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1.2.

, , .
,
.
(
) , ,
, .
, ,

, ..
, ,
,
.
,
.
-. ,
,
.
.
,
.
,
, .
(1.1.12) ,
k w k g ( w) .
kl ( w)
1 k g ( w)
(1.2.1)
(1.1.17)
, . kl ( w) 0
,
.
,
, .
,
k g ( w)

T
exp w ,
Z g ( w) Rg ( w) p0
TG 0
Z g Rg pw

(1.2.2)

.
.

T .
T Ts ( p) .

Ts ( p ) p , : 1)
; 2) ; 3)
.
.
(
) ,
.
.

(.1.1.6).

. , ,
,
.

p
Ts 0 ,
p
s 0
Th* ,
, ps 0 , Ts 0
.
Ts ( p ) Th* ln

. 1.1.6.
0.554 () 1.0.

,
Ts , K .
K

y
Ki i ,
(1.2.3)
si
yi , si i -o
.
K i ,
,

ln K i A B Ts C p D Ts 1 E
p1 F p Ts G Ts 2 H p 2

I p
Ts 1 J ln
p Ts1

K p 2

L Ts p 1 M Ts 2 p 1

(1.2.4)

N p
Ts 2 O Ts p3 Q Ts 3 R p 3 Ts 2 S Ts 4 ,
o
p , psi ( ); Ts , F .
(1.2.4) 1.
Ki

( :
, , ), .
, , , si 0 , . .
.
,

si 1 .
i

(1.2.3)
y
Ki 1 .
i
i

y
f Ts 1 i .
(1.2.5)
i Ki
,
, , ,
.
.
1-2 .
.
273 .
, K
0 t 20 oC , 0.7 p
7
.

CH 4

A
1.63636

B
0.0

C
0.0

D
31.6621

E
-49.3534

C2 H6

6.41934

0.0

0.0

-290.283

2629.10

C3 H 8

-7.8499

0.0

0.0

47.056

0.0

i-C4 H10

-2.17137

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

n-C 4 H10

-37.211

0.86564

0.0

732.20

0.0

N2

1.78857

0.0

-0.001356

-6.187

0.0

CO 2

9.0242

0.0

0.0

-207.033

0.0

H2 S

-4.7071

0.06192

0.0

82.627

0.0

CH 4

F
-5.31E-6

G
0.0

H
0.0

I
0.128525

J
-0.78338

C2 H6

0.0

0.0

-9.0E-8

0.129759

-1.19703

C3 H 8

-1.17E-6

7.145E-4

0.0

0.0

0.12348

i-C4 H10

0.0

1.251E-3

1.0E -8

0.166097

-2.75945

n-C 4 H10

0.0

0.0

9.37E-6

-1.07657

0.0

N2

0.0

0.0

2.5E-7

0.0

0.0

CO 2

4.66E-5

-6.992E-3

-2.89E-6

-6.223E-3

0.0

H2 S

-7.39E-6

0.0

0.0

0.240869

-0.64405

CH 4

K
0.0

L
0.0

M
0.0

N
-5.3569

O
0.0

C2 H6

-8.46E4

-71.0352

0.596404

-4.7437

7.82E4

C3 H 8

1.669E4

0.0

0.23319

0.0

-4.48E4

i-C4 H10

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

-8.84E2

n-C 4 H10

0.0

-66.221

0.0

0.0

9.17E5

N2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

5.87E5

CO 2

0.0

0.0

0.27098

0.0

0.0

H2 S

0.0

0.0

0.0

-12.704

0.0

CH 4

-2.3E-7

-2.0E-8

0.0

C2 H6

0.0

0.0

0.0

C3 H 8

5.5E-6

0.0

0.0

i-C4 H10

0.0

-5.4E-7

-1.0E-8

n-C 4 H10

0.0

4.98 E-6

-1.26E-6

N2

0.0

1.0E-8

1.1E-7

CO 2

8.82E-5

2.55E-7

0.0

H2 S

-13E-6

0.0

0.0

,
Ts ,

,
:
15 20 ;
230 400 .
.
, -I -II

2

h ( w) h0( w) ( p, T ) RT vi ln 1 i ,

(1.2.6)

i 1
N

1 1 j , 2 2 j ,
j 1

j 1

(1.2.7)

h ( w) ,

h0( w) ( p, T )


() ,
,
N ,
R ,
T , ,
1 j , 2 j j-
,
1 , 2 ,
vi i - .


Cij p j
ij
,
(1.2.8)
1 Cij p j
j

Cij , p j j - .
j -
j -
pj yj p .

,
.

Aij
Bij ,
(1.2.9)
Cij
exp

T
T
Aij , Bij , 2.
Cij 1, Aij / , Bij .
2.

