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1.

0 ABSTRACT
Regarding to the experiment objectives which is to determine the diffusivity of the vapour of
acetone and to study the effect of temperature on the diffusivity, this experiment is based on
the mass transfer theory. The instrument used is the Gas Dispersion Apparatus that consists of
an acrylic assembly which is sub-divided into two compartments. One compartment is
constructed from clear acrylic and is used as a constant temperature water bath. The other
compartment is incorporates an air pump and the necessary electrical controls for the
equipment. The experiment is run by using two difference temperatures in order to study the
effect of temperature on the diffusivity of the vapour of acetone. At temperature of 40C, the

diffusivity of acetone that obtained is 6.17 x

106

m2/s. Meanwhile, at temperature of

50C, the diffusivity of acetone that obtained is 2.252 x

106

m2/s. This experiment

showed that gas diffusivity decreased with increasing temperature. However, supposedly the
temperature increase with the diffusivity of the vapour of acetone increases as well.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

Figure 1: Gaseous Diffusion Apparatus

Gaseous diffusivity or gas dispersion apparatus which involves diffusion


with bulk flow is one of the items of laboratory equipment that have been
designed to allow measurement of molecular diffusivities and also to
make the students become more familiar with the basic notions of mass
transfer theory. This apparatus is a bench mounted apparatus for the
determination of diffusion coefficients of a vapour in air, which uses the
method of measuring the rate of evaporation of a liquid through a
stagnant layer into a flowing air stream, comprising a precision bore
capillary tube, which may be filled from a syringe and
the top of which means are provided to pass air (or an inert gas) stream to
remove vapour. The apparatus also comprise an air pump, a travelling
microscope with accurate focus adjustment and mounted for vertical axis
movement against a Vernier scale and a thermostatically controlled water
bath,

in

which

to

place

the

capillary

temperature control.

tube,

capable

of accurate

The experimental capabilities of this apparatus are direct measurement of


mass transfer rates in the absence convective effects, use of a gas laws to
calculate concentrations differences in terms of partial pressures, use of
Ficks Law to measure diffusion coefficients in the presence of a stationary
gas, measurement of the effect of temperature on diffusion coefficients
and gaining familiarity with the use of laboratory instruments to achieve
accurate measurements of data required for industrial process design.

The diffusivity of the vapour of a volatile liquid in air can be conveniently


determined by Winklemanns method in which liquid is contained in a
narrow diameter vertical tube, maintained at a constant temperature, and
an air stream is passed over the top of the tube to ensure the partial
pressure of the vapour is transferred from the surface of the liquid to the
air stream by molecular diffusion. The molecular diffusivity, D, is a kinetic
parameter associated with static and dynamic conditions of a process. All
the

complexity

and

unwieldiness

of many

calculations

connected with the determination of this quantity.

is,

indeed,

3.0 OBJECTIVES
The objective of this experiment is:
3.1 To determine the diffusivity of the vapour of acetone.
3.2 To study the effect of temperature on the diffusivity.

4.0 THEORY
The diffusion of vapour A from a volatile liquid into another gas B can be
conveniently studied by confining a small sample of the liquid in a narrow
vertical tube and observing its rate of evaporation into a stream of gas B
passed across the top of the tube. Normally, for simple instructional
purposes, gas B is air and vapour A is an organic solvent such as acetone
or methyl alcohol.
The apparatus consist essentially of a glass capillary tube placed in a
transparent-sided temperature controlled water bath. A horizontal glass
tube is fixed to the upper end of the capillary tube and air is blown
through this by a small air pump included within the unit. This
arrangement allows the maintenance of a partial pressure difference
within the capillary tube between the evaporating liquid surfaces and the
flowing air stream. A travelling microscope, with sliding vernier scale, is
mounted on a rigid stand alongside the thermostatic bath and is used to
measure the rate of fall of the solvent or air meniscus within the capillary.
The relation between the measured molar mass transfer rate (N A per unit
area), the partial pressure gradient and the diffusion coefficient, D is
deduced based on the following;

NA = D {CA/L}{CT/CBM}

... Equation [1]

Where D = Diffusivity (m2/s)


