction)

, ,
1
2 .

, ,
, , , (.
101).

, ,
. ,
.
,
P,
,
. ,
, .
,
.

( ),
(. 102).
h1, h2 h ,
. h
(NPSH):

H. = ( ) / pg + h
H.
:
h = ( ) / pg - H.
.
,
,
(

ESD).
,

,
,

.


(. 103).

.
= v ( = 10-5 ),

. 102.

I ;
12
, 23
, 3
,
,

, /3; , /; v
, /.

, . . .
.


T=L/a ,
L , ; , /.
,
, , (
).
. .
, , ,
.
, ,
. , ,
. ,
. , :
T= 2L/a.
.
, ,
.
.
T=3L/a.

. 103.
, .
,
, ,

2T=4L/a.
, ,
, .

.

, , ,
.
()
.

.

t3 /,
t3 . 1,
.

t3 / > 5,
. . .

, 22,5 .

. ,
.
, .
,
.
,
, ,
. . :
, , ,
.

.

, ,
. , ,
, .
.

:
;
;
;
.
, 30
. .
. ,
, ,
, ,
vmax
:
Qmax = d v = d P max /
4
4a
d ; max ; ;
( ).
.
, (. 104)
:
Q = Q

Q ; Q = f v = dBhv ;f
; dB ; h
; v .

. 104. 1 ; 2 ; 3

.
PB, ,
, B r

.
,
.

. 105. ( 1)
,
.
, .

.
.
1. ,
40 (.
105).

: ,
,
. 530 / (
. 105 ).



, 745 /.

137,5 ,

210 .
,

,

H=P H /p g

P H = p g H


-40 ,
578 /3.
,
g, :
. 106.
-
( 2)


P H =578 9,81 137,5 = 779 649 = 779 649 10-5 = 7,8 ;

P H = 578 .9,81 210=1 190 742 =1 190742 10-5 = 11,9 .
2. ,
40
( , ).
: 7 2 (. 106),
, (1+2).
(530 /) .
130 ,
220 .
, .

PH = 578 9,81 130 = 676 130 = 676 130 10 -5 = 6,8 ,

PH = 578 9,81 220 = 1 247 440 = 1 247 440 10 -5 = 12,5 .
.
. -20 , 7,0 ,
1200 , 1060 /.
:
= 2L/aT= 2 1200/1060 = 2,26 .
t,/T> 5:
t3 = 5 =2,26 .5= 11,3.



,
.
, .
,
:
,
,
.
, .



74 , (IGC).
:
,
,
,
,
.

,
, ,
, .
. ,
( ) ( ) .
( )
60 ,
, ,
139'. , ,
: -0, -15, -30, -60.

30 . ,
, 139. ,
, -15, -30.


-60.
(. 107).
, :
,
,
.
.
,
.
. .
. , , , , .
, .
1.
.

, ,
.

,
220
,
12
. 108.
5 .
,
, ,
, (. 108).
.
2. ,
( )
.
(, )
. , . .
.

:
,
,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
.
.
. :
.

. 109.

(.
109)


.

30

.


,

.

,
2
. -

,
.
.
(. 110),
30 .
,

. 110. () ()
. ,
( ,
, . .), ,
.


.

.

.

(. . 107).
:
,
,
,
- .


,
.
, ,
, .
,
, , .
100 ,
,
.
:
;
;
;
;
.
.
.
. ,
.
.

.
,
.

.
,

.
.
,
(
) (. .
). ,
.

40 , .
,
.
.
, . .
, .
.
.
,
.
100.
,
, ,

. ,
:
,
,
,
,
, .

, .
10 /
4 /
.
.
.
, .
( ).
.
:
,
. ,
( 1 200
2) .
.
, ,
.
, , ,
.

: ,
, .
,
, .
.

, . ,
, .
,
. 10 /,
3,5 /.

45 .
. , , ,
, . .
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
:
,
- ,
,
, (Alcohol Resistant Foam).
| - !
, , ,
(AFFF), -
.
3 6% .
, :

= .
+

:
,
,
.
150 : 1 1500 : 1.
-

. ,
,
, .
15 : 1 150 : 1.
, ,
( ), .
.
3: 1 15: 1.


. ,
. , , ,
.
,
" .
,
.
,
. (,
.), . Alcohol Resistant Foam.
,
.
.
Light Water.
, .
10 /,
1250 /.
400 /.
,
,
.

( ).
().
, .
.
,
.
,
1000 3.
28% . ,
10%
.
,
.
.
22.

1142
111

,

47,5
-57,8

, %

3,22
4,9

121

-4,0
-78,5
195,5

5,2
28
42

. 22, ,
. , 510 , .

.



, , ,
.
,
.
, .

, .

.
. , ,
, . ,
.
, ,
.
,
30% .
:
(),
,
,
,
,
,
.
(. 111),

, 30 .
30% .

. 111.

. 112.


:
,
,
,
,
.


(. 112)

,

( ).
:

1200,

, , (. 112),
,
,
,
.

74 .
.

.

.
,
.
, . .
50, .
,
. (50 ) 45 .



, .

. 113.
. 114.

20 , .
80 /. 60 /.
,
2 , 7200
. 7-
300 4- 200 (. 113, 114).
.
, 1
, .
,
. . 1012 ,
4 4048 /.
.
*


, /
810
1525
4050
6070
70100

* .

40 /.
,
, 280300 710 .
, ( )
, .

,
.
,
, .
.


.
,
.
.
.

.
,
, ,
. .
() .
.
-
, .
.
.
, . :
-60;
,
,
;
.

, (
) . .
,
Designated Smoking Area.
! /
.

. .
, .
, , (Safety matches).
. ,
, :
! CHECK YOUR POCKETS !!! NO MATCHES OR LIGHTERS ALLOWED BEYOND THIS DOOR
.
, , , . .,
.
, ,
, .

-60
.
, .

.
.
, .
,
, - .
(, . .)
.
- .
- .
,
.
(
). ,
.
. , -
.
.

. , ,
, .
.
, , , .

.
Guide to Port Entry .
, ,
.
.
,
, .
.
,
, (Tanker Safety
Check List). .
,
.
.
.
,
, .


.
( , , . .).
.
(
) ,
, .

.
. ( , ,
) ,
.
.

, , . .
, , ,
.
.
.
.
. , , .
, ,
.


(Hot Works). , -
, , , ,
,
.

.

.
!
- .

. ,
.
( )
USCG.
,
.

(. 115).
( . .)
(. ).

,
.
, ,
..
,
,
, .

. 115.

,
, !

:
, , , 30
1 %
;
, ,
10 ;


;
( )
;
;

.
, ;
, ,
.
.


,
, ,
, .
. 2.8.

................
...............

............................
.............................


.......................................................................................................................................
?

, .............................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
, .......................................................................................................
, ........................................................................................
, ......................................................................................
1.
1.1.
?
/
..................
1.2. , ?
/
..................
2.
2.1.
?
/
2.2. ?
/
2.3. ?
/
2.4. ?
/
2.5. ?
/
2.6. ?
/
2.7. ?
/
2.8. ...............................................................
.
...............................................................................................................................................
................................................................................... ,

3.
, , ,
, .
............................................................. .................... ...............................

