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In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod connects the piston to
the crank or crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a simple mechanism
that converts reciprocating motion into rotating motion. As a connecting rod is
rigid, it may transmit either a push or a pull and so the rod may rotate the crank
through both halves of a revolution, i.e. piston pushing and piston pulling. Earlier
mechanisms, such as chains, could only pull. In a few two-stroke engines, the
connecting rod is only required to push. In this project we are going to modelled
connecting rod by using creo cad tool available. Then with the use of CATIA V5
R20three-dimensional model of the connecting rod is obtained.


In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod or conrod connects

the piston to the crank or crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a simple
mechanism that converts reciprocating motion into rotating motion.
Connecting rods may also convert rotating motion into reciprocating motion.
Historically, before the development of engines, they were first used in this way.
As a connecting rod is rigid, it may transmit either a push or a pull and so
the rod may rotate the crank through both halves of a revolution, i.e. piston pushing
and piston pulling. Earlier mechanisms, such as chains, could only pull. In a few
two-stroke engines, the connecting rod is only required to push.
Today, connecting rods are best known through their use in internal
combustion piston engines, such as automotive engines. These are of a distinctly
different design from earlier forms of connecting rods, used in steam engines and
steam locomotives.
The earliest evidence for a connecting rod appears in the late 3rd century
AD Roman Hierapolis sawmills. It also appears in two 6th century Eastern
Roman saw mills excavated at Ephesus and Gerasa. The crank and connecting rod
mechanism of these Roman watermills converted the rotary motion of the
waterwheel into the linear movement of the saw blades.
Sometime between 1174 and 1206, the Arab inventor and engineer AlJazari described a machine which incorporated the connecting rod with
a crankshaft to pump water as part of a water-raising machine, but the device was

unnecessarily complex indicating that he still did not fully understand the concept
of power conversion.
In Renaissance Italy, the earliest evidence of a albeit mechanically
misunderstood compound crank and connecting-rod is found in the sketch books
of Taccola. A sound understanding of the motion involved displays the
painter Pisanello (d. 1455) who showed a piston-pump driven by a water-wheel
and operated by two simple cranks and two connecting-rods.
By the 16th century, evidence of cranks and connecting rods in the technological
treatises and artwork of Renaissance Europe becomes abundant; Agostino
Ramelli's The Diverse and Art factitious Machines of 1588 alone depicts eighteen
examples, a number which rises in the Theorem Machinarum Novum by Georg
Andreas Bckler to 45 different machines.

Engine wear and rod length:A major source of engine wear is the sideways force exerted on the piston through the
connecting rod by the crankshaft, which typically wears the cylinder into an oval cross-section
rather than circular, making it impossible for piston rings to correctly seal against the cylinder
walls. Geometrically, it can be seen that longer connecting rods will reduce the amount of this

sideways force, and therefore lead to longer engine life. However, for a given engine block, the
sum of the length of the connecting rod plus the piston stroke is a fixed number, determined by
the fixed distance between the crankshaft axis and the top of the cylinder block where
the cylinder head fastens; thus, for a given cylinder block longer stroke, giving greater engine
displacement and power, requires a shorter connecting rod (or a piston with smaller compression
height), resulting in accelerated cylinder wear.

Stress and failure:-

Failure of a connecting rod is one of the most common causes of

catastrophic engine failure. The connecting rod is under tremendous stress from the
reciprocating load represented by the piston, actually stretching and being
compressed with every rotation, and the load increases to the square of the engine
speed increase. Failure of a connecting rod, usually called throwing a rod, is one
of the most common causes of catastrophic engine failure in cars, frequently
putting the broken rod through the side of the crankcase and thereby rendering the
engine irreparable; it can result from fatigue near a physical defect in the rod,
lubrication failure in a bearing due to faulty maintenance, or from failure of the rod
bolts from a defect, improper tightening or over-revving of the engine. Re-use of
rod bolts is a common practice as long as the bolts meet manufacturer
specifications. Despite their frequent occurrence on televised competitive
automobile events, such failures are quite rare on production cars during normal
daily driving. This is because production auto parts have a much larger factor of
safety, and often more systematic quality control.