CA = Saturation concentration at interface (kmol/ m3)
L = Effective distance of mass transfer (mm)
CBm = Logarithmic mean molecular concentration of vapour (kmol/ m3)
CT = Total molar concentration = CA + CBm (kmol/ m3)

Considering the evaporation of the liquid:


NA = {L/M}{dL/dt}
. Equation [2]

Where

is the density of liquid

Thus,
{L/M}{dL/dt} = D {CA/L}
{CT/CBM}

. Equation [3]

Integrating and putting L - Lo at t = 0


L2 L20 = {2DM/L}
{(CACT)/CBm}t

Equation [4]

Lo and L cannot be measured accurately but L-Lo can be measured


accurately using thevernier on the microscope
(L L0)(L-L0+2L0) = {2DM/
{(CACT)/CBm}t
6

L}

. Equation [5]

Or
t/(L-L0) = { L/2MD}{ CBm/( CACT)}(L-L0) + {(L CBm)/
( CACTMD)}L0

where:
M = molecular weight (kg/mol)
t = time(s)
where
s are the slopes of a graph t/(L-L0) against L - Lo then:
s = (L CBm)/( CACT2MD)
. Equation [6]

D = (L CBm)/
( CACT2sM)

.... Equation [7]

5.0 PROCEDURES
1

The capillary tube is partially filled with acetone to a depth of approximately 35mm.

the top nut was removed from metal fitting.


Carefully, the capillary tube was inserted through the rubber ring, inside the metal nut

until the top of the tube rests on the top of the nut.
Gently the assembly is screwed onto the top plate, with the T piece normal to the
microscope. The flexible air tube was connected to one end of the T piece. The

object lens is adjusted to within 20-30 mm from the tank.


The vertical height of the microscope was adjusted until the capillary tube is visible.
When the meniscus has been determined, the vernier scale should be aligned with a

5
6
7

suitable graduation on the fixed scale.


Then, the air pump was switched on.
The level inside the capillary tube was recorded.
The temperature controlled water bath was switched on and a steady temperature was

obtained.
The reading was taken every 5 minutes for 10 times. The experiment was done at
temperature 45C and 50C.

6.0 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS


6.1 Apparatus

Figure 2: Gaseous Diffusion Apparatus

TR 14 Membrane Test Unit apparatus.

500 mL beakers.

Electronic balance.

Gloves
9

Ruler

6.2 Materials
1
2
3

Acetone
Sodium Chloride
Water

7.0 RESULTS
Intial Length, Lo = 10.3
Temperature, T = 45C

Time, t (kilosecond, ks)

(Lo L) (mm)

0.3
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
3.0

0.3
0.6
1.0
1.3
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
3.0
3.4

t
Lo L

(ks/mm)

1.00
1.00
0.90
0.92
0.83
0.86
0.88
0.89
0.90
0.88

Table 1

Intial Length, Lo = 7.30


Temperature, T = 50C

Time, t (kilosecond, ks)

(Lo L) (mm)

0.3
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
3.0

0.3
1.0
1.6
0.8
1.3
2.8
2.8
3.3
3.8
4.3
Table 2

10

t
Lo L

(ks/mm)

1.00
0.60
0.56
1.50
1.15
0.64
0.75
0.73
0.71
0.69

8.0 CALCULATIONS
8.1 Sample calculations

8.1.1 Time from commencement of experiment:


5 min x

3600 s
1 min

1000 = 0.3ks

Liquid level (L Lo) : = 0.3


t
LLo

0.3
0.3 = 1.0 ks/mm

8.1.2 Calculation on diffusivity, D (T = 40 C )

Figure 3: Graph of

t
Lo L

against Lo L

3
Density of acetone, = 790 kg/ m

Gas constant, R =

Molecular weight of acetone =

Vapor pressure, Pv = 56 kN/m3


2
Slope, s = 0.036 ks /mm
= 3.6 x

8.314

J
.K
mol
58.08

kg
mol

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10

2
3
Assume standard conditions (P = 101.32 kN/ m , V=22.4 m , T = 273 K)