.

.
.
, .
1.
,
,
, ,
,
.
2.
,
, ,
. . ,
, , .


.
.
,
( )
.
.
, , ,
.
.
-
, , , , ,
.
.
.


,
, ,
.

...................................
................................

..........................................................
.........................................................

........................................................................................................
.................................................................. /
....................................................................................................................................................
, ................................................................................................
, ..........................................................................

, , .
1.1. / :
. /
................................................ /
........................................................... /
............................................................ /
................................................................................
1.2. / :
................................. /
............................................... /
.................................. /
...................................................
1.3. :
..................................................................... /
............................................... /
........................................................... /
................................................................. /
................................................... /
1.4. ? ................................................ /
1.5. , ?..................... /
2.
,
2.1. .......
2.2. :.........
2.3. ,
:
2.4. :..............................................................................................
, :
.................................................................................................. ................................................
........................................................................ ................................................

3.
, , ,
, , ,
.
.................................................................................................................



.
.
,
.
, :
1. .
2. .
3. , , .
4. .
5. .

. ( ,
, )
. , :
,
,
.
( ):
,
,
,
,
,
,
(VOID SPACES),
,
,
,
(Domestic tanks).

.
, , ,
.

, (.
),
, ().
. , ,
,
, , ,
.
, .
:
, ;
;
.
, :
;
,
;
,
;
(,
, );
( , ,
).
|| ,
. .
, ,
.
. ,
, .
, .
. . -
, .
5% ,
4 , .
.
20%,
, .
.

, , .

! , ,
-
, .
:
,
,
.
, , ,
.

, .
, ,
(. ).
, , ,
.
. ,
.
!
.
, ,
.
, , .

:
1. ( ) ,
.
2. ,

.
3.

.
4. .
5. ,
.
6. .
7.
. .
8. .
9. , .
,
.
. ,
,
.
.
,

(
,
).
-.

.
.
, :
, , 21%,
, ,
1% ,
, ,
, .
,
.


.
(
), .
.
, , .
| ()

, ,
,
. . , 1998
, , .
. .
,
DANGER FOR ENTRY (. 116, ). ,
,
, . . , .
, , , .
,
,
: SAFE FOR ENTRY.

SEFE FOR
ENTRY

DENGER
FOR SAFE

. 116.
,
,
.
,
.
( ).
DANGER NITROGEN
.
.
, ,
. ,
. , ,
.
,
( , )
,

DANGER
NITROGEN

MAN
IN
TANK

. 117. .

.
.
:
;
;
;
.
|| ,
.
, ,
. ,
, , 20 .
-. ,
, .
,
. ,
, . ,
.
.
, , ,
, , . .
, , - .
, , .
! !
!

,
, ,
.

/ ......................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
1.
( ). ............................................................................................ .................../
../
...................................................................................../
.........................................................../
:
, % , % ,
.........................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................../

............................................................................................................................................................../
................................................/

.........................................................................../


............................................................................................................................................/
(, , )
................................................................................................................................................................./
...../

........................................................................................................................................................./

........................................................................................................................................./
................................................................................../
2.
( , ,
)

.............................................................................................................................................../
1
......................................................................................................................................................
...................../
.............................................................................................../
..... ........................................................./
................................................../
,
, ................................................... /
3.
(
, )

..................................................................................................................................................../
:
.......................................................................... /
.......................................................................... /
....................................................................................................................... /
...................................................... /
, ,
............................................................................................................................................................/
:
.......................................................................................................................
, .........................................................
, ( )................................................
4. ( , )
, ,

5. ( , )
_____

..............................................................................................................................................
, .........................................................
,
...............................




.
, ,
.
, , .
,
.
,
, ,
.
(. 118):

. 118.
.
.
.
, , .
,
.

:
, (
, );

, ,
;
(ANSI, DIN);
,
;
;
.
, ,
, :
;
;
;
;
;
.
. ,
, :
;
;
;
;
, ; ,
, ,
, .
, . ,
.
. ,
( , ).
.
.
:
,
;
( );
;
( . . 1);
(
) , , .;
;
.
.
. , :
;
;
;
.
, , , ,
, .
510 . ,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
- .
.

.
-30 -60.
, .

10.

, .
.
, 95% .
2024 , - 36 48
. -135 ,
. ,
145. .
-,
10 15 .
. , ,
- .
, (1415% ),
-60 ,
. ,
( 25 ).
. ,
-40,
. , ,
10 . ,
, -70, -80, .
.
(-5) (14),
.

.
0,2% , 0,1 % .
.
. (
,
), , .
, . ,

, , ,
, .
! ,
.
, . ,

.
. .
, . 98%
, .
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
, , , .
. ,
,
.
. (
, , , ) ,
, .
.
,
,
8% .
- .
LPG .
+5, .

LPG
, .
.
. , .
.
.
,
, -.
.
,
.
, . ,
. ,
.

. .
.
.
MARVS (Maximum Allowed Relieve Valve Setting) ,
.
.
.
.
,
( USCG, 80% MARVS).
. .
.
.
.
, .
.
.
. , ,
.
, .
, .
, , ,
, , .

.
:

, .
,
.

.
,
.

.

, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
, .
.


:
,
.
.
. ,
.
.

. .
,

.
.


.
.

.
1. . , (
) .
, , ,
.

, .
.
1: 3,98 ,
-2, 20 .
.
: 2 3,98
3,17 /3. 20 3,98
2,90 /3 ( - . . 1)
,
3,17 - 2,90 = 0,27 /3,
0,27 x l00%=8,5%.
3,17
,
,
:
20 - (-2) = 22.

8,5 %
22

= 0,4%.

, , ,
, ,
0,4%
.
2. .
, , ,
.
. .
2: T = 4 ,
(B) 3,6 . .

: (), . .
, 0,4 . ,
. :
= -

= 0,4 100% 10%


4,0

,
0,4% (22) + 10% = 18,8%
, 1/5
.

.
, , .

, , . .
, :
, , .
, ,
.
. , ,
.
, 98%,
.
, ,
.
, .
,
(. ),
, .
. , ,
, :
;
;
;
;
;
. .
,
. :
;
;
;
;
.
, , ;
, , ;
;
;
;
;
(

).

.
.
.
.

,
100 .
.
, ,
(. 119).
.

. 119. 1
; 2 ; 3 () ;
4 ; 5 .
, ,
.
.


. -,
,
.
,
, . .

, .
(spray) .
..


.
. ,
, (/
). .
:
,
,
,
,
, , ,
.
.
, .


. :
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
.
.
(. 120).
. ,
. , ,
.
, .
-
.
, ,
. , ,
.
, -
. , , .
, , ,
(0,25 ).
, ,

.
.
, ,
. ,
, .
5,
(
).

. 120.
,
, , , ,
. ,
, . ,
.