High performance engines:When building a high performance engine, great attention is paid to the connecting rods,
eliminating stress risers by such techniques as grinding the edges of the rod to a smooth
radius, shot penning to induce compressive surface stresses (to prevent crack initiation),
balancing all connecting rod/piston assemblies to the same weight and Magnafluxing to reveal
otherwise invisible small cracks which would cause the rod to fail under stress. In addition, great

care is taken to torque the connecting rod bolts to the exact value specified; often these bolts
must be replaced rather than reused. The big end of the rod is fabricated as a unit and cut or
cracked in two to establish precision fit around the big end bearing shell. Therefore, the big end
"caps" are not interchangeable between connecting rods, and when rebuilding an engine, care
must be taken to ensure that the caps of the different connecting rods are not mixed up. Both the
connecting rod and its bearing cap are usually embossed with the corresponding position number
in the engine block.

Powder metallurgy:Recent engines such as the Ford 4.6 liter engine and the Chrysler 2.0 liter engine, have
connecting rods made using powder metallurgy, which allows more precise control of size and
weight with less machining and less excess mass to be machined off for balancing. The cap is
then separated from the rod by a fracturing process, which results in an uneven mating surface
due to the grain of the powdered metal. This ensures that upon reassembly, the cap will be
perfectly positioned with respect to the rod, compared to the minor misalignments which can
occur if the mating surfaces are both flat.

Compound rods:-

Articulated connecting rods

Many-cylinder multi-bank engines such as a V12 layout have little space available for
many connecting rod journals on a limited length of crankshaft. This is a difficult compromise to
solve and its consequence has often led to engines being regarded as failures (Sunbeam
Arab, Rolls-Royce Vulture).
The simplest solution, almost universal in road car engines, is to use simple rods where
cylinders from both banks share a journal. This requires the rod bearings to be narrower,
increasing bearing load and the risk of failure in a high-performance engine. This also means the
opposing cylinders are not exactly in line with each other.

In certain engine types, master/slave rods are used rather than the simple type shown in
the picture above. The master rod carries one or more ring pins to which are bolted the much
smaller big ends of slave rods on other cylinders. Certain designs of V engines use a master/slave
rod for each pair of opposite cylinders. A drawback of this is that the stroke of the subsidiary rod
is slightly shorter than the master, which increases vibration in a vee engine, catastrophically so
for the Sunbeam.

Fork and blade rods:The usual solution for high-performance aero-engines is a "forked" connecting rod. One
rod is split in two at the big end and the other is thinned to fit into this fork. The journal is still
shared between cylinders. The Rolls-Royce Merlin used this "fork-and-blade" style. A common
arrangement for forked rods is for the fork rod to have a single wide bearing sleeve that spans the
whole width of the rod, including the central gap. The blade rod then runs, not directly on the
crankpin, but on the outside of this sleeve. The two rods do not rotate relative to each other,
merely oscillate back and forth, so this bearing is relatively lightly loaded and runs as a much
lower surface speed. However the bearing movement also becomes reciprocating rather than
continuously rotating, which is a more difficult problem for lubrication.

A likely candidate for an extreme example of compound articulated rod design could be
the complex German 24-cylinder Junkers Jumo 222 aviation engine, meant to have unlike
an X-engine layout with 24 cylinders, possessing six cylinders per bank only four cylinders
per bank, and six banks of cylinders, all liquid-cooled with five "slave" rods pinned to one master
rod, for each "layer" of cylinders in its design. After building nearly 300 test examples in several
different displacements, the Junkers firm's complex Jumo 222 engine turned out to be a

production failure for the more advanced combat aircraft of the Third Reich's Luftwaffe which
required aviation power plants of over 1,500 kW (2,000 PS) output apiece.


