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1

1.
1.1
1.2
1.3 ,
2. . .
2.1 .
2.2 , ,
2.3 (). ,
2.4
2.5 . , . . . 1

2.6 . , . . . 2

2.7 . - M/G/1
2.8 . G/G/1
2.9 . .
2.10 .
.
3



,
.
,

, ,
.

,
.

1.
1.1
( )
( )
.
.


c;
- ;
- ;
-
..

1.2 ,

, ..
.
:
- ;
- ( );
- ( );
- .

(),
( ).

, .
.
5

1.2
( )

()

1.2

( )
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs

(FCC)
N

1
2
3
4
5
6
7


, %
19
6
14
25
1
24
11

-
, %
7
44
2
14
1
14
18

1.3 (OSI)

()

()

()

1.3

10

1.4

11

1.5

12

1.6

:
-;
-;
-.

13

1.5

14

1.5

15

1.5 ( )

16

1.5 ( )

17

18

2.1
2.1.1 QoE QoS
QoE (Quality of Experience)

QoS (Quality of Service)

QoE
QoS

19

2.1.2

t t1 , , t n
n
p 0
n

n
IPER e
N
n
IPLR L
N

1 n
IPTD ti
n i 1
IPDV t MAX t MIN
20

2.1.3
ITU-T Y.1541 ( )

21

( )

1.

- (

) , (%):
, 3000 ;
2
, 3000 ;
3
2

;
;

2
5

;

2.

0,1

()
( ), ()

1
3.

2
, ()

2
3

, , ,
() ( ), ():

4.

;
;

()

6,6
2,7
5,4

()
()
( ), ():

5.

;
;

, ()

1,5
1
1

, , ,
( ), ()

22

2.1.4

1
1.

100

400

100

400

1000

50

50

50

10-3

10-3

10-3

10-3

10-3

10-4

10-4

10-4

23
10-4

10-4


, ()

2.



, ()

3.

4.

2.1.5 ()

/
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

2
3



()


4
0,999
0,9995
0,9999
0,9999
0,99

24

3.
.
.
, , . (
) .
,
, ,
, ( ).



().

,

.

25

(Kendalls notation)
A/ B /C / K / N / D

Markovian

Degenerate distribution

Ek

Erlang distribution

k- .

General distribution

MAP (Markovian arrival process)


.
BMAP k (k- )
MMPP .

26

B)

Markovian

Degenerate distribution

Ek

Erlang distribution

General distribution

C)
K)
N)
D)

FIFO/FCFS

First In First Out/First Come First Served

, .

LIFO/LCFS

Last in First Out/Last Come First Served

SIRO

Service In Random Order

PNPN

Priority service

27

4.
4.1
(, , ) ,
- - .
.
- ,
,
, , .
,

, .
.

.
:
1. t1, t2,...,tn,
2. z 1, z2,...,zn;
3. k1, k2,...,kn, ,
[t0, t1), [t0, t2),..., [t0, tn).
28

, ,
.
X

F ( x) p X x
, [0, t),
. , ,
.
,
.

29


-,
-,
-.
- . ,
n [t0, t1), [t0,
t2), ..., [t0, tn)

p K (t0 , ti ), i 1,2, , n

t0.
.. ,
[t0, t1), K(t0, tt) .
- . k(t, t+) k
[t, t+). ,
0

2 (t , t )
0
0

lim

- . ,
K(t0, ti) [t0, ti), i=1, 2, ..., n
t0.
30

4.2

- ,
- ,
- .
(t) t
[t, t + )
0:

1 (t , t )
(t )
0

lim


t. [t, t + ):

1 (t , t ) (t ) O( ), 0
,

. ,
, . .
(t), , t, . . (t)=.

1 (t , t ) O( ), 0
31

- (0, t) -
, [0, t),
- (t) ,
,
[0, t), t.
-
, .

32

4.3

.

k(k=0, 1, 2, ...)
[t0, t0+t): pk(t0, t0+t).
[t0, t0+t+),
: [t0, t0+t+)=[t0,+t0+t)+[t, t+).
[t0, t0+t+) k , ,
[t0, t0+t) k, k-1, ..., k-i, ...,
0 0, 1, ..., i, ..., k
.
:
pk(t0, t0+t+) - k [t0, t0+t+);
pk-i(t0, t0+t) - k-i [t0, t0+t);
pi(t, t+) - i [t, t+).
, :
[t0, t0+t+) -> [t+);
[t0, t0 + t) -> [t);
[t, t+) -> [) pk(t0, t0+t+) . pk(t+); pk-i(t0,t0+t).pk-i(t); pi(t, t+) . pi().
33

.
, -
, k
[t+) i=0, 1, ..., k pk(t+)i=pk-i(t)pi(), i=0, 1,
..., k. i=0, 1, ..., k ,

k
k

pk (t ) pk (t ) i pk i (t ) pi ( ), k 0,1,2
i 0

i 0

pk (t ) pk 1 (t ) p1 ( ) pk (t ) p0 ( ), k 0,1
p1 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 ( ) O ( )
p0 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 O( )
pk

t t
(t )
e ,

k!

dpk (t )
pk 1 (t ) pk (t ), k 0,1
dt

k 0,1,2

, k
t .
34

t0 , t
, :

t
pk 1 ,
n
, , :
t
pk 0 1 ,
n
k

pn ,k Cnk pk 1 pk 0

nk

t
t
k
Cn 1
n
n

n lim pn ,k

nk

t t

k!

35

F ( z ) p ( Z z ) 1 ( z ) 0 ( z ) p0 ( z ) 1 e z

f ( z ) e z

Mz

z e

1
dz

Dz

2
z
2
z

e
dz

Mz

Z Dz
36

1
2

4.4
1.
(
)
(t )
k
[t0, t) ,
t0
2.
.
.
i
t. pi(t) .
L(1 L r) .
3.

t.

(t ) ( S (t ))

37

4.5
1.
- , (s(t))
t i
, s(t)
.
. s(t) i
,
i, . . (s(t))=i.
2.
, i
.
i n i
n , i , ,

38

4.6
1. - ,
z1, z2, ...
,
.
:
2.

,
:F1 ( z ) F2 ( z ) Fn ( z ) F ( z )
3.

F2 ( z ) F3 ( z ) Fn ( z ) F ( z ); F1 ( z ) F ( z )
n , i , ,

39

4.7 ,
1. - .
, , =1/MZ.

, ,
() .
, ,
.
,
, , .

2. .
, m , (m+1) , m (m+1)- . .

m- .

,
.
.

m 1
Mzm

m 1
Dz m 2

m 1
z m

40

2.4

41

4.8 ,

,
. X ( X 1 , X 2 ,.. X t ..)
, ,
-
-

42

4.9

X ( X 1 , X 2 ,.. X t ..) t 1,2,...


N k

r (k )

X
i 1

200

30
150

25
20

100

15

X X i k X

N k

35

10

50

5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

X (m) ( X 1 , X 2
Xt

(m)

(m)

0.5

1.5

2.5
6

x 10

x 10

10000


(m)

,.. X t

(m)

1
X tm m 1 X tm
m

..);

8000

1000

rm (k )

6000
4000

500

2000
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
6

x 10

0.5

1.5

2.5
6

x 10

rm ( k ) r ( k );

m 2,3,...

lim rm (k ) r (k )

1 H

(m)

0 H 1

H 0,5

H 0,5

H 0,5
43

,
H=0,5

H=0,9

H=0,3

44

5.
5.1 ()
()
, .

t
, ,
.