,
. ,
, .
- .
,
.
.
-
.
, , .
.
0,25
,
, 80% MARVS.
(MARVS Maximum Allowed Relieve Valve Setting).
, ,
R22. R22
,
. , R22
,
.
.
(. 121, 122).
,
.
,
,

. 121.

. 122.

.
( 21%
, 1% ), ,
. . ,
. , , , ,

. ,
, . ,
,
.
.
, ,
. , ( )
,
.
( 1000
),
. .

,
. ,
- . , ,
.
,
0,7 /,
, ,
.

, ,
.
. ,
45 10 , 0.

, ,
.
. ,
, . ,
.
. ,
.
, , .
.
, ,
, 70 . ,
.
,
(0,35 ), ,
, . , (
).
, , , .
. -
, .

.
( ) .
:
,
.

.
(DNV, Germanisher Lloyd)
.
, ,
.
(, ) .
, ,
.
. .328 (IX), 17.2,

:
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
. , ,
,
, :
;

;
;
();
;
,
75 ;
;

;
-45;
.
.
.
.
, .
.

.

,
, ,
.
, .
,
.
.
.
. ,
98% , ,
.
,
, ,
.
, , ,
,
.

0,35 .
| R
.


,
, .
,
, , MARVS.
, () ,
.
(Filling Limit)
FL = d . 98%,

d
FL ; d ,
(MARVS); d ,
.
| 98%.
98%, . ,
4 . ,
-10 95,18%, 2,44 .

.
23.

, /3

0,3
, %

4
,%

-42,09
-40,0
-36,04
-30,0
-25
-20
-10
0
+1,77

1,013
1,110
1,313
1,677
2,034
2,445
3,455
4,750
5,013

0,00
0,10
0,30
0,66
1,02
1,43
2,44
3,74
4,00

580,93
578,50
573,86
566,68
560,63
554,48
541,82
528,62
526,21

96,81
97,21
98,00

88,77
89,14
89,86
91,00
91,98
93,00
95,18
97,55
98,00

, .
, .
10, 95,18%, 0
97,55%.
1,77
98%,
(4 ). ,
.
, , 1,77
.
, 98%, ,

.
, .
, .

.
,
, ,
, , .
, DNV, USCG, GL .,
98%, /

.
LNG , 99%,

.

.
. ,
,
, . . ( ,
Ullage),
, . . (
, Sounding).
, .
.
, ,
, ,
(.123 124). ,
.
(Trim Correction & List Correction),

, .

. 123.

. 124.

24.
, /
0,47430,5020

,
MM
-9

0,5021-0,5332

-8

0,53330,5686

-7

0,56870,6090

-6

0,60910.6556

-5

0,65570,7100

-4

0,71010,7741

-3

0,77420,8510

-2

0,85110,9448

-1

0,94491,0000

-, , ,
. , . .
.
(0,6 / 1,0 /). (Buoyancy Correction Float
Correction) (. . 24) (. ).
. 40, ( 1
/ 0).
( 0,6 /), 0,6
/, ( 0,6 /),
.
-, , ,
.
( Shrinkage Correction)
(Correction for Tank Vertical Shrinkage).
(. 25).
. 25.

,
8
9

, ,
,
-46

-44

-42

-40

3
3

3
3

2
3

2
2

,
, (Volumetric Shrinkage Factor)
. . 1
.
, .

1 , 0,1 .
: ,
20, ,
. 1 .
0,3 4,0 .
: .
1. ,
: 20 2,4452 .
1,44 . , dm(avrs)
4,0 .
2.
FL = dm 98%
dc
( dc ).
,
4 ( ), 20:
4,0
1,013

5,013

5,013 526,21 / 3. -20


554,48 /3. ,
FL = dm 98% = 526,21 /3 98% = 93%
dc
554,48 /3

3. ,
:

,
100%
828,340 3 X 0,93

,
93%
770,356

987,180 0,93

918,077

1060,220 0,93

986,005

1060,220 0,93

986,005

4. (
1 ):

, 3

1
2
3
4

770,356
918,077
986,005
986,005

,
8,395
8,123
8,109
8,131

,
( ) ,

.
.
, ,
,
,
.
, - .
, (
)
( ).
: .
15. ( 3),
3000 3,
-41 .
: 1. , .

(. 1). 15'
1 : 1,75 /3. , :
= V = 1,75 3000 = 5250 .
2. , ,
(. 1) -41
, 579,66 /3. :
V= : = 5250 : 579,66 = 9,057 3 .


.
,
, (. 26, 27). ,
, .
, , (

), .
, ,
(
).

,
. ,
.


.
.
, (Density),
. /, /3, /3.
(Apparent Density) .
/, /3, /3.
(Relative Density)

. .
(
) ( ), : R.D. 15/15, 20/4, 15/20, 60/60 F ..
. 28.

.
: , RD
15/15 = 0,5013.
: . 28 15: dB = 0,99913 /.
,
15 :
0,5013 0,99913 = 0,50086 /.
26.
Tank No
Cargo grade
1

100% Tank Volume

Temperature Liquid (average)

Sounding gauge

Correction for density

Trim Correction

List Correction

Correction for gauge shrinkage

Correction for vertical shrinkage of tank

Corrected sounding

= (3+4+5+6+7+8)

10

Uncorrected tank Volume

11

Shrinkage factor

12

Corrected liquid volume

13

Volume reduction factor at 15C

= 10 11
ASTM 54

14

Volume at 15C

m3

15

Density at 15C

/m3

16

Liquid mass (in vacuum)

17

Uncorrected Vapor Volume

18

Shrinkage factor

19

Corrected vapor volume

m3

= 1718

20

Manometer Pressure

bar

21

Atmospheric Pressure

bar

22

Molecular Weight of Vapor

kg/kmol

23

Temperature Vapor

24

Vapor Mass (in vacuum)

25

Total mass in tank

=16+24

m3

= 12 13
ASTM 21
=1314
=1-10

27.
Cargo tank number
V A P 0U R

P (Bar/Kg/m2) - Gauge
t vap. (C)
Volume Product
Shrinkage factor
% of Product
Volume of Product at t vap.
p (Kg/m3) at t vap./P
Vapour Kg

P H AS E L I Q U I D

Total Capacity (m3)

Temperature liq (C)


Observed level (mm)
Trim Correction
Float Correction
List Correction
Tape Correction
Other Correction
Corrected Level (mm)
Volume Product (m3)
Shrinkage Factor
Volume at t liq.
VCF(ASTM54-old)
Vat 15C(m3)
(Kg/m) at liq./l5C
Liquid Kg
Total Kg
Draft: Fwd:..................
List:....................
Aft:..................
Atm. Press
28.

, C
4
15
15,56 (60 F)
20

, / (VAC)
1,00000
0,99913
0,99904
0,99823

, / (AIR)
0,99888
0,99805
0,99796
0,99717

25
50

0,99707
0,98807

0,99604
0,98702


.
.
. (, ,
.). ,
.
.
.
:
! , ( ),
.
:
,
15
15. ASTM D 1657 (Pressure Hydrometer).
(
). ASTM D 2598.
.
COSTALD (Corresponding State of Liquid Density).
.
.


