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Lokyata
Journal of Positive Philosophy
(ISSN: 2249-8389)

Volume VI, No. 01


(March, 2016)
Chief-Editor:
Desh Raj Sirswal

Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies


(CPPIS) Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128 (Haryana)
http://positivephilosophy.webs.com
http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389)


Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy is an online bi-annual interdisciplinary journal of
the Center for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) . The name
Lokyata can be traced to Kautilya's Arthashastra, which refers to three nvkiks (logical
philosophies), Yoga, Samkhya and Lokyata. Lokyata here still refers to logical debate
(disputatio, "criticism") in general and not to a materialist doctrine in particular. The
objectives of the journal are to encourage new thinking on concepts and theoretical
frameworks in the disciplines of humanities and social sciences to disseminate such new
ideas and research papers (with strong emphasis on modern implications of philosophy)
which have broad relevance in society in general and mans life in particular. The Centre
publishes two issues of the journal every year. Each regular issue of the journal contains
full-length papers, discussions and comments, book reviews, information on new books
and other relevant academic information. Each issue contains about 100 Pages.
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
Chief-Editor:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal (Assistant Professor (Philosophy, P.G.Govt. College for Girls,
Sector-11, Chandigarh
Associate Editors:
Dr. Merina Islam, Dr. Sandhya Gupta
Editorial Advisory Board
Prof. K.K. Sharma (Former-Pro-Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong).
Prof. (Dr.) Sohan Raj Tater, Former Vice Chancellor, Singhania University ,
Rajasthan).
Dr. Ranjan Kumar Behera (Patkai Christian College (Autonomous), Nagaland).
Dr. Geetesh Nirban (Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi).
Dr. K. Victor Babu (Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Andhra
University, Visakhapatnam).
Dr Rasmita Satapathy (Department of Philosophy, Ramnagar College, West Bengal.)
Mr.Pankoj Kanti Sarkar (Department of Philosophy, Debra Thana Sahid Kshudiram
Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal).
Declaration: The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of the
individual authors, and not necessary of those of CPPIS or the Chief-Editor.

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In this issue..

Title of the Paper & Author


Discourse on Yogaja Pratyaka in Vaieika Philosophy: Soma

Page No.
04-11

Chakraborty
The Relationship between The Triguna and Five Factor Model of

12-25

Personality: Lakhwinder Singh


The Beginning of the Politics of Human Rights: Pundrik Ojha

26-33

Philosophy of Sufism and Islam: Desh Raj Sirswal

34-38
39-53

Role of Youth Vis-a-Vis Value System: Some Suggestive Measures:

54-65

Priyanka Sharma, Ms Poonam Pant


REPORT OF THE PROGRAMME

66-76

PUBLICATIONS

77-78

PHILOSOPHY NEWS IN INDIA

79-82

CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE

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83

1.

Discourse on Yogaja Pratyaka in Vaieika Philosophy


Soma Chakraborty
The term yogaja pratyaka indicates such type of perceptual knowledge that the yogin-s
alone can possess. Here, the term yogin means those persons, who are in continuous
practice of yoga. Yogin-s are of two types, viz. yukta and viyukta.1 Before we discuss the
perception of those two types of yogin-s, it should be mentioned that here the term yoga
means samdhi, and yoga is of two types, viz. samprajtayoga and asamprajtayoga.2
The adherents of the Vaieika school maintain that one who is eager for liberation,
attains asamprajtayoga in his last birth when the avidy of that person as well as the
saskra-s due to that avidy are destroyed, and the mind that is absolutely under control
of the knower becomes conjoined with any object whatsoever without the presence of
any intention. Merit (dharma) cannot be produced from such asamprajtayoga, since
intention or desire that is the auxiliary cause of merit remains absent at this state. No
external entities are grasped at this state, since at this state, the antakaraa alone is
transformed in its own nature.3
On the other hand, samprajtayoga is the conjunction between the self that is
extremely eager for tattvajna, and the mind that has been controlled and fixed in a

1.(a) asmadvii tu yogin yuktn yogajadharmnughtena manas


svtmntarkadikklaparamuvyumanassu tatsamavetaguakarmasmnyavieesu samavye
cvitatha svarpadaranamutpadyate. viyuktn punacatuayasannikard yogajadharmnugrahasmarthyt skavyavahitaviprakeu pratyaka utpadyate.
Padrthadharmasagraha,
Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn., pp.464-465.
(b) yogipratyakamhaasmadviinmiti. vivaraa yoginmiti, dhyninmityartha. te ca
dvividh, yuktaviyuktabhedt. Kiraval, Baroda edn., p.189.
2. (a) yoga samdhi. sa dvividhasamprajtosamprajtaca. Nyyakandal, Sampurnananda
Sanskrit University edn., p.464.
(b) yastvekgre cetasi sadbhtam artha pradyotayatisa samprajto yoga itykhyyate.
sarvavttinirodhe tvasamprajta samdhi.Vysas commentary on Yogasta 1/1.
3. asamprajtaca vaktasya manaso nirabhisandhirnirabhyutthnt kvacidtmapradee sayoga.
tatryamuttaro mumukmavidysaskravilayrthamantye janmani paripacyate, na
dharmamupacinoti, abhisandhisahakriviraht. npi bhya viayamabhimukhkaroti, tmanyeva
parimt. Nyyakandal, Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn., p.465.

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specific province of the self by some volition conducive to such fixation (dhraka
prayatna).4 In the presence of the merit that is produced by yoga due to the assistance of
the desire for knowing some object, the yogin, who is eager for knowledge of reality
(tattvajna) that is needed for liberation, becomes able to perceive all sorts of objects at
the stage of samprajtayoga. The yogin, who attains samprajtayoga, but does not
attain asamprajtayoga, possesses nevertheless the ability for the attainment of such
asamprajtayoga. Since the total annihilation of avidy does not take place at the stage
of samprajtayoga, the yogin belonging to this stage is not able to perceive those
objects that are not perceptible by ordinary people.5 Those who attain such
samprajtayoga are known as yuktayogin-s. Due to their practice of yoga, the
yuktayogin-s are able to perceive correctly their own selves, the selves of other people,
imperceptible and subtle objects like ka, space, time, atom, air, mind, and also the
qualities, actions, and universals of those categories, particularities and inherence. The
yuktayogin-s perceive those objects with certainty with the help of the mind.6 The
conjunction with self is the operative relation, which is essential for perception of the self
of the yogin himself. For the perception of the qualities, actions, universals and
particularities, which inhere in self, and other imperceptible substances, the required
operative relation is inherence in the conjoined. The inherence in the inherent in the
conjoined is the operative relation that is required for the perception of the universals

4. samprajto dhrakea prayatnena kvacidtmapradee vaktasya manasastattvabubhutsviientman sayoga. Nyyakandal, Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn., p.464-465.
5. prvastu yogobhisandhisahya pratanoti dharmam. yadartha tattvabubhtsviiaca
tadarthamuddyotayati, iti tena yogena yogina cyutayog api yogyatay yogina ucyante. na ca
temaprakamalvaran tadnmatndriyrthadaranamastyata hayuktnmiti. Nyyakandal,
Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn., p.465.
6.(a) yuktn yagajadharmnughtena manas svtmntarkadikklaparamuvyumanastu
tatsamavetaguakarmasmnyavieeu samavye cvitatha svarpadaranamutpadyate.
Padrthadharmasagraha, Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn., p.465.
(b)tatra yuktn samdhyavasthn yogajadharmnughtena tatsahakri manas
aparokasvarpadarana janyate. kevartheu? svtm ctmntarackaca dik ca klaca vyuca
paramavaca manaceti tathoktni teu. Vyomavat, Vol-II, pp.143-144.
(c)yuktn samdhyavasthitn yogajadharmnughtena manas svtmani, svtmntareu
svtmana tmntareu parakyeu, ke dii kle vyau pramumanastu tatsamaveteu gudiu
samavye cvitathamaviparyasta svarpadarana bhavati. Nyyakandal, Sampurnananda Sanskrit
University edn., pp. 465-466.

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inherent in those qualities and actions, whereas qualification of the conjoined is essential
for perception of the inherence.7
In this connection, it should be mentioned here that the mind always functions as the
instrumental cause (karaa) in the case of the perception of yogin-s. The question that
can be obviously raised here iswhat will be the karaa for the perception of the mind
(atakaraa) of the yogin himself? According to Vyomaiva, the mind that has been
delimited by the self-mind conjunction, functions as the instrumental cause (karaa) for
the perception of the atakaraa of the yogin himself. The mind of the yogin becomes
related with other minds after duly ejecting from his subtle body (skma arra), and
thus, the other minds become the objects of perception of the yogin-s.8
As has been stated before, the yogin can perceive not only his own self, but also the
selves of other people. It is true that unlike yogin-s, ordinary people are not able to
perceive the selves of other people, but they can perceive their own selves as well as the
qualities etc. that inhere in those selves. Here, it should be noted that an ordinary person
perceives his own self as well as the qualities etc. of the self only when his self has been
attached with his body, and due to such attachment with the body, that person fails to
perceive the actual nature of his self, i.e. his perceptual cognitions about the self of the
forms I am fat or this is my body are indeed non-veridical.9 In this connection, let us
consider an objection. It is true that generally, an ordinary person perceives his own self
only when his self is attached with the body, though sometimes he perceives his own self
as detached from his body. Hence, one may ask whether the perceptual cognition about

7. (a) tath na para svtmdiu sayuktena manas yoginmaparokagrahaa tatsamaveteu


guakarmasmnydivieeu sayuktasamavyena, samavye ca sayuktavieaa-vieyabhvena
grahaam. ataeva samavyasya pthagabhidhna vibhinnasannikara-paricchedyatvt. guakarmasu
paramvdigateu yatsmnya tatra sayuktasamavetasamavyena. Vyomavat, Vol-II, p.144.
(b) See also Vysas commentary on Yogasta nos. 3/2-9, 3/16-20, 3/25-29, 3/32-36 and 3/49 for a
detiled account.
8. atha yog yad svamantakaraa ghti tad ki karaam? tmanasayoga, tasmin
manaparicchedye mana eva karaamiti. parakyena ca manas sukhmaarrastha mana
preryamabhisambandhayati,tatsambaddhaca tadghtti. Ibid.
9. asmaddibhirtm sarvadaivha mameti karttvasvmitvarpasabhinna pratyate, ubhaya
caitaccharrdyupdhikta rpa na svbhvikamata eva aha mameti, pratyayo mithydiriti gyate,
sarvapravdeu, vipartarpagrhakatvt. Nyyakandal, Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn.,
p.466.

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ones own self in the second situation can be considered as veridical. In his Kiraval,
Udayana tries to give the answer to this question. Udayana maintains that it is true that
such a perceptual cognition about the self as detached from the body must be considered
as veridical, but nevertheless, due to the predominance of the non-veridical cognitions
and the traces of those non-veridical cognitions, that veridical cognition about the self
fails to produce any trace (saskra), just as kalamabja, one of the best kinds of the
seeds of rice, fails to produce any sprout if it is sown in saline soil, and is thus as good as
non-existent.10 Therefore, the conclusion can be drawn that the veridical cognition of the
self cannot be attained by the ordinary people; it can be attained only by the yogin-s.
When the yogin, who has determination for attaining veridical cognition about the self as
has been described in the Upaniad-s, practices the thinking about the self after detaching
the mind from external sense-organs, and attaching it to a certain province of the self,
then due to the merit acquired through yoga, the yogin has a veridical cognition that
reveals the tattva, i.e. the real nature of the self that is devoid of any egoity (ahakra).11
The merit achieved through yoga by the yogin-s acquires excellence when they practice
meditation along with the desire for knowing space, time, selves of other people etc. Due
to the influence of such merit, the internal organ (antakaraa) of the yogin relates itself
with space, time, selves of other people etc. after ejecting from the body of that yogin.
Conjunction between the internal organ of the yogin, and the selves of other people
functions as the operative relation for perception of those selves of other people. Just like
the qualities etc. that inhere in the self of the yogin, the qualities etc. that inhere in the
selves of other people also can be perceived by the yogin, and the operative relation that
is essential for the perception of the qualities, actions etc. of other selves is inherence in

10. yadyapi svatmsmaddn kadcit vigalitaarrvimirbhva kaamtramytyeva tathpi


balavadavidysaskramadhyapatitametadvijna pratipakakakpraveena paravaktaarramajnakalpakakarlitytmbhmau bhmviva kalamabja saskrakurya na kalpata
ityasatkalpatay upekya yogipratyake daritamityavadheyam. Kiraval, Baroda edn., p.190.
11. (a) svbhvika tu yadasya svarpa tadyogibhirlokyate, yad hi yog vedntapraveditamtmasvarpamaha tattvatonujnymityabhisandhnd bahirindriyebhyo mana pratyhtya
kvacidtmadee niyamyaikgrataytmnucintanamabhyasyati, tadsya tattvajnasavartakadharmdhnakramehakramamakravinirmuktamtmatattva sphubhavati. Nyyakandal,
Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn., p.466.
(b) tatra yukt indriyebhya pratyhtyasktkartavyavastunydarea mano vidhrya
pravartamnacintsantn. Kiraval, Baroda edn., p.189.

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the conjoined. The operative relation, namely inherence in the inherent in the conjoined is
essential for the perception of the universals present in the qualities and actions, which
inhere in the selves of other people. Here, it should be noted that for the Vaieikas,
unlike the ordinary people, the yogin-s can perceive inherence. The relation of
characteriser-characterised is the required operative relation for the perception of
inherence and absence, which are located in those selves. Due to constant practice, yoga
of the yogin-s can have the veridical and perceptual cognition of imperceptible objects
like ka, the selves of other people etc., just as through constant practice (abhysa), the
proficiency acquired by the practitioners of some academic discipline (vidy) or some art
or craft (ilpa) enables those practitioners to perform some deeds that are beyond the
capacity of people who have not undertaken such practice.12 The yogin-s are thus able to
perceive all cognitive objects just by their minds, and without the assistance of external
sense-organs due to continuous practice of yoga. Udayana compares such perceptual
cognition of the yogin-s with the perceptual cognition of the libidinous person, who
constantly thinks of some woman desired by him, and who has hallucinatory perception
of that woman even when she is absent.13 We will now discuss the perception of the
viyuktayogin-s.
The viyukta yogin-s are those who, due to their continuous practice of yoga, can
perceive imperceptible objects even they are when actually not in the stage of yoga. In
the presence of the conjunction between four entities, viz. self, mind, sense-organ and
object, and due to the assistance of the merit or virtue (dharma), which has been attained
by the practice of yoga, the viyuktayogin-s become able to perceive all those objects and
even produce those objects, which are not present in front of them. They are also able to
12. yad tu partmkakldibubhutsay tadanucintanapravhamabhyasyati, tadsya
paratmditattvajnnuguocintyaprabhvo dharma upacyate, tadbalccntakaraa bahi
arrnnnirgatya partmdibhi sayujyate. teu sayogt, sayuktasamavyt tadgudiu,
sayuktasamavetasamavyt tadguatvdiu, sambaddhavieaabhvena samavybhvayor-jna
janayati. da tvat samhitena manasbhyasyamnasya vidylipderajtasypi jnam.
taditaratrnumnam. tmkdivabhysapracaya-stattvajnahetu, viibhysatvd
vidyilpdyabhysavat. Nyyakandal, Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn., pp.466-467.
13. viyuktstu atyantbhysena paramavakrampannavigatvara sarvata pradyotamanaso
nirvaeitbhys. tatra yuktn samdhisthn yogajadharmnughtena manaseti. bhysikasya
saskrapracayasya kmture kminjnasdhrayena pratyakaikahetun. Kiraval, Baroda edn.,
p. 189.

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perceive all kinds of minute objects like mind, atoms etc., and objects which have been
covered by something, e.g. ngaloka etc., and all those objects that are situated in the
remote place, e.g. brahmaloka etc. The viyukta yogin-s can thus perceive not only those
objects, which are situated in the present time, but also all sorts of past and future
objects.14
From the discussion hitherto it is clear that any kinds of objects can be perceived by the
yogin-s. That is why the yogin-s can be considered as omniscient beings. In this
connection, it should be mentioned that rvallava divides perception into two types, viz.
perception of the omniscient beings, and perception of ordinary people, who are not
omniscient.15 The cognition of an omniscient being indeed attains the highest level of
vividness. The properties that admit of quantitative differences must have a highest level
as well as a lowest level. Thus, e.g. atom and ka are the respective loci of the lowest
and highest level of magnitude (parima). Likewise, in the case of cognition, cognition
of omniscient being is the highest kind of cognition, which reveals all entities, and whose
range of objects thus exceeds the ranges of objects of the cognitions of non-omniscient
persons.16
Against this view, one can say that there is no such rule on the basis of which it can be
said that everything that admits of degrees must have an upper limit. In this connection,
we can cite the instance of jumping. It is true that due to continuous practice, one can
increase ones capacity of jumping, but no amount of practice can enable one to jump

14. (a) viyuktn punacatuayasannikart asmaddnmiva pratyakamutpadyate jnam.


kevartheu? skmavyavahitaviprakeu iti. skm paramavo vyavahit ngabhuvandayo
viprak mervdayastevaparoka jnam. asamdhyavasthn yogajadharmnugraha-smarthyt
tadutpadyate, yogndriy hi dharmavienugrahea sarvatrpratibandht. Vyomavat, Vol-II,
p.144.
(b) tath ca te cakurdinaiva skmepi paramvdau, vyavahite ngaloke, deaviprake
surasadandike, klaviprake attngate, manas yogajadharmnugrharpt smarthyt.
jnamutpadyate iti. catuayasannikard ityanenendriyasannikarajatvamupalakyate. Kiraval,
Baroda edn., p.190.
15.adhyakamapi dvedh sarvajyamanyath ca. sarvajsiddau tatkatham. tath hi na
sarvajodhyakagamya. Nyyallvat, p. 471.
16. (a) tath abhysavad buddhestratamyamupalabhyamna kvacid virnta tratamyaabdavcyatvdauparimatratamyavat. yatra virmastesmaddivilaka yogina ityanumnasya tu
nirdiaty yogisadbhvasiddhe Vyomavat, Vol-II, p.145.
(b) tath buddhestratamya kvacinniratiaya stiayatvt parimatratamyavat. Nyyakandal,
Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn., p.467.

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over a mountain. In the same way, warmness of water, which has been heated by fire,
may be increased or decreased; but no one can apprehend the highest level of the warmth
of water. Indeed, on the application of excessive heat, the water simply evaporates.
Hence, the inference that there must be a highest level of cognition, and also that the
cognition of omniscient being is that highest kind of cognition is not tenable. In response
to this objection, it can be said that only that property, which subsists in a permanent
substratum, can be increased through repeated attempts, and thereby, it can obtain its
ultimate level. For example, due to repeated melting and removal of dross, pureness of
gold can reach its ultimate level. On the other hand, since there is no such permanent
substratum of the warmth of water, the highest level of such warmth cannot be obtained
by any one. In the same way, the maximum degree of the act of jumping can never be
obtained by anyone, since it does not have any permanent substratum, because the body,
which is the substratum of this act, happens to be an effect, and hence, non-eternal. But
cognition is a property of the self, which is permanent in nature. For that reason, the level
of cognition can be increased by proper practice. Hence, the yogin-s can possess the
highest kind of cognition due to the presence of the virtue that has been attained by them
due to the continuous practice of yoga.17
Bibliography:
1.