F(t)=P(T<t), t0.

:

F (t ) p (T t ) 1 e z ;

1
t

45

5.2

.

,
, .

h
. h
.

.
t (t)
,
.

46

6.
, , ()
()
( ) .
, ,
,

.

.
: , .
[t 1, t2) y0(t1, t2)
(
),
.
v

,
y (t1 , t 2
) i
( )i 1

47


.

,
.
, 1 .
() . . .
- 1 .
, ,
, .

1 v
y vi ti
i 1

[t 1, t2)
y(t1, t2) ,
, .
,
- .
[t1, t2) y(t1, t2)

48
.

, ,
.

y
y

49

y n y0

n ;
y0 ();

y0 c t
c

- ;
- .

50

7.

.

51

8. ()
8.1
V , ,
i.
.
.
, t
, t, ,
(
;
(): ).

t1 0
-

t2

p ji (t1 , t 2 ) p jr (t1 , t ) prj (t , t 2 )


v

r 0

p ji (0, t ) p jr (0, t ) prj (t , t )


r 0

t,
(0, 1, 2,... ,i,..., ) (0, 1, 2, ..., i, ...) ,
[t, t+)
52
.

pi (t ) pi 1,i ( ) pi 1,i ( ) pi ,i ( ) O ( )
pi 1 (t ) p ( ) pi 1 (t ) p i 1 ( ) pi (t )(1 p ( ) p i ( )) O( )

p r O( )

p r O( ) 1 r O( )

pi (t ) pi (t )
O( )
i 1 pi 1 (t ) (i 1 i ) pi (t ) (i 1) pi 1 (t )

d
pi (t ) i 1 pi 1 (t ) (i 1 i ) pi (t ) (i 1) pi 1 (t )
dt
d
p0 (t ) 0 p0 (t ) p1 (t )
dt
53

d
dt p0 (t ) 0 p0 (t ) p1 (t )

d p (t ) p (t ) ( i ) p (t ) (i 1) p (t )
i 1 i 1
i 1
i
i 1
dt i

d
p0 (t ) 0;
dt

d
p1 (t )
dt

0 p0 p1 0

i 1 pi 1 (i 1 i ) pi (i 1) pi 1 0

pi

k 0

p0

i!

i 0

p0

k 0

i 0

i 0

i 0

i!

i 1

pi 1

i 1

i!

pi

k 0

i 1

i 1
pi 1
i 1

i 1

i 1

pi

k 0

i!

k 0

i!

i 1

i 0

k 0

i!

i 1

p0

y
pv v v! k
y

k!
k 0 54

i 0

k 0

i!

9. ( )
9.1
V , ,
. .

.
.
(i=0, 1, 2,...)
,
[t, t+) i
i-1, i, i+1. .

t1 0

t2

i 0 i v
vi
v i v
55


i, i, i=0, 1, 2,...,
:
i 1

pi

i 0 i v
vi
v i v

k 0
i 1

k 0

1
i 1

pi

k 0

i!

yi
p0 k ; y
p0

i!

56

yi
p0
i!

pi

v
y y
v! v

0 i v

i v

p0

i v


y y2
yv
y y2
pi 1 1 p0 1
1 2

1 2!
v!
v v
i 0

y<v

p0

v 1

i 0

1
yi yv v

i! v! v y

57

E2,v ( y ) p W 0 pi pv
i v

v
v y

2 ( C)

E2 ,v ( y )

Ev ( y )
1

y
1 Ev ( y )
v

E 2 , v ( y ) Ev ( y )

58

9.2
p(W>t) - , , ,
t;
pi(W>t) ,
, i,
pi , , . . i
.

,
r=0, 1, 2,... , . . i=v, v+1, v+2,...,

pW t pi pi W 0
i v

pi(W>t) .
- i (i v),
(i-v) .
- (i v + 1) -. (
-
),
- pi(W > t) , t

59
(i - v) .

- , pi(W > t) , t
( ) (i - v) .
- ( )
.

p T t 1 e t

v

F (t ) 1 e vt
- c =v.
pj , t j ,
, t (i-v)
, i,
i v

i v

j 0

j 0

pi W t p j
pW t p W 0 e

v y t

vt j e vt
j!

pD W t

p W t
e v y t
p W 0
60

9.3

dpW t
dpW t
p W 0
W t
dt t
dt
dt
dt
v y
0
0

WD

1
v y

L W y

61

9.4 -
( )

1
y 2

W
1 t
21 y
t
2

y t
y t

W

1 t
21 y
21 y
t
2

62

9.5
M/M/1

T W t

M/D/1

t
1 y

y t
21 y

T W t

63

9.6 GI/G/1

y t a2 b2

21 y
t 2

y t a2 b2

W

2
21 y
t

t 2 b2

a 2 2
b

64

10

p (W 0) E2,v ( y )

y Ev ( y )
v y y Ev ( y )

p(W t ) p (W 0) e v y t

W p (W 0)

t
v y

t
v y
y
L p (W 0)
v y

WD

65

11

66

67

()
X Y , f(x) g(x),
Z=X+Y c S(z)

s( z )

f x g z x dx f y g z y dy

X Y > 0
z

s( z ) f x g z x dx f y g z y dy L1 L f ( x) L g ( x)

F ( p ) L f ( x) e px f ( x)dx

f(x)

1
f ( x) L F ( p)
e px F ( p )dp

2 i 0
1

F(p)

68

F ( p) L f ( x) f ( x)e pt dt

1 i

*
1
p x
f ( x) L F ( p )
F
(
p
)
e
dp

2 i 1i
1

h( x) L

i 1

L f i ( x)
69

f (t ) g (t ) e t
F ( p ) G ( p ) L f (t )
H ( p ) F ( p )G ( p )

1
1
1

2
s
s
s 2

1
2
h(t ) L ( H ( p )) L

t e t
2
s 1!

h(t )

r r
(r 1)!

1
s

t r 1 e r t

70

11
11.1

(
)
QoS
( )
1.
2.
3.

71

11.2

- ( ); -
- ( . ); -
- ; -
-; -
.

72

11.3
:
- ( , );
- ( , );
- ;
- ;
- (, , , );
- ;
- ;
QoS
- ( );
- ;
- ();
-( );
- ;
-. .
.

73

11.4
1. ;
(, )
2. ;
(, )
3. ;
( )

74

11.5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

75

11.5.1
X x1 , x2 , xn
1.

1 n
x xi
n i 1

2. ()

1 n
xi x 2
S

n 1 i 1
2

3. S
x
x

4.

x
x

76

11.5.2
1.

x x

~
Z
Z

n 1,1

x
n

x
n

2.

(n 1) S 2
(n 1) S 2
Dx
2
2
1

77

11.5.3

p p

n 1,1

p 1 p
n

78

11.5.3 ,
X x1 , x2 , xn

xmin min x1 , x2 , xn

xmax xmin
N

xmax max x1 , x2 , xn


n2
n1

ni numOf X i

i 1

ni

nN

xmin
fi

ni
n

xmax
N

f2
f1

f 1
i 1

fi

fN

xmin

xmax

79

11.5.4
f N 1 f N

f 2 f3

f1 f 2

f1

xmin

fi

xmax

80

12
12.1

- ,
,
. .
,

.

, ,
(discrete event driven).

81

12.2

82

12.3

83

12.4



F(x), u
[0,..,1),
:

F 1 (u )

F 1 (u )

F(u)

g(x)

f(x)

: y=f(x), x=g(y).
f(x)

y=f(x) x
y x
.