,
:
= g.
, ,
, .
()
, .
, ,
, .
, , ,
. .
,
W1
,
. ,
, . .
. ,
, .
8000 / 3,
( 1013 20 ) 1,2 / 3.
( )
:
V=

8000


=V = V 1,2 =

M 1,2 = 0,00015 .
8000


W1 W2 = (1+ 0,00015) = 0,99985 (W1 W2).

0,99985 ,
, ,
. 1,00015 ( 1,2)
, .
(. 29).

. 56 ASTM (. 30).
ASTM 56 ,
,
.
15 (/3) 1,1.
, .
29.
, /3

1,00015 ( -1,2)

500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100

498,87
598,89
698,90
798,92
898,93
998,95
1098,96

[1,00015 ( -1,2)]
1,125
1,110
1,095
1,080
1,065
1,050
1,035

30. ASTM 56 (short table)


Density at 15C, kg/L

Factor for converting


Weight in Vacuo to
Weight in Air

Density at 15C,
kg/L

Factor for converting Weight in


Air to Weight in Vacuo

0,5000 to 0,5191
0,5192 to 0,5421
0,5422 to 0,5673
0,5674 to 0,5950
0,5951 to 0,6255
0,6256 to 0,6593
0,6594 to 0,6970
0,6971 to 0,7392
0,7393 to 0,7869
0,7870 to 0,8411
0,8412 to 0,9034
0,9035 to 0,9756
0,9757 to 1,0604
1,0605 to 1,1000

0,99775
0,99785
0,99795
0,99805
0,99815
0,99825
0,99835
0,99845
0,99855
0,99865
0,99875
0,99885
0,99895
0,99905

0,5000 to 0,5201
0,5202 to 0,5432
0,5433 to 0,5684
0,5685 to 0,5960
0,5961 to 0,6265
0,6266 to 0,6603
0,6604 to 0,6980
0,6981 to 0,7402
0,7403 to 0,7879
0,7880 to 0,8421
0,8422 to 0,9044
0,9045 to 0,9766
0,9767 to 1,0614
1,0615 to 1,1000

1,00225
1,00215
1,00205
1,00195
1,00185
1,00175
1,00165
1,00155
1,00145
1,00135
1,00125
1,00115
1,00105
1,00095

( 0,5 / 0,7 /) :
= 1,1(/3)

. ,
. :
15
ASTM;
,
.

.
.
.
.

. ,
, (15,
20 . .)

, . ,

. ,
(
). , , ,
,
( ) .
.
ASTM D 1657. ,
, 15
15 . .
, . ,
, , ASTM
53 ( 15) 23 (
60/60F).
ASTM D 2598.
. ,

:
n
. (60/60F) = . i(60/60 F) i ,
i=1
100
i i , %.
,
.

60/60F

0,35619
0,50699
0,52095
0,58401
0,56287

. ,
, .
. ,
: 30 -60:
=xi Mi
xi Vi
t, /3; i ; i
; Vi .
30 -60
Vi =
t , ;
. 31.

Mi
,
{A (B x t) - [C : (E t)]}

, , ,

31. ,

30,070
44,097
58,124
58,124
72,151
72,151

499,0
575
637,6
616,2
676,2
666,6

0,99
0,97
0,87
0,97
0,87
0,88

6.000
6.000
7.000
6.000
7.000
6.000

66
129
186
169
231
222

, .

. ASTM D 2598 ,
. LPG
, .
ASTM D 2598,
(. 32).
32.

1,3-

(1)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(5)
(7)

(1)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(5)
(8)

(2)
(3)
(4)
(2)
(5)
(6)



(9)
(3)
(4)
(9)
(5)
(7)

,
, .
(1)
a) Costald / Corresponding State Liquid Density / R. W. Hankinson, G. H. Thomson // Hydrocarbon
processing. 1979.09.
b) An improved correlation for densities of compressed liquids and liquid mixtures / R. W. Hankinson,
G. H. Thomson, K. R. Brobst // AICME journal. 1982. Vol. 28. No. 4. 07.
(2)

API Technical Data Book / 6.B1.1 / 1966(1979).

(3) International Thermodynamic Table of the Fluid State, Ethylene (UIPAC) / S. Angus, B. Armstrong, K.
M. de Reuck, W. Featherstone, M. R. Gibson // Butterworths. London. 1972.
(4)
International Thermodynamic Tables of Fluid State, Propylene (UIPAC) / S. Angus, B. Armstrong,
K. M. de Reuck. Pergamon Press. 1980.
(5)

VDI - Forsch Heft 596 / /. Ahrendts, H. D. Baehr.

(6)
Redlich Kwong equation of state (cubic form): Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics / Wagne C.
Edmiwter / Vol. II.
(7)

Adapted Goodrich formula.

(8) Thermodynamic properties of vinyl Chloride monomer // British Chemical Engineering. 1958. Vol. 3.
(9) Engineering Data Book / Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPA), Section 16: 1970 with exemption
of PC for LPG (C4 mix) where its value has been calculated by means of reference (1) b
COSTALD. Corresponding
State of Liquid Density ( COSTALD). ,
. , ,
, , 0,08%. COSTALD
(
), .
,
, ,
( ). :

, (
), .

0,2% ,
0,5%.
0,2%.
.
:
.............................................. -38,0
................................... -32,5
.............................................................. 0,22 ()
............... 16.285
........ 7 050 540 (*)
............ 329 610 (*)
(*) , .

:
,
.
.
ASTM 54 ( ).
(. 1) .
(15/15) ASTM 21 (. 1)

15. , ,
,

15 . ASTM 54 (. 1 Volume
Reduction Factor).
15 . ,
15.
, .


, :
. :
. :
pV=nRT

V=m RT

Mr
, ; V , ; n ; m , ; Mr
, /; R (8,314 /); , .

:
=
288,15
x 1,01325 + p() x
Mr ,
273,15 + t

1,01325

23,6451'

M .
. :
=

288,15
x
273,15 +t

1,01325 + M ()
1,01325

Mr
23,6451

l ,
Z

Z- , 1.
r r,
r =

,

r =


,

(, , . .).
, .
, (. 33, . 34).
33.

,
15,6 (60 F) = 760

60/60 F

16,04
30,07
28,05
44,10
42,08

0,00226
0,003566
0,0032
0,003675
0,003413

0,30
0,3562
0,37
0,5070
0,5210

Methane
Ethane
Ethylene
Propane
Propylene

Propadiene
Methylacetylene
n-Butane
i-Butane
1-Butene
trans-2-Butene
cis-2-Butene
1,2-Butadiene
1,3-Butadiene
Ethylacetylene
n-Pentane
i-Pentane
neo-Pentane
1-Pentene
trans-2-Pentene
ds-2-Pentene
2-methyl-l-Butene
3-methyl-l-Butene
2-methyl-2-Butene
Cyclopentane
Isoprene

40,06
40,06
58,12
58,12
56,11
56,11
56,11
54,09
54,09
54,09
72,15
72,15
72,15
70,13
70,13
70,13
70,13
70,13
70,13
70,13
68,12

0,00282
0,00273
0,004205
0,004362
0,003944
0,003887
0,003780
0,00347
0,003643
0,00328
0,004830
0,004879
0,005108
0,004589
0,004537
0,004482
0,004519
0,004684
0,00447
0,003948
0,004195

0,600
0,621
0,5840
0,5629
0,6011
0,6100
0,6272
0,658
0,6272
0,696
0,6311
0,6247
0,5967
0,457
0,6530
0,6611
0,6557
0,6325
0,663
0,7505
0,6861

34. () ,


(33)

k
k
k
k
k
k

2
3
2
4
3
4

: ,
, . (%) .