Patajali: Yogastra, with Bhya of Vysa, Tattvavairadi of Vcaspati


Mira and Yogavrttika of Vijnabhiku, Edited by Damodaralal Goswami,
Published by Jayakrisnadas Haridas Gupta, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office,
Benares, 1935.

17. nanu santpyamnasyodakasyauye tratamyamasti, na ca tasya sarvtiy


vahirpatpattilakaa prakaro dyate. npi laghanbhysasya kvacid virntitaravagat, na sosti
puruo ya samutplavena bhuvanatraya laghayati. ucyate ya sthirrayo dharma svraye ca
vieamrabhate, sobhysa karmea prakaraparyantamsdayati. yath kaladhautasya
puapkaprabandhhit uddhi par raktasratm. na codakatpasya sthira rayo
yatryamabhyasyamna par kh gacchet, atyantatpe satyudakaparikayt. npi
laghanbhysasya svraye viedhyakatvamasti, niranvayavinae prvalaghane laghanntarasya
balntart prayatnntardapyaprvavadutpatte. ata eva tricaturotplava-parirntasya laghana
prvasmdapacyate, smarthyaparikayt. buddhistu sthirray svraye vieamdhatte,
prathamamaghtrthasya puna punarabhyasyamnasya grahaadarant. tasy
prvaprvbhyshitdhikottaraviedhnakramea drghakldaranairantaryea sevity
yogajadharmnugrahasamsditaakte prakaraparyantaprptirnnupapattimat. Nyyakandal,
Sampurnananda Sanskrit University edn., pp.467-468.

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2.

Praastapdcrya: Padrthadharmasagraha, with the commentary


Vyomavat of Vyomaivcrya, Edited by Gaurinath Sastri, Sampurnananda
Sanskrit University, Volumes I and II, Varanasi, 1984.

3.

Praastapdcrya: Padrthadharmasagraha, with the commentary


Nyyakandal of rdhara Bhaa, Edited by Durgadhara Jha, Varanasi, 1977.

4.

Praastapdcrya: Padrthadharmasagraha, with the commentary


Kiraval of Udayancrya, Edited by Jitendra S. Jetly, Oriental Institute,
Baroda, 1971.

5.

rvallabhcrya:

Nyyallvat,

with

the

commentaries

of

Vardhamnopdhyya, akara Mira and Bhagratha Thakkura, Edited by


Harihara Sastri and Dhundhiraja Sastri, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office,
Varanasi, 1934.

http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

12

2.
The Relationship between The Triguna and Five Factor Model of
Personality
Lakhwinder Singh

Abstract
The present study is an exploratory investigation for understanding the relationship
between Triguna (three gunas) and big five factor model of personality. Samples of 244
graduate students were randomly drawn from the various colleges of Kurukshetra district
of Haryana state, India by using Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) and Revised NEO
Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI-R). Correlations were computed among/between the
three Gunas of VPI and five domains of personality of NEO-FFI-R by applying product
moment method of correlation. Sattva Guna was negatively correlated with Tamas Gunas
(-.275, p<.01) and neuroticism (-.268, p<.01). Sattva Guna has marked significant
positive relationship with extraversion (.391, p<.01), openness (.140, p<.05),
agreeableness (.198, p<.05) and conscientiousness (.369, p<.01). Rajas Guna yielded
positive relationship with Tamas Guna (.530, p<.01). Rajas Guna negatively correlated
with extraversion (-.137, p<.05), agreeableness (-293, p<.01) and conscientiousness (.219, p<.01). Tamas was positively correlated with neuroticism (.482, p<.01) and
negatively associated with extraversion (-.319, p<.01), openness (-.181, p<.01),
agreeableness (-.319, p<.01) and conscientiousness (-.242, p<.01).

If we compare the Western and Eastern philosophies, it is fact, beyond doubt that
Indian Philosophy is very old, ancient and systematic. Vedas, are considered to be
document representing the Gods voice. Vedic literature contains knowledge about all
fields of human endeavour, from physical and psychology to medicine, art and
aeronautics. Empirical validation of Vedas could therefore open storehouses of
knowledge in many areas. According to Vedas, all material elements are infused with the
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13

modes of nature, or Gunas- Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.

Basically Guna is central

theoretical proposition of Smkhya system of Indian philosophy.

Ancient Indian

scriptures like the Upanishadas, Puranas, Yogasturas, Mahabharata, Smkhya Karika


and Bhagavadgita have also elaborated on this doctrine.
The concept of Guna is mentioned in Smkhya system. The Smkhya system is
the work of great sage of the name of Kapila. The Smkhya must be a very old system of
thought. Its antiquity appears from the fact that the Smkhya tendency of thought
pervades all the literature of ancient India including the Srutis, Smritis, and Puranas.
(Chatterjee & Datta, 1984). Smkhya is a dualistic philosophy, which postulates two
interdependent, and simultaneously existing realities Purusha (consciousness) and
Prakriti (nature or matter).
The Purusha is an intelligent principle of which consciousness is not only an
attribute but the very essence. It is the self which is quite distinct from the body, the
senses and the mind (Manas). Apart from the Purusha, which forms the inner core of the
personality, everything in the universe, physical and psychological, including the mind,
are regarded as originated from Prakriti, which is constituted of three Gunas viz., Sattva,
Rajas, and Tamas. On an individual levels Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas also correspond to
various psycho-physiological states and personality types. Sattva corresponds to clarity of
thought and purity of mind; Rajas denotes passionate, excitable, and aggressive states of
mind; and Tamas denotes indifference, confusion, stability, and depression. (King, 1999).
These Gunas act together and never exist in isolation. They interact and compete
with each other resulting in the preponderance of one over the others. The degree of
predominance of our Guna determines the individuals personality type. Based on the
above understanding personalities are categorized into three viz., Sttvic, Rjasic and
Tmasic type (Murthy, & Kumar, 2007). The term Trigunas is composed to two words:
Tri and Gunas. Tri means three and Gunas means qualities, thus Trigunas determines the
three qualities, a state of mind and attitudes which determines peoples nature, belief and
perception and personality .
The theoretical expositions on Triguna and their manifestations in human nature
have attracted the attention of Indian psychologists (e.g. Marutham, Balodhi & Mishra,
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1998; Mathew, 1995; Murthy & Kumar, 2007; Pathak, Bhat, & Sharma 1992; Wolf,
1998; Shilpa & Murthy, 2011 ; Singh ,Misra & Raad,2013 ).
In the Sttvic personality, Sattva predominates and other two are not absent but
are recessive. Goodness prevails over all other qualities. In him, intelligence dominates,
passion and goodness shine forth in all its native splendour. The Sattva Guna stands for
purity, stainlessness and healthy habits.
This type of people are free from attachment, are non-egoistic, endowed with
firmness, and are unaffected by failures and successes. They remain same (unaffected) in
pleasure and pain, forgiving, ever-content, and have self-control (Daftuar, & Anjuli,
1997).
The Rjasic temper is ever active, restless, and passionate. He has his desires centred in
action, emotions of joy and grief.

He is high-strung and sentimental.

He has an

insatiable craving for continuous vigorous action. Power is the dominant motive of his
life.
Rjasic type is dominated by such characteristic as activity and action. People
who are passionate, attached to fruits of actions, greedy, inspired, ambitious, egoistic,
aggressive, luxurious, selfish, less satisfied, etc., fall under this category. They have urge
to rule and greed for wielding power. (Daftuar, & Anjuli, 1997).
Rajas dominant person is always 'on the go' with plenty of energy but with no
direction. As his assets are large, so are his expenditures. He has high vitality, show him
match and he blazes. Rjasic person has mainly two ways of responding: anger and
greed. His desires are compulsive but will is weak, so he becomes victim of his own
desires. Everything in its state is influenced by selfish attachment, 'I, me, mine etc.
This selfish attachment is felt with people too. It presents love and spoils relationships by
ignoring other person's needs and welfare. Rjasic person's desire for sense gratification
and sex is the strongest of all the senses. (Rastogi, 2005).
The Tmasic temper is the worst of Gunas. It is dominant in many. They are
unintegrated, gross, inert, crafty, dilatory, sullen and deeply revengeful. Tmasic type
personality is characterized by the principle of inactivity, darkness, and delusions. The
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persons who are lazy, unsteady, sadistic, crude, instinctive, devoid of religion, morality
and benevolence can be called Tamas. He is full of unconscious complexes and are of
destructive and harmful nature. (Daftuar, & Anjuli,1997). Tamas (Inertia) is introverted
instability or proneness to develop introverted type of maladjustment under stress. Tamas
(inertia) is characterized by lethargy, laziness, fear, inhibition, anxiety, shallowness of
emotions, low initiative, low self-confidence, low self-respect etc. People having a large
degree of Tamas (inertia) lack energy; they are slow, late, not venturing, shy, withdrawn,
weak-willed, suggestible, submissive, masochistic, intropunitive, and so on. They are
unable to refuse, assert or argue individually; but are collectivistic and show hysteric
collective aggression (Mathew, 1995).
The investigators differ in their definitions of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Each
investigator lists a number of attributes that are said to represent Sttvic, Rjasic or
Tmsic qualities. However, each description is a partial account and covers only certain
aspects of the manifestation of a particular Guna.
Investigators have examined Triguna vis--vis psychological constructs as
measured by modern psychologists. For instance, attempts have been made to relate
Gunas to already established conventional personality types (e.g. introversionextraversion) and psychological processes (e.g., cognitions, ESP etc.). The findings are
summarized below.
Uma, Lakshmi and Parameswaran (1971) while validating their inventory related it to the
Neymann-Kohlastedt test of introversion-extroversion and found that persons who scores
high on Sttvic dimension tend to be introverts and those scoring high on Rjasic
dimension more extroverted.
Singh (1971) after examining the nature of the Gunas in various Indian
philosophical texts has presented the characteristics in relation to different categories
such as temperamental condition, beliefs, attitudes, values and cognitions. With regard to
cognitions the Sttvic people manifest fully developed awareness, very clear perceptions
and cognitions, abstract thinking, and intuition. Rjasic people show a developed
awareness, sharp perceptions, clear cognitions, factual and tangible thinking, with and
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emphasis on direct knowledge. Tmasic people show hazy awareness, delusions,


hallucinations, confabulations, feeble or defective memory and poor attention.
Mohan and Sandhu (1988) conducted a

study to examine the relationship

between Tri-Guna and Eysencks dimensions of personality. In this study the sample of
53 male and 88 female college students were drawn from Chandigarh. The obtained data
for the total sample were analyzed by mean, S.D, test and product moment correlation
statistical analysis. Results demonstrated that no significant sex differences were obtained
on Sttvic, Rjasic, Tmasic, psychoticism and Extraversion scales but female scored
significantly higher on neuroticism scale. Sttvic Guna most on neuroticism scale. Sttvic
Guna most favoured one, followed by Rjasic and Tmasic. Sttvic Guna was negatively
correlated with Rjasic and Tmasic Gunas; which were insignificantly related to each
other. Sattva was negatively related with extroversion (positively to introversion), while
Rjasic was positively related to extroversion. Tmasic was significantly related to
neuroticism.
Rao & Harigopal (1979) conducted a study to explore the relationship between
the Gunas and extrasensory perception (ESP). The sample consisted of 112 postgraduate
students of Andhra University to whom a personality inventory based on the doctrine of
three Gunas developed by Parameswaran (1969) and Uma, Lakshmi and Parameswaran
(1971) and a standard five run ESP test were administered. The data were analysed using
the Pearson product-moment correlation to discern the relationship between the three
Gunas and ESP.
Sitamma, Sridevi, and Rao (1995) conducted a study regarding the three Gunas
and cognitive characteristics. According to researchers since the concept of Gunas is
equally applicable to cognitive characteristics such as memory, intelligence, perceptual
acuity, field dependence- independence to mention a few, the present study, which is the
first in a series of investigations attempted to explore the relationship between the three
Gunas, field dependence- independence and perceptual acuity.
Daftuar & Anjuli (1997) in their study focussed on Indian view of tridimensional
approach to personality (i.e., Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) in relation to occupational stress,
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organizational commitment and job involvement. A study was conducted by Sharma


(1999) to ascertain relationship of type of personality based on Guna with self-concept
and job satisfaction.
Relationships between Gunas, Karma-yoga, and transformational leadership were
studied using a sample of 105 pairs of managers and subordinates of a large banking
organization in India by Narayanan and Krishnan (2003). Each of the three GunasSattva, Rajas, and Tamaswas measured along 10 dimensions: attribution, leisure,
interests, food, praise and criticism, sympathy, right and wrong, motivation to work,
working with determination, and accepting pain. A scale was developed for this study to
measure Karma-yoga. Findings show that three Sattva dimension (sympathy, motivation
to work, and accepting pain) enhance transformational leadership and two Rajas
dimensions (attribution, right and wrong) reduce Karma-yoga.

Karma- yoga is not

related to transformational leadership.


In another research conducted by Rastogi (2004) an attempt was made to seek
gender and age differences in Triguna and to relate it to seven constructs of psychological
well being from western perspective. Rastogi (2005) observed that if one is alert or can
watch as to which mode is acting on him by observing the symptoms, then it is not
difficult for one to change that particular activity which is due to the influence of that
mode on him at that time.
The Big Five factor model of Personality
An unabridged English dictionary contains almost 18,000 personality-relevant
terms (Allport & Odbert, 1936). To reduce this list to manageable size, early trait
theorists put many of these words to the side simply because they were synonyms, slang,
or just uncommon words. Raymond Cattell, one of the pioneers in this arena, gave this
kind of shortened list of words to a panel of judges, asking them to use these words to
rate a group of people they knew well (Cattell, 1957). Their ratings were compared to
find out which terms were redundant. This process allowed Cattell (1966) to eliminate the
redundant terms, yielding what he thought were the 16 primary personality dimensions.
Subsequent investigators presented evidence from further analyses that several of
Cattells dimensions still overlapped, so they reduced the set still further. A few
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investigators, such as Hans Eysenck (1967), argued that just two dimensions were needed
to describe all the variations in personality, although he later added a third. Others argued
that this was too severe a reduction, and, over time a consensus has emerged around five
major personality dimensions as the basis for describing all personalities; this has led to a
personality system appropriately named the Big Five (Fiske, 1949; Norman, 1963; Tupes
& Christal, 1961). The Big Five dimensions are extraversion (sometimes called
extroversion), neuroticism (sometimes labeled with its positive pole, emotional stability),
agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience ( McCrae & Costa, 2004).

Each of the Big Five dimensions is like a bucket that holds a set of traits that tend
to occur together The definitions of the five super factors represent an attempt to describe
the common element among the traits, or sub-factors, within each bucket. The most
commonly accepted buckets of traits are those developed by Costa and McCrae (Howard
and Howard, 2004). Extraversion (E) has long been the one of the traits that has appeared
in the factor analytic models and is one of the two traits to appear in both the five factor
model and Eysencks PEN models. According to Costa and McCrae (1992), it is referred
to the social adaptability of a person. Neuroticism (N) is the other trait to play a role in
most of the contemporary factor models for personality. It refers to the tendency to
experience negative affect such as fear, sadness, embarrassment, anger, guilt. Openness
(O) refers to how willing people are to make adjustments in accordance with new ideas or
situations. Agreeableness (A) is the tendency to have faith in other people and being
eager to help them while Conscientiousness (C) refers to the degree to which an
individual pushes toward personal goals.
Rationale for the present study
There is paucity of research investigating the compatibility of Triguna theory with
Psychometric model of personality. A few studies have been conducted in India
examining the overlap between three dimensions of Triguna theory and three dimensions
of Eysenckian model.
There is not even a single study which has investigated the compatibility of
Triguna model and Big Five model of personality. The present study is an empirical
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attempt to understand the relationship between five factors of NEO-FFI-R and those of
three dimensions of Prakriti embodied in Triguna model viz. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.
Objectives of the Study:
The main objectives of the study are:
1.

To examine the relationship between measures of Triguna and big five


dimensions of NEO-FFI-R.

2.

To examine the interrelationship among the three Gunas of personality.

3.

To examine the relationship among five measures of personality of NEO-FFIR.

Specific Hypotheses:
The present study is an exploratory investigation for understanding the
relationship between two models. Hence no specific hypotheses have been formulated.
Sample:
A sample of 244 graduate students were randomly drawn from the various
colleges of Kurukshetra district of Haryana state, India, with the age ranging from 17 to
20 years with the mean age of 18.5 years.
Measures/Tests:
The following measures/tests were used in this study:1. Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI).
2. Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI-R).
Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI)
The Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) based on doctrine of the three Gunas
developed by Wolf(1998) was used to assess the three Gunas sattava , Rajas and Tamas.
It consists of 15 Sttvic items, 19 Rjasic items and 22 Tmasic items. It is seven point
likert type scale.