84


,
. ,
,
.

85

13.
IP (VoIP).
:

1000
0,015 ()

90

0,12

G.711

Ethernet
,
98%

86

1.
2. ( V
p0)
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

87


y n y0 1000 0,015 15
1.
Ev ( y ) p0 v arg min Ev ( y ) p0 24
2.
v
3. G.711
4. Ethernet

64 /
0=85,6 /

a v a0 24 85,6 2054,4 / c 2,054 /

5.

6. M/D/1, 5
7.

a
a 1



T0 W t

2 1

a
1
2

2,16 /

88


k
.
:

n
i-
yi ()
i-
Li c

bi /
( )
mi
,
p0

1.

y n yi
i 1

2.
3.
4.

Ev ( yi ) p0 vi arg min Ev ( yi ) p0
v

bi /;
i /
i = bi(1+ mi) /
k

5.

a vi ai

vi i

i 1

6. G/G/1 T0
t a2 b2

( )
21
t 2
t

. ()
a
L

t 2 b2

t; t 1 ;
a

2
b

()

7. a2
b2
89
8. .

i 1

90

14.
14.1
G 1, 2, . . ., n ( X)
1, 2. . . ., m ( ),
.
, G ( ) (X, ).

, ,
, .
, .
G = (X, )
, , G,
= (X, ).
, G
X , ,
. X X,
G = (X, ).

91

14.2 , , ,
( )
, , ,
.
- , , ,
, .

,
.
G () (xi, xj)
cij, , ,
() . G .
( vi) i ,
.
, ,
.
, (1, 2, . . ., aq),
( , ) L(), ,

L( )
cij
xi , x j

, , , ,
, ,
.
( ) ,
92

14.3
. G = (X, ). *) G p G
(X, ), . ,
, G, G p
.
. G = (X, ). G S
( S , S), S X X i,
S, s (xi) XS. ,
S G,
S.
G = (X, ) , xi xj X
(xi, j) G = (X, ), . . G
, .
,
xi xj , xi j.
, .
,
i xj xi xj
xj xi ( ).
,
, .
93
,
,
.

14.4
G, A=[aij]
:
aij = 1, G (xi, xj),
aij = 0, G (xi, xj).
, ,
0
0

0
A
0
1

1
1
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0

0
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
0

0
0

G c n m . G
= [bij] n X m, :
bij = 1, xi ai,
bij = -1, xi ai,
bij = 0, xi ai ai .

94

14.5 ,
:
1) , n n - 1 ,
2) , ,
3) , .
G = (X, ) n , (
) G G, (
).
G
G, , , . .

G.

95


( )
- ,
.
:
- ( );
- ( );
,
,
, .

. ( )

f ( x) max H ( p, q, f (T ( p, q ))
q

p
q
.

96

14.5
( (SST) )
G = (X, ); (xi, xj)
cij.
,
.
( Kruskal's algorithm)
1. , n .
2. G .
3. , , :
.
4. 3 , T n 1.
SST G.
(Prim's Algorithm)
SST ,
s, .
.
Ts (xi, xj),
xi s xj s;
cij.
, Ts n 1.
Ts SST.

97

14.5

(1,7)=3; (3,6)=3; (1,2)=4; (1,5)=4; (5,6)=4; (6;7)=5; (2,3)=6; (2,6)=6; (4,5)=6;


(3,4)=7

98

14.5 (SST) ( )

1. Ts = {xs}, s , s =
(As , SST).
2. xj s aj s,
,

c(a j , x j ) min c xi , x j j
x j TS

xj [jj]. j , . . (xj) Ts = ,
xj [0, ].
3. xj*,

j* min j
x j TS

: Ts = Ts U {xj*}, As = As U {(aj* , xj*)}.


| Ts | = n, . As SST.
| Ts | n, 4.
4. j Ts, , j (xj*), .
j > (xj*, xj), j = (xj*, xj), j = xj* 3.
j (xj*, xj), 3.

99

14.5

As=

Ts=2
Ts

Ts

As

(1,2)=4
(6,2)=6
(3,2)=6

(1,2)

1 [2, 4]
3 [2, 6]
4 [0, ]
5 [0, ]
6 [2, 6]
7 [0, ]

1,2

(7,1)=3
(5,1)=4
(6,2)=6
(3,2)=6

(1,2)
(7,1)

3 [2, 6]
4 [0, ]
5 [1, 4]
6 [2, 6]
7 [1, 3]

1,2,7

(6,7)=5
(5,1)=4
(6,2)=6
(3,2)=6

(1,2)
(7,1)
(5,1)

3 [2, 6]
4 [0, ]
5 [1, 4]
6 [7, 5]
100

14.5 ()

Ts

As

1,2,5,7

(6,7)=5
(6,2)=6
(6,5)=4
(4,5)=6
(3,2)=6

(1,2)
(7,1)
(5,1)
(6,5)

3 [2, 6]
4 [0, ]
6 [5, 4]

1,2,5,6,7

(3,6)=3
(3,2)=6
(4,5)=6

(1,2)
(7,1)
(5,1)
(6,5)
(3,6)

3 [6, 3]
4 [5, 6]

1,2,3,5,6,7

(4,3)=7
(4,5)=6

(1,2)
(7,1)
(5,1)
(6,5)
(3,6)
(4,5)

4 [4, 5]

1,2,3,4,5,6,7

(1,2)
(7,1)
(5,1)
(6,5)
(3,6)
(4,5)
101


, , ,
, ,
.

1 , ,
, ,
(, ADSL).
2 , ,
, ,
.
1 ( ) .
2 ( ) .

102


xi G = (X, ) R0(i) xj G,
xi vjd(i, xj),
.
Rt (i) i G, xi
, vjd(j, xi) .
,
R0 (i) = j | vjd(i, xj) , j X
Rt (i) = j | vjd(j, xi) , j X
i :
S0 (i) = maxvjd(i, xj) xj X
St (i) = maxvjd(j, xi) xj X
D(G) - ( ) ,
S0 (i) , St (i) .
S0 (i*) = min St (i) xi X -
St (t*) = min St (i) xi X -

103

D(G)=

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

10

0
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
3
2

1
0
1
1
2
2
3
2
2
3

2
1
0
2
1
3
2
2
1
2

1
1
2
0
1
1
2
1
3
2

2
2
1
1
0
2
1
1
2
2

1
2
3
1
2
0
1
2
2
1

2
3
2
2
1
1
0
1
1
2

2
2
2
1
1
2
1
0
2
1

3
2
1
3
2
2
1
2
0
1

2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
0

3
3
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
3

5 8 ( , , )

104


G = (X, ). xi X ,
:

v d (x , x )

0 ( xi )

x j X

v d (x , x )

t ( xi )

x j X

( )

0 ( xi )
x0 0 ( x0 ) min
x X

t ( xi )
x0 t ( xt ) min
xi X

105

1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

10

0
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
3
2

1
0
1
1
2
2
3
2
2
3

2
1
0
2
1
3
2
2
1
2

1
1
2
0
1
1
2
1
3
2

2
2
1
1
0
2
1
1
2
2

1
2
3
1
2
0
1
2
2
1

2
3
2
2
1
1
0
1
1
2

2
2
2
1
1
2
1
0
2
1

3
2
1
3
2
2
1
2
0
1

2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
0

16

17

16

14

14

15

15

14

37

25

16
17
16
14
14
15
15
14
37
25

4,5,7 ( , ,
)