,
33,3
33,3
33,4
100,0

k 2

16,04
30,07
44,09

534,1
1 001,3
1 472,6
3 008,0


= 10 000 = 0,03324.
3008,00
,
:

534,1
1.001,3
1.472,6
100,0

X
X
X

0,03324
0,03324
0,03324

(%)
=
=
=

17,8
33,3
48,9

-

1 /. ,
, .
(Flowmeter) .
, ,
. ,
7 /.

.
1 . , 3600 = V . , /. , ,
, :
V . , 3 : 3600 : 1 . = , , /.
, . 35 1 .
.
35. 1 .



.
.
(Bill of Lading). ,
. () ,
,
, .
,
. ,
( ), .
Copy Non
Negotiable.
. , . ,
(Letter of
Indemnity), .
(Certificate of Quality). ,
, , , .

.
.
(Certificate of Quantity). ,
, .
. ,
. ,
, .
(Certificate of Origin).
. .
.
, / .
, .
(Time Sheet). ,
( ), ,
.
,
,
, , , .
.
(Cargo Manifest).
. :
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
.

,
, , . ,
(Certificate of Tank Fitness Tank Inspection
Certificate Before Loading) , .
(Tank Inspection Certificate After
Discharge Tank Empty Certificate), .
0,5%,
(Letter of Cargo
Discrepancy Cargo Discrepancy Certificate) .


.
- (. ).
. , ,
.
, .
( ), ,
. , ,
, , , ,
.
. ,
.
, ,
, , . .


PURGING.
, , GASFREEING.
!
.
. ,
(), . .
,
, , , ,
. 5 60, 0,1 5%
.
() .
.
, ,
.
|, , 5 ,
( -67) 4 .
. ,

(Changing Grades Guidelines) (. . 36).
1. (Oxygen content)
. 10,8%
.
36.
d-crude

Vinyl Chloride

Propane
Propylene
mix

Propylene
Oxide

Propylene

Propane

Echylene

C4-raftinade

Butylene

Butadiene

Butane

2
Content

<0,5%

<0,2%

< 0,3%

< 0,3%

<0,3%

< 0,5%

< 03%

<0,1%

< 0,3%

<0,1%

< 0,3%

Dew point

< -10

<-10

< -10

< -10

<-50C

<-40C

<-C

<-40

<-40C

< -20C

< -10


Ammonia ,

N2
N2,l

V,N2
S
V,N2
V,N2

V,N2

Butane
<5%

<5%

Butadiene

N2 ,l
<25%

N2,l
<25%

Butylene

N2
<5%

C4raffinade

N2
<5%

N2,l
<25%

Ethylene

S
Heat

N2
<5%

N2,l
<5%

Propane

N2
<5%

N2,l
<5%

Propylene

N2
<5%

N2,1l
<5%

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V.N2

N2
<3000
Ppm

V,N2

Heat

N2
<1000
ppm

S
Heat

N2
<5%

V,N2

N2
<1000
ppm

V,N

N2
<1000
ppm

N2
<1000
ppm
N2
<1000
ppm

Propylene
Oxide

W,V, N2,l

W,V,N2

W,V,N2,I

W,V,N2,I

W,V, N2

W,V,N2,I

W,V,N2

Propane
Propylene
mix
Vinyl
Chloride

N2
<5%

N2,l
<5%

V,N2

N2
<25%

V,N2

V,N2,I

V,N2

V,N2,I

V,N2,I

V,N2

V,N2,I

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

Propane &
Butane mix

N2
<5%

N2,l
<5%

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

C3/C4

N2,l

V,N2

V.N2

V,N2

V,N2

V,N2

W,V,N2

W,V,N2

W,V,N2

N2
<1000
ppm

V,N2

W Water wash ( )
V Visual inspection ( )
N2 Nitrogen only ( )
N2, l Nitrogen or Inert Gas ( )
LF () Liquid free (Empty Tank) ( . ,

S Standard Requirements (
, 0,5
:
1. .
.
, .
2. 0 .
3. ,
.
4. 2
, 4 ,
, .
0,3 0,1%
,
, ,
.
2. (Dew Point) ,
; , .
, .
: -,
, ; -,
.
3. (Last Cargo Contents).
. ,
, , VCM,
, .
4. 2; .
; 2
, .


, :
(Displacement Method);
(Dilution Method).
, , ,
(. 125).
:
.
,
.

50 70.
.
(200300 /).
,
, .

(Distribution Lines). ,
.
-
.
100 .
, - ,
,
. .
,
. ,
,
( )
, , (5070) ,
.
. , . 125.
, , (
) .
. . (. 126).

. 125.
,
. .
, .
.
,
. 1,11,3
.
. ,
.
. ,
, (. 127).
2 / 2 / ( ) 1 /
/ 3 / / . ,
.
,
, .
. ,
(. 128).
,
.
,
.

(DILUTION METHOD)
(. 129) ,
() .
:
, , 5070.
, .

.
.
.
100 .
.

. 127.

. 128.

. 129.

.
.
. , .
, ,
.
|| ,
, .
. ,
, .
23
.
, .
40005000 /.
(
).
,
,
.
! !
.
.
.
.
.
. , 5%
,
5%. ,
,
.
.
.
( ).
30 70% .

. , 50%
. ,
, . ,
, .
,
, .

, , -
.
|| ,
-
.
II .

n = ln CTP ln CH
ln k
k = pH /p K (), pH ()
( = + );
pK () ; CTP, CH
.
: 8000 3 ,
( H) 21% . 50% (0,5 0,5 ).
( TP) 1% .
,
.
: :
n = ln l ln 2l H = 0-3,04 = 4,41.
ln 1,0
0,69
0,5
, 1%- 4,5
.
50%,
50% ( 4000 3).
4,5 :
4,5 4000 = 18 000 3.
,
K (%) = pH H %,

pK
H ; K .

:

(0,5/1,0) 21% = 10,5%,

(0,5/1,0) . 10,5% = 5,25%,

(0,5/1,0) 5,25% = 2,63%,

(0,5/1,0) 2,63% = 1,31% . .

4 :

8000 3 50% = 4000 3 - 4 = 16 000 3.

. .
, ,
(250 ) (3 ).
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
, , ,
. .