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Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI-R)


McCrae and Costa (2004) have proposed a revised version of the NEO-FFI
(NEO-FFI-R). NEO-FFI-R was administered to the corresponding sample. The NEOFFI-R allows the assessment of the five main dimension of the five factor model of
personality : Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness to Experience (O),
Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C). The answer format is a 5-point Likerttype scale (0-4), ranging from strongly disagree (0) to strongly agree. (4). Internal
reliability coefficients of the NEO-FFI-R scales range from 0.75 to 0.82.
Result and discussion
Frequency distribution for all the 8 variables ( 3 of VPI and 5 of NEO-FFI-R)
included in the study were set up for total group of 228 subjects. Descriptive statistic i.e.,
mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis were computed to ascertain the
normalcy of data and after ascertaining that the obtained data more or less meet the
requirement of applying product moment method of correlation. Correlations were
computed among/between the three Gunas of VPI and five domains of personality of
NEO-FFI-R. Intercorrelation matrix is shown in table 1.
Table 1: Intercorrelations matrix (8x8)

Sattva

Sattva

Rajas

Tamas

1.00

-.014

-.275**

-.268**

.391**

. 140*

.198**

1.00

.530**

.341**

-.137*

-.062

-.293**

-.219**

1.00

.482**

-.319**

-.181**

-.319**

-.242**

1.00

-.302**

-.104

-.327**

-.363**

1.00

.197**

.204**

.357**

1.00

.071

.241**

1.00

.200**

Rajas
Tamas
N
E
O
A
C

**p<.01, *p<.05

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C
.369**

1.00

21

Intercorrelation among three Gunas


Intercorrelations among the three Gunas of VPI are ranging from -.275 to .530.
Only two of the total three correlations are significant at or above .05 level of
significance.
Sattva Guna of VPI was negatively correlated with Tamas Gunas (-.275, p<.01).
It indicates that persons high on Sattva Guna tend to be deficient in Tmasic behavioural
dispositions. Present description is very much comparable to verse 10th of chapter 14th of
Srimad Bhagvadgita. It describes how three Gunas act, one over the other. This verse
explains that sattava prevails, overpowering Tamas viz., illumination, purity, dispassion,
generosity, and detachment etc., overpowering heedlessness, indolence, unnecessary
sleep and delusion etc.
Rajas Guna was positively related with Tamas Guna (.530, p<.01). It posits that
Rajoguna leads to Tamoguna viz., greed , sloth and errors. Positive correlation between
Rajas and neuroticism reveals that Rjasic people tend to have develop the tendencies of
neuroticism i.e. these people are anxious, generally apprehensive, and prone to worry.
Intercorrelation between three Gunas and big five factors of personality
Correlations between measures of three Gunas of VPI and the five domains of
personality of NEO-FFI-R are ranging from -.319 to .482. Only one correlation of the
total 15 correlations is non- significant.
Sattva Guna was negatively correlated with neuroticism (-.268, p<.01) . It herby
portrays that individuals scores high on Sattva Gunas tend to be calm, relaxed, generally
free of worry, emotionally stable and even-tempered. Sattva Guna has marked significant
positive relationship with extraversion (.391, p<.01), openness (.140, p<.05),
agreeableness (.198, p<.05) and conscientiousness (.369, p<.01). These correlations
suggest that people who are high on Sattva Guna are warm and affectionate toward
others; curious both inner and outer worlds, willing to certain novel ideas and
unconventional values, they experience both positive and negative emotions more keenly
than do closed individuals; Sttvic people are fundamentally altruistic, sympathetic to
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other and believe that other will be equally helpful in return; they are purposeful, strong
willed and determined.
Rajas was positively correlated with neuroticism (.341, p<.01). Rajas yielded
negative relationship with extraversion (-.137, p<.05), agreeableness (-293, p<.01) and
conscientiousness (-.219, p<.01).
Tamas was positively correlated with neuroticism (.482, p<.01). This indicates
that individuals who score high on Tamas Guna of VPI prone to worry. Tmasic people
are poor at controlling their impulses and desires. Tamas was also negatively associated
with extraversion (-.319, p<.01), openness (-.181, p<.01), agreeableness (-.319, p<.01)
and conscientiousness (-.242, p<.01). It means Tmasic personality type people are
introvert, reserved, sluggish, lazy, unhappy; conventional in behaviour, conservative in
outlook, more prosaic, uninterested in art and beauty; disagreeable, antagonistic, ego
centric, suspicious, sceptical of others intention; dishonest, dangerous, self centred,
aggressive, prefer to competed rather than cooperate, more hedonistic, interested in sex,
not dutiful and lackadaisical.
Relationship among five measures of NEO-FFI-R
Intercorrelations among the five factor of NEO-FFI-R are low ranging from -.363
to .357. 8 correlations out of 10 correlations are significant at or above .05 level of
significance.
Neuroticism was negatively related with extraversion (-.302,p<.01), agreeableness
(-327,p<.01) and conscientiousness (-.363, p<.01). Extraversion was positively correlated
with openness (.197, p<.01), agreeableness (.204, p<.01) and conscientiousness (.357,
p<.01). Openness was positively associated with conscientiousness (.241, p<.01) and
agreeableness was also positively correlated with conscientiousness (.200, p<.01).
Similar pattern of correlations among three Gunas have also been reported in
some earlier studies (e.g. Das, 1987; Wolf, 1998; Rao and Harigopal, 1979; Mahan and
Sandhu, 1988; Sitamma et. al, 1995). Relationship between three Gunas and five domains
of personality of NEO-FFI confirmatory to contextual descriptions given in Shrimad
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Bhagavad Gita, Aswamedha parava of Mahabarat ( section 36, 37 and 38) and Shrimad
Bhagavata Purana (skandh-XI, chapter -25).
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Costa, P.T., and R.R. McCrae (1992). NEO-PI-R Professional Manual. Florida:
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Mathew, V.G. (1995). Mathew IAS Rating Scale Manual. University of Kerala,
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3.
The Beginning of the Politics of Human Rights
Pundrik Ojha

Human Rights have been the most complicated human issue in the twentieth
century and they pose a great challenge for the twenty- first century. Today, many acts,
conducts, decisions and plans are weighed with the touchstone of human rights. Human
rights have turned into a dominant discourse within the universal system. They are an
ideal focus for a consideration of processes of globalization. Whereas it was once the
case that rights were almost always associated with domestic, legal and political systems,
in the last half century a complex network of international law and practice (the
international human rights regime ) has grown up around the idea that individual
possess rights simply by virtue of being human, of sharing in a common humanity.
Human rights may be said to be the natural conditions innately needed by man in
order to proceed on his natural course of evolution towards perfection. Many cultures and
civilizations have developed ideas about the intrinsic worth and dignity of human beings,
but the notion that humans are right bearers is specially European, as we understand it
today.
Medieval in origin, this notion was embodied in US Bill of Rights in 1791 and ideas of
the French Revolution in 1789. Politics and thought in the revolutionary of the 1790s
also began tentatively to broaden the definition of Man by recognizing the rights of
Women, and, via campaigns against the slave trade, those of non-Europeans, positions
built upon in the nineteenth century. These preliminary moves set the scene for the
globalization processes of the post-1945 era.
Post Second World War years have seen a number of global and regional treaties
and declarations concerning human rights, and the emergence of non-governmental
organizations (NGOs) such as Amnesty International dedicated to their enforcement.
Moreover, governments such as that of the United States, and intergovernmental bodies
(INGOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the Commonwealth have
increasingly (and controversially) seen it as part of their remit to promote human rights.
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All of this amounts to an impressive body of International Law and diplomatic


practice, which has led to a further, broadening and deepening of the idea of rights, often
conceptualized in terms of three generations:
1. The first generation human rights was declared in the democratic revolutions
towards the end of eighteenth century in America and France, which centered on
civil and political rights with the view to ensuring individual rights.
2. The second generation rights (originating in the 19th century and industrial
revolution) are the economic, social and cultural rights, indispensable for the
dignity of man and the development of his personality. Both first and secondgeneration rights are, in essence, possessed by individuals.
3. Third Generation rights developed during the twentieth century build on a
collective dimension and concern the rights of people.
Until comparatively recently few objected to the notion that human rights are
universal; the content of human rights Declarations and Conventions was regarded by
practical people as being rather less problematic than the issue of compliance. The key
human rights problem was seen as one of forcing states to adhere to reasonably
uncontroversial standards of behavior.
More recently, the Universal status of human rights has come to be challenged by
critics. Supporters of the Third generation of rights say that one of the rights of a
PEOPLE must be to be different from other people and could such difference be
achieved other than at the expense of universal standards?
Do the cultural differences among people mean that the concept of the
universality of human rights lacks validity? Are they really used to advocate a dominant
Western imperialistic ideology? Are human rights universal because concern for all men?
Do they keep concealed the universal domination of a certain culture (the imperialistic
culture of western countries)?
Two different answers are given to these questions:
A) The advocates of universality believe that human rights are not associated with a
certain ideology or idea. Although the concept of human rights finds its origin in
the west, and emerged in Europe and northern America, the concept of human

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rights is not associated with Western thought or culture and is exercisable not
only in Western communities but in non-Western communities as well.
B) The adversaries of the universality of human rights proposed the philosophical
view of cultural absolutism, implying that the culture of every society has
underlying moral values. As cultures are different, human rights should not be
universal and the Westerners should not expect that the non-Western cultures
should change their moral system according to the international human rights
regime.

The human rights movement stresses the common humanity of the peoples of
the World, but for many, the things that distinguish us from one another are as
important as the things that unify us. The Western States, INGOs and NGOs have
sometimes taken it upon themselves to promote human rights and this has always
been resented as hypocritical.
In the non-western world, the imperialist record of the west over the last four
centuries has not been forgotten. In the 1990s this resentment led a number of the
Leaders of the quasi authoritarian newly industrializing nations of South-East Asia to
assert the existence of ASIAN VALUES that could be counterpoised to the
(allegedly) WESTERN VALUES associated with the international human rights
regime. The movement towards establishing the Rights of Peoples partially reflects
this perspective. The BANJUL CHARTERs reference to the duty to strengthen
African Cultural Values, for example, conveys clearly the idea that African have
rights and duties different from non-Africans.
An objection to the Universal Declaration from some Asian and African
governments is not joined by their people. When given the choice, people usually turn
out to prefer the so-called Western values. Rights in fact belong to every one,
everywhere. When Asian, African leaders condemn them as a threat to national order
and stability, they really mean a threat to their own power.

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Human rights principles afford individuals such elemental protections against the
state that they are likely to be sought by intelligent beings everywhere, at least as long
as the state refrains from punishing them for that search.
Culture can offer no escape clause for barbarism. The German attempt to
extinguish Jews was culturally relative, so was the Serbs action against Bosnian
Muslims and the Albanians -- reducing them to pseudo-human status, they committed
crimes which can not be excused by setting them within any national history or
tradition. This is the case with all culturally ordained killing and torture inflicted for
whatever reasons : the foot binding of young girls in China, widow burning(sati) in
India, stoning to death in Saudi-Arabia, or the practice of female circumcision
practiced in twenty-eight countries, as a tribal initiation ritual before puberty.
We find that for all its declamatory status and lack of teeth, the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights by the U.N. General Assembly in 1948 is symbolically
central to the whole discourse on human rights. This was the first time in history that
the international community had attempted to define a comprehensive code for the
internal government of its members.
During the late 1940s the United Nations was dominated by the West; and the
contents of the Declaration represented this fact, with its emphasis on political
freedom. The voting was forty-eight for and none against. Eight states abstained, for
interestingly different reasons:
South Africa abstained. The White-dominated regime in South Africa denied
political rights to the majority of its people and clearly could not accept that all are
born free and equal in dignity and rights (Article 1). The South African government
objected to the Declaration on the grounds that it violated the protection of the
domestic jurisdiction of states guaranteed by United Nations Charter.
The Soviet Union and five Soviet Bloc countries (Russia, Ukraine,
Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Poland) abstained. Although Stalins Russia was
clearly a tyranny, the Soviet Government did not officially object to the political
freedoms set forth in the Declaration. Instead the Soviet objection was to the absence
of sufficient attention to social and economic rights by comparison to the detailed

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elaboration of bourgeois freedoms and property rights. The Soviets saw the
Declaration as a cold war document, designed to stigmatize socialist regimes.
Saudi Arabia abstained because it was one of the few non-western members of the
United Nations in 1948 and just about the only one whose system of government was
not, in principle, based on some western model. Saudi Arabia objected to the
Declaration on religious grounds. Here we have an assertion of third generation rights
and a denial of the universalism of the Declaration.
On 10 December 1948, the President of the General Assembly, Dr.H.V.Evatt,
announced the advent of a new international law of human rights, for the first time
transcending the laws and customs of independent sovereign states.
But this moment was short-lived because there was no binding guarantee
predicted for the exercise of the articles enunciated in the Declaration. Thus, the
Declaration turned into a set of moral rights.
The evolutionary process for international human rights, which commenced so
confidently, was frozen almost to a standstill by the Cold War. The power blocs did
not deny the idea of universal human rights--with shameless hypocrisy; they
contently signed convention after convention on the subjectso long as no
meaningful enforcement action could ever be taken.
Human rights became a phrase incorporated into insults traded between the
Great- Powers, as they secretly vied for the support of dictatorships which
comprehensively violated them. The four decades between 1948 and the collapse of
communism may be characterizedand stigmatizedas the

lip-service era for

human rights, when diplomats strove to ensure that they could never be meaningfully
asserted against a nation state. During the Cold War, the west regularly issued verbal
condemnations of human rights violations by the Soviet Union and its associates, but
rarely acted on these condemnationsthe power of the Soviet Union made direct
intervention imprudent. Conversely, violations by countries associated with the West
were routinely overlooked or, in some cases, even justified.
Take the case of white- dominated South Africa which was commercially
important to many western businesses, and of some strategic importance in the cold

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war. Therefore initial attempts to boycott South African goods and stem the flow of
investment to the country were unsuccessful. However, the impact of public opinion-reinforced in the United States by the power of the Black Congressional lobby, and
AfricanAmerican pressure groups--gradually made it commercially unwise to be
associated with South-Africa, while pressure in the United Nations and elsewhere
produced a reasonably effective arms embargo. This international pressure certainly
contributed to the decision of the South African regime to end apartheid. In any event,
the international community rarely acts on human rights cases unless public opinion
is engaged.
For governments, realpolitik still rules when human rights come up against
national interests. Although Britain has adopted an ethical foreign policy, this tends
to falter if opposed to the interest of its arms manufacturers. It insisted on supplying
war planes to the Indonesian military at the very moment it was running amok in the
East Timor. Russias financial bankruptcy has reduced its Security Council clout but
still it could reject efforts to investigate mounting allegations of war crimes in
Chechnya. China remains deeply suspicious of any international legal development
which threatens sovereignty; the mildest criticism at the Human Rights Commission
is condemned as interference in Chinas internal affairs.
Then, of course, there is the problem of America, a nation much given to spurts of
world leadership followed by periods of self regarding isolationism. It can speak
through its president with its eloquent moral fervour, whereas its senate resounds to
isolationist voices. As the only true super power, America will determine the
humanitarian necessity for any intervention without UN approval, but haphazardly
(ignoring genocide in Rwanda but not in Serbia) and without clear and objective
criteria. Unless it shows greater consistency in its approach to human rights( it has
been notably protective of friends such as Israel and Saudi Arabia and some
eventual willingness to bind itself to the justice it prescribes, for others, its emergence
as the benign hegemon ( in Samuel Huntingtons phrase) will make for partisan and
inequitable human rights enforcement.

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What is very obvious and disheartening in this whole human rights discourse is
the corruption, hypocrisy and political bias of international diplomacy. Diplomacy is
the antithesis of justice: it brokers tradeoffs which always allow oppressors to escape
punishments.
The World has suffered in the last half century an endless avalanche of repetitions
and overlapping rules, cascading from UN conference, conventions and commissions.
It is time to enforce a few of them, with the help of international tribunals
sufficiently learned and independent to be accredited with judicial wisdom. The
movement for global justice has been a struggle against sovereignty the doctrine of
non-intervention in the internal affairs of nation states asserted by all governments
which have refused to subject the treatment they mete out to their citizens to any
independent external security. Obeisance to member state sovereignty is the UNs
systemic defect, and it accounts for the pathetic performance of Human Rights
Commission and that toothless tribunal, the Human Rights Committee. If the
promises of the Universal Declaration are to be realized, we must look to bodies
independent of the UN, to regional treaty systems and their courts, to forge an
international human rights law sufficiently understood and respected to be enforced in
courts throughout the world.
But there is no denying the fact that the human rights rhetoric has become the
United Nations catch cry for the twenty-first century. What is needed is some genuine
commitment for their enforcement by the world community.
Media has rendered Yeoman Service in drawing attention of the general public to
human rights violation throughout the world. Communication revolution continues its
work of making human beings everywhere respond with simultaneous outrage to the
images of genocide and torture. It has the capacity to download into every corner of
the planet .Television and various channels have in this way served as recruiting
officer for the human rights movement. People are filled with revulsion against
atrocities brought into their homes through television sets thus creating a vast
audience beginning to think like global citizens and impelling international
community and UN to respond.

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Media plays a major role in protection and promotion of Human Rights. It not
only acts as a watch dog but spreads Human Rights Literacy among various sections
of society and brings about awareness of the safeguards available for their protection,
through print and visual media.
Human rights are much in fashion, which makes it the subject of a certain amount
of humbug. Whatever politicians and philosophers may say or do, it is on the strength
of the popular support for universal human rights that the idea will flourish and
enter into an age of enforcement.

References:

BAVLIS, J., and Snath, S. (Eds.), The Globalisation of World Politics


(Oxford, 2001).

Crawford. (ed.), The Rights of Peoples (Oxford, 1988).

Donnelly, J., International Human Rights (Boulder, Westview, 1993).

Dunne, T., and Wheeler, N.J. (eds.), Human Rights in Global Politics
(Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Robertson, G., Crimes Against Humanity (Penguin, 2000).

Salimi, H. (ed.) Islamic Views on Human Rights (New Delhi, 2003).

Shute, S., and Hurley, S. (eds.), On Human Rights (New York, 1993).

Vincent, R.J., Human Rights and International Relations (Cambridge, 1986)

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4.
Philosophy of Sufism and Islam
Desh Raj Sirswal
Many different meanings are attributed to the term Sufi. From the philosophical
standpoint the sufi sect leans towards the mystic tradition, while taken etymologically the
word implies anything which is extracted from wool. Sufi was the term applied to those
individuals who went through life wearing a woolen gown, spending their life in
mediation and prayer. Other scholars are of the opinion that the terms sufi is derived from
the root Suffa which is applicable to the platform built by Mohammad in the mosque at
Madina. Hence the term sufi applied to those benevolent and pure but homeless people
who spent their time sitting on this platform and meditating upon this life and the
hereafter. According to Gazzzali , the term sufi implies a mans remaining at peace with
the world, in mediation upon God.
Steps of Moral Transformation
We live in a world of fear, anxiety, stress and strain but these are all self-created
the delusion and ignorance that are created. The delusion and ignorance that are created
by not realising the true nature of the self is the main cause of all miseries. When one
learns not to identify oneself with the objects of the world and constantly becomes aware
of the reality or center of consciousness within, one considers birth and death voluntary
actions.1
In some ways the Sufi conception of the passing away (fana) of individual self in
Universal Being is almost Upanishadic. But fana is not the same as nirvana, though both
terms imply the passing away of individuality. Fana us accompanied by baqa-everlasting
life in God. Fana involves the extinction of all passions and desires-the holding back of
the senses, as it were, advocated by the Upanishads. Indeed, Sufism has been described in
such terms as, it is wholly self-discipline, it is to possess nothing and to be possedded by
nothing, it is the control of the faculties and observation of the breaths.2
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Sufism, like the Upanishads, calls for the giving up of desire as means to attain God.
This calls for the eradications of self-will. To attain fana, certain steps are prescribed,
even as they are in Raja Yoga.

The first step is a moral transformation of the soul through the extinction of all its
passions and desires.

The second step is a mental abstraction or passing away of the mind from all
objects of perception, thoughts, actions and feelings through its concentration
upon the thoughts of God.(Here, the thought of God signifies contemplation of the
divine attributes).

The third step is the cessation of all conscious thought. The highest stage of fana
is reached when even the conscious of having attained fana disappears. This is
what the Sufis call the passing away of the passing away(fana al-fana). The
mystic, who like the hindu in samadhi, is now rapt in contemplation of the divine
essence.