CATIA (Computer Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application) started

as an in-house development in 1977 by French aircraft manufacturer Avions
Marcel Dassault, at that time customer of the CAD/CAM CAD software[1] to

develop Dassault's Mirage fighter jet. It was later adopted in the aerospace,
automotive, shipbuilding, and other industries.
Mechanical engineering:CATIA enables the creation of 3D parts, from 3D sketches, sheet
metal, composites, and molded, forged or tooling parts up to the definition of
mechanical assemblies. The software provides advanced technologies for
mechanical surfacing & BIW. It provides tools to complete product definition,
including functional tolerances as well as kinematics definition. CATIA provides a
wide range of applications for tooling design, for both generic tooling and mold &
Scope of application:Commonly referred to as a 3D Product Lifecycle Management software suite,
CATIA supports multiple stages of product development (CAx), including
conceptualization, design (CAD), engineering (CAE) and manufacturing (CAM).
CATIA facilitates collaborative engineering across disciplines around its
3DEXPERIENCE platform, including surfacing & shape design, electrical fluid &
electronics systems design, mechanical engineering and systems engineering.
CATIA facilitates the design of electronic, electrical, and distributed systems such
as fluid and HVAC systems, all the way to the production of documentation for

Advantages of CATIA-V5, R20: It is much faster and more accurate.

Once a design is completed. 2D and 3D views are readily obtainable.

The ability to changes in late design process is possible.
It provides a very accurate representation of model specifying all other
dimensions hidden geometry etc.
It is user friendly both solid and surface modeling can be done.
It provides clear 3D models, which are easy to visualize and understand.
It provides a greater flexibility for change.


There are different modules in CATIA using which different tasks

can be performed. The main window and modules of CATIA shown in

Fig.No.4. Catia-v5 Interface

The main modules are:Sketcher

Part design

Wireframe and Surface design
Sketcher:Sketcher applications make it possible for designers to sketch precise and rapid 2D

Select the sketcher icon and click the desired reference plane either in the geometry
area or in the specification tree, or select a planar surface. The creates a nonpositioned sketch (i.e. a sketch for which you do not specify the origin and
orientation of the absolute axis, which are not associative with the 3D geometry).
The sketch absolute axis may slide on the reference plane when the part updated.

Part Design:-

The Version 5 part design application makes it possible to design precise 3D

mechanical parts with an intuitive and flexible user interface, from sketching in an
assembly context to interactive detailed design. Version 5 part design application
will enable you to accommodate design requirements for parts of various
complexities, from simple to advance.
The application, which combines the power of feature-based design with the
flexibility of Boolean approaches, offers a highly productive and intuitive design
environment with multiple design methodologies, such as post-design and local 3D
Select start-> Mechanical Design ->Part Design from the menu bar
Select one plane of the local axis. H and V are aligned to the main axes of this
selected plane. Associatively is kept between both the plane and the sketch.
Reference Element:Reference elements are used as references for constructing the model. They are
not geometry features, but they aid in geometry construction the model. They are
not geometry features, but they aid in geometry construction by acting as reference
for sketching a feature, orientation the model, assembly, components, and so on.
Because of their versatility reference are frequently used.
1. Reference Plane
2. Reference Line
3. Reference Point

Reference Planes:Datum planes are used as reference to construct feature. Datum planes are
considered feature, but they are not considered model geometry. Datum planes can
be created and used as a sketch plane where no exists.
Reference Plane option used are:Thru plane, offset plane, offset coordinate system, Blend
section, thru axis, thru point/vertex, Normal to axis, Tangent to cylinder, Angle to
the plane etc.
Reference Lines:Reference lines are used to create surface and other features, or as a sweep
trajectories. User sketch reference line in the same manner as any other feature.
Sketched curves can consist of one or more sketched segment and of one or more
open or closed loop.
Reference lines option used are:Sketch, Intersection surface, thru point, from file, Composite, Projected, Formed,
Split, Offset from surface, from curve, from boundary, Offset curve, from equation
Reference Points:Points are used to specify point loads for mesh generation, attach datum targets
and notes in drawing, and create coordinate system and pipe feature trajectories.
User can also place axis, planes, holes and shafts at a point.