A102 ,

B,

C3 H 8

I
II
I
II
II

/
0,7228
0,2207
0
0
0

i -C4 H10

II

n-C4 H10

II

N2

I
II
I
II
I
II

0
1,617
0,1742
0,2474
0,0845
0,0250
0,0298

0
2905
3082
3410
3615
4568
4878

CH 4
C2 H6

CO 2
H 2S

3187
3453
0
0
0

A102 ,

B,

/
23,35
100
3,039
240
5,455

2653
1916
3861
2967
4638

189,3

3800

30,51

3699

6,078
18
42,46
851
16,34
87,2

2431
1728
2813
2025
3737
2633

h ( w) l ( w) ,
(1.2.10)
l ( w) ,
.
(1.2.10) (
)

2

h0( w) ( p, T ) RT vi ln 1 i l0( w) RT ln l ( w) 1 kl ( m ) , (1.2.11)


i 1

l0( w)
kl ( m)
l ( w)

(
T 273 ),
,
,

N 1

N 1

j 1

j 1

1 j , 2

2 j ,

1, N 1 , 2, N 1
(
1, N 1 2, N 1 0 ).
kl ( m)
.
l ( w)

,
.

w h0( w) l0( w) .
(1.2.12)

(1.2.12) (1.2.11)
2

w RT vi ln 1 i RT ln l ( w) 1 kl ( m ) 0 .
i 1

(1.2.13)

w
p
0
w w p0 , T0 s h T
V

dT

dp ,

2
RT
RT0
RT
RT
T
p
T

h T h0 T0

(1.2.14)

C p T dT ,

(1.2.15)

T0

T0 273,15 ,
p0 0 ,
w0 , h0
T0
p0 ,
V ( )
(4,6 5 3/ -I -II )
(3 3,4 3/)
(
),
T T
T 0 s ,
2
C p
( T 273,15 ) ( T 273,15 ), /
().
C p C 0p b T T0 .
(1.2.16)
(1.2.13) (1.2.14)
w0 s h T

dT
2
T0
T
T
T

p0

2
V
dp R vi ln 1 i R ln l ( w) 1 kl ( m) 0 .
T
i 1

(1.2.17)

C p T dT C p bT0 T T0 2 T
b

T0

(1.2.18) (1.2.15)

h T h0 T0 C 0p bT0 T T0

T02 .

(1.2.18)

(1.2.19)

b 2
T T02 .
2

h T

Ts

T0

T2

dT ...

bT02 1 1
Ts b
0
0
0
h T0 C pT0

bT
ln
Ts T0 .

p
0
2
T0 2

T0 Ts
(1.2.20) (1.2.17)
0
w
bT02 1 1
Ts b
0
0
0
h T0 C pT0

bT
ln
Ts T0

p
0
T T
T0
2
T
2
s
0

p0

(1.2.20)

2
V
dp R vi ln 1 i R ln l ( w) 1 kl ( m) 0.
T
i 1

(1.2.21)
(1.2.21)
p

p0

V
V
dp
p p0 .
T
T


w0
bT02 1 1
Ts b
0
0
0
h T0 C pT0

bT
ln
Ts T0

p
0
T0
2
T0 2

T0 Ts

2
V

p p0 R vi ln 1 i R ln l ( w) 1 kl (m) 0.
T
i 1

(1.2.22)

(1.2.22)

-I

-II

v1
v2

1/23
3/23

2/17
1/17

C 0p , /
>273,15

<273,15
>273,15
<273,15

()
b,
/
C 0p , /
()
b,
/
V ,
3/
V ,

-38.13
0.141
3,317
0,121
4,6

3,4

273,15
273,15

3/
h0 ,
/
w0 ,
/

931

764

1287,00

1068,00

, (1.2.22),
.

w0
bT02 1 1
Ts
0
0
0
f Ts
h T0 C pT0

bT
ln

p
0
T T
T0
2
T
0
s
0

(1.2.23)
2
b
V
Ts T0
p p0 R vi ln 1 i R ln l ( w) 1 kl (m) .
2
T
i 1
,
Ts .
.

, ,
f Ts 0 .
, ,
( ,
).

.

f Ts 0 ,
,
.
, ,
, .
.
.

, .
,

. 1.1.7.
.

.

(.
.1.1.7).
z .
, ,
- .
t
h .
(1.2.24)
M h h V ,

.
V 2 a z

M h jh S
t,

(1.2.25)

jh
, S 2 a z
.
(1.2.24) (1.2.25)
h 2 a
z jh 2
a z t
.

j
h.
t h
t 0 , ,

j
h.
t h
(1.2.26)
z .
,


, .
( )

,
.
, T
(
, )
Ts ( p ) ,
.

qg lh jh q G ,

jh

q G qg

,
lh
lh , .
, ,
(
). , -
, ,
,
. ,
.
,

. T
T Ts ( p) , p
.
,
( k g ( w) 0 ).