The final stage of fana, , the complete passing away from self, forms the prelude
to baqa which is continuance of abiding in God. The Sufi who seeks the goal of
union with Ultimate Reality (fanal-Haqq) calls himself a traveler (salik) and
advances by slow stages (maqamat) along a path (tariqat) to his final goal. The
stages bear a resemblance to those prescribed in Raja Yoga.3

There are seven stages to the ultimate goal: repentance, abstinence, renunciation,
poverty, patience, trust in God and finally satisfaction. These seven stage constitute the
ascetic and ethical discipline of the Sufi and must be carefully distinguished from the socalled states (abwal, plural of hal) which form a similar psychological chain. There are
ten such states: meditation, nearness to God, love, fear, hope, longing, intimacy,
tranquility, contemplation and certainty.4

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Streams in Sufism
Three independent streams of thoughts fed the river of Sufism and determined its content
and character:

First, Islam brought with it some of the asceticism of the desert, and aversion to
the life of urban and settled luxury.5

Second, Pythagorean Hellenism and Alexandrian Gnosticism, which had


permanently Judaism and Christianity, had dominated the Near East for a
thousand years before the advent of Islam. When the masses of the Near East and
North Africa converted to Islam, it was natural that Gnostic ideas and metaphors
were brought in with their spiritual baggage.6

Third, being the dominant religion of most of the provinces of Asia acquired by
Islam, Buddhism was soon to exercise its influence. Buddhist condemnation of
this world, its total abnegation in favor of the contemplative and monkish life,
found its mouthpiece in Ibrahim ibn al Adam (159/777). As told by his followers
later, his life was not unlike that of Buddha.7 Henceforth, the three streams were
one and ran like a mighty river.

Sufism and Islam


The term sufi was first applied in 816 A.D. to Abu Hashim, an individual
belonging to Sham. In the ninth century the sufi sect was famous throughout Iraq with
Baghdad as its centre. During the tenth century Abu Yajid Jabaid and Mansoor Alhajaaj
propagated monistic ideas.8 Sufism originated from Islam but it also gets effects from
Platonism, Christianity, Mystic tenancies of Hinduism and Buddhism.

Thats why

sometimes we find Sufism different from Islam but it never go far away from Islam.
Such famous Persian poets as Iraqui and Kirmani gave expression to the beliefs
of this sect in the eleventh century. Alagazzali tried to reconcile Islam and the Sufi
philosophy. Sufis believe in a single God who is truth pr hak, goddness or khaira and
beauty or jamal. The entire universe is believed to be an appearance of the manifestation
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of God, and it is only on account of his folly and over-weaning arrogance that man
considers himself to be distinct from God. Every Sufi aims at the destruction of this
blinding arrogance, and the only means to this end is the love of God. Sufis believe that
corporeal or physical love is a step in the achievement of a super-natural love for God
since physical love acquaints man with the difficulties that beset this path and prepares
him for journey along the path of supernatural love. Sufi disciples believed that God was
their beloved and spent their entire time and life in waiting for the moment when they
would glimpse her.9
The Sufis accepted without that Muhammad was the last of the prophets and that
no scripture would appear after him. However, they did not accept that the following the
prophet meant simply confirming to his Sunna and memorizing the Koran and the Hadith.
On the contrary, it was possible for people to be so utterly sincere and devoted in their
imitation of the Prophet that God would teach them directly, without the intermediary of
rational learning. The Sufis frequently quote the Koranic verse. Be wary of God, and
God will teach you to prove their point.10 Many of the greatest priests of Arabic,
Persian, Turkish, and other Islamic languages were Sufis. They employed their poetry to
celebrate the presence of God in all things.
According to Sufi theory, all ancient prophets (including David and Jesus),
plasticized poverty and abstinence. Prophet Muhammads immediate companions and
followers are pictured in pious legend as innocent of exercises and luxury. Despite their
position of privilege, they maintained the simple dignity and austerity of habit, which
they had learned from the Prophet. The Quran urges upon elievers to fight against
oppression being perpetrated against men, women, and children, who are week (Mustad,
Ifin).11
Practical spirituality emphaisises experience and realisation self, God and worldin and through practice but at the same time nurtures the humility not to reduce these only
to practice. In its emphasises upon experience and realisation, practical spirituality has
close kinship with the spirit of science which embodied, in the words of Albert Einstein,
a holy spirit of inquiry. In its emphasis upon practice, practical spirituality stresses that
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without taking part in practice we cannot realise truth, religion or otherwise. Practical
spirituality involves manifold experiments with Truth as well as truths where truth is not
a thing but a landscape of meaning, experience and co-realisation.12 Thus, we can say that
the Sufis are example of pure spiritual discipline which require a sense of dedication and
humanity to get the ultimate goal of life i.e. self-realisation.
References:
1. M.V.Kamath, Philosophy of life and Death, Jaico Publishing House, Delhi,2005,
p. xiii
2. ibid, pp.102-103
3. ibid, p.103
4. ibid, p.104
5. Dr K.K.Usman, This is Islam, Forum for Faith and Fraternity, Coching,2001,
p.230
6. Ibid, 231
7. Ibid,.
8. R.N.Sharma, Philosophy of Religion, Surjeet Publications, Delhi, 2006, pp.56-57
9. Ibid.
10. Sachiko Murata and William Chittick, The Vision of Islam, I.B. Tauris Publishers,
London, 1996, p.262
11. Katatkar Vasudeva Rao, Religion and Atheism can Co-exist with Secularism in
JICPR, Vol.XXIII, No.4, October-December,2006, p.61.
12. Ananta Kumar Giri, The Calling of Practical Spirituality in JICPR, Vol.XXIII,
No.1, Jan-March 2006, p.188.
13.
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tutkfr 'kCn dk vk'k; dbZ fo}kuksa us vyx&vyx <ax ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k gSaA
tutkfr dgus dk vFkZ gS fd og Hkkjr Hkwfe ds ,d vyx futZu LFkku esa jgrs gaSA tgk
xzkeh.k o uxjh; {ks=ksa ls gVdj taxyksa] igkM+ksa esa fuokl ?kkl&iwl dk ?kj cuk dj vkfne
voLFkk esa thfodksaiktZu djrs gSA bUgsa vkfnoklh] ouoklh] oU;tkfr] tutkfr] fxfjtkfr vkfn
ukeksa ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA bUgsa Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa vuqlwfpr tutkfr dh Js.kh es j[kk x;k
gSA izkphudky ls ;gk ij fuokl dj jgs] tutkfr;ksa eas vkfFkZd :i ls fucZy gksus ds dkj.k
vkt Hkh 'kSf{kd Lrj cgqr de u ds cjkcj fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA O;fDr dh jksVh] diM+k ekdku
bR;kfn dh t:jrs izR;sd ekuo lekt easa ikbZ tkrh gSA Hkkjrh; laLfr vkSj ijEijk ds vk/kkj
ij vFkZ lk/ku ds :i esa Lohdkj fd;k tkrk gSA lk/; ds :i eas ughaA osnksa us pkj iq#"kkFkZ
O;fDrRo fuekZ.k ds fy, iznku fd;s gSaA O;fDr eas uSfrdrk] lnkpkj] lR;] fu"Bk]
drZO;ijk;.krk dk xq.k fo|eku gksA fdUrq O;fDr us bu /keZ] vFkZ] dke vkSj eks{k dks NksM+rs
gq,A HkkSfrdrk dh vk/kh us flQZ nks dks idM+k] igyk vFkZ vkSj nwljk dke ftl dkj.k ;g
nqxq.khZ ekuo us vFkZ dks lk/ku ugh lk/; eku fy;k gSA /ku dk viuk vyx LFkku gSA blh
ds lkFk xSjiq#"kkFkhZ /ku] fd vf/kdrk us euq"; dks vFkZ vkSaj dke dks gh eks{k Lohdkj dj fy;k
gSA O;fDr esa uSfrdrk dk Hkko gksuk ;k vHkko gksukA vFkZ dk dksbZ eryc ugha gSA vFkZ ds
vHkko esa dksbZ lnkpkjh O;fDr uSfrdrk] ln~xq.k] iq#"kkFkZ dks ugha NksM+ nsrkA mlh izdkj
tutkfr uSfrd f'k{kk ls oafpr gaS] u fd muesa uSfrdrk dk vHkko gSA ,d i{k ij /;ku nsus ls
irk pyrk gSA tutkfr;ksa esa uSfrdrk dks Lohdkj djus dk vyx n`"Vdks.k gS] D;ksafd os
f'kf{kr oxZ ls vyx izkphu dky ls gh gSA os izfr dks gh viuk lcls cM+k nsork ekurs gSaA
geus vkt rd mUgsa mtkM+us dk nqlkgl fd;k gSA f'kf{kr djus dk iz;kl ugha fd;k gSA blh
dkj.k HkkSfrdrkoknh le; esa O;fDr vf/kd&ls&vf/kd izkIr djuk pkgrk gS] mudks u nsus dk
dkj.k Hkh ;gh gS] fd og tutkfr gekjs cjkcj gks tk;sxkA 'kks"k.k djus okys dk vfLrRo gh
[krjs esa iM+ tk;sxkA blls f'k{kk dk vHkko t:j gSA fQj Hkh og vius pfj= uSfrdrk]
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bZekunkjh] vkLFkk dks thfor fd;s gq, gSaA muess izfr iznk ikS/kksa dks bZ"V ds :i esa ekuus dh
ijEijk gSA ihiy] cjxn] rqylh] uhe] vkWoyk vkfn dks Hkxoku dk okl ekurs gSa] ftldk
mYys[k osnksa esa Hkh fd;k x;k gSA okLro esa ns[kk tk, rks tutkfr;ksa us osnksa dh ijEijkvksa dk
fuoZgu vkt Hkh dj jgs gSaA fuoZgu djus dh ijEijk dk n`f"Vdks.k bu f'kf{kr HkkSfrdrkoknh
O;fDr;ksa ls tutkfr;ksa dk ,dne vyx gSA tutkfr;ksa ds }kjk fufeZr vkS"kf/k] tM+hcwVh dk
lcls cM+k L=ksr taxy gh jgk gSA mlls budks vkfFkZd enn feyrh FkhA taxy mtM+ tkus ls
buds dbZ vkfFkZd L=ksr can gks x;s gSaA budh izfrHkkvksa dks ckgj ykuk gksxkA tutkfr;ksa ds
lkaLfrd dkS'kYk dks Hkh vulquk ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA tutkfr;ksa ds ewy mn~xe ds
O;olk; dks tksM+us ls vkfFkZd igyw etcwr gksxkA mlls tutkfr eas f'k{kk vkSj LokLF; ds fy,
tkx:drk vk;sxhA tutkfr;ksa ds fy, lexz fodkl tSlh orZeku leL;k ns[kh tk; rks /ku
gS] ftudk thou vkt dfBuk;ksa esa gSA mnkgj.k ds :i esa ns[kk tk;s rks /ku ds lEcU/k esa
vkpk;Z fo".kqxqIr us Hkh dgk gSA

vkpk;Z fo".kqxqIr us Hkh /ku ds egRo dks crk;k gSa fd vkifk ds le; /ku cgqr dke
vkrk gSA cqf)eku O;fDr dks /ku j[kuk pkfg,A d"V ds le; ml /ku ls L=h ,oa cPpksa dh
j{kk djuh pkfg,A blds ckn /ku cprk gS rks viuh j{kk djuh pkfg,A cPpksa dks mPp f'k{kk
nsus ds fy, Hkh /ku [kpZ djuk pkfg,A iq#"kkFkZ ;qDr /ku ds [kpZ djus dh ckr vkpk;Z
fo".kqxqIr us dh gSa u fd vuhfr ds ekxZ ls lap; /ku dk miHkksx djus ls ml O;fDr gh dk
ugha dqy dk Hkh ukl gks tkrk gSA ;gh ckr egkHkkjr esa fonqj us /k`rjk"V dks dgk gSA
Lokeh foosdkuUn ds erkuqlkj f'k{kk ml lfUufgr iw.kZrk dk izdk'k gS] tks euq"; eas
igys ls gh fo|eku gSA
ftl izdkj pk.kD; us /ku dk egRo crk;s gSa mlh izdkj Lokeh foosdkuUn us f'k{kk dks
rjk'kk gSA euq"; ds fy, vxj lcls mi;ksxh pht gS rks f'k{kk] ftlls O;fDr dk O;fDrRo
fuekZ.k gksrk gSA
tutkfr;ksa ds lkFk vU;k; gksus dk dkj.k gh os vf'kf{kr gSaA og 'kklu }kjk ys[k
fd;s x;s vf/kdkjksa dks ugh le> ik jgs gSaA tkx:d oxZ mu ikS/kksa dks dkV dj HkkSfrdrk dh
oLrq dk fuekZ.k djokrk gSA tutkfr;ksa us taxyksa dk lEeku fd;k gSA ljdkj us tc ls oU;
laj{k.k vf/kfu;e dkxt esa ys[kc) fd;k gSA rHkh ls iz'kklu ds xqykeksa us taxy dk uk'k dj
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fn;kA mldk lkjk nks"kkjksik.k cspkjs vf'kf{kr] fu/kZu] xjhc tutkfr ij Fkksi fn;k x;kA
dkxt eas cuk;s dkuwu ls dksbZ O;fDr rc rd f'kf{kr ugh gksrk tc rd os vius vkRe pfj=
esa uSfrdrk dk Hkko txk u ysA xhrk ;q) djuk ugh fl[kkrh cfYd drO;Z ijk;.k cukuk
fl[kkrh gSA orZeku es ns[kk tk;s rks irk pyrk gS] fd taxy lc dV x;s gSaA tutkfr;ksa dk
vkfFkZd vkSj vkS"k/kh; {ks= taxy gqvk djrk Fkk] ftlls vkt ouoklh bu lcls nwj gks x;k gSA
ouoklh viuh ekaxksa ds fy, vkUnksyu djrs jgrs gaSA ouokfl;ksa dk ukjk gSA taxy] tehu]
fdldh] tks tksrs mldh bldk vfHkizk; ;g dh og iqjkus le; ls ysdj mudk thou ouksa
vk/kkfjr chrkA ou gh muds vusd izdkj ds L=ksr FksA mudk ;g ekuuk gS fd og tehu vkSj
ou mudk iqLrSuh vf/kdkj gSA blls mudksa dksbZ osn[ky ugh dj ldrk gSA
izkjfEHkd dky esa ou dkVus ds ckn Hkwfe dk fgLlk cprk FkkA mldk mi;ksx ouoklh
[ksrh ds :i esa djrs FksA ysfdu vc ;g O;oLFkk ljdkj ds gkFkksa es yxus ls ouokfl;ksa dh
mu O;oLFkkvksa ls csn[ky dj fn;k x;kA ogk ij dkj[kkukssa dh LFkkiuk djok fn;kA pepksa dks
ml dkj[kkus dk ukSdj cuk fn;sAa ouokfl;ksa ds fy, i'kqvksa dks pjkus ds fy, taxy es i;kZIr
?kkl gksrh gSA ijUrq ljdkj us ou esa ?kkl pjkus ds fy, 'kqYd ykxw dj fn;kA ouokfl;ksa ij
LFkkukUrfjr [ksrh djus ds fy, ikcUnh yxk fn;k x;kA bl dkj.k ouokfl;ksa dk thou
vkfFkZd ladV esa my> x;kA
ljdkj dh ,slh uhfr us fodkl ds LFkku ij vkfnokfl;ksa dk fouk'k vkSj vlgk; cuk
fn;kA ouokfl;ksa dk vkfFkZd igyw ,dne lekIr gks x;kA oU; tkuojksa dks v[ksV muds gkFkksa
ls Nhu fy;k x;kA muds tyk ydM+h cspus esa izfrca/k yxk fn;k x;kA taxy ij iw.kZ iz HkqRo
ljdkj dk gks x;kA xSj&ouoklh lewgksa }kjk vkSj mPp tkfr;ksa }kjk dgk tkus yxk fd
vkfnokfl;ksa us taxy dks cckZn dj fn;k gSA ,slk dguk 'kk;n feFkd izrhr gksrk gSA lp
ns[kk tk; rks ftruk lEeku] lqj{kk] vkS"kf/k;k yxkuk] vusd
a izdkj ds o`{kksa dks ikyuk tks osnksa
esa Hkh mu o`{kksa dk LFkku gSA ouokfl;ksa us taxy dh mruh j{kk fd;k gSaA os lk{kkr~ nsork
ekurs gSA taxyh tkuoj Hkh mudh j{kk djrs FksA taxyksa dh bruh j{kk 'kk;n gh dksbZ djsxkA
okLro esa ns[kk tk; rks ljdkj us ou esa ouokfl;ksa ds fy, dqN Hkh ugh NksM+k gSA oSls taxy
dks [kRe djus esa ljdkj vkSj muds prqj&pykd lykgdkjksa us ,d O;ofLFkr pky pyh gSA
mlus vkfFkZd :i ls tutkfr;ksa dks dqN Hkh ugh fn;kA taxyksa dks mtkM+ dj brus dkj[kkus]
QSDVh Mkyh xbZA ijUrq vkfnokfl;ksa dks ogk vk;ksX; ?kksf"kr djds turk ds lkeus jksLVj
fn[kk;k x;kA eSus lafo/kku ds fu;eksa dk ikyu fd;k gSA fdUrq ;s esjh QSDVh esa fu/kkZfjr
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;ksX;rk dks iw.kZ ugh dj jgs gSaA ftl dkj.k vU; ;ksX; mfEenokj dks fu;qDr dj jgk gwA
pqipki mu dkj[kkuksa esa pepksa dks Hkj fn;k x;kA vkt ge mudksa vkfFkZd raxh ds dkj.k
vf'kf{kr] vui<+] xokWj] csjkstxkj vkfn Hkh dgrs gaSA lHkh O;oLFkk ouokfl;ksa fd] ijUrq jkt
iwthifr dj jgk gSA muds gd rd ljdkj vkSj m|ksxifr;ksa us ugha fn;kA dkuwu cuk gS]
mldk D;k eryc tc rd f'kf{kr ugha gks tkrsA tutkfr;ksa dks f'kf{kr djus okyk vRe
LoLF; ea'kk ls dk;Z djus okys O;fDr gh tutkfr;ksa dks f'kf{kr djds ,d fe'kky dk;e dj
ldrs gSaA blls igys mls bZekunkj iq#"kkFkksZ dk oj.k djus okyk O;fDr gksuk pkfg,A euq"; esa
vikj {kerk gS] D;ksafd lr~;qx ls gh euq"; esa nwj&ls&nwj dkslksa nwj ns[kus dh {kerk fo|eku
FkhA rHkh ls euq"; us fpUru djuk izkjEHk fd;k gSA izR;sd O;fDr ds eu esa ftKklk gSA ;g
'kjhj u"V gksuas ds mijksDr dgkW pyk tkrk gSA bl izdkj ds iz'uksa esa eaFku djus ds fy,
vusdksa erksa dh LFkkiuk gqbZA dqN erksa us bl iz'u dh vkykspuk fd;sA dqN us rks [k.Mu
djds pys x;sA dqN us bls vkRelkr fd;kA tc rd euq"; bl lalkj :ih ckx esa jgsxk] rc
rd og fpUru djrk jgsxkA tutkfr;ksa dks f'k{kk dh lh<+h es p<+kus ds fy, vkfFkZd :iksa ls
etcwr djuk pkfg,A tutkfr;ksa dks ,slh f'k{kk nsus dh t:jr gS] ftlesa jk"V vkSj lekt dk
dY;k.k fufgrkFkZ gksA f'k{kk dk vk'k; ml f'k{kk ls ftlls tutkfr;ksa dh Hkkouk dks vk?kkr u
gksA mlls f'kf{kr gksdj vyxko u iSnk djsAa lerkiw.kZ f'k{kk ls tutkfr;ksa esa O;fDrRo fuekZ.k
lnkpkj dh Hkkouk tkx`r gksxhA f'k{kk ds izfr Kku euq"; ds eu esa ykSfdd ,oa vk/;kfRed
:i igys ls gh LFkkfir gSA bl ij vKku :ih iM+s vkoj.k dks gVk nsuk gh] f'k{kk dk iw.kZRo
izkIr dj ysuk gSA f'k{kk ls fdlh O;fDr dk 'kkjhfjd vkSj ekufld fodkl gksrk gSA Hkfo"; eas
ns'k dh mUufr ds fy, fuMj ,oa cy;ku cqf)eku ;ks)k ds :i esa xhrk ls Kku izkIr djuk
pkfg,A D;ksafd f'k{kk dh t:jr euq"; dks vius iSjksa esa [kM+k gksukA uSfrd pfj= dk fuekZ.k
djukA iq#"kkFkZ dks lcls cM+k /ku ekuuk ,d cqf)eku O;fDr dk uSfrd drO;Z gSA mlh izdkj
tutkfr;ksa esa uSfrd f'k{kk nsuk ,d egrh vo';drk gksxhA Lokeh foosdkuUn us dgk gS fd
f'k{kk dk vk'k; ml izdkj dh lwpukvksa ls ugha gS tks fo|kFkhZ ds fnekx esa cyiwoZd nh tkrh
gSA mUgksaus fy[kk gS fd ;fn f'k{kk dk vFkZ lwpukvksa ls gksrk] rks iqLrdky; lalkj ds loZJs"B
lar gksrs rFkk fo'odks"k Encyclopaedias _f"k cu tkrsA
Mkjfou ds fodkloknh fl)kUr es la?k"kZ vkSj leFkZ dh fot; ij vkRefo'okl djrk
gSA blh fopkjksa ds vk/kkj ij O;fDr dk fodkl thou ds NksVs+ ls d.k ds leku lw{e Lrjksa ls
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ekuk tkrk gSA euq"; dks izkfrd okrkoj.k dk ykHk ysus ds fy, fnu&izfrfnu la?k"kZ djuk
iM+rk gSA bl i`Foh txr~ esa ckgqoyh dh thr gksrh gS] xjhc dk vfLrRo [kRe gks tkrk gSA
mls f'k{kk ds vHkko esa thou ds vfUre {k.kksa rd 'kks"k.k dk f'kdkj gksuk iM+rk gSA blh izdkj
dh n'kk vkt ouokfl;ksa dh fufeZr gks pqdh gS] ftudk thou nqHkj gSA blh fy, Mkjfou dgrs
gSa] fd f'k{kk dk ms'; ckyd dh mu 'kfDr;ksa dk fodkl djuk gS tks mls thou la?k"kZ ds
fy, rS;kj djds thfor jgus ds ;ksX; cuk nsA
bl leL;kvkas ds ckjs esa lkspus ij ,d nk'kZfud Kkuehekalh; n`f"V;ksa ls iz'u mRiUu
gksrk gSA okLro esa Kkuehekalk dk iz;ksx djds fdlh lR; vkSj vlR; rF;ksa dk irk yxk;k
tkrk gSA rc tutkrh; leL;kvkas dks gy djus ds fy, geus Kkuehekalh; n`f"V ls ns[kus dk
iz;kl fd;kA vxj ,d i{k esa ns[kk tk; rks vkt rd ge mudh leL;kvksa dks HkkWi ugh ik;s
gSaA blfy, vkt rd vkfFkZd raxh] vf'k{kk] csjkstxkjh] Hkw[kejh bR;kfn leL;k;sa fxurs jgsAa
Hkkjr dks vktkn gq, 67 o"kZ gqvk gSA orZeku es tutkrh; leL;k bruh Hk;kud xjhch vf'k{kk
ds ?kksj ladV ls xqtj jgk gSaA vxj ge rqyuk djas vkt ds egxkbZ ls rks iz'kklfud osrueku
rks cgqr vPNk gS] fdUrq nwljh rjQ ns[kk tk; rks xjhcksa ds fy, ued [kjhnus ds fy, ykys
iM+ jgs gSa] xehZ ls 'kjhj dks <dus ds fy, diM+s ugha gSA bl le; ;s gkykr gaSA 1947 ds
n'kd esa budh gkykr fdruh [kjkc fLFkfr esa jgha gksxhA mudh tehu esa ftl m|ksx dks
LFkkfir fd;k x;k gSA mlls u tkus fdruk dek;k x;k gksxkA ijUrq tutkfr;ksa dh vkfFkZd
fLFkfr ij dksbZ Hkh /;ku ugha fn;kA bldk eryc gS fd eap eas jke&jke eap lekfIr ds ckn
xgjh funzk esa lks xbZ ljdkj vkSj xSj ljdkjh laxBuA bu leL;kvksa dks gy djus ds fy,
Kkuehekalh; rF;ksa dh t:jr fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA Kku pNqvksa ls ns[kus vkSj vkRe fpUru djus
dh cgqr gh egrh vko';drk gSA ;s lc djus ls Hkh dke ugha pyus okyk gSA mldk iz;ksx
izek ds :i esa tutkfr;ksa ds thou 'kSyh dks euks;ksx ls igpkuus f'kf{kr djus ls gksxkA vkt
rd flQZ vizek vlR; Hkze dk iz;ksx tutkfr;ksa ds thou 'kSyh dks le>us esa fd;k x;k gS]
ugh rksa vkt og ,d m|ksx es dke djrs gksrsA izKk Kku dk eryc dh ;FkkFkZ dks tkuukA
tutkfr;ksa dh lkaLfrd /kjksgj] dyk dkS'ky] yksdu`R;] vkS"kf/k Kku dk Kku ftl :i esa gSA
mlh :i esa igpkuuk ;g ^izek* Kku gS] ysfdu tc vuqla/kkudkkZ tutkfr;ksa ds ms'; vkSj
vfHk#fp ds vuq:i bfUnz;k vuqfpr :i ls dke dj jgh gksA rks Hkzeiw.kZ Kku feyus dh
lEHkkouk vizek dgykrh gSA vizek dks vokLrfod vlR; Kku ds :i esa ekuk tkrk gSA lgh
Kku og fd ge jLlh dks jLlh le>s liZ u le>sA mlh izdkj tutkfr;ksa dh ewy
http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