. ,
.
.
( , , , ),
, ,
n = In C H + 1,
CK
n ; In ; H
/; K
/.
:
V = V T (n + p T )
pa
n ; T (.); a ; V
, ; V T - .
: 4000 3 21%
. 3% .
: 7.
7 1,95,
, 3% .
, , .
, . .
0. ,
, .

n = ln C H - O2 +1,
K - O2
O2 .

.
. 37.
37.

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1,609
1,792
1,946
2,079
2,197
2,303
2,398
2,485

15
16
17
18
19
20
30
40

2,708
2,773
2,833
2,890
2,944
2,996
3,401
3,689

13
14

2.565
2,639

50
60

3,910
4,094


(. 130)
.
, .

10% .
1,95,
10%:
1,95 + 0,20 = 2,15, . . 10%.
.
. , ,
(. ).
,
( ) .
! ,
, .

. 130.

,
, , .
,
.
,
,
.
,
. .
,
.

1. . 1015

(, , ). , ,
, , ,
,
.
,
, , ,
.2.
() , . ,
( 5
, -5). ,
, ,
,
.
3. , .
,
.
,
.
| ! ,
.
,
.
,
.
! , , ,
.

.
5. VCM ,
. .
6. , 100
. 100
.
7. 2 ,
, .
, ,
:
1 (-196)=0,8086 = 691 15
1 = 855 15 .
:
,
.
(Gassing Up)
. , ,
.
2% ,
.
.
, ,
.
-.
.
.
( ).
. ( 15 000 3)
(. 131),
,
.

,
.

,
.
10001500 3/.
() 4000 /3.

:
( ),
- ,
,
. 1500 3/
300500 3/. ,
. 75%
, . ,
.

. 131.
,
,
( 11,5 ). ,
, .
( ).
, .
, LPG. ,
. , ,
. ,
, .
.
,
100%. ..
,
.
, ( )
. 100%-
.
. (. 132).
,
.

,
.
,
(. 133).
. LPG
-. 2030
, , , (Heel).

, -,
( )
.

. 132.

.
,
.
.
,
.
, .
-,
.
35 / (. 133, 134).
,
.
.
, 4 ( , 4
). (-103),
. ( )
50,
.
(. 135).
,
. ,
- .
8000 3 15 .
.
, .
:
50%
-103.
45 ( ).
32 ( ).
, (Void spaces), 4 , 28
( -104).
15 ( ).

. 133.

. 134.

. 135.

1,25 (
) .
10/ ( -).
(15),
(Void Space) (
, ).
34.
Void Space :
(45 - 7) + 32 = 35.
2
( )

:
34 +28 - 104 1 = 37
2
2

35 104. ,
= 104 + 35 = 14 .
10
, . . .
.
, 10 ,
. , 20.

35 - 20 = 15.

-104 + 20 = -84.
,
15 + (-84) = -35.
2
1,25 -102
477/, -35 561 /.
,
561 .
.
,
( - ).

QBH = 148 950 /.
, (,
0,47 /( ). 900 , t1, = 35, t2 = -104, T = 139):
Qt = m T = 0,47 900 000 139 = 58 797 000
( 1,25 /, 46 068 ,
t1 = 39, t2 = -37, T = 78):
Qi

= T = 46 068 1,25 78 = 4 491 630 .

14
QBH = 148 950 14 = 2 085 300 ,
, ,
Q = Qt + Qi + QBH = 2 085 300+ 4 491 630 + 58 797 000 = 65 373 930 .

, ,
( ):
= Q/r = 65 373 930 : 561 = 116 531 = 116, 5 .
,
:
116,5: 14 =8,323 /.
,
.


,
.

, .
, , , .
-
, .
.
, , , , ,
.

(Changing of Grades, COG).

, . ,
.
PRESENTATION CLAUSE (
).
.
. ,
. , ;
100% .
.
, ,
, .
, ,
.

, ,
, .
, -10
8000 3
.
:
....................................................... 10 ,
............................................................ 3,2 ,
............................. 1 ,
......................... 68,5 .
, , 69,5 .
( ) 4 380 000 .
(69,5 ) 1,59%, 3
0,5% (
).
.

(DEDICATED TRADE),

() (COMPATIBLE TRADE),
(CHANGING OF GRADE).
.
(DEDICATED TRADE).
,
. , .
.
,
.
:
/ .
..... ().
................................... .
... .......................... .
. ., . .
(COMPATIBLE TRADE).
/ .
, , , . ,
- .
.
- ,

.
.
. - (Propylene Chemical Grade)
,
(Propylene Polymer Grade). 85% 15% ,
99,5% (. ).
:
85,0% , 99,7% .
, 4700 .
. 69,5 .
()
69.5 15% = 10,425 .

4700 0,3%= 14,100.
,
:
10,425 + 14,100 =24,525 .
4770 ( + ),

(24,525 : 4770) 100% = 0,51%.
,
(99,5% ),
, .
,
.
-
.
, ,
.
(HANGING OF GRADE). ,
,
. - = 1,3
-, - -
.
,
.

.
, ,
,
.
, ,
. , ,
,
.
, , ,
, ,
. ,
, .

,
. , ,
,
.
,
, ,
.

,
. :
, ;
, , ;

;
, , ,
.
:
( );
;
;
;
.
. ,
(. 136)
.
' .

.
, .
,

. ,
, (
).
, , 1820
, 20 22 /, 8 1012 .
, ,

.
.
. 136.

. , (
)
, , , ,
, .
<Grago Pumps),
,
. .
(Methanol) , .
(Acetone), - (Butyl Cellosolve).
,
(Caustic Soda) Phosphoric Acid.
,
.
,
,
.
,
, , . .
.
20002500 , (1020 ),
, . .
, , . .
, .


,
, ,
.

().
.
. ,
, , ,
, .
.
| ,
.

.
,
.
.
(
).

.
, .
,
-45 .
.
.
- , ,
, . . :
21% ;
;
.

(. 137, 138)

. 137.

. 138.



,
( 80%) ,
, . ., . .
,
, ,
.

.
.

,
.

,
.
.
, ,
, , .

:
;
;
;

(, );
;
;
.
.
,
,
. , ,
,

, .
.,
, .

,
,

.
,
.
,
(. 139).

.

,
:
,
,
.

.139.

(74) ,
.

, ,
.

, ,

, .
, (. 140).
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
:
, , ,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
-
. ,

.
. -
,
. , ,
, .
.

,
,
(-74/95).
:
.
2 .
.
.
, . .
, .

. 140.

, , ,
. ,
.
:
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
,
. 74,

. ,
, .
, ,
, ,

, ,
, ,
. .
: ?
. , , ,

25 28 , .
: . .
. , .
, ,
. .
, , , ... .
, .
, , , ,
, .
.
,
. , , ,

.
, .
, ,
. ,
,
.

. ,
,
. .
, ,
, .
.
.
.
.
( ):
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
|
.
.
.
:
;
;
;
;
.
.
,
. .
:
- ?

?
?
, ?
?
?
?
, ?
?
, ?

, .

.
, , ,
,
.