Point option used is:On surface, Offset surface, Curve coordinate surface, on vertex, offset coordinate
system, three surfaces, at center, on curves, on surface, Offset point etc.
Drafting:Generative Drafting is new generation product that provides users with powerful
functionalities to generate drawings from 3D parts assembly definition.
The Generative Drafting has been designed to how to generate drawings of
varying levels of complexity, as well as apply dimensions, annotations and dressup elements to these drawing.

Start - Mechanical Design Drafting.

Front View:A front view is a projection view obtained by drawing perpendiculars from all
points on the edges of the part to the plane of projection. The plane of projection
upon all points on the edges of the part to the projections.
Projection view:Projection views are conceived to be drawn or projected onto Planes known as
projection planes. A transparent plane or pane of glass representing a projection
plane is located parallel to the front surface of the part.
Isometric View:The Isometric View Command enables to create a 2d view with any orientation,
this orientation being the same as the one in the 3d viewer. Among other results

and depending on how the 3D viewer is oriented when created the view, can
obtained a regular X-Y-Z isometric view.

Dimensioning:Generate Dimensions:To generate dimensions in one shot from the constraints of a 3D part. Only
the following constraints can be generated: Distance, Length, Angle, Radius and
Dimensions:To create and modify dimensions. These dimensions will be associative to the
elements created from a part or an assembly. When created, these elements are
associative with a view.
Generative Balloons:To generate balloons automatically to the components of an assembly which
are previously generated in assembly?
Assembly:CATIA V5 R20 assembly module allows part to be grouped into assembly or
subassemblies to model a complete part. Assembly Design allows the design of
assemblies with an intuitive and flexible user interface.
Start Mechanical Design Assembly design.

Types of Assemblys:Bottom up Assembly:Parts of Assembly are created in respective part files and Assembly in
Assembly files. Used for component having lesser parts.

Top Down Assembly:Parts are created in the Assembly file itself. Used for components having
more parts.
Assembly procedure:To Assembly the already created components, selected product name in
specification tree- Right click select component select existing components (or)
To create parts in the assembly itself, select product name in specification tree
- Right click select component - Select new part or select New Component or
New product to create a sub Assembly.
Apply constraints to the components to assembly.
Constraint Types:Coincidence, Contact, Offset, Angle, Fix Together, Quick Constraint Bill of
material [BOM]:-

The Bill of Material (BOM) provides a listing of all parts and parameters in the
current assembly.
BOM is a table to display the number and name of the components belonging to
the active component as well as the properties of these components.
Generate Numbering:- Generates numbers of these to all parts.
Manipulation:Assembling components into a pattern:Assembly it to the leader of an existing components or feature pattern; then
pattern using reuse pattern. A pattern must exist in order to use this option.

Catalog:In catalog standard we can get standard nuts, bolts, keys, pins, screw, washers,
by selecting the required standard size and pitch by clicking ok we can get to
assembly and we can use it.


Theoretical calculation:Length of connecting rod (1) =325mm
Mass (m)=2kg
Speed (n)=6000rpm
Compression ratio=4:1
Practical calculation:Stroke length (1) =87.3mm
Diameter of piston (D) =81mm

Assuming p=3.7 n/mm2

Radius of crank (r) = Stork length/2
Maximum force on the piston due to pressure
F1 = /4*D2*p
= /4*(81)2*3.56
Maximum angular speed Wmax = [2 Nmax]/60
=628.31 rad/sec
Ratio of the length of connecting rod to the radius of crank
N = 1/r = 325/ (43.65) = 7.44
Maximum inertia force of reciprocating parts
F1=Mr (Wmax)2 r (1+1/n)

= 2* (628.31)2 * (0.04365)* (1+(1/7.44))

= 39095.94N


Connecting rod sketcher:-

Connecting rod padding:-

Design the slots by using pocket tool:-

Give the fillets by using edge blend tool:-

Design the bolt slots:-

Connecting rod views:-