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vo/kkj.kkvksa dks lR; ds okLrfod Lo:i esa ns[kus dh t:jr gSA ogh ls leL;k gy gksuk
izkjEHk gks tk;sxhA tutkfr;ksa dks lEiw.kZ fodkl vkSj f'kf{kr djus ds fy, bl ns'k esa ftrus
Hkh /keZ gSA vkiuh Js"Brk dks NksM+rs gq,A ,dtqV gksdj bu tutkfr;ksa dks 'kqfprk ;qDr f'k{kk
iznku djsA blls tutkfr;ksa es vkRecy vkSj fo'okl iSnk gksxkA vxj dksbZ /keZ ifjorZu ds
lUnHkZ esa mins'k nsA ;g dgs fd ge xjhch feVk nsxAsa rks og ckr vlR; ,oa Hkze iw.kZ gksxhA
/keZ cnyus ;k cnyokus ls fdlh dh xjhch ugha feVkbZ tk ldrhA xjhch rks f'k{kk gh feVkbZ
tk ldrh gSA f'k{kk ekrk ds le~ gS] ftlls Kku dks izkIr djds og dgha Hkh fopj.k dj ldrs
gaSA lHkh /kekZcfyfEc;ksa dks Kku ekxZ dk vuqlj.k djds] fiNMs+ gq, bl leqnk; dks vkxs ykus
dk iz;kl ,d egRo j[krk gSA O;fDr ds eu esa 'kqfprk iw.kZ drO;Z ijksidkj ls bl leqnk; dks
vkxs yk;k tk ldrk gSA vius thou dks ,d f'kf{kr vkSj xjhch ls ij mBk ldrk gSA
egku fo}ku ykyk gjn;ky ds vuqlkj vkius ekDlZ dks ckj&ckj nksgjkrs jgks]a lPps
ekDlZokn dk ewY; vkSj egRo le>ksAa ;fn rqe ekDlZokn ugh le>rs gks rks rqe izxfr'khy
ekuork ds vxzny esa 'kkfey gksdj vkxs ugha c<+ ldrsA mngj.k ds rkSj ij ns[kk tk;A
tutkfr;ksa dh xjhch dks le>s rks dkyZekDlZ dh iRuh tsuh dh tks vFkZ ds dkj.k n'kk gqbZ gSA
mlls de bu tutkrh; efgykvksa dh ugha gSA 20 ebZ] 1850 esa tks tsuh tkslQ
s csMse;
s j uke
ls tks i= Hkstk gSA mlesa tsuh us dgk&cPpksa ds Lruiku ls [kwu fudyus yxk vkSj viuh
nnZukd fLFkfr ds dkj.k uhan Hkj lks;h ugha gw] nqfu;k esa vkus ds ckn ls vHkh Hkh jkrHkj ugha
lks;k-------viuh ihM+k esa mlus esjh Nkrh dks brus tksj ls pwlk fd og fNy xbZ] [kky QV xbZ
vkSj mlds dkairs uUgsa eqg esa vDlj [kwu Vidus yxkA dkyZ ekDlZ us vius 'kCnksa esa vkfFkZd
raxh ds ckjs esa Hkh fpUru fd;k gSA mRikn ds futhdj.k ds dkj.k futh Lokeh ds }kjk 'kks"k.k
djuk LokHkkfod gSA 'kks"k.k vU;k;] vlekurk dh lEkkfIr ds fy, O;ogkfjd i{k dk mik;
lq>kuk pkfg,A O;fDrxr vO;ogkfjd lEifk dks [kRe djds mls lkewfgd <ax ls Jfedksa ij
ykxw djuk pkfg,A orZeku esa iwthifr Jfedksa dh etnwjh dk vigj.k djds vkil esa dbZ
pepksa vkSj nykyksa dks feykdj canjckV djrsa gSA blhfy, ns'k esa nykyksa dk ,d leqnk; [kM+k
gks x;kA etnwjh ls csxSj esgur esa mlds dqN ifjJfed dkV dj nyky [kkrk gS A ,slh
nqHkkZouk vkSj fo"kaxfr dks lkQ&lqFkjk gksuk pkfg,A tutkfr;ksa esa vkfFkZd dY;k.k lgh etnwjh
mlds thou dY;k.k es f'k{kk dks vkxs c<+kus esa lgk;d gksxhA
tutkrh; fodkl ds ms'; dh ckr djs rks bldk vFkZ gS fd ouoklh thou i)fr esa
fodkl ,d xq.kkRed ifjorZu ds ms'; ls fodkl ;kstuk dk xBu fd;k x;kA ifjorZu dk
http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

45

vFkZ gS] fd og lqcg&'kke Hkkstu dj ldsA 'knhZ dh <.M+ ls cpkus okys diM+s dk izca/k gks
ldsA ouokfl;ksa dh Lo;a dh viuh Hkwfe gks] dksbZ O;fDr ml Hkwfe ls mUgsa csn[ky ugha djsAa
og eku&lEeku ds lkFk viuk thfodksaiktZu dj ldsA leqfpr f'k{kk izkIr dj ldsAa vkfFkZd]
LokLF; ,oa ifjogu lqfo/kkvksa bR;kfn] dks n`f"Vxr /;ku esa j[kdj tutkrh; fodkl dh
;kstuk cukbZ xbZ FkhA
ouokfl;ksa ds lkFk lfn;ksa ls HksnHkko] vi;l] 'kks"k.k dh uhfr dh xbZA ftldk iw.kZ
v/;;u lafo/kku fuekZrk us fd;k FkkA blfy, ouokfl;ksa dks ns'k dh eq[; /kkjk esa ykus ds fy,
lqj{kkRed ,oa fodklkRed lqfo/kkvksa dks /;ku eas j[krs gq,A lqj{kk vuqPNsnksa dk lafo/kku esa
o.kZu fd;k x;k gSA
vk;ksx ;g fo'okl djrk gS] fd O;fDr vius O;fDrRo dk fuekZ.k vius Hkfo"; dks
lPps le`)] U;k;ksfpr] uSfrd vkSj vf/kd lokZxh.k cuk ldrk gSA lHkh dk Hkfo"; ouksa }kjk
i;kZoj.kh; lUrqyu dks cuk;s j[kuk vf/kd vkSfpR;iw.kZ gSA tutkfr;ksa ds }kjk fufeZr ouksa ds
nksgu ds vk/kkjksa dk fodkl djsAa O;fDr fo'okl djrk gSA ouoklh vf/kd xjhch esa Mwcs gq,]
fodkl'khy ns'k ds ,d cM+s tutkrh; leqnk; dks jkgr igqpkus ds fy, iq#"kkFkZ iw.kZ fodkl
cgqr t:jh gSA vkt Hkkjrh; fodkl dh /kqjh gSa og jktuhfr ij vk/kkfjr gSa] vkSj blh esa
vk;ksx ds fu.kZ; Hkh fufgr gSA tutkfr;ksa dh leqfpr ekuoh;rk dh n`f"V ,oa euoh; ewY;ksa
dks lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, ouksa dks O;oLFkkiu izkjfEHkd djuk gksxkA vkt tutkfr vkfFkZd
ladV esa gSA o`{kk jksi.k ds fy, oSKkfud izxfr us e'khuksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tk jgk gSA mlls Hkh
muds jkstxkj izHkkfor gq, gSaA mues v'kkafr dks de djus ds fy, ljdkj dks vk/kqfudrk ds
iz;ksx ds lkFk&lkFk mu ouokfl;ksa dks jkstxkj miyC/k djk;k tkuk pkfg,A rkfd ouokfl;ksa
dk thou pys vkSj fodkl rHkh ekuk tk;sxk] tc bl i`Foh ds lEiw.kZ ekuo tkfr ldq'ky
jgsaA D;ksafd ouoklh Hkh bl txr~ ds ,d vg~e fgLls gSA budksa vyx ugha fd;k tk ldrkA
budksa f'kf{kr djds fodkl dk budk fgLlk nsukA izR;sd O;fDr vkSj ljdkj dk lcls cM+k
drO;Z gksuk pkfg,A ouokfl;ksa dks bu vf/kdkjksa ls oafpr djus ds dkj.k os misf{kr eglwl
djrs gSaA ge vxj mnkgj.k ds rkSj] ij egkHkkjr esa ns[ksa rks ikMoksa vkSj dkSjoksa ds chp ;g
la?k"kZ fgLls dk gh jgk gSA pgsa Hkys ge drO;Z dh ckr djs ij vlyh eqn~nk fgLls dk jgk gSA
fgLls ds dkj.k bruk Hkh"k.k ;q) gqvk] ftldh ifjdYiuk izR;sd
a ekuo leqnk; dj ldrk gSA
dqN yksxksa ds eu tutkfr;ksa ds nSfo; izf;k ds ckjsa esa xyr /kkj.kk gS] fd
tutkfr;ksa esa tknw] Vksu]sa cfy izFkk vxj fo|eku gSA LokLF; ds izfr oSpkfjd leL;k, fo|eku
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46

gksukA bu folaxfr;ksa dk lcls igyk dkj.k vkfFkZd fLFkfr dk detksj gksukA vFkZ ds vHkko eas
;s lHkh leL;k, O;fDr dks etcwj djds] bu izFkkvksa dks ekuus ds fy, ck/; djrh gSaA vFkZ
iSls ds vHkko esa f'k{kk dk u fey ikuk] f'k{kk u feyus ls fodkl ds ekxksZ dk vo:) gksukA
;g lcls cM+h folaxfr muds fgLls dks u iznku djuk gSA tutkfr;ksa esa Vh-ch-] vLFkek]
eysfj;k] ihfy;k] Mk;fj;k] fueksfu;k] dqiks"k.k vkfn fcekfj;ksa ls ihf<+r jgrs gSA ftldksa
lk/kkj.k nokbZ;ksa ls Bhd fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;g ykbZykt chekjh ugha gSA ijUrq izfro"kZ u
tkus fdruh tkus tkrh gSaA ftl ns'k esa Mk;fj;k] dqiks"k.k tSlh&NksVh&NksVh chekjh ls ejuk
iMs+ blls cM+h leZ dh ckr D;k gks ldrh gS] ftlesa /;ku nsus dh vf/kd vo';drk gSA dgus
ds fy, ljdkj us Qzh&nokbZ;ksa dk forj.k rks djok jgh gSa ijUrq mldh lgh ejhtksa ij vlj
ugha iM+rk gSA blds lkFk&lkFk mu nokbZ;ksa dk lapkyu djus okys es rks cgqr gh cM+h
nqHkkZouk ns[kh tkrh gSA
tutkfr;ksa ds fy, muds laLfr ds eqrkfod dkslZ Hkh O;fDrRo fuekZ.k esa lgk;d
gksxAsa #fp] {kerk] fuiq.krk dk cgqr vf/kd fodkl gksxkA tSlh iqjkuh ijEijk esa lcls igys
lh[kus] dh vfHkyk"kk dh uho Mkyuh pkfg,A tgk muds lh[kus dh cyorh yyd dk fodkl
gqvkA ogk ls og fodkl dh fn'kk dh vksj vxzlj gks tk;sxAs tutkfr;ksa dks ,sls dkS'ky
izf'k{k.k dk;Ze lapkfyr djs] tks muds #fp ds vk/kkfjr gksA blds fy, lcls igys
euksoSKkfud v/;;u djuk t:jh gS fd bu leqnk;ksa dh #fp fdl rjQ T;knk py jgh gSA
tutkfr;ksa es dk;Z djus dh 'kSyh vkSj {kerk euks;ksx ls djus dh gksrh gSA os esgurh gksrs gSa
budksa y?kq&m|ksx] dqVhj&m|ksx eq[kh fodkl dk;Ze lapkfyr djuk pkfg,A NksVs&NksVs dk;Z
O;fDr dks egku vkSj f'kf{kr cukrs gSaA fdrkch Kku ds ctk; ljdkj dks T;knk ls T;knk
buds iz;ksx ds ek/;e ls fl[kk;k tkuk pkfg,A bUgsa fujh{k.k vk/kkfjr f'k{kk dk ,oa vuqHko
vk/kkfjr f'k{kk nsus dh Hkh t:jr gSA blesa buds dk;Z djus dh {kerk dk fodkl gksxkA
vkfFkZd] csjkstxkjh] vf'k{kk vkSj xjhch dks /;ku j[krs gq, tutkfr;ksa dks lafo/kku us
fo'ks"k lqfo/kk, iznku dh gSA tks fdlh jktuSfrd ny ds n;k ik dh nsu ugha gSA ;s lqfo/kk,
cqf)thoh fo}ku ds v/;;u dk ifj.kke vkSj n;kik gSA D;ksafd fiNys dbZ o"kksZ ls bu
tutkfr;ksa us 'kks"k.k ds f'kdkj gq,A izHkqRo oxZ ds dkj.k vekuoh; thou thuk iM+kA xSj
tutkrh; mPp oxhZ; yksx tks vk/kqfudrk dk ykHk izkIr fd;sA mu ykHkksa ls tutkfr oafpr
jgs gSa lcls igyk dkj.k xjhch ftlds dkj.k f'k{kk ls dkslksa nwj jgsaA mUgsa fdlh izdkj dh
f'k{kk ugha feyhA os lekt dh izeq[k /kkjk ls dVs jgsAa vktkn Hkkjr esa buds lkFk lkSry
s k
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47