106

2.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

10

0
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
3
2

1
0
1
1
2
2
3
2
2
3

2
1
0
2
1
3
2
2
1
2

1
1
2
0
1
1
2
1
3
2

2
2
1
1
0
2
1
1
2
2

1
2
3
1
2
0
1
2
2
1

2
3
2
2
1
1
0
1
1
2

2
2
2
1
1
2
1
0
2
1

3
2
1
3
2
2
1
2
0
1

2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
0

3
16

3
17

3
16

3
14

2
14

3
15

3
15

2
14

3
37

3
25

3
3
3
3

16
17
16
14

2
3
3
2
3

14
15
15
14
37

25

5 8 ( , , )
4 ( , , )
( = 2)

107

D=

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

10

0
1

1
0
1
1

1
0

1
1

0
1
1

1
1
0

1
1

0
1

1
1
0
1
1

1
1

1
0

0
1

1
1
0

1
1
2
1
4
1
6
4
3
6

2
2
2
2
3
1
5
4
3
6

2
3
3
2
3
1
5
5
3
9

4
4
2
4
4
4
5
4
3
6

4
3
5
5
5
4
5
5
3
8

7
6
1
2
6
4
6
6
4
7
6

8
6
3
5
5
7
7
7
7
7
6

9
4
4
5
8
8
4
8
8
7
8

2
3
9
2
3
7
9
7
9
9

10
6
1
9
6
8
10
6
10
10
10

1. .

108

-
c=[cij] i,j =1n
1 n kij i j,
i j 1k. , 0ij () (i, j), (
).
kij,k (1,,n):
i,j k, kij=k1

ij

i,j, k, i k, k j. ,
, kij=ik+kj
, .
kij :
0ij (i, j);
kij=min(ij, ik + kj).
- kij, i,j k = 1 n. nij
i, j.

, cii = 0 i = 1,2, .... n cij = , (xi, xi).



1. k = 0.

2. k = k + 1.
3. i k, , cik , j k, , ckj ,
cij=mincij, (cik+ckj)

4.
() cii < 0, G , xi . .
109
() cii 0 k = n, . [cij]
. .
() cii 0 k < n, 2.

-
( )

110

- VB
Public Function Floid()
Dim I, j, k As Integer
Dim x, y As Double
xBase = 5
yBase = 8
n = Worksheets("CM").Cells(6, 5)
ReDim d(n, n) As Long
-
ReDim Node(n, n) As Integer

For j = 1 To n

d(i, j) = Worksheets("CM").Cells(yBase + i, xBase + j)
If d(i, j) = 0 Then
d(i, j) = 9999999
End If
If i = j Then
d(i, j) = 0
End If
Node(i, j) = j
Next i
Next j
'Triple operation to update the D Matr ( -)
For j = 1 To n
For i = 1 To n
For k = 1 To n
If i <> j And i <> k And j <> k Then
x = d(i, j) + d(j, k)
y = d(i, k)
If x < y Then
d(i, k) = x
Node(i, k) = Node(i, j)
End If
End If
Next k
Next i
Next j
For i = 1 To n
For j = 1 To n
Worksheets("CM").Cells(22 + j, 5 + i) = Node(j, i)
Worksheets("CM").Cells(34 + j, 5 + i) = d(j, i)
Next j
Next i
End Function

111

(Dijkstras algorithm)
( )
,
s . ( )
, .
, ,
s .
L(xi) xi.

1. L(s) = 0 .
L(i) = i s .
p = s.

2. xi (), ,
:
L(xi) = min [L(xi), L(p) + c (p, xi)]

3. ,
L(i*) = min [ L(xi)].
4. i* p = xi*.
5.
(a) ( s t.) p = t, L(p) .
.
pt, 2.
() ( s .)
, .
.
, 2.

112

( 2)
N (= ) .
- S : 0 ( ) 1
( );
- B - /
;
- - k- [k]
Vi Vk.
A[i,k] A[i,k]; , A[i,k]
B, "".
1 (). 1 N S; i C;
i- A B,
S[i]:=1; C[i]:=0 (i - )
2 ( ). (. . k, S[k]=0);
j, . . B[j]<=B[k]
: S[j]:=1; B[k] > B[j]+A[j,k], (B[k]:=B[j]+A[j,k]; C[k]:=j)
( , Vi ... Vk , Vi...Vj Vk).
( S[k] , Vi Vk B[k]. ) ,
).
3 ( ). ( Vi Vk :) 3.1.
z:=C[k]; 3.2. z; 3.3. z:=C[z]. z = , , 3.2.
113

()

0+3=3

3+4=7

3+2=5

5+6=11

5+6=11

5+3=8

11

11

7+6=13

8+7=15

114

11

5+4=9

( )
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int w[500][500];//
bool used[500];//
int d[500];//
int inf=1000000000;//
int main()
{
int n,m,v1,v2,x=0,y=0,z=0;
cin>>n>>m>>v1>>v2;
v1--;v2--;
memset(w,0,sizeof(w));
memset(d,1000000000,sizeof(d));
memset(used,false,sizeof(used));
for (int i=0;i<n;i++) d[i]=inf;
for (int i=0;i<m;i++)
{cin>>x>>y>>z;w[x-1][y-1]=z;w[y-1][x-1]=z;}
d[v1]=0;
while (true){
int from,zfrom=inf;
for (int i=0;i<n;i++)
if ((zfrom>d[i]) && !(used[i])) {from=i;zfrom=d[i];}
if (zfrom>=inf) break;
used[from]=true;
for(int to=0;to<n;to++)
if (w[from][to]!=0)
if ((!used[to]) && (d[to]>d[from]+w[from][to])) d[to]=d[from]+w[from][to];
}
if (d[v2]<inf) cout<<d[v2];else cout<<"-1";
return 0;
}

115

(Yens algorithm)
( k- )
.
1. P1. k=2. P1, L0
2.
, , , L 0, L1.
2.
P1, . .
.
2. Pik(k-1)- Pk-1 i=1, 2, , qk-1, i
3- 6-.
3. , , i P j (j=1, 2,
,k-1). , c(xik-1, xi+1j)=; . ( 1
s).
4. , S ik xik-1 t,
s, xik-1, x3k-1,..., xik-1. , Sik
.
5. Pik, Rik(=s, x-1, x-1,, x-1) c S L1.
6. ,
3.
.
7. L1. Pk L1 L0.
k=K, . L0- - .
k<K, k=k+1, 2.
L1 (h-), L 0
, h , L 1,
.
.

116


- ( () )
- - ( )
- ( k- )
- - ( )
- A* (A )

117


(TSP - Travelling salesman problem)

()

: n n>2
i b j di+dj >=p,
( ).

: () .
NP

118


-
-
-
..

, ,

119


(Ant Colony Optimization ACO)
.
,
. , .

, . .

:
- ;
- .

pij

ij ij

kD

ij
ij

A
Lij


ik ik

D ( i).