.
,
. ,
.
149 , . . . ,
, ,
.
. , , ,
, , , (
) ,
.
|
.
. , , . . :
;
;
;
;
;
.
, ( , . .),
.
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
.

:
.
.
.
.


,
, .
.
.
, , :
:

,
,
, ,
-.
:
,
,
,
,
,
.
:
,
.


,
. ,
. :
;
;
;
;
.

, :
;
;
;
;
.
, :
();
;
.
, .
.
:
;
.
, ,
,
. :
;
;
.
,
.


- ,
.
:
;
;

(
);
( -
);
;
, .
,
, .
,
. ,
.

,
,
.
, , ,
.
.
.
( ),
.
:
( ) .
.
.
.
.
,
- .
-
.
.
, , , ,
.

, ,
, ,
. ,
.
:
, .
( , ).
( ).
.
, .
, .
.
, , .
.
.
.

.


- ,
,
.
: .
:
- ?
? , , .
,
?
? ,
.

?
?
, ?
?
, ,
( ),
, .
,
.

,
.
:
;
;
;
;
, , ;
, ;
.
.

.

, ,
, .
!
.

, .
.
,
, 2 , , ,
.
, ,
.
:

.
.
,
.

,
.
.
.
.
.
, ,
. 3
.
1 6
. , , 12 ,
, 1 6 .

.

. ,
.
, ,
.
74,
, :
;
;
, ;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
: ,
? , . .
, , , ,
.
, ,
.
.
-
.
:
- ;
;
;
;
( 3 ) ;
;
.
-
.
-
.


Air lock . ,
.
Alcohol Resistant Foam , .
.
Approved equipment ,
'
.
APBS Accident Prevention on Board Ships at Sea and in Port
, , .
Auto-ignition temperature . ,
, .
Ball Valve .
.
Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ship Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk
, . ,
1986 ., .
BLEVE Boiling Liquid Expanded Vapor Explosion , .
,
.
Boil-off , . . , , ,
.
Booster pump .
.
.
Bulk cargo , .
Boiling point ,
, .
. ,
(. .
).
Bowling
.
Brittle fracture . , -
, .
Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus .
Canister Type Breathing Apparatus (
), 21%
.
.
.
Cargo area ( ). ,
, , ,
, . ,
, .
Cargo Conditioning .
, .
Cargo Containment System . ,
, ,
.

Cargo Operation . ,
, , .
Cargo Transfer , .
Cavitation .

. , ,
, .
, .
CDI Chemical Distribution Institute
(). ,
, , ,
. CDI ,
. ,
.
CEFIC European Chemical Industry Council .
CFC Chloro/Fluoro Compound - .
.
CFR Code of Federal Regulation (USCG) .
. .
COF Certificate of Fitness . ,

.
COG Changing of Grade . ,
, . ( )
:
, , , , , .
Certified Gas Free .
,
,
.
.
Chemical Absorbtion Detector ,
.
.
Cofferdam .
. .
Combustible Gas Detector .
.
, .
- .
Compatibility . ,
.
Compatible Trade .
, .
.
Conditioning of Cargo Tanks .
, ( 2),
( 98% ),
, .
Coefficient of Cubical Expansion
1 .
Crossover . ,
. - .

Closed Gauging System .



.
CLC Certificate on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage
, . .
,
.
Dangerous Cargo Endorsement .

: , ; ,
; ,

.
D/B Double Bottom .
Deepwell Pump , .
.
Density .
.
Dedicated Trade .
.
Dewpoint . , ,
. , .
. ,
, 40 .
DOC Document of Compliance .

(ISM Code).
Drop line . ,
,
.
.
Drop Pressure Calculation ,
.
,
80%
.
Drain Cock .
Drain Pan ,
.
Explosion Proof/ Proa/Enclosure / .
, ,

.
EGC Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in 1 ,
.
ESD Emergency Shut-Down System .
.
,
.
Enclosed Space . ,
:
.
.
.
Enclosed Space Entry Permit .
. 8 .

Ex-meter . ,
. Explosive .
Flame screen ().
.
.
Flame Arrester . , ,
.
Filling Limit .
.
98%.
.
Flammable . ,
5 .
5 .
Flammable Range .
.
Flash Point . ,
- .

FMC Certificate of Financial Responsibility (US)


().
Gas Codes , ,
.
Gas-Dangerous Space or Zone .
, .
Gascope ,
.
Gas Freeing . ,
.
Gas Safe . ,

.
Hard Arm , ,
(, ).
Heat of Fusion . ,
.
Heat of Vaporisation . ,
.
High Level Alarm . ,
.
(95%) (98%).
Hold Space . , ,
( , , , ).
Hot Work . ,
, ,
. : , , ,
, , ,
, .
Hot Work Permit . ,
, , , ,
, , .
8 .

Hydrates . - , ,
.
Hydrate Inhibitors . , .
, .
IACS International Association
.

of

Classification

Societies

IAPH International Association of Ports and Harbours .


IBC International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ship Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk
,
. , 1986 .
ICS International Chamber of Shipping .
IGC International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ship Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk
, .
IMO International Maritime Organization .
ILO International Labour Organization .
International Oil Pollution
.

Prevention

Certificate

IG Inert Gas . , BI
. ,
.
IGS Inert Gas System . ,
, .
Inertias , .
Interbarrier Space .
- , ,
.
INTERTANCO International Association of Independent Tanker Owners
.
Inhibitor . , .
Incendive spark . ,
.
Insulating Flange . ,

.
.
Intrinsically Safe .
,
,
, .
12 5 .
ISGOTT International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals
.
Liquefied Gas . , 37,8
2,8 /2.
Loading Line . ,
.
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas ,
98% . ,
.
LFL Lower Flammable Limit .
,
.

LEL Lower Explosive Limit .


,
.
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas .
, , , , ,
.
LEG Liquefied Ethylene Gas , .
LOC Letter of Compliance (USA) .
.
LSA Life Saving Appliances - .
, ,
.
MARVS Maximum Allowable Relief Valve Setting
. 90% , .
, .
0,35 .
.
MARVS . MARVS
.
Methanol Injection .
.
Measuring Point . ,
, .
Molar Volume ,
. ( 1 0 )
0,0224 .
Mole fraction .
.
NGL Natural Gas Liquid .
. , , , .
NLS Certificate Noxious Liquid Substances Certificate
. , D.
OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum
.
Odoriser , Stench-. .

. .
Oil Seal .
. .
, .
Oxygen Analyser . ,
.
Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere , . .
, 21% .
& Procedures and Arrangement Manual
. ,
.
P&I Protection and Indemnity Club . ,
, ,
.
Peroxide , . ,
- , ,
.

.
(, .) .
P.I.. Person In Charge . ,

.
Polymerisation . ()
() .
Presentation Clause .
. , , , ,
, .
Primary Barrier . ,
. ,
.
Purging . ,
.
Purge Drum ,
( ).
Relative Liquid Density . ,

, .
Relative Vapor Density . ,

.
Restricted Gauging , ,
.
, .
Reliquefaction .
.
Responsible Officer . ,
- .
Rollover . ,
. ( , ,
, )
, .
57 .
Sacrificial Anode .
. , ,
( ),
.
Saturated Vapor Pressure . ,
.
.
Sampling Point . , ,
.
Secondary Barrier . , .
, .
10 .
SIGTTO Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators Limited
( ) .
Span Gas -. ,
.
Slip Tube
.