O;ogkj fd;k tk jgk gS vkSjksa dks cgqr ykHk feykA O;ogkfjd n`f"V ls ;g lkekftd n`f"V ls
U;k;f;d vkSj uSfrdrk dh n`f"V ls tutkfr;ksa dks Hkh ;g lc dqN lqfo/kk, feyuk pkfg,A
fdlh Hkh jk"V esa euq"; ds nks rjg ds HkkX; ugh gqvk djrsA tutkfr;ksa dk Hkh ogh HkkX; gksuk
pkfg, tks vU; euq";ksa dk gSA

gekjk u dksbZ iq.; gS] u gh dksbZ iki] u gh lq[k gS] u gh nq%[kA gekjs fy;s ea=] osn]
rhFkZ] vkSj ;K dqN Hkh ugha gSA eS u gh Hkkstu gw] eS u gh HkksT; gw] u gh HkksDrk gw] eS dqN Hkh
ugha gwA eSa fpnkuUn Lo:i f'ko gw] eS gh f'ko iq.; Lo:i gwA bl izdkj dh mudh dksbZ Hkh
/kkj.kk ugha gSA tutkfr;ksa dh tSlh Hkh /kkj.kk gS] og buls vyx gSA muds nsorkvksa dh
iwtk&vpZuk] iki&iq.;] uhfr&vuhfr vkfn ijEijk dks ekuus dh fof/k vR;Ur dfBu gSA budh
fof/k;ksa dks vke O;fDr ds {kerk dkS'ky ds ijs gSA
tutkfr;ksa dks ;g lHkh izdkj dh lqfo/kk,] vkfFkZd] 'kSf{kd lkekftd :i ls nsdj
/kfud oxZ ds cjkcj ykuk gksxkA rc lerkiw.kZ lekt dh dYiuk lkdkj gksxhA
lafo/kku }kjk tutkfr;ksa dks lqj{kk, vuqPNsn 17] 23] 24 ,oa 25 2 c esa of.kZr gSA
'kSf{kd ,oa lkaLfrd lqj{kk, vuqPNsn 15 4] 29 ,oa 46 es mYys[k fd;k x;k gSA
jktuhfrd lqj{kkvksa dks vuqPNsn 164] 320 4] 334 Mh] 343 Vh] 371 ,] ch] 371 ,Q]
371 th ,oa 371 ,p eas ys[kc) gSA
tutkfr;ksa dks ukSdjh esa lqj{kk vuqPNsn 16 4 335 vkSj 338 esa lkQ izko/kku gSA
;g laj{k.k dh n`f"V ls jkT; ds uhfr funsZ'kd rRo ds v/;;u ij iznku fd;k x;k
gSA blesa jkT; ck/; ugh gSaA ijUrq
tkfr]
/keZ] fyax] tUe LFkku ds vk/kkj ij fuUnk ds lkFk fdlh Hkh izdkj dk HksnHkko ugha djsxkA ;gk
rd dh Hkkstuky;ksa] gksVyks]a rkykcks]a Luku?kkVksa ;k lkoZtfud LFkkuksa vkfn esa jkT; ds fy,
lHkh O;fDr leku gSA vuqPNsn 15 Hkkx 4 esa of.kZr gS] fd 'kSf{kd] vkfFkZd] lkekftd :i ls
mu ykHkksa ls dVs gq, fiNM+]s xjhc oxksZ ds fodkl ds fy, vPNk ls vPNk iz;kl djaAs
tutkfr;ksa ds fodkl dks vkxs ykus dk iz;kl lafo/kku ds vuq:i gSA blfy,
tutkfr;ksa dks vkj{k.k iznku fd;k tkrk gSA
http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

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1- jkT; dk vf/kdkj gS] fd tutkfr;ksa ds ikl tks Hkh lEifk gS] mldh lqj{kk jkT; ljdkj
iznku djsA
2- vuqPNsn 29 esa Li"V mYys[k gS] fd jkT; ds tutkfr;ksa dh laLfr Hkk"kk] u`R;] dyk dkS'ky
bR;kfnA {ks= es muds ewy Lo:i dks foxkM+k ;k ifjekftZr ugha fd;k tkukA bu vuqPNsnksa ds
vuqlkj tutkfr;ksa dks ;g vf/kdkj izkIr gS fd ;s viuh laLfr vkSj Hkk"kk 'kSyh] dykfr;ksa
dks tSlk pkgs cuk;s jgsaA ;fn dksbZ tutkfr ,d ls vf/kd ifRu;ksa dks j[krk gSa] rks ;g izFkk
muds laLfr ds vuqdwy gSA blesa jkT; fdlh Hkh izdkj dk dkuwu ugha cuk ldrk gSA ijUrq
;s tutkfr ds vyko dksbZ oxZ leqnk; ugha dj ldrk gSA
tutkfr;ksa dks lafo/kku }kjk 'kkldh; gks ;k v'kkldh; laLFkk, budksa ukSdjh] f'k{kk]
jktuSfrd xfrfof/k gks muesa budksa 7-51 izfr'kr LFkku vkjf{kr gSA lafo/kku }kjk tutkfr;ksa
dh vkfFkZd leL;k vkSj fuj{krk dks /;ku esa j[krs gq,A fodkl ds fy, 40 o"kksZ rd ds fy,
vkj{k.k fd;k x;k FkkA fodkl dh n'kk dks ns[kdj lafo/kku dk vuqPNsn 334 ds }kjk bl jk"V
ds jk"Vifr }kjk fo'ks"k vf/kdkjh dks tutkfr;ksa ds vkj{k.kksa ds vuqlkj vkfFkZd fodkl]
lk{kjrk] xjhch bR;kfn dh mUufr dh tkudkjh ds fy, fu;qDr djrk gSA ;g fo'ks"k vf/kdkjh
vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa tutkfr ds dfe'uj gksrs gSA ;s vf/kdkjh vkj{k.k lEcU/kh bu xjhcksa dh
fLFkfr dk tk;tk ysrs gSA tutkfr;ksa esa fodkl dh fdruh o`f) gqbZ gSA dfe'uj bl fjiksZV
dks jk"Vifr ds ikl izLrqr djrs gSaA jk"Vifr laln es Hkstrs gSA blh vk/kkj ds vuq:i lqj{kk
,oa vkj{k.k dh vof/k c<+kbZ tkrh gSA ijUrq cM+s [ksn dh ckr gS] fd ftu vf/kdkfj;ksa dks fo'ks"k
vf/kdkj fn;k tkrk gSA muds }kjk fu"BkiwoZd dk;Zokgh ugh dh tkrhA ftllsa tutkfr;ksa dks
xjhch vkSj vf'k{kk ls Hkqxruk iM+ jgk gSA blfy, bu vf/kdkfj;ksa dks Hkkjr ljdkj ds jk"Vifr
dks fo'ks"k /;ku nsus dh vko';drk izrhr gksrh gSA
tutkfr;ksa esa vkfFkZd fodkl ds fy, vuqPNsn 275 1 ,oa 279 2 ds v/;;uksa
mijkUr Hkkjr ljdkj vkSj jkT; ljdkj tutkrh; fodkl ds fy, Lohfr iznku djrh gSA
brus vf/kdkj izkIr gksus ds ckn Hkh tutkfr;ksa dh f'k{kk Lrj vkSj vkfFkZd raxh dk lQy
fodkl ugh gqvkA dgh&u&dgh ljdkj esa Hkh deh ;k muds ukSdjksa esa deh gSA
ns'k dh vktknh ds ckn vkfnoklh fodkl ds fy, dbZ desfV;k vkSj vk;ksx dk xBu
fd;k x;kA

iapo"khZ; ;kstuk

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49

leqnkf;d fodkl [k.M ;kstuk

cgqms'kh; fodkl izkstsDV

fodkl esa CykWd ,izksp blesa ,fYcu us dgk fd tutkrh; ,d laons u'khy euq"; gSA
bl ;kstuk dk ms'; vkfFkZd mUufr] es lg;ksx iznku djuk FkkA 1- f'kf{kr djds
jkstxkj dh vksj vxzlj djuk] LokLF; oSpkfjd ijEijkvksa ls gVdj fpfdRlk O;oLFkk
eqgS;k djkuk] vkokxeu ds lk/kuksa vkSj lapkj ls tksM+uk] ,fYcu desVh dh vg~e Hkwfedk
FkhA

blds ckn 1960 esa tutkfr;ksa ds fodkl ds fy, vuqlwfpr {ks= <+cs j deh'ku cukA
iapo"khZ; ;kstuk 'kq: djus dk izLrko ekU; fd;k x;kA tks 500 Cykdksa es ykxw gqvkA

1969 'khyw vkvksa desVh] fodkl ,tsfUl;k dk xBu fd;k x;kA 'khyw ukxk tutkfr
FksA mUgksaus tutkfr ds fodkl ds fy, fodkl ,tsUlh gksuk vko';d ekukA

1974 es tutkrh; mi;kstu] VkLd QkslZ dk xBu fd;k x;kA tutkrh; fodkl ds
fy, VkLd QkslZ dh LFkkiuk dh xbZA tutkrh; {ks=h; fodkl esa dk;Z djuk cgqr
vfrvko';d FkkA 1974 ds n'kd esa bl iapo"khZ; ;kstuk dks nks Hkkxksa es ckVk x;kA

1- ,dhr tutkrh; fodkl izkt


s sDV
2- eksfMQkbM ,fj;k fodkl ,izksp] izkt
s sDV fodkl {ks= esa yxk;k x;kA
oSfnd dky dk v/;;u djus ls irk pyrk gS] fd lEiw.kZ osnks] czk.kksa mifu"knksa esa
tkfr izFkk dk pjerk tSlk tgj QSyrk ;g rks ?k`f.kr O;oLFkk gh vo'; ftEesnkj gSA _Xosn
esa czk.k 'kCn dk mYys[k cgqr de gqvk gSA ns[kus dks Hkh feyk gS rks ,d fo}ku Kkuh]
iqjksfgr ds :i esa ekuk x;k gSA
tkfr o.kZ Hksn /kkfeZd dVV~jrk] /kkfeZd :f<+;k] izFkkvksa dh vlekftdrk vuSfrdrk dk
izpyu iqjk.kksa dh jpuk ds ckn ekuk tkrk gSA prqFkZ o.kZ ftldks 'kwnz o.kZ dgk tkrk gSA mPp
oxZ ds dkj.k os fiNM+rs gh x;sA f'k{kk ls mUgsa oafpr fd;k x;kA pkgs dksbZ Hkh ;qx jgk gksA
gj ;qx esa mPp oxZ vius pkrq;Z ds dkj.k vkxs jgk gSA dksbZ Hkh lkk 'kklu jgh gksA ;gk rd
fd eqfLyeks]a vxzstksa ds 'kkludky esa Hkh mPp oxksZa dks gh vkxs c<+us dk ekSdk fn;k gSA

bu

'kwnz oxksZ nfyrksa dks lHkh 'kklu dky esa nkl gh cuk dj j[kk x;kA tks mlh izdkj ls ;Fkkor
vkt Hkh fo|eku gSA ftudk 'kSf{kd] vkfFkZd Lrj fcYdqy ux.; gSA mudksa isV Hkjus rd dh
jksVh Hkh fdlh 'kklu dky esa ugh nh xbZA mudk 'kks"k.k nklrkiw.kZ thou thus ds fy, etcwj
http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

50

fd;k x;kA fodkl fdlh eky cukus ls ugh gksrk cfYd tkfrokn tSlh Hkkouk lekIr djds
lerkiw.kZ /keZfujis{k lekt dh LFkkiuk djuk ,d fodklkRed <+kpk gksxkA bu tkfr;ksa dh
jSfxax gj le; esa gqbZ gSA mlh izdkj vkt Hkh jSfxax gks jgh gSaA tcfd ps mBs yksx bl
jSfxax dks ekSt eLrh djkj nsrs gSaA ijEijk dg nsrs gSaA vxj tkfrokn tSlh ijEijk lekIr
djuk gS] rks 'kklu Lrj ij vUrZtkrh; fookg gksuk pkfg,A lEiw.kZ lekt dks ,dlw= esa ck/kus
dk iz;kl lekt ds cqf)thoh oxksZa dk dkZO; gksuk pkfg,A
_Xosn esa ,d lk/kd bZ'oj ls izkFkZuk djrk gSA fd gs nso! ;fn geus vius fdlh
lqgn` ; ds izfr iki fd;k gks] vius fdlh fe= vFkok lg;ksxh dk vfgr fd;k gks] vFkok fdlh
iM+kl
s h ;k vifjfpr dks Hkh d"V fn;k gks rks gs nso] bl iki ls eqDr djsAa

;g Hkkouk gekjs

Hkkjrh; laLfr dk ,d vax gSA blh dY;k.k vkSj iq#"kkFkZ ds dkj.k Hkkjrh; laLfr dh
egkurk dks Lohdkj fd;k x;kA lHkh dk dY;k.k gqvk gks ml ln~xq.k dh dYiuk gekjh
Hkkjrh; ijEijk djrh gSaA bl txr~ es lcdk leku vf/kdkj gSA mlh izdkj tutkfr;ksa dk
vkSj /kughuksa dk Hkh vf/kdkj gSA
bl lk/ku tSlh lksp bu ouokfl;ksa dh gSA ;s tutkrh; ijEijk, rd csgn bZekunkj
gSA muds thou vkSj g`n; dh ckrs _Xosn es dgha xbZ gSA ,slk ouokfl;ksa dk LoHkko vkSj ewy
pfj= dgrk gSA lR;rk ds lEcU/k esa vkpk;Z pk.kD; dgrs gS fd&
lR; ds vkpj.kksa dk vuqlj.k djus okyksa euq";ksa ds fy, nqyZHk dqN Hkh ugha gSA blh izdkj
ouoklh lR; ds ikyudkkZ gSA
ouoklh leqnk; dks uSfrd f'k{kk O;fDrRo ewY;ksa ij vk/kkfjr nh tkuh pkfg,A ewY;kas ds fcuk
ckgjh vkpj.k dks iznf'kZr djuk ,d fn[kkok ek= gS ;k vkMEcj tSlk ik[k.M dgk tk ldrk
gSA vko';drk uSfrdrk] ln~xq.k ls tutkfr;ksa ds izfr dk;Z djus dh gaSA bUgsa f'k{kk ds izfr
ykus ds fy, O;fDr esa pkfjf=d dlkSVh dks dluk gksxkA buds f'k{kk ds izfr O;fDr ds
f;kdyki uSfrd rqyk ds leku gksus pkfg,A pfj= gh ekuo dk O;fDrRo fuekZ.k djrk gSA
tutkrh; f'k{kk ds fy, vFkZ'kkL=] Hkwxksy] bfrgkl] jktuhfr'kkL=] xf.kr] O;ogkfjd
f'k{kk] izfr foKku] laLr] n'kZu] tutkrh; dyk] ekuo'kkL=h; v/;;u] O;olkf;d
uhfr'kkL=] uSfrd i;kZoj.k] vk;qZfoKku vkSj vkS"kf/k'kkL= bR;kfn

fo"k;ksa dh Hkh ppkZ gksuh

pkfg,A blds lkFk&lkFk uSfrd ewY;ksa dk Hkh v/;;u djk;k tkuk pkfg,A uSfrd ewY;ksa ds
fcuk O;fDr ds ekuork dk gkL; lk izrhr gksrk gSA dqN O;fDr ds dqN dk;Z ;a=or~&jkscksV
tSls cu tkrs gSA MkW- jk/kk".ku~ us dgk Fkk] fd fo|ky;] egkfo|ky;] fo'ofo|ky; ds fo}kuksa
http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

51

ls vihy gS fd bu ikiiw.kZ ?kkrd cqjkbZ;ks]a nqHkkZouk] tkfrokn] ?k`.kk] fu"deZ.;rk] ijLifjd


vU/kfo'okl ,oa izHkqrk ds eksg ek;k ds fo:) la?k"kZ djsAa bu nqHkkZoukvksa ls gekjh jk"Vh; ,drk
vkSj 'kfDr dk gkL; gksrk gSA ge vk'kk djrs gS fd gekjs f'k{kk txr~ dks ck jktuhfrd
vfHkdj.kksa ds ?k`f.kr vfre.kksa ls ckgj LoPN j[kk tk;sA

tutkfr;ksa dh mu vfyf[kr

ijEijkvksa ij Hkh /;ku nsuk pkfg,] ftlls tutkfr;ksa dh f'k{kk i)fr dks lkeus ykus ds fy,
ewY; ijd f'k{kk lkFkZd gks ldsAa
bUgha i)fr;ksa ds fy, dqN fcUnqvksa ij /;kuk"V gksuk pkfg,A Hkk"k.k i)fr esa o`f)]
iz'umkjh;&fof/k dks viukuk] lewg ppkZ eas o`f)] f}dh; laokn] okn&laokn] uSfrd ewY;ksa ,oa
O;fDrRo fuekZ.k lEcU/kh laokn] O;ogkfjd] lkekftd leL;kvksa ij lewg ppkZ] vH;kl fof/k&
dsl&LVMh] lR;rk] tkx:drk vkSj lgu'khy cukuk vkfnA
ftl izdkj ls tutkfr;ksa ds fodkl ds fy, dbZ vk;ksx xfBr fd;s x;sA mlh izdkj
f'k{kk lEcfU/kr vk;ksx dk xBu fd;k x;kA blesa lcls igyk MkW- jk/kk".ku~ vk;ksx lu~
1948 esa xBu fd;k x;kA eqnkfy;j vk;ksx 1992 esa cukA dksBkjh vk;ksx 1964 esa cukA blds
ckn jke".kewfrZ vk;ksx 1986 esa ubZ f'k{kk uhfr ds ms'; ls cukA blh ds lkFk 'kadjjko
pOgk.k desVh cuhA jkekuUn desVh 1990 es cuhA ,l- iky- desVh 1993 es cuhA mlh le;
1993 es ,u-lh-vkj-bZ-Vh- dk xBu Hkh fd;k x;kA 2006 esa ukWyst vk;ksx dk xBu fd;k x;kA
bu lc vk;ksxksa us uSfrd ewY; ,oa ewY; ijd f'k{kk dh odkyr dh] ijUrq jktuhfrd dkj.kksa
ls vkt rd ns'k esa ykxw ugha gks ik;kA cqf)thft;ksa ds brus dfBu ifjJe ls cuk;s x;s
izLrkoksa dk dksbZ egRo ugha feykA f'k{kk&f'k{kd ds fy, cuk;k x;k laxBu gSA ,slh leL;kvksa
ds funku ds fy, f'k{kk dks jktuhfrd <+kps ls vyx j[kuk pkfg,A f'k{kk dk tud f'k{kd gSA
mlds lafUgr jk"V fuekZ.k laHko gSA f'k{kk dk <+kpk lc ds fy, cjkcj gksuk pkfg,A 'kkldh;
fo|ky;ksa esa d{kk ,d ls vkB rd ijh{kk u fy;k tkuk] ijUrq v'kkldh; fo|ky;ksa }kjk ijh{kk
i)fr viuus ls 'kkldh; deZpkjh v'kkldh; fo|ky; ds lgkjs gSA xjhc etnwj oxZ 'kkldh;
O;oLFkk esa vk'kk j[kus ds dkj.k mudk Hkfo"; va/kdkj e; gks jgk gSA ,slh vlQy uhfr dk
ikyu djuk ;k ,d tSlk gks ;k f'k{kk dks leqfpr fodkl ds fy, iqu% ijh{kk i)fr ykxw
djuk pkfg,A blh ds lkFk&lkFk uSfrdrk dh vfuok;Z f'k{kk ?kksf"kr djuh pkfg,A
Hkxoku ds vxj ge liwr gS rks ges iw.kZ gd gS fd eS Hkxoku gw&
f'k{kk ls euq"; ds O;fDrRo dk lokZ.kh.k fuekZ.k gksrk gSA O;fDrRo fuekZ.k }kjk gh
O;fDr esa vkRe la;e] vkRefpUru] iq#"kkFkZ] vkRe fok;d] vkRe fo'ys"k.k] lnkpkj dh Hkkouk]
http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