. Lij

120

n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Edge
1-2
1-8
2-3
2-9
3-4
3-9
4-9
4-5
5-9
5-6
6-7
6-8
7-9
7-8
7-6

16

7-9

L
41,3
39,6
14,5
22,0
25,1
44,4
12,6
31,5
41,6
6,1
16,1
49,0
13,8
5,0
6,1

tau
5,6
2,7
2,9
9,7
7,1
9,2
9,3
8,1
9,4
4,3
5,4
3,6
8,0
1,7
5,4

eta_k
0,024
0,025
0,069
0,045
0,040
0,023
0,079
0,032
0,024
0,164
0,062
0,020
0,073
0,198
0,164

tau_k
5,6
2,7
2,9
9,7
7,1
9,2
9,3
8,1
9,4
4,3
5,4
3,6
8,0
1,7
5,4

0,135
0,068
0,203
0,439
0,282
0,207
0,733
0,257
0,227
0,704
0,333
0,073
0,580
0,337
0,877

sum
0,204
0,204
0,642
0,642
0,489
0,489
0,990
0,990
0,931
0,931
0,406
0,406
0,917
0,917
1,214

0,66
0,34
0,32
0,68
0,58
0,42
0,74
0,26
0,24
0,76
0,82
0,18
0,63
0,37
0,72

13,8

1,7

0,073

1,7

0,123

1,000

0,12

random
0,397
0,205
0,038
0,987
0,218
0,218
0,261

121

0,919

L(0r ) L12 L23 L34 L45 L59 L97 L76 L68 L81
( r )

Q
L(0r )

kj 1 p kj ( r )
(*)

122

123


,

(, ).
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.

124

A a1 , a2 , , an

(, ).
- , ,
,
.
,
.

()
( )

125

FOREL
( )
A a1 , a2 , , an

(, x y).
() R.

,
R
126

FOREL

xi i <= R
m

i=m?

(Ci=m)

i i
xi <= R - i

127

k-
(k-means)
A a1 , a2 , , an

(, x y).
k.

128

k-

k 1...k

xi
j ,
mj

j=mj?

xi - j

mj

(Cj=mj)

129

130

131

3.2.1
( )

r
b(r ) b0 1
R

arg max b x, y , a x b, c y d
x, y

132

3.3

1.
.
2.
( ),
.

1
y f a ( x, y )dxdy ()
A
S
1
y0 f a ( x, y )dxdy ()
A S

x0

A f a ( x, y )dxdy

b(/)

(/)

1
x0 ai xi()
A i 1

1
y0 ai yi
A i 1

()

A ai

(/)

i 1

133

4.4 ,

134

135

3.3
3.3.1
53111-2008,
.
.
1 :

.
2 : ,

, .
3 : ,
, ,
.
4 : ,
, ,
, , ,
.
5 :

(.. ,

).
136


6 :
,
.
7 : , ,
,
.
8 :
.
9 () : ,
,
.
10 : ,
.
11 : ,
.
12 ( ):
,
, , , ,
.

, :
= /( + ),
(1)
- ;
- .
137

( )
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs

(FCC)
N

1
2
3
4
5
6
7


, %
19
6
14
25
1
24
11

-
, %
7
44
2
14
1
14
18

3.3.2
( )

P pi
i 1

P 1 (1 pi )
i 1

139

3.3.3

P (W | e5 ) (1 q1 q 2 )(1 q3 q 4 )

P p 5 P (W | e5 ) q5 P(W | e5 )
P (W | e5 ) 1 (1 p1 p3 )(1 p 2 p 4 )

P p5 (1 q1 q 2 )(1 q3 q 4 ) q5 (1 (1 p1 p3 )(1 p 2 p 4 ))
140

3.3.4

p 2 p 3 || p 4 1 (1 p 2 p3 )(1 p 4 )

p 7 || p8 1 (1 p 7 )(1 p8 )

P p1 (1 (1 p 2 p3 )(1 p 4 )) || p5 p 6 (1 (1 p 7 )(1 p8 ))
1 (1 p1 (1 (1 p 2 p 3 )(1 p 4 )))(1 p 5 p 6 (1 (1 p 7 )(1 p8 )))
141

3.3.5 - (IE Inclusion Exclusion)


l

Ej

, Tj

Pr ( E j ) pi
iT j

l ,

3.5 - (IE inclusion-exclusion)

P Pr

E
j 1

P S1

P S1 S 2

P (1) k 1 S k
k 1

Sk

P E

r
1i1i 2ik l

i1

Ei 2 Eik

P S1 S 2 S 3
P S1 S 2 S 3 S 4

142

- ()

Pr ( MP1 ) p1 p 2
Pr ( MP2 ) p 4 p5

Pr ( MP3 ) p1 p3 p5
Pr ( MP4 ) p 2 p3 p 4

S1 Pr ( MP1 ) Pr ( MP2 ) Pr ( MP3 ) Pr ( MP4 ) p1 p 2 p 4 p 5 p1 p3 p5 p 2 p3 p 4

S 2 Pr ( MP1 MP2 ) Pr ( MP1 MP3 ) Pr ( MP1 MP4 ) Pr ( MP2 MP3 ) Pr ( MP2 MP4 ) Pr ( MP3 MP4 )
p1 p 2 p 4 p5 p1 p 2 p3 p5 p1 p 2 p3 p 4 p1 p3 p 4 p5 p 2 p3 p 4 p5 p1 p 2 p3 p 4 p5
S 3 Pr ( MP1 MP2 MP3 ) Pr ( MP1 MP2 MP4 ) Pr ( MP1 MP3 MP4 ) Pr ( MP2 MP3 MP4 )
4 p1 p 2 p3 p 4 p 5
S 4 Pr ( MP1 MP2 MP3 MP4 ) p1 p 2 p3 p 4 p5

P S1 S 2 S 3 S 4 p1 p 2 p 4 p5 p1 p3 p5 p 2 p3 p 4 ( p1 p 2 p5 p1 p 2 p3 p5 p1 p 2 p3 p 4
p 2 p3 p 4 p5 p1 p 2 p3 p 4 p5 ) 2 p1 p 2 p3 p 4 p5

143

p( P)

ij

xi , x j P

log p

log p

xi , x j P

ij

xi , x j P

Cij log pij

, -

pij max pij , pik pkj

144

log C

ij


()

p1 p N
N

0 i 1
p

n1
n

p p t ( , r )

1 N

p(1 p )
n

1 p
2p

5 10 6

pi 0,99 i 1 n

p 0,99998

n 3.2 10 6
145

146

()

VoIP ( )

147

()

( )

148


1.

2.

,

( )
3.

4.

5.


6.

Y y1 , y2 , yi , yn

x11
x
21

x22

xij

xm1

xm 2

x12

min xij y j
n

i 1 m

x1k

x2 k

; k n

xmk

i g

j 1

X g xg1 , x g 2 , x gj , x gn

N,

n(t )

N
1 e

t t 0
b

; N , t0 , b

D d1 , d 2 , d i , d H ; H n

149

()
1. 2000 . .
2. 15 30%.

150


1.
y f (b0 , b1 , t ) b1 t b0
n

b1

x y
i

i 1

x
i 1

2
i

nx y
n x2

b0 y b1 x

1 n
xi
n i 1

1 n
yi
n i 1

y ( x0 ) y ( x0 ) S y| x x 0 t n 2, / 2

S y| x ( x 0 )

x0 x 2
n

xi x 2
i 1

n2

i 1

y
2

xi x yi y

i 1

i 1

xi x 2

151


2.
dy
y

r y 1
dt
K

y y (t )

y (t )

K y 0 e rt
K y 0 e rt 1

lim y (t ) K
t

S-,
y ( x)

y (t )

dy
y 1 y
dt

1
1 e t

K
1 e

t t 0
b

1962 . ..
S-
(Diffusion of Innovations).
1. .
2. .
(early adopters).
3. .
,
(early majority).
4. .
(late
majority).
5. .

(laggards).