,
. ,
,

D
jh ( w)
g kwSh ,
(1.2.28)
2a
Pr( D ) / D .
Sh 0,021 Re 0,8 Pr(0D, 43
) ,
D , Pr(D)
; Sh .
,
.
.1.1.7.
t ,
M h M h ( w) M h (c ) .

kh ( c )

M h ( c )
M h

kh (c ) ,
, .

M h M h ( w) kh ( c ) M h .

M h jh S
t,
M h ( w) jh ( w) S
t.

jh jh ( w) kh (c ) jh .
,


jh jh ( w) (1 kh (c ) ) .
(1.2.29)
,
: .
, ,
.
, .
,
,
. :

, .

,
. ,
, .
,
.

, ,
, ,
.
, (.1.1.8).

. 1.1.8.


.
(.1.1.9).

. 1.1.9.


. z zs ,
kl ( w) 0 T Ts ( p) .
; jh
(1.2.27)
q G qg
jh
lh
(1.1.35), (1.1.38)
qg g (T T ) ,
q G G (T TG )
T Ts ( p) .
(1.1.9)
dk
m w J h ( w)
dz
z zs
kw , .. . z z
, (1.2.28)
D
jh ( w)
g kwSh ,
2a

(1.2.29)
jh ( w) (1 kh (c ) ) jh
(1.2.27)
jh

q G qg
lh

,
. ( z z ) jh
(1.2.29) ( (1.2.28))
D
jh jh ( w) (1 kh (c ) ) ,
jh ( w)
g k wSh .
2a
T
z z (1.2.27)
g Tg GTG lh jh
T
.
g G
- ,
h , lh ,
kh( c ) ,

.
,
.
N h( w) (46
I- 136 II- ),
1w . , 1 ,
1
N h( w) w .
1

ij vi 1j ,
i 1 j 1

ij i - j -
, vi i - (2 6
I- , 16 8 II- ), k
( I II 2, ), N
1
, , j j - .
,
N h ( w) 1w

ij vi 1j .
i 1 j 1

N h( w) w ij vi j .
i 1 j 1

N AVcel ,

N h( w) w ij vi j ,

(1.2.30)

i 1 j 1

N AVcel

N A ( 6,023 1023 /), Vcel


27 3 II-
(1,728 1027 I- , 5,178 10
).

0 oC , (1.2.30).
4

CO2

H 2S


I
I
II
II
I

, /3
0,913
0,967
0,899
0,934
1,107

1,046
0,917

( ).
(
).

.

. ,


dps lh
g ,
dTs Ts

dps
l
dT
(1.2.31)
h 2s ,
ps Z g R Ts
R .

ps f Ts (,
ln ps 146,1094 0,3165Ts 16556,8 / Ts ),
(1.2.31)
d ln ps .
Ts 2 dps
(1.2.32)
lh Z g R
lh Z g R

d 1 / Ts
ps dTs
, ,

(1.2.32)
.

.
(1.2.31)

dps
lh
dTs .
(1.2.33)

ps Z g R T 2
s
,
lh Z g Ts
.
(1.2.33)
(1.2.34)
ps p* exp T* / Ts ,
p* exp const ,
l
T* h .
Zg R

(1.2.35)

,
ps1, Ts1 ps 2 , Ts 2 ,
T* .
(1.2.34)
ps1 p* exp T* / Ts1 ,
ps 2 p* exp T* / Ts 2 .

T T
ps1
exp T* s1 s 2 ,
ps 2
Ts1Ts 2

T T
p
(1.2.36)
T* s1 s 2 ln s1 .
Ts1 Ts 2 ps 2
(1.2.35) (1.2.36)
T T
p
(1.2.37)
lh Z g R s1 s 2 ln s1 .
Ts1 Ts 2 ps 2
, (1.2.37)
.
ps1, Ts1 .
(1.2.37) ,

1
Ts
1 Z g R ps1 .

ln
Ts1
lh
p
.

M nH 2O ,

M , n n M , p, T ,
.
n 6 CH 4 6H 2O .
n .

23
nI N
N
,
1i 3 2i
i 1

n II

i 1

17
N

i 1

i 1

21i 2i

1
1 n ,

h g n w ,
,
h h ( c ) ,
h ( w) nh nh (c ) .

M h( c ) gh( c) g
g
kh ( c )

.
M h
hh
h g n w

1
% w .
,
(1.2.38)
g
1 n%


18
w 18 /, CH 4 16 /, % 1,125 ,
16
1
kh ( c )
0,129 .
1 6 1,25
kh ( c )

D.
D
. ,
,
.
.

D .
,

Pr( D ) / D .

Pr( D )
, ,
0,5-1,0.
,
(1.2.28) -
.
D , ,
,
0,5-1,0.
,
( ), ,
D
2/.

D 106

(
104 102 2/). ,
,
.