52

uSfrd izo`fk vkSj vk/;kfRed izo`fk dh o`f) dk gksukA drO;ksZa dk lgh ewY;kadu vkSj
mRrjnkf;Roksa dks vkRelkr djus dh izo`fk dk lgh <ax ls fodkl dh fn'kk esa vxzlj djukA
bUgha lrksZ ds lkFk uSfrd 'kqfprk iw.kZ f'k{kk izkjaHk gksA O;fDrRo dk fuekZ.k mlds lkekftd
nkf;Roksa ,oa uSfrd ewY;ksa dks vkRelkr djus dh izof` k dk fodkl ls gh O;fDrRo fuekZ.k laHko
gksxkA dqN ,sls LFkku gS tgk dh xjhch vkSj fLerk dks ns[kdj cqf)thfo;ksa dks lkspuk pkfg,]
fd cLrj] vcq>ekM+ dk tutkfr Hkh euq"; gSA ,sls vusdksa ftyksa ds yksxksa dh xjhch ds ckjs esa
muds cPpksa ds vkSj Hkkstu ds ckjs esa lkspuk izR;sd
a euq"; dh ,d cgqr cM+h ekuoh;rk gksxhA
tgk izfrfnu ck:nh lqjaxksa ls ogk ds yksxksa dks xqtjuk iM+rk gksA muds fy, ljdkj vkSj bl
euq"; lekt ds cqf)thfo;ksa dks t:j lkspus ds fy, fool gksuk pkfg,A rc ge lerkewyd
lekt vkSj ,d LoLF; vkSj LoPN Hkkjr dh dYiuk ds liuksa dks lkdkj dj ik;sxaAs tgk
yksxksa dks ru <dus ds fy, diM+s u gksA ogk olk gqvk iwthifr muls euekuk :i;sa ,sBrk gSA
og tutkfr mlls dksbZ Hkh rdZ ugha dj ldrk] fd vki bruk T;knk iSlk D;ksa ys jgsa gSA
vkt /kuoku O;fDr nl ckj eksyHkko djrk gS ijUrq mudh lPpkbZ dk uktk;t Qk;nk mBk;k
tkrk gSA ,slh fLFkr esa ljdkjh Lrjksa ij osgn iz;kl djuk pkfg,A ,slh bl 'kks/ki= dh ea'kk
gSA
1-

% Hkkjrh; lekt] izdk'kd] e/;izn's k


fgUnh xzUFk vdkneh] Hkksiky] laLdj.k 2010 i`"B 93

2-

lEiw.kZ pk.kD; uhfr] izdk'kd] eukst ifCyds'kUl cqjkM+h fnYyh]


laLdj.k 2014 i`"B 19

3-

fo'o ds egku f'k{kk 'kkL=h] izdk'kd bafMisaMVas ifCyf'kax dEiuh


lh&19 n;kuan dkWyksuh ubZ fnYyh] laLdj.k 2011 i`"B 32

4-

ledkyhu ekuo'kkL=] izdk'kd jkor ifCyds'kUl ubZ fnYyh]


laLdj.k 2009 i`"B 405

5-

Lokeh foosdkuUn lkfgR; lap;u] izdk'kd] Lokeh


czLFkkuUn jke".k vkJe ekxZ /kUrksyh] ukxiqj] laLdj.k 12-07-2014 i`"B 94

6-

fo'o ds egku f'k{kk 'kkL=h] izdk'kd bafMisaMVas ifCyf'kax dEiuh


lh&19 n;kuan dkWyksuh ubZ fnYyh] laLdj.k 2011 i`"B 33

7-

i`"B 32

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53

8-

i`"B 47

9-

Hkkjrh; HkkSfrdokn
vkSj ekDlZokn % ,d rqyukRed ,oa leh{kkRed v/;;u] izdk'kd] jk/kk ifCyds'kUl] ubZ
fnYyh] laLdj.k 2010 i`"B 88

10-

i`"B 178

11-

i`"B 164

12-

i`"B 213

13-

fo'o ds egku f'k{kk 'kkL=h] izdk'kd bafMisaMVas ifCyf'kax dEiuh


lh&19 n;kuan dkWyksuh ubZ fnYyh] laLdj.k 2011 i`"B 116

14-

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6.
Role of Youth Vis-a-Vis Value System: Some Suggestive Measures
Priyanka Sharma and Ms Poonam Pant
INTRODUCTION:
Values relate to the aims of human life. For the achievement of the aims men frames
certain conditions and these notions are called values1 There may be valid reasons to
lament over the loss of values in a society; but sometimes it may be difficult to pin- point
whether a value system is undergoing a metamor- phosis or whether it is declining. We
have, somehow, forgotten that there is a psychological man behind the physical man.2
We are witnessing a steady erosion of certain traditional values which have sustained the
Indian society down through the corridors of time. That seems to be now reversed,
inverted or distorted.3 With the advent of technology, there has been a continuous flow of
population from the rural areas to the urban industrial centres. In the process of
migration, group loyalties and consequently the value system of the migrants has gone
temporarily or permanently dis-oriented.
According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Vedas are the oldest philosophical
literature and philosophical ethics of mankind. Numerous foreign travellers and writers of
historical records have, from time to time, written in praise of the high standards of
Indian morality. India has, in the past, made a substantial contribution to the evolution of
mankinds culture and moral values. This contribution is as significant as that of modern
Europe in the fields of secular science and technology.
Although there is a popular cry about the value crisis among the youth, it is a
debatable contention. In the absence of well- researched and documented evidences it is
difficult to maintain such a proposition. The argument is not to deny the existence of
crisis of values in the society at large and also among the youth. The question is whether
the youth can be singled out for the value crisis and held responsible. We need a more
balanced view of the social scenario. The values are inculcated largely by the role
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models- either in person or in imaginative identification. The role models provide direct
experiences of living values. Guru in the old gurukula system is probably the best
example. The imaginative identification implies identification with such characters that
were read in autobiographies, biographies, novels, etc.
The values displayed by youth today is what are being inculcated by the adult, in
general, and parents, teachers and other social role models in particular. Nearer home,
the youth, today, have been built by the parents and teachers who are overwhelmed and
attracted by the culture of the west, particularly consumerism, individualism
characterized by the self- seeking and self- centredness, gender discrimination, etc. the
children and youths are exposed to those dis- values right from the beginning.
Amongst the ends of social and individual life inculcation of values occupies an
important place.4 Resolution of conflict between the value systems, of different groups
brought together by political, economic or other compulsions is necessary, if mankind is
to live in peace and happiness. According to our great seers, Sri Aurobindo and Swami
Vivekananda, if you imbibe certain value orientation life becomes more meaningful. If
the value orientation is positive, then life becomes certainly more worthwhile. So, the
role of values in daily life is very real.5 This is not simply a philosophical or far off
spiritual idea. Whatever one may be doing or whatever the situations of each people may
be, if those values are transluscent in our consciousness, it will definitely enrich their life.
To deny people the opportunities of value orientation is to inflict upon them as entirely
unjustified deprivation. They have to exposed to certain value orientations. How much
each individual is able to interiorize them and use them in their own life would of course
vary from person to person. But certainly there should be some atmosphere of value
orientation in ones life; that helps considerably.6
CONCEPT OF VALUES:
A value is seen as an intellectual, emotional judgement of an individual group or society
regarding the worth of a thing, a concept, a principle, an action or a situation. Values, of
course, are intangible. It is difficult to prescribe what value is. Values are melded in our
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consciousness.7 Milton Rockeach defines values as an enduring belief that specific mode
of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite and
converse mode or conduct or end state of existence. He further adds that values are
virtually the determinants of all kinds of behaviour that could be called social behaviour.8
The values determine attitude as well as behaviour. All port aptly put it, attitude
themselves depend on pre-existing social values. Watson states those attitudes are the
functions of values. Spranger has classified values on the basis of six basic interests or
motives in personality: the theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political and
religious.9
ROLE OF VALUES IN LIFE:
Life with values is all meaningful.Whereas life in the absence of values is of no use and
is not good at all. A person who gives importance to values is good, is considered good
by others and is also held in high esteem in the social group he belongs to.10
From the above explanation, it is clear that value is an enduring belief which guides
actions, attitudes, judgements, etc., beyond immediate goals to more ultimate goals.
Values are of three types; some are generic personal values that sustain us in a society
(e.g. honesty, integrity, fearlessness). The second sets of values are social values, which
help others and help the society to be sustained (e.g. compassion, collaboration,
empathy). And, the third set of values are organizational values, specific to each
organization (e.g. openness, creativity, proaction). Yet, these values are interrelated.11
Values ennoble our life and our profession. Without the touch of values, the everyday
business of life becomes mere commercial activity. Values inspire a higher level of
consciousness where one feels related to the larger scheme of consciousness, larger
scheme of life and the universe. This sense can come only from the idea of values. If
education is about the full development of human personality, it remains incomplete
without value education.12

A society without value is a jungle where ignorant armies clash by night.13

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A value is what is desired or what is sought. Values may be operationally


conceived as those guiding principles of life which are conducive to ones
physical and mental health as well as to social welfare and adjustment and which
are in tune with ones culture

Values are regarded desirable, important and held in high esteem by a particular
society in which a person lives. Values reflect ones personal attitude and
judgements, decisions and choices, behaviour and relationships, dreams and
vision. They influence our thoughts, feelings and actions. They guide us to do the
right things. Values are the guiding principles of life which are conducive to all
round development. They give directions and firmness to life and bring joy,
satisfaction and peace to life. Values are like the rails that keep a train on the track
and help it move smoothly, quickly and with directions. They bring quality to
life.14

Values as values are essentially inert in the sense that it is detached from humane
involvement. These become living and thrilling only when these are related to life
and activities, performance and serenity. When values are associated with
mankind, the role of education of identify, analyse, appreciate and evaluate values
becomes all the more imperative. Born selfish as men is from the psychological
points of view, values often encage the learner to be interested in leading a life in
the cocoon of his self, which however indicates vary clearly the exercise of sham
values of selfish growth and development of personality.15

No society can exist and progress without fostering values in its population. They
constitute the integrating principle in any society, primitive or advanced. Like the
cement that holds together separate bricks so as to produce the integrated structure
of the building, values help to hold together separate individuals in a social
organism, which then ceases to become a mere collection of separate individuals,
like the building which has ceased to be just a pile of separate bricks.

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YOUTH:
Twenty to thirty years of age is the period when one can give most to the nation, produce
most for the nation, do more good for the nation and work most of the wonders for the
nation. Youth has emerged as a distinct social category, not because they form the
majority of the nations population but due to reasons of their specific characteristics,
needs, psycho- social traits and pattern of behaviour. Youth are the human property of the
nation, they represent strength, vitality and vigour and are the hope for the future of the
nation Youth are carriers of culture, custodians of national honour and the trustees of the
freedom of the country. They occupy a vantage position from where they immensely
influence the Government, as well as society at large.
The youth of today are citizens of tomorrow. They are treasures of human
resources of the nation having a lot of talents dormant in them, and if tapped in the right
direction, would bear great fruits. They are store houses of energy and knowledge and
if given a right direction, can work wonders they can make or mar the world. Indian
youth, in spite of all their energy enthusiasm and courage, have continuously been
loosing a balanced perspective of and orientation towards social reality and for this, both,
the characteristics feature of this period of personality development and striking
imbalance in the modern social order are to be held accountable.16
A socio- historical analysis shows, that it was not until the beginning of this century that
youth was identified as a separate phase in the course of human- life. Of course, youth
always existed as a definite phase in the development of personality. There are even
indications that the physical, spiritual, emotional and social development of the youth
people take on different aspects under the influence of economic, ecological, cultural and
social conditions.17
The frustrated aspirations are heading the dilemmas of contemporary youth. It appears
that overall quality of youth is decreasing, perhaps due to the failure of our education
system. Youth are becoming perhaps the most vulnerable section of the society. It is

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regarded a wasted entity. Our system has failed to harness their inherent potential, rather
they are exploited by the family, college and employing bodies.18
We have only to recall that in the early seventies, Mao Tse Tung, the unique and
powerful communist leader, who is widely regarded as the leader of modern china, relied
upon the youth power to usher the great Cultural Revolution in his country. Benjamin
Disraeli wrote, Almost everything that is great, has been done by youth.
In order to permit Indias youth its due role in the management of societys affairs, our
first law giver Manu, had commended strict observance of the four old division of lifes
century long span.19
But in a country, where the tasks are long and resources always short, there is no
justification for wasting the nations time and energy and wealth in vain and let becoming
the youth a rebel without cause. Certainly it is the failure of the socialisation in
inculcating the right values and genuine aspirations among the children and the youth,
rather agencies of socialization, particularly educational institutions, have become the
places where youth learns first lesson of many vices.
In his essay on Unity of India, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru wrote: The student world of
India should be the nursery of new ideas and clear thinking and disciplined action. And
yet, unfortunately, it often shows a lack of all the virtues that it should possess. Actually
youth always rebelling in self- righteousness, feel that the elders, the family and society
create problems for them.20
Youth appears to have lost faith in the system. They have a little regard for the social
norms and values as they constantly failed to win their belief and provide them their dues.
RELATIONSHIP OF VALUES WITH YOUTH:
The Indian society is passing through a major crisis, a crisis of values in life.21 The social
transformation, particularly participation of the larger diverse groups and classes of
people in public life has significant bearing in value development among the youth.22
Perhaps people of every generation always feel that the values have declined in their time
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as compared to what they were in the golden past. Even when the Greek civilization had
reached its heights, Plato stated more than two millennia ago23:
What is happening to our young people. They disrespect their elders, they disobey their
parents. They ignore the laws. They riot in the street, inflamed with wild notions. Their
morals are decaying. What is to become of them?
Youth appears to have alienated from the society. His contribution for the cause of the
nation is only marginal and sometimes negligible. They have become idle of luddits and
wasted resource of the nation.24
It appears that youth have lost faith in the system- social, political and economic. This is
why their behaviour is usually seems to be anti- establishmentarian. They feel that all of
the political and economic institutions have been criminalised. Politics has become an
easy means to achieve selfish ends.

Youth appears to have lost faith in the system. They have a little regard for the
social norms and values as they have constantly failed to win their belief and
provide them their dues.
There are several issues related to the value development among youth. Compared
to earlier period, the youth do not have inspiring social goals and ideals to work
towards, and such goals and ideals are important determinants of value
development. In the past, there used to be some larger and inspiring causes for
which they worked. Those causes are disappearing.

The gap between the material and the spiritual progress is an important cause of
the present moral crisis. Nuclear capability is a great (material) achievement, but
our failure to coordinate it with moral values poses serious danger to the human
race.25

The state of degeneration is all pervasive. We should not hold our youth
responsible. After all, it is our generation that has imparted to them the education
they have. Also, this is not peculiar an Indian phenomenon. The wave of
modernization is sweeping across the world, almost a typhoon of change. Most

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traditional societies are facing this sort of crisis. Even in the western societies,
with all their liberalism and all their modernism, they also are feeling the brunt of
these changes. Hence, in a way, it is a universal phenomenon.26

Youth are on the rampage and rowdyism in India has become a vogue of the day.
What impels them today is combativeness and misdemeanour. They have lost
their regard for the accepted values and turned aggressive and militant in their
approach to their day to day problems. Today we live in an age of science and
criticism, and our faith in religious and moral values has been shaken. We feel
that religion is something personal, and, as such, it has no bearing upon the social
or national life. As the spirit and the values of the age have changed, the purpose
of education has also changed. The modern education has no relevancy to
character building. Now it has become merely a mechanical process and the
student is treated as an appendage of the social and political machinery.27

SUGGESTIONS:

Youth need proper care, education, work opportunities, health, nutrition and other
welfare facilities. They must be overcome the mud of idleness and their energies
must be channelized in the proper way so that to turn them productive and useful
for the society.

To help the youth at the group level. His recollected personality needs recreation,
and adjustment. Their rejuvenated energies, need to be channelized, their
strengthened ego need further mutual support. Their recollected personalities
require to be activated. All this is possible in a group. The group work
programmes must be so developed that they may prove to be productive as well as
re creative.

The third strategy of social work profession will be work at the community level.
The community resources need to be channelized to meet out the needs and
problems of the youth. There are untapped resources of the community. The
people need to be mobilised to mobilise available resources for the welfare of the
youth. The community action needs to be supported by community education in

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order to motivate the people to arouse their emphathy for the distresses faced by
the youth. The individual goals need to be changed, this will, in turn, change their
values, priorities and way of life. Change in their goals will change their
perception towards life, their expectations towards their children and their
attitudes. This will help the youth to adjust in the society without the loss of their
status in the society.

The need of the time to instil in the youth a deep awareness of and respect for the
principles and values enshrined in our constitution and a willingness to strengthen
the rule of law; and to help develop in the youth qualities of discipline, selfreliance, justice and fair play.; a scientific temper in their modes of thinking
and action.

No amount of policies and excellent combination of words can instil in the youth
a commitment to the principles and values because they find they have lost their
relevance. If there is justice and fair play in our social life, youth will
automatically adopt these values.

A social action programme must be started to change the parental attitude to


evoke their sympathy towards their unsuccessful children.

The process of socialisation need to be modified so that youth may not be


subjected to the job phobia. This will save youth from falling into psychological
complexes and will enable them to build their carrier on the basis of their own
initiative and self- determination. Social work can play a great role in creating
self- determination in the youth by using the common base of social work
practice.