152


2.
dy
y

r y 1
dt
K

y y (t )

y (t )

K y 0 e rt
K y 0 e rt 1

lim y (t ) K
t

S-,
y ( x)

y (t )

dy
y 1 y
dt

1
1 e t

K
1 e

t t 0
b

1962 . ..
S-
(Diffusion of Innovations).
1. .
2. .
(early adopters).
3. .
,
(early majority).
4. .
(late
majority).
5. .

(laggards).

153


:
1. ,
;
2.
;
3.
.
:
1. , ().
2. () ( ,
()).
3. .

154


, /
x
p ( X x) f ( x ) 1 e c x
pi

ni
k

n
i 1

p
i 1

p S ( x) 1 p( X x) e c x
Si

p S ( xi ) p i
k

p
j 1

(x j ) p j

,
()
()

yB Y S B Y

pS ( xB ) p B
pS ( xB ) p B pS ( xOTT ) pOTT

yOTT Y SOTT Y

pS ( xOTT ) pOTT
pS ( xB ) pB pS ( xOTT ) pOTT

yi y S i

155

156


1
(). .
m n ( ).

xj
yj

= const

j ()

1.
- - ( )
-
-
, N.

2.
-,
- .

yj

pj

vj

v j!
vj

k 0

yj

k!

j 1 n
157

3.
- : ,

xj

- : .

pj

4.

n

yj

j 1

pj;

y y j ;
j 1

x j arg min p x j
xj

x
j 1

5.
6.
.

158

2
. . m
n ( ).

xj
wj

vj

j
(

v j 01
N

v
j 1

= const

1.
- - ( )
-
-
, N.

2.
-, , ;
-

W j 1 1 w j j ;
x

j 1 n

159

3.
- : ,

xj

- : .

pj

4.

w v j W j ;

j 1 n

j 1

v
j 1

x j arg max w x j
xj

x
j 1

5.
6.
.

160


-
- --

161


x* ( x1* , x2* , , xn* ) ()
f ( x*) () f ( x ) x


f(x),

x* ( x1* , x2* , , xn* ) f(x),


0 , 0 x

f ( x * x ) f ( x*) 0

162

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )

1. ()

x*

,
.

f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)

0
*
*
*
x1 x
x1 x
xn x
,

x*

2. ()
f(x) x* .
f(x)
n
n
2 f ( x)
d f ( x)
xi xk ai k xi xk
*
i 1 k 1 xi xk x
i 1 k 1
2

- , x* ,
- , x*

163

,
aik ,
.
aik
.

2 f ( x)
x12
2 f ( x)
ai k x x
2
1

2
f ( x)
xn x1

2 f ( x)
x1x2
2 f ( x)
x22

2
f ( x)
xn x2

2 f ( x)
x1xn
2 f ( x)
x2 xn

2
f ( x)
xn2

f(x)


2 f ( x)

x12
2 f ( x)
x2 x1

2
f ( x)
xn x1

2 f ( x)
x1x2
2
f ( x)

x22

2
f ( x)
xn x2

2 f ( x)
x1xn
2 f ( x)
0
x2 xn

2
f ( x)

xn2

164


- , ,
. ,

.

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )

f(x) :

i ( x) i ( x1 , x2 , xn ) 0;

i 1 m

1. ()

( x, ) f ( x ) i i ( x)

i 1

x*

* ( 1* , 2* , , n* )

'x ( x* , * ) 0
m

( x, ) f ( x) i ' ( x)
'
x

'

i 1

165

1. ()

f (x)

i (x)

x*

''
xx

( x* , * )h, h 0

''
xx

( x* , * )h, h 0

h,

( x )h, h 0
'
i

i 1 m

x* () f(x) .

( x , ) f ( x) i i'' ( x)
''
xx

''

i 1

166

2
- ,
.

f (t x (1 t ) y ) t f ( x ) (1 t ) f ( y )
t 0 1 x y

:
- ,
, ;
- ,
;
- f(x) g(x) , ;
- ;
- ;

167

3 -- ()
- ,
.

n
f(x) :

j ( x) j ( x1 , x2 , xn ) 0;
j (x)

x 0;

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )

j 1 m

( x, ) f ( x) j j ( x)

j 1

1)

( x, )
0
xi

4)

( x, )
0
j

2)

( x, )
xi 0
xi

5)

( x, )
xi 0
j

3)

xi 0

6) j 0

i 1 n

j 1 m
168


-
-

169

,
( ),
. ,
.

170

2
2.1

n
f ( x ) x a, b

x* arg min f ( x)
x

x* arg max f ( x)
x

2.
f (x)

ba

x* arg min f ( xi ) , i 1 n
xi

171

2.2

1
f ( x ) x a, b

x* arg min f ( x)
x

x* arg max f ( x)
x

2.

(b-a)/2+

(b-a)/2-

x1

x1

(b-a)/2

x2
x1
x1

x2

b x2

a x1

f (x)

x2

-
(x2, b)
(a, x1)
- f(x2)>f(x1)
- f(x1)>f(x2)
- |b-a|>
- x*=(a+b)/2

x2

b x2

ba x
*

ab
2
172

2.3

1
f ( x ) x a, b

2.

x* arg max f ( x)
x

f (x)

d1

d1

x* arg min f ( x)

x1

x2

d2

d2

x2 x1

x1

b x2

d1
a x1

x1 x2

x1

d d1
d1

d1 d 2 d d1

x2

d1

b x2
x2 x1

ba

-
(x2, b)
(a, x1)
- f(x2)>f(x1)
- f(x1)>f(x2)
- |b-a|>
- x*=(a+b)/2

x*

1
1 2 1 0

5 1
2

ab
2

173

()

f(x),
x1=b-(b-a)/ y1=f(x1)
x2=a+(b-a)/ y2=f(x2)

|b-a|>

a=x1
x1=x2

x* = (a+b)/2

y2>y1
b=x2
x2=x1

y1=f(x1)

y2=f(x2)

x2=a+(b-a)/
y2=f(x2)

x1=b-(b-a)/
y1=f(x1)

174

()

f ( x)

x
x2 2

0,001 [-10;0]

N

-10,0000

0,0000

10,0000

-6,1803

0,0000

6,1803

-3,8197

0,0000

3,8197

-2,3607

0,0000

2,3607

-2,3607

-0,9017

1,4590

-1,8034

-0,9017

0,9017

-1,8034

-1,2461

0,5573

-1,5905

-1,2461

0,3444

-1,4590

-1,2461

0,2129

-1,4590

-1,3274

0,1316

10

-1,4590

-1,3777

0,0813

11

-1,4279

-1,3777

0,0502

12

-1,4279

-1,3969

0,0311

13

-1,4279

-1,4087

0,0192

14

-1,4206

-1,4087

0,0119

15

-1,4161

-1,4087

0,0073

16

-1,4161

-1,4115

0,0045

17

-1,4161

-1,4133

0,0028

18

-1,4150

-1,4133

0,0017

19

-1,4150

-1,4139

0,0011

20

-1,4146

-1,4139

0,0007

x*=1,414;

(20 )

175

2.4

1
f ( x)

x* arg min f ( x)

x a, b

x* arg max f ( x)

2.

x1

f (x)

x2

x1

b x2

d1
a x1

x1 x2

x1

Fn 1

n F
n

lim

x2


Fn
2 1
5
1 5
2

b x2
x2 x1

ba

-
(x2, b)
(a, x1)
- f(x2)>f(x1)
- f(x1)>f(x2)
-

- x*=(a+b)/2

x*

1 5
2

ab
2

176

()

f(x), k=n-1
x1=b-(b-a)Fn-2/Fn y1=f(x1)
x1=b-(b-a)Fn-1/Fn y2=f(x2)