, .
.
Sloshing . ,
,
.
, - .
SMC Safety Management Certificate
().
.
Specific Gravity . ,

.
Spontaneous Combustion . ,
- ,
.
Spray Line . ,
.
SOPEP Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
.
Sounding . .
.
Stripping Line ,
.
.
Submerged Pump .
( ), .
Surge Pressure .
.
. .
Surge Drum . , ,
.
Systemic Poison . ,
.
TLV Threshold Limit Value ().
, 8-
40- . TLV
TWA (Time Weighted Average)
TLV STEL (Short Time Exposure Limit)
( 15 30 ).
Tank Cover . ,

.
Tank Dome . , ,
.
Tank Access Hatch ,
, .
Tank Skirt . ,
, .
TSG Tanker Safety Guide .
, .
UFL Upper Flammable Limit ().
,
.

UEL Upper Explosive Limit ().


,
.
USCG United States Coast Guard .
UMS Unmanned Machinery Space .
Ullage . .
.
Vapor Lock . ,
. ,
.
Venting . .
Void Space .
.
, ,
, .
VRS Vapor Recovery System/ VCS Vapor Control System .

. ,
(, ).
Water Fog . ,
.
Water Spray System . ,
,
,
.
Water Resistant .
Water Proof .
Water White Standard .
.
,
.
Wall Wash Standard .
, , ,
, , .
, , .
Washing Gun . ,
.
WHO World Health Organization .


1 15

Atm.

psi

mm Hg

kg/cm2

bar

Pascal

dynes/cm2

Atm.
Psi

1
,068046

14,696
1

760
51,715

1,0332
,070307

1,01325
,068948

101.325
6.894,8

1.013.935,23 10.332,71
69.013,11
703,087

mmHg

,0013158

,019337

,00135951

,0013332

133,32

1334,15

13,59508

kg/cm2

,9678

14,223

735,56

,980665

98.066,5

981.354,27

10.000

bar

,98692

14,504

750,075

1,01972

100.000

1.001.001

10197,162

Pascal

,000009869 ,000}45038

,00750075

,000010197

,00001

10,007

,10197162

,000000986 ,00001449

,00074954

,000001019

,000000999

,09993

,01019

,00009678

,073556

,0001

,0000980665

9,80665

98,1354

Dynes/cm
mm 2O

,0014223

mm H2O

Cubic Inches
Cubic Feet
Cubic Yards
Cubic
Cubic Meters

Cubic
Inches
1
1,728
46,656
0,061024
61.024

Cubic Feet

Cubic Yards

0,00057870
1
27
0,000035315
35,315

0,000021433
0,037037
1
0,0000013080
1,3080

Cubic
Centimeters
16,387
28.316
764.550
1
1.000.000

Cubic Meters
0,000016387
0,028316
0,76455
0,000001
1

SGS
( )
Ethylene

Propylene polymer grade

Propylene Chemical Grade


(Item)
PROPYLENE
METHANE
ETHANE
PROPANE
ETHYLENE
PROPADIENE
BUTENES
ACETYLENE
METHYLACETYLENE
BUTADIENE-1,3
TOTAL C4'S
OXYGEN
HYDROGEN
CARBONMONOXIDE
CARBONDIOXIDE
METHANOL
WATER CONTENT

. (Unit)
% weight
Ppm weight
Ppm weight
% weight
Ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
no free water
Propylene Refinery Grade

. (Limit)
94,0 min
1.000 max
500 max
balance
50 max
15 max
200 max
5 max
25 max
30 max
300 max
8 max
10 max
3max
10 max
10 max

1-butene
(Item)

. (Unit)

BUTENE-1
1-BUTYLENE
BUTENE-2
N-BUTANE + I-BUTANE
BUTADIENE-1,3
PROPADIENE
TOTAL ACETYLENES
CARBON DIOXIDE
CARBON MONOXIDE
TOTAL CARBONYLS (AS
OXYGEN
SULPHUR (AS S)
CHLORIDES
WATER
METHANOL

% weight
% weight
% weight
% weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight

.
(Limits)
99,3 min
0,2 max
0,1 max
0,4 max
50 max
8 max
10 max
2 max
2 max
5 max
1 max

ppm weight
1,3-butadiene

Isob
iutane
(Item)
ISOBUTANE
N-BUTANE
C2 AND LIGHTER
PROPANE
TOTAL OLEFINES
OXYGEN LIQUID
OXYGEN VAPOUR
TOTAL VOLATILE SULPHUR
CARBONYL CONTENT AS ACETON

.
(Unit)
% mol
% mol
% mol
% mol
ppm weight
ppm vol
ppm vol
ppm weight
ppm weight

.
(Limits)
95min
5 max
1 max
balance
100 max
0,5 max
0,3 max
2 max
2 max

Crude C4

Vinyl

chloride monomer (VCM)


(Item)
VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER
WATER
IRON
ACIDITY (AS HCL)
NON VOLATILES
ACETYLENE
PROPYLENE
OTHER HYDROCARBONS
COLOR (VISUAL)
APPEARANCE (VISUAL)

.
(Unit)
% weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
colorless
clear

.
(Limits)
99,97 min
100 max
0,5 max
1 max
50 max
2 max
8 max
3max

Raffinate 1 (Isobutylene)

Raffinate 2 (n-butenes)
(Item)
TOTAL N-BUTENES

.
(Unit)
% weight

.
(Limits)
66-82 min

N-BUTANE
ISO-BUTENE
BUTADIENE-1,3
C3 AND LIGHTER
C5 AND HEAVIER
ACETYLENES AS
TOTAL SULPHUR
TOTAL CHLORIDE
WATER

% weight
% weight
% weight
% weight
% weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
ppm weight
no free water

14 rain
2 max
0,7 max
2,0 max
2,0 max
800 max
120 max
15 max

Ref. Shaw moisture meters, Westgate, Bradford, 1988 ; 1994 Annual Book ofASTM standards, volume 10.03, ASTM 2029.

, IGC

UN number . 19 Vapor detection



F


F+T Gauging type

I (. 13.2.2.1. IGC)

R ,

15 API
60F,
Table 21 ASTM-IP 0,5000,650 Specific Gravity to API Gravity and to Density*

( )

' , " , .


( )


( )

( )


( )


( )

- ( )

-
( )

-
( )

(
)

(
)

()

. ..
- .
- .
.. .
.
a - 1 .
- - 2 ,
- - 2 ,
- 2 .
-1.

- 1 . -2 .

: 195112, , -,
., 5 : (812) 444-0004,
444-1012, 444-0907, 444-4288 : (812) 4445934 E-mail; mte-gma@peterlink.ru www.
makarov. spb. ru