Tempereature, Ta = 40 C = 313 K

CT = (1/V )(T / Ta ).. Equation [8]


= (1/22.4)(273/313)
= 0.0389 kmol/m3

CB1 = CT = 0.0389 kmol/m3

To find CB2 :
CB2 = (Pa Pv / Pa)CT... Equation [9]
= (101.32-56/ 101.32) 0.0389
= 0.0174 kmol/m3
To find CBM :
CBM = (CB1-CB2)/ln (CB1/CB2).... Equation [10]
= (0.0389 0.0174)/ln (0.0389/0.0174)
= 0.0267
To find Ca :
Ca = (Pv/Pa)CT.. Equation [11]
= (56/101.32) 0.0389
= 0.0215 kmol/m3

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To find diffusivity,D :

D = (L CBm)/
( CACT2sM)

......... Equation [7]

7
D = (790)(0.0267/3.6 x 10 (2x58.08x0.0215x0.0389)

6
D = 6.17 x 10
m2/s

Calculation steps is repeated to find diffusivity, D at T = 50 C

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8.1.3 Calculation on diffusivity, D (T = 50 C )

Figure 4: Graph of

t
Lo L

against Lo L

3
Density of acetone, = 790 kg/ m

Gas constant, R =

Molecular weight of acetone =

Vapor pressure, Pv = 56 kN/m3


2
8
Slope, s = 0.1 ks /mm = 1.0 x 10

8.314

J
.K
mol

Assume standard conditions (P = 101.32 kN/ m

Tempereature, Ta = 50 C = 323 K

58.08

kg
mol
s /m2

, V=22.4 m

, T = 273 K)

CT = (1/V )(T / Ta ).. Equation [1]


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= (1/22.4)(273/323)
= 0.0377 kmol/m3

CB1 = CT = 0.0377 kmol/m3

.. Equation

[2]

To find CB2 :
CB2 = (Pa Pv / Pa)CT.. Equation [3]
= (101.32-56/ 101.32) 0.0377
= 0.0169 kmol/m3
To find CBM :
CBM = (CB1-CB2)/ln (CB1/CB2) Equation [4]
= (0.0377 - 0.0169)/ln (0.0377/0.0169)
= 0.02597
To find Ca :
Ca = (Pv/Pa)CT.. Equation [5]
= (56/101.32) 0.0377
= 0.0208 kmol/m3

To find diffusivity,D :
D = CBM /s(2MCa CT)... Equation [6]
8
D = (790)(0.02597/1.0 x 10 (2x58.08x0.0208x0.0377)

D = 2.252 x 10

15

m2/s

9.0 DISCUSSIONS

In this gas diffusion experiment, equipment used was the Gaseous Diffusion Apparatus
[Model: CER-A (ARMFIEL)]. This equipment has been designed to study the application of
mass transfer focussing on the gas diffusion.

This experiment was conducted to realize the main objectives which are to study the gas
diffusion coefficient and its relationship with the change in temperature. The manipulating
variable involved is the temperature and the responding variable was the level inside the
capillary tube, L which was taken every 0.3 ks until 3.0 ks was reached. This experiment was
carried out for two different temperatures which are at 40 C and 50 C with respect to gas
diffusivity. In particular, gas diffusivity of vapour acetone is calculated.

Utilizing the data obtained, graph of

t
Lo L

against Lo L was

plotted as shown in Figure 3

and 4. From both of these graph, the gradient or also known as the slope,s was calculated.
However, due to the present of errors, data collected has shown to deviate variedly. A linear
graph was not able to be obtained and thus to overcome this problem the slope,s was
calculated taking from two points relative to the line obtained.

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The calculations were proceeds with the aim to find the diffusivity of vapour acetone at
different temperature. It was based on the data collected for T = 40 C, D equivalent to 6.17 x
106

m2/s while at T = 50 C, D was found to be 2.252 x

106

m2/s. This result has

proven that as the temperature increase, the diffusivity decreases which opposes the principle
of gas diffusion from this experiment. Supposedly, the diffusivity of vapor acetone increase
with increasing temperature. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from area of high
concentration to area of lower concentration and this is increased with increasing
temperature which means when the temperature increase the diffusion will speeds up. This
explained when temperature is higher, then the rate of diffusion would probably increase
caused by increasing kinetic activity of the solution. However, due to this inaccuracy,
values for gas diffusivity calculated using Equation [7] may not explain correctly the
definition of gas diffusion.