K=1

x* = (a+b)/2

y2>y1

b=x2
x2=x1

a=x1
x1=x2
y1=f(x1)

y2=f(x2)

x2=b-(x1-a)
y2=f(x2)

x1=a+(b-x2)
y1=f(x1)

k = k-1

177

2.5


x* arg min f ( x)

1
f ( x) h

x* arg max f ( x)
x

-
- ,

~
f ( x) f ( x) a x 2 b x c

~
f ( x)
0
x

~
x*

b
2a

()

a, b, c , 3 , , , .

f ( ) f ;

f ( ) f ;

f ( ) f

a 2 b c f

2
a b c f

2
a b c f

b ( ) f
c ( ) f

a ( ) f ( ) f ( ) f /
2

( 2 2 ) f ( 2 2 ) f /

( ) f ( ) f /

( )( )( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 ( ) f ( ) f ( ) f
~
x*
2
( ) f ( ) f ( ) f

(*)

0) x=A, f(A).
h f(A+h) , f(A+h)<f(A), f(A+2h),
f(A+h)>f(A), , f(A-h).

178


1) 3 , (*) .
2) , , ,
.
~*
3) , x* , x
.
4) , 3 ,
~
x * .1.

~
f1 ( x )

f (x)

~*
A 2h x1

~
x2*

~
f 2 ( x)

~
f n ( x)

f (x) ~
f n ( x)

~
xn* x*

Ah

179

3
3.1

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )

:
1.
2.
3.
4.







.
, 1, ,
.

www.wolframalpha.com

180

()
2
2

f ( x) (1 x1 ) 2 100( x2 x1 ) 2

x*=(1,16; 1,36),


(
)

1138x20

181

3.2 - ( )

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )

:
- ;
- .
B
h

n2

B
B1
B2

:
, , (.)
h, f(x), (h), .. .
Bi.
:
Bi ,
, Bi-1 Bi Bi
, , Bi-1 Bi .
.
, h
.
h0,
.

B3
x2
Bi
x1

182

- ()

2 2

f ( x) (1 x1 ) 100( x2 x1 )
2

(1,004; 1,008);

(3; 3)

1261

183

3.3 -
( )

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )

:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.
8.

. , n+1
(.. n+1 - )
. .
H, L, ( )
K.
.
.
. R.
. ,
.
, (E)
,
(R).
. , (R)
K. R H, ,
C1. R H
, C2. f(C1) f(C2) <
f(R), .
.
(H). H , .
. .
(L) , .
.
.
, .

184

-
()

(3; 3)

f ( x) (1 x1 ) 2 100( x2 x1 ) 2

(1,000; 1,002);

243

185

3.4 ( )

li xi ui

i 1 n

g j ( x) b j

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )

j 1 m

( -, ,
, 2n ())

:
1.

. x0, . 2n-1
, , xi=li+rnd*(ui-li), rnd
0 1. , xi
, ,
, .. , xi=(xi+xc)/2, xc .

xc
2.
3.

. . xH.
.

x0
4.
5.

1 i
xr
i 1 r 1

1 2 n 1
xi
2n 1 i 1

. xR.
xR. ,
, xH . xR , xR
.
. , xR xR=(xi+x0)/2
, . ,

dm.

f (x ) f

2 n 1

6.

1 2n
f ( xi )
2n
2n i 1
, dm .

i 1

186

3.5 ( )
f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )
n

C j ( x) 0

j 1 m

,
, .

z ( x ) f ( x) P ( x );

P ( x )

1
P( x) r
; r 0
j 1 C j ( x )

1
;
j 1 C j ( x )

z ( x, r ) f ( x ) r

f ( x) x 2 ;
10

x2

z ( x, r ) x 2 r

1
;
x2

10

8
z ( x 1)
z ( x 0.5)

z ( x 0.025)
f ( x)
4

g( x)

0
0

2
x

4
4

187

()

x0

r = r0

min z(x) -> x**

x* = x**

rk+1 = rk/10
x = x**

k = k+1

188

3.4
,
.
(1):
- , , , , ( )

():
- - ( ),
- ( , )

():
- ;
-
.

, :
Mathcad, Matlab, MS Excel .

189

4
.
. ,
,
( ) .

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )


.
:
-
(
);

-
( ,

);

-
(
);

- ( )

( ,
).

190

4.1

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )

[a,b]
,
[a,b].

( ).


ba
, N (),

p 1 1

n N

4
2
0
-6

-4

-2

-2
-4
-6

: , n=2

ln(1 p )
ln(1 n )

p ,
.

191

4.2 ( )

f ( x) f ( x1 , x2 , xn )


(
)

:
,
- ()
- ( )

1. , p ;
2. . (,
). , ,
() ( k m).
3. . .
. , ,
:

xi xi( k ) 1 xi( m )

01

4. . . :

xi xi

5. . , ,
().

. ()
() .

192

f(x), p

. ()
() .

193

()
. ( ).

: x*=(-0,002; -0,014), f(x*)=0,040

( 50, 1000)

www.wolframalpha.com

194

195


Wp

21 'p 1 1 'p

'p i

i' i ti

i 1

V i i2
i 1

196

E p pT p
p

s L jp (jps )
p 1 j 1

( p)
rs , k rs

(rsp,)k
Ar

i 1

197

( p)
ri , k

s=0
K

uij ij yij( k )
k 1


uip j=1...m
min{uij}

(uij)
d
d<dz ?

ki,kj<kz ?



.
?

m=mz ?

uij

198

199

200


1.

( )
2.

.
3.

.

201

201

T (t ), 0 t H

1
T T (t )dt const
H 0

, ( )
. , 2 ,
.

a(t ) a(t , T ( ), 0 H )
a(t;T(), 0 H) - t,
T() .

M//1/K.

1 (t ) (t ) K
p
1 (t ) K 1

202

1
M min
a
(
t
;
T
(

),
0

H
)

p
(
t
)
dt

a H 0

T const , 0 T (t ) 1, a const , 0 a(t ) amax


T(t). ,
,
, ,
, , .. .
,
,
, .
:
- ( ),
- ( )
,
;
m
S min

a (T ,1
i 1

j N ) pi

203


,
,
.

,
,
,

.

R (t ) T (t ) C t

N-1 ,
i-
Ri C Ai A0 Ti ; 1 i N 1

204

C Ai A0 Ti T0 ; 1 i N 1

C Ai A0 Ti C A j A0 T j ; 1 i N 1

1i N 1
C ( Ai A0 ) Ti T0 ,

C ( Ai A0 ) Ti C ( A j A0 ) T j , 1 j N 1
Ti T i 1
T Tm
,, i
Ai 1 Ai
Am Ai

max

i 0,i m

T T
C min T0 Ti , , i 1 i

Ai A0
Ai Ai 1

T0 T1
T Tm
,
,, 0
A

A
A

A
0
m
0
1

C max

205


- ,
S(x).

1 S ( 0 ),

P0i S ( i ) S ( i ),
S ( ),
m

Ti Ti 1
T Tm
,, i
Am Ai
Ai 1 Ai

i max

0 i m 1

i0
0im
im
T0 Ti
T T
, , i 1 i ,
Ai Ai 1
Ai A0

i min

0im

, k i- ,
:
k i k Pk i , 0 k m 1, 1 i N

206







,


.


()

,
.

207

208



.
,
.
, ,
,
() .

