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Dayananda sagar college of engineering

electrical and electronics engineering

PRECISE KILOMETER
CALCULATION BY
UNDERGROUND
CABLE FAULT
DETECTOR
Submitted by :

ABHINAV TRIPATHI

(1DS12EE001)

ANIMESH PRASAD (1DS12EE014)


ABHISHEK KUMAR SINGH
(1DS12EE003)
PRARIT JOSHI (1DS11EE077)

Contents

Project overview
Block diagram
Power supply
Microcontroller
ADC0804
Relay
Relay driver
LCD
Software requirements
Schematic & Working of the project
Advantages
Applications
Future scope
Conclusion

Project overview
This project uses the simple concept of OHMs law where a
low DC voltage is applied at the feeder end through a series
resistor.
The current would vary depending upon the length of fault
of the cable in case there is a short circuit of LL or 3L or LG
etc.
The series resistor voltage drop changes accordingly which
is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital data which
the programmed microcontroller would display the same in
Kilo meters.
The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing
cable length in KMs and fault creation is made by a set of
switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of
the same.

Block diagram

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

Power supply

CONTINUED

The 230V AC supply is first stepped down to 12V


AC using a step down transformer.

This is then converted to DC using bridge rectifier.

The AC ripples is filtered out by using a capacitor


and given to the input pin of voltage regulator 7805.

At output pin of this regulator we get a constant 5V


DC which is used for MC and other ICs in this
project.

Microcontroller

It is a smaller computer
Has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...

CPU

I/O
Port

RAM ROM
Serial
Timer COM
Port

A single chip
Microcontroller

Block diagram of mc
External interrupts
Interrup
t
Control

On-chip
ROM for
program
code

Timer/Counter

On-chip
RAM

Timer 1
Timer 0

CPU

OSC

Bus
Control

4 I/O Ports

P0 P1 P2 P3

Address/Data

Serial
Port

TxD RxD

Counter
Inputs

Features of MC
8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP)
Flash Memory
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
Eight Interrupt Sources
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel

Pin description

ADC

Analog to digital converters find huge application as


an intermediate device to convert the signals from
analog to digital form.
These digital signals are used for further processing
by the digital processors.
Various sensors like temperature, pressure, force etc.
convert the physical characteristics into electrical
signals that are analog in nature.

ADC0804 is a very
commonly used 8-bit
analog to digital
convertor.
It is a single channel
IC, i.e., it can take only
one analog signal as
input.

Features of ADC0804
Compatible with microcontrollers, access time is
135ns.
Logic inputs and outputs meet both MOS and TTL
voltage level specifications.
Works with 2.5V (LM336) voltage reference.
On-chip clock generator.
0V to 5V analog input voltage range with single 5V
supply.
20-pin molded chip carrier or small outline package.
Operates ratio metrically or with 5 VDC, 2.5 VDC, or
analog span adjusted voltage reference.

Relay
A relay is an electrically operated
switch.
Current flowing through the coil of the
relay creates a magnetic field which
attracts a lever and changes the switch
contacts.
The coil current can be on or off so relays
have two switch positions and have
double throw (changeover) switch
contacts as shown in the diagram.

continued
Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit
which can be completely separate from the first.
For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a
relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit.
There is no electrical connection inside the relay
between the two circuits, the link is magnetic and
mechanical.
To drive relay through MC ULN2003 relay driver IC is
used

Relay driver ULN2003


ULN is Relay driver application
The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high
current Darlington transistor arrays.
It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that features
high-voltage outputs with common-cathode clamp
diode for switching inductive loads.
The collector-current rating of a single Darlington pair
is 500mA.
The Darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher
current capability.

continued
The ULN functions as an
inverter.
If the logic at input 1B is
high then the output at its
corresponding pin 1C
will be low.

Relay Driver And Relay

Liquid crystal display

Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are 16x2 and


20x2 displays.

This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line
by 2 lines, respectively.

The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the controller


chip which receives data from an external source (and communicates
directly with the LCD.

continued
If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require 11
data lines(3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data
bus)
The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and
RW
EN=Enable (used to tell the LCD that you are
sending it data)
RS=Register Select. When RS=0; data is treated as a
command & When RS=1; data being sent is text data.
R/W=Read/Write . When RW=0; the data written to
the LCD & When RW=0; the data reading to the
LCD.

Software requirements

Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers, macro


assemblers,

real-time

kernels,

debuggers,

simulators, integrated environments, evaluation


boards, and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/CortexM3,

XC16x/C16x/ST10,

251,

and

8051

MCU

families.

Compilers are programs used to convert a High


Level

Language

to

object

code.

Desktop

compilers produce an output object code for the


underlying microprocessor, but not for other

continued
i.e.,

the programs written in one of the HLL like C will compile the

code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86


(underlying microprocessor in the computer).
For

example compilers for Dos platform is different from the

Compilers for Unix platform So if one wants to define a compiler


then compiler is a program that translates source code into object
code.

Working of project
The project uses a set of resistances in series i.e.
R10,R11,R12,R13 and R17,R16,R14,R21,
R20,R19,R18,R25,R22 as shown in the circuit diagram,
one set for each phase.
Each series resistors represents the resistance of the
underground cable for a specific distance thus 4 such
resistances in series represent 1-4kms.
3 relays are used to common point of their contacts are
grounded while the NO points are connected to the input
of the R17, R21 & R25 being the 3 phase cable input.
R10 is fed with a series resistor R1 to 5v supply. The
common point of R10 & R1 is given to input pin of 6 of
ADC0804 duely wired as explained above.

Resistor And Switch (Cable Part)