It has then clearly proved that errors arose during this experiment. Firstly, error mentioned
may be classified as a parallax error. This occurence is especially when data taken for the
level inside the capillary tube was performed. Besides that, inaccurate time relay may causes
human error due to lack in focus in conducting the experiment. Stabilizing of temperature
was also unable to achieve during the experimnent therefore deviating the data obtained.

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10.0 CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, the result for diffusivity coefficient at 40 C is -2504.53 m 2/s and the
diffusivity coefficient at 45 C is -3650.55 m2/s. There are some errors when the experiment
was done. Some of recommendations step should be taken otherwise the result for diffusivity
would not be accurate. To sum up, the experiment had been done with quite accurate results
although some error happened.

11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
Some recommendations should be implements in this experiment. One of them is insulating
the glass container. It will maintain the temperature through the experiment and the heat will
not loss to the surrounding. Next, the reading meter should be stabilized with the person who
read the meter. The person who read it should be at the same level to the meter. By doing this,
parallax and reading error can be minimized.

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12.0 APPLICATIONS
All gas diffusion methods are based on interfacing the donor stream containing the analytic,
with an acceptor stream containing a reagent. The porous hydrophobic membrane serves as a
barrier that allows only the gaseous species passed through. This makes the gas diffusion
methods very selective, since the non-volatile species will not reach the detector. The
instrumental setup can be configured in two ways:

1. The continuous programmable flow method where both donor and acceptor stream
are continuously pumped.

2. The stopped flow technique where both donor and acceptor stream are controlled by
syringe pumps.

The gas diffusion unit for continuous flow has diffusion path 2 cm long and 2 mm wide. The
acceptor stream is monitored by a flow cell with 10 cm long light path. The flow injection
system is operated at a programmable flow rate of 0.75mL/min per channel while the sample
passes through the diffusion unit and at a flow rate of 3.0mL/min during flush period. The
injection volume is 300 microliters of sample and sampling frequency is 40 injections per
hour.

The stop flow method uses the sandwich gas sensor, where the injected analytic is in contact
with the gas diffusion membrane during the stopped flow period. It yields higher sensitivity
and consumes far less of sample and reagents then continuous flow method.

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The Sandwich Gas Diffusion Sensor uses a pair of optical fibres that monitor the acceptor
solution adjacent to the diffusion membrane. The stop flow FI technique is robust, since it
uses syringe pumps, and therefore suitable also for continuous monitoring. Sensitivity of this
method is easily adjusted by selecting the duration of the stopped flow time, while using the
same experimental setup and reagent concentrations. The Sandwich Sensor provides response
in real time, since it monitors the kinetics of the diffusion and of the subsequent chemical
reaction and uses smaller volumes of sample than the continuous flow method.

Figure 6
Figure 5

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13.0 REFFERNCES

Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Gaseous Diffusion Coefficients.


Retrieved November 15, 2012 from
http://jpcrd.aip.org/resource/1/jpcrbu/v1/i1/p3_s1?isAuthorized=no

Gases: Grahams Laws of Diffusion and Effusion. Grahams Law. Retrieved


November 15, 2012 from
http://www.chem.tamu.edu/class/majors/tutorialnotefiles/graham.htm

Diffusion of Gases. Diffusion and Effusion. Retrieved November 16 2012 from


http://chem.salve.edu/chemistry/diffusion.asp

USEC.

Gaseous

Diffusion.

RetrievedNovember

16,

2012

from

http://www.usec.com/gaseous-diffusion

Advancing the Chemical Sciences. Learn Chemistry: Diffusion of gases of ammonia


and hydrogen chloride. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from http://www.rsc.org/learnchemistry/wiki/TeacherExpt:Diffusion_of_gases_-_ammonia_and_hydrogen_chloride

14.0 APPENDIX
Refer attachment on the next page (page 22)

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