.
:
,
( ).

209

( )

210

( )

,
, , , ,
, .
(
) ,
, , , ,
, (
).
,
,
( ),
.

, ,
.

211


.

;

.

, . ,
, , .

212

213

1.

214


,
, , .
() ,
.
( )
, -
.

,
.
.

215


X ,
() x1, x2,
, xn p1, p2, , pn .
:

1
1/6

2
1/6

3
1/6

4
1/6

5
1/6

6
1/6

p
i 1


.
X F(),
, X , x

F ( x) p X x
F() ; F( ) = 0, F(+ )=1.

, . F()
,
.
F() ,
216
, .

(1)

1
1/6

2
1/6

3
1/6

4
1/6

5
1/6

0 x 1

1 1 x 2
6
2

2 x3
6
3
F ( x)
3 x 4
6

4
6 4 x5

5 5 x6
6

6 x6
6

* : Probability Distribution Function (PDF)

217

6
1/6

(2)
(Exponential Distribution)

F ( x) 1 e x
= const

( )
(Normal, Gaussian Distribution)

F (x)

218

f ( x) F ( x)
(Probability Density Function pdf)

f ( x) 0

f ( x)dx 1

f() .
F()
x

f ( x)dx

(, F()
F ( x)

cumulative probability distribution - cdf.)

219

(1)

f ( x) e x

f ( x)

x0 2

1
e
2

( x x0 ) 2
2 2

220

(2)
(Uniform distribution)

0 xa

F ( x) x a x b
0 xb

0 xa

1
a xb
ba
0 xb

f ( x)

221

(1)

Mx

x f ( x)dx

Mx xi pi
i 1

p
i 1

Dx

2
x
f ( x)dx

Dx xi2 pi
i 1

p
i 1

x Dx

222

(2)
k-

Mkx

x f ( x)dx
k

M k x x k pi
i 1

k-
n

k x ( x Mx) k f ( x)dx

k x ( x Mx) k pi
i 1

______________________________________________________________

Mx 1 x

Dx 2 x

223

(3)
,

0,5
, .

- 1 3

,
,
,
.


2 44 3
,
,
, .

224

2.

225


(Uniform distribution)

F(x) =

f(x) =

M(x) =

D(x) =

226


(Triangular distribution)

M(x) =

F(x) =

f(x) =

D(x) =

227


(Exponential distribution)

F(x) =

M(x) =

f(x) =

1/

1 ex

ex

D(x) =

1/2

228


(Erlang distribution)

F(x) =

(k ) (k 1)!

f(x) =

(k ) (k 1)!

M(x) =

D(x) =

229


(Weibull distribution)

F(x) =

M(x) =

D(x) =

230


(Pareto distribution)

M(x) =

F(x) =

f(x) =

k>1

D(x) =

k>2

231


(Rayleigh distribution)

M(x) =

F(x) =

f(x) =

D(x) =

232


(Logonormal distribution)

F(x) =

f(x) =

M(x) =

D(x) =

233

- ()
(Chi-squared distribution)

F(x) =

f(x) =

M(x) = k

D(x) = 2k

234


(Beta distribution)

F(x) =

f(x) =

M(x) =

D(x) =

235


(Gamma distribution)

M(x) =

F(x) =

f(x) =

D(x) =

236


(Arcsine distribution)

M(x) =

D(x) =

237


(Laplace distribution)

F(x) =

f(x) =

M(x) =

D(x) =

238

3.
1

239

1. ( 1)

1
f ( x ) x a, b

x* arg min f ( x)
x

x* arg max f ( x)
x

2.

(b-a)/2+

(b-a)/2-

x1

x1

(b-a)/2

x2
x1
x1

x2

b x2

a x1

f (x)

x2

-
(x2, b)
(a, x1)
- f(x2)>f(x1)
- f(x1)>f(x2)
- |b-a|>
- x*=(a+b)/2

x2

b x2

ba x
*

ab
2
240

2. ( 1)

1
f ( x ) x a, b

2.

x* arg max f ( x)
x

f (x)

d1

d1

x* arg min f ( x)

x1

x2

d2

d2

x2 x1

x1

b x2

d1
a x1

x1 x2

x1

d d1
d1

d1 d 2 d d1

x2

d1

b x2
x2 x1

ba

-
(x2, b)
(a, x1)
- f(x2)>f(x1)
- f(x1)>f(x2)
- |b-a|>
- x*=(a+b)/2

x*

1
1 2 1 0

5 1
2

ab
2

241

.3 ()

f(x),
x1=b-(b-a)/ y1=f(x1)
x2=a+(b-a)/ y2=f(x2)

|b-a|>

a=x1
x1=x2

x* = (a+b)/2

y2>y1
b=x2
x2=x1

y1=f(x1)

y2=f(x2)

x2=a+(b-a)/
y2=f(x2)

x1=b-(b-a)/
y1=f(x1)

242

()

.

.

f ( x, y , y ' ) 0

y F ( x, C ), C

: a.
, t=0 v=v0.

dv
dt

dv a dt dv adt v a t C1

v0 a 0 C1 C1 v0

v a t v0
243

4. (OSI)

244

()
Open System Interconnection (OSI) ISO/IEC 7498-1

245

()

7. ( , : HTTP,
SMTP, SNMP, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), )
6. ( , )
5. ( )
4. ( , )
3. (, )
2. (MAC media access control LCC logic link control )
1. ( , )

246

4.

247

G.711
G.711
G.711
G.711
G.711
G.711
G.711
G.711
G.711
G.711
G.711
G.711
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.729
G.723.1
G.723.1
G.723.1
G.723.1
G.723.1
G.723.1
G.723.1
G.723.1


(/)
()
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
6,30
6,30
6,30
6,30
6,30
6,30
5,30
5,30


(IP/UDP/RTP)
()

()
80
160
50
80
160
50
80
160
50
80
160
50
80
160
50
80
160
50
80
80
100
80
80
100
80
80
100
80
80
100
80
80
100
80
80
100
10
20
50
10
20
50
10
20
50
10
20
50
10
20
50
10
20
50
10
30
33
10
30
33
10
30
33
10
30
33
10
30
33
10
30
33
30
30
26
30
30
26
30
30
26
30
30
26
30
30
26
30
30
26
30
30
22
30
30
22

(CRTP)
()
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40



(L2) L2
(/)
VAD (/)
Ether
14
85,6
2 Ether
14
70,4
PPP
6
82,4
2 PPP
6
67,2
FR
4
81,6
2 FR
4
66,4
Ether
14
107,2
2 Ether
14
76,8
PPP
6
100,8
2 PPP
6
70,4
FR
4
99,2
2 FR
4
68,8
Ether
14
29,6
2 Ether
14
14,4
PPP
6
26,4
2 PPP
6
11,2
FR
4
25,6
2 FR
4
10,4
Ether
14
22,4
2 Ether
14
12,3
PPP
6
20,3
2 PPP
6
10,1
FR
4
19,7
2 FR
4
9,6
Ether
14
17,6
2 Ether
14
9,7
PPP
6
16
2 PPP
6
8
FR
4
15,5
2 FR
4
7,6
Ether
14
14,8
2 Ether
14
8,1

248

42,8
35,2
41,2
33,6
40,8
33,2
53,6
38,4
50,4
35,2
49,6
34,4
14,8
7,2
13,2
5,6
12,8
5,2
11,2
6,1
10,1
5,1
9,9
4,8
8,8
4,8
8
4
7,8
3,8
7,4
4,1

5.

249

250