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Evolution Test

Study Guide Answers

Adaptation
Process leading to the increase in frequency of a
particular structure, process, or behavior that makes
the organism better able to survive and reproduce

Natural selection
Changes in inherited traits of a population over time
Changes help to increase the species fitness in its
environment

Coevolution
Two species that live in close proximity changing in
response to changes in the other

Divergent evolution
A number of species split off from a common ancestor

Convergent evolution
Evolution in different groups of organisms living in
similar environments that produces species that are
similar in appearance and behavior

Gene flow
Movement of genes in and out of a population
(migration)

Gradualism
Gradual changes of a species in a particular way over
long periods of time

Homologous structures
Structures that have different mature forms but develop
from the same embryonic tissues

Analogous structure
Structures similar in appearance and function but with
different evolutionary origins

Embryology
Study of the anatomy of embryos and their development

Phylogenetic tree
Diagram used to show the evolutionary relationships
between organisms and classify them into major taxa

Where did Darwin draw his ideas of


natural selection?
Galapagos Islands

According to Darwin, evolution


occurs because of what?
Because of natural selection

What causes variations in


genotypes?
Mutations

Natural selection could not occur


without genetic _variation_ in
species.

Who proposed the idea of inheritance


of acquired characteristics?
Lamark

What do scientists study when


looking at biochemical similarities
among organisms?
DNA sequences

What would affect the evolution of a


species over time?
Resources in the environment and the
offspring produced

What would happen to the populations


of the same species living in different
areas?
They would evolve differently over time
because of their different environments

Give an example of divergent and


convergent evolution.
Divergent: beaks of finches on Galapagos
Islands
Convergent: insect, bird, and bat wings

What type of population is most


susceptible to loss of genetic variability
as a result of genetic drift?
Small populations

Describe and give an example of


geographic isolation.
When organisms are physically separated
and form different species over time
because of that separation
Butterfly species on the east coast and
those on the west coast of the US

List all the conditions of the HardyWeinberg equilibrium.


Large population with no genetic drift
No migration
Random mating
No mutations
No natural selection

Explain reproductive isolation.


Organisms are able to mate but dont
because they live in different areas of the
same habitat or in the same habitat but
cant breed because of polyploidy

Describe how speciation could occur as a


result of geographic isolation.
One species gets separated into two groups
by a barrier. The two groups look different
from each other due to different
environments.
What are the pieces of evidence for
evolution?
Anatomy, embryology, biochemistry,
paleontology

What is a vestigial structure and give an


example.
Structure that had an important function in an
ancestor species but no longer serves a function
Appendix in humans

How do fossils demonstrate evidence of


evolution?
Shows ancient species that are similar to
modern species

What is a transitional fossil?


A fossil of an intermediate stage in the evolution
of species

What do similarities in proteins of different


species indicate?
They share a common ancestor