Probably there is a vacuum of socially desirable ideas that can inspire the Indian
youth. This vacuum needs to be eliminated or reduced. They need to be involved
in the larger social goals and ideals, which will inspire them to work beyond
themselves. Indian youth have responded magnificently whenever they were
involved in some worthwhile ideals and goals. We have witnesses this again and
again. Foe Example, Jai Prakash Narayans movement attracted and inspired

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millions of people. At a smaller scale, Narmada Bachao Andolan Or Chipko


movements inspired youth for a larger cause.

Educational institutions constitute the biggest organised sector for imparting


various kinds of training, including moral training, to the growing youths.
Education is a socio- cultural process which aims at a fuller development of
human personality so as to enable it to achieve the ends of social and individual
life.

Values are inseparable from life as lived; hence, their inculcation is possible only
by effecting changes in style of living and the accompanying social attitude. This
calls for a massive comprehensive conceptual framework.

We must recognize that, like in all other societies, the new values are being added
into the repertoire of the youth that was not there earlier. For Example, todays
youth are much more adventurous and entrepreneurial in life; they take risks.
Youth are more open and courageous, they raise question to adults, parents and
teachers. Compared to obedience, that was the characteristic of the previous
generations, the new generations are more capable of articulation and expression
of their own ideas and feelings. In the analysis of value crisis, it is important that
these new dimensions be looked into carefully.

It will also be necessary to work out a detailed research on new values that are
necessary for living in the global society. It will call for a different set of values;
the current set of values may not be adequate for the new role and the new living.

Our education system must be oriented so as to train and direct our young
students towards the realisation and fulfilment of noble purposes. To ignore our
responsibility towards character building will ultimately prove catastrophic, and it
would be treated as the most serious accident in human civilisation. Therefore our
educational institution should shoulder the responsibility and strive in every
possible way for the inculcation of values in the youth. The beginning years in the
school are more conducive for it. Extension lectures based on morality or value
oriented education may be arranged in the institution. Eminent persons in this

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field may be invited. Listening to the lectures, discussions etc. will help a good
deal in this direction.

CONCLUSION:
Today, man, with a power- house of knowledge at his command is in greater need of a
cultural reorientation than he was at any time in the past. India may, therefore, be
destined, once again, to lead mankind out of the present stage of multiple crises and more
so of the moral crisis or the crisis of values which is at the root of all these crisis.
Youth, unrest is a multifaceted phenomenon and requires multi- dimensional approach to
its solution. The most important step would be to provide employment opportunities to
the unemployed youth so that they may not be led astray by the anti- social and politicocriminal forces for their own causes. The next step would be resorting the credibility of
our educational, political and economic institutions. Only then we can prevent our youth
from frittering away its energies on frivolous pursuits and can help it to channelize its
energies in the right direction towards the building- up of an egalitarian social order
based on socio- economic and political justice. Both, system change and ethos change the
need of the hour.
Sri Aurobindo, in his Call to the youth of India, pointed out the paradox that we
imitated some of the western behavioural models, losing our own positive tradition and
glory; on the other hand, we hardly ever inculcated the strengths of western values and
ethics. Both youth and age are trapped in this new value syndrome/ crisis. The youth
cannot be singled out. The value crisis in the youth has to be seen in the larger social
context of the adults, particularly the leaders of today.
References:
1. Yogendra K. Sharma, Foundation in Sociology of Education 295(Kanishka Publishers,
New Delhi) 2005.
2. K.L. Gandhi, Value Education A Study of Public Opinion 22 (Gyan Publishing House,
New Delhi) 1993.

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3. Karan Singh, Value education for the global society 164 in Marmar Mukhopadhyay
(ed) , Value development in Higher Education (Viva Books Private Limited, New Delhi)
2010.
4. P.S Sundaram & A.B. Shah, Education or Catastrophe 147 (Vikas Publishing House Pvt.
Ltd., New Delhi) 1976.
5. Supra note 3 at 165.
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid .
8. Milton Rockeach, The Nature of Human Values 20-24 (Free Press, New York) 1973.
9. Ibid at 101.
10. M.S Sachdeva, K.KSharma, A new approach to philosophical and Sociological basis of
education 265 (Bharat Book Centre, Ludhiana) 2004.
11. Supra note 3 at 185.
12. Ibid at 183.
13. Ibid at 195.
14. N. Venkataiah & N. Sandhya, Research in Value education 1 (APH Publishing
Corporation, New Delhi).
15. Mohit Chakrabarti, Value education: Changing perspective 3 (Kanishka Publishers, New
Delhi) 2006.
16. Pramod Kumar Bajpai, Youth, Education and Unemployment 1 (Ashish Publishing
House, New Delhi) 1992.
17. Ibid at 2.
18. Ibid at 97.
19. Ibid at 99.
20. Ibid at 100.
21. Supra note 2 at 163.
22. Ibid.
23. Supra note 3 at 14.
24. Supra note 16.
25. Supra note 2 at 22.
26. Supra note 3 at164.
27. Ram Chandra Gupta, Youth in Ferment 130-131 (Sterling Publishers Ltd., Delhi) 1968.

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REPORT OF THE PROGRAMME


Report on One-Day Faculty Development Programme on Dr, B.R. Ambedkar,
Indian Constitution and Indian Society.
2oth January, 2016
Department of Philosophy and Post Graduate Department of Public Administration of
Post Graduate Government College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh organised a RUSA
Sponsored One-Day Faculty Development Programme on the theme Dr.

B.R.

Ambedkar, Indian Constitution and Indian Society on 20th January, 2016. The detail
report is given below:
REGISTRATION

Registration for the programme started at 9.00 am to 10.30 am. Total 114 participants
registered for the programme. The participants include faculty members and research
scholars from Chandigarh, Haryana and Punjab. 60 papers were submitted this
programme.

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INAUGURAL SESSION
The inaugural session started at 10.30 with a floral welcome of dignitaries by Prof. Binu
Dogra, Dean, PGGCG-11, Chandigarh. Ms. Shashi Joshi Convener of the programme and
Associate Professor, P.G. Department of Public Administration, PGGCG-11,Chandigarh
coordinated this session. Dr. Indu Kalia, Head, Department of Public Administration
presented a brief introduction of the dignitaries. Dr. Ganga Sahay Meena, Associate
Professor, Centre for Indian Languages, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi was the
keynote speaker. Dr. Lallan Singh Baghel, Chairperson, Department of Philosophy,
Panjab University, Chandigarh was the Chairperson for the inaugural session. Dr. Rama
Arora, Vice Principal, PGGCG-11, Chandigarh was also present in the session.

Key-Note Address:
In his keynote address, Dr. Ganga Sahay Meena discussed the various aspects of Dr.
B.R.Ambedkars philosophy. He said Dr. B.R. Ambedkars ideas; writings and outlook
could well be characterized as belonging to that trend of thought called Social
Humanism. He developed a socio-ethical philosophy and steadfastly stood for human
dignity and freedom, socio-economic justice, material prosperity and spiritual discipline.
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He showed the enlightening path for Indian society via his ideals of freedom, equality
and fraternity and made India a democratic country. We can see his vastness of his vision
in the 'preamble' to the Constitution of India. It may be considered as the soul of
Constitution. The preamble can be referred to as the preface which highlights the essence
of the entire Constitution Dr. Meena also criticised Dr. B.R.Ambedkar in regard to
avadance of Indegeinous people of India in Indian constitution.
Chairpersons Address:

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Dr. Lallan Singh Baghel, Chairperson, Department of Philosophy, Panjab University,


Chandigarh was the Chairperson for the inaugural session. In his address entitled Reconceptualizing

Ambedkars ideas on Identity, Social justice and Emancipation in the

age of neo-liberal globalization: Raising a few normative concerns. He said that in the
recent times there has been an emergence of a dialogue amongst social scientists and
political philosophers concerning questions of experience and theory, thus these social
scientists and philosophers are raising question of agency , who has legitimate right to
theorise the experience , is it the one who has gone through the experience of
humiliation/rejection/ discrimination/deprivation/disadvantage and other forms of
discriminations based on caste, gender, class and race, or the one who is doing theory ,
does not necessarily need experience, and she/he can do theory without having the
experience of any kind of discrimination in her/his life.

Cracked Mirror, is a seminal book by Prof. Gopal Guru and Prof. Sunder Sarrukai, has
generated this debate amongst Indian social scientists and Philosophers. Interestingly, the
theme of seminar is on evaluating the relevance of Ambedkars thought to contemporary
Indian society, which is facing onslaught of neo-liberal globalization on the one hand and
shrinking democratic spaces of secularism and social justice on the other. Therefore, in
this paper an attempt would be made to understand the critical map of Ambedkars
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modernity and its promise to make Indian society just and egalitarian in

political

outlook.

There are two broad contours of argument to be made in the paper , the first deals with
question of identity discourse in the light of Ambedkars ideas on caste annihilation and
its theoretical responses to address the multilayered political aspirations of social justice
within the realms of Indian substantive democracy and to delineate, how far Dalit
discourse has been to capture the nuanced meanings of emancipation from Ambedkars
perspective, or Dalit discourse has only created the markers of Identity and recognition ,
but it has yet to address concerns of distributive justice . Another part of argument
concerns with question of neo-liberal globalization and its bearing on political efficacy of
caste ,gender and class in making of Indian democracy from perspective of marginal
citizen. The last and conclusive part of paper engages with question of theory and
experience of caste and other kinds of deprivations. Its reiterating again to understand the
legitimacy of experience and agency , can we really move beyond Dalit discourses on the
one hand and derivative discourses on the other to develop an authentic philosophical and
cognitive map to understand contemporary relevance of Ambedkar and his world of
emancipation.

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In the end of this session, an interaction was held by Dr. Lallan Singh Baghel with the
participants and several queries and questions arises and discussed by the resource
persons and participants. Vote of thanks delivered by Ms. Shashi Joshi, Convener of the
programme.
SESSION-I
Socio-Political Philosophy of Dr. Ambedkar
The first session on Socio-Political Philosophy of Dr. Ambedkar chaired by Dr.
Ashutosh Angiras from S.D. College, Ambala Cantt. and Dr. Anita Khosla, Head,
Department of Hindi co-chaired this session. Dr. Rama Arora, Vice Principal, PGGCG11, Chandigarh gave a floral welcome to the Chairperson. Dr. Ashutosh Angiras spoke on
the theme, SANSKRITIST CRITIQUE OF DR. AMBEDKARS VISION and
enlightened participant with is innovative power-point presentation.

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Total 10 papers were presented in the session:


1. Dr. Gobinda Chandra Sethi, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science,
P.G. Govt. College, Sector-46, Chandigarh: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: A Great Social
Reformer
2. Ms. Jyoti Sharma, Assistant Professor, UILS, Chandigarh University, Gharuan :
B.R.Ambedkar and His Philosophy on Indian Democracy: An Appraisal
3. Mr. Nazli, Special Education (Mental Retardation), Govt. Rehabilitation Institute
for Intellectual Disabilities, Sector-31-C, Chandigarh: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and
Indian Society
4. Mr. Praveen Chaubey, Deptt. Of History, P.G.G.C.-46, Chandigarh: Dr. B.R.
Ambedkars Philosophy and Its Future Vision
5. Ms. Minakshi Rana, Research Scholar, Department of Sociology, Punjab
University, Chandigarh: Social Inclusion through EWS Quota under RTE Act
2009 with reference to Dr. B. R. Ambedkars Vision
6. Ms. Shaweta, Research Scholar, Department of Law, Panjab University,
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Chandigarh: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar on Indian Democracy


7. Ms.Anuradha Jaidka, Reseach Scholar, Department of Sociology, Panjab
University, Chandigarh: Dr. B.R. Ambedkars effort for Women Empowernment
8. Mr. Bhupesh Gill, Reseach Scholar, Department of Sociology, Panjab University,
Chandigarh: Dr. B.R. Ambedkars Thoughts on Social Reforms and Justice
9.

Ms. Harmandeep Kaur, Research Scholar, Department of Education, Panjab


University, Chandigarh: Social Philosophy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar behing
Education

10. Mr. Piyush Aggarwal, Research Scholar, Department of Sanskrit, Panjab


Universiy, Chandigarh: The Ideas of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar on Freedom, Equality
and Fraternity in Present Context

In the end of this session, Dr. Ashutosh Angiras presented a short summary of all paper
presented in the session and gave full critical remarks regarding the content and themes
of papers.
SESSION-II
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Women Empowerment
The second session under the theme Dr, B.R. Ambedkar and Women Empowerment

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was chaired by Dr. Emannuel Nahar, from Ambedkar Study Centre, Panjab University,
Chandigarh and Dr. Manoj Kumar, P.G. Department of Sociology, PGGCG-11,
Chandigarh co-chaired this session. Dr. Indu Kalia, P.G. Department of Public
Administration, PGGCG-11, Chandigarh gave a floral welcome to the Chairperson.

Total 10 papers were presented in the session.

1. Dr. Rajesh Kumar Chander, Assistant Professor, D.C.W.S.D., Panjab University,


Chandigarh. : Dr. Ambedkars Philosophy and Its Future Vision
2. Mr. Manoj Kumar, JRF, Research Scholar, Department of Education, Panjab
University, Chandigarh: Women Empowerment in the Vision of Dr. B.R.
Ambedkar
3. Mr. Mayank Sharma, Govt. Rehabilitation Institute for Intellectual Disabilities,
Sector-31-C, Chandigarh: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Women Empowerment
4. Dr. Wasim Ahmad, Assistant Professor, Govt. Rehabilitation Institute for
Intellectual Disabilities, Sector-31-C, Chandigarh: Constitutional Provision for
Persons with Disability: Post Independence Perspectives
5. Ms. Reetu Sharma, Asstt. Prof. in Sociology, S.B.S.B.M. University College,
Sardulgarh (Mansa): Ambedkar and Women Empowerment
6. Dr. Sarita Chauhan, Assistant Professor, MCM DAV College for Women,
Chandigarh: Ambedkarite Ideology: Dalit Society
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7. Dr. Manju Bala, TGT (SST), GMHS, Sector 38 (W), Chandigarh: Dr.B.R.
Ambedkar and Social Justice
8.

Ms. Gagandeep Kaur, Research Scholar, Department of Education, Panjab


Unversity, Chandigah: B.R. Ambedkar Views of Educational Policy for Minorties
and the Present Scenario

9. Dr. Neena Sharma, Associate Professor (English), MCM DAV College fo


Women, Chandigarh: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and His Social Philosophy
10. Mr. Hukam Chand (Special Education (Mental Retardation), Govt. Rehabilitation
Institute for Intellectual Disabilities, Sector-31-C, Chandigarh: Ambedkars
Philosophy on Women Empowerment
In the end of this session, Dr. Emanuel Nahar shared his ideas about the philosophy of
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and also presented a short summary of all paper presented in the
session and motivated the participants to explore the different aspects of philosophy of
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

The programme was successful due to its vastness of content and deliberations by the
resource persons and participants. All sessions witnessed a lot of back and forth questions
and answers between the participants and resource persons, and these interesting
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76

engagements seamlessly spilled over into the tea and lunch breaks where the resource
persons freely mingled with the participants.

In the last, Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Coordinator of the programme and Assistant Professor,
Department of Philsophy PGGCG-11, Chandigarh proposed Vote of Thanks. He thanked
RUSA for sponsoring the event with well qualified professors of Ambedkar Studies,
participants from different colleges/institions and students of Philosophy and oublic
Administration. Last but not least, he thanked the administation of the college, faculty
members of Department of Public Administration and Department of Hindi for their full
cooperation in arranging everything for the success of the programme and for their active
participation and involvement in knowing the philosophy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Indian
philosophy through this faculty development programme.

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77

PUBLICATIONS

The Religious-Philosophical Dimensions


Editor: Dr. Merina Islam
Print ISBN: 978-81-922377-5-6
(First Edition: November 2015)
E-ISBN: 978-81-922377-6-3
(First Online Edition: December 2015)
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Pehowa
(Kurukshetra)

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Contemporary Indian Philosophy


Print ISBN: 978-81-922377-4-9
(First Edition: February, 2013)
E-ISBN: 978-81-922377-7-0
(First Online Edition: January 2016)
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Pehowa
(Kurukshetra)

For more publicatins visit: https://cppispublications.wordpress.com

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79

PHILOSOPHY NEWS IN INDIA

One Day National Panel Discussion cum Seminar


On
SCIENCE OF PANCH-MAHABHOOTAS (Earth, Air, water, Fire, Ether) &

CONSCIOUSNESS
DATED 16TH APRIL, 2016, SATURDAY TIME - 9.30 A.M. TO 1.30 P.M.
Organized By Department of Sanskrit & Enquirers Forum
Funded By Popular Traders, Ambala Cantt.
Academic Support
S. D. Human Development Research & Training Center, Ambala City
S. D. Adarsh Sanskrit College, Ambala Cantt.
Council for Historical Research & Comparative Studies, Chandigarh.
Darshan Yoga Sansthan, Dakshina Murti Bhavan, Dalhousie.
Dear Sir/ Madam,
What is the use of life?
If you have resolved this query either by your esteemed intellect which essentially divides or by
wholesome intelligence which allows to realize / understand things/ situation in totality then
obliviously you have made / drawn some conclusion/s about life and surely those conclusions are
making some sense and you are living a blissful life but if this is not the case then department of
Sanskrit of this college humbly invite you to share your scholarship/ expertise/ opinion/
understanding/ insight on the above mentioned topic with other scholars of different subjects.

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Department of Sanskrit Sanskrit seeks your guidance to explore and understand these five
elements from various perspectives; like how to explain relationship among 70% of water to 6%
of air to 12% of earth to 4% of fire to 6% of ether with human body. Following is a brief of
traditional wisdom of panch mahabhootas.

NYAAYAVAISHESH
IK

Reality,

Position of
Atma ,

Consciousn
ess,

Material
elements

Position of
God,

Source of
Knowledge,

Many 7

Not
essentially
conscious

Accidental
quality

Earth,
water,
fire, air,
ether,
time,
Space,Soul

Efficient
cause

Perception,
inference,
Comparison
Testimony

Substance,
Quality,
Motion,
Generality
Particularity,
Inherence,

, mind

non-xistence

SAMKHYA
-YOGA

Prakriti,
Purush

purush

Pure
Consciousn
ess

24
elements
of Prakriti

No god/
Special
purush

Perception,
inference,
Testimony

MIMAANS
AA

Many 9

A
substance

Accidental
quality of
soul

Earth,
water,
fire, air,
ether, mind
Soul, time,
Space,

No God

Perception,
inference,
Comparison
Testimony
Non
existence

VEDANTA

One
brahman

One atma

Pure
consciousne
ss

Earth,
water,
fire, air,
ether,

Macro
level

Perception,
inference,
Testimony

In 2004, eight neuroscientists felt it was too soon for a definition of consciousness. They wrote an
apology in "Human Brain Function": Page 74-"We have no idea how consciousness emerges
from the physical activity of the brain and we do not know whether consciousness can emerge
from non-biological systems, such as computers... At this point the reader will expect to find a
careful and precise definition of consciousness. You will be disappointed. Consciousness has not
yet become a scientific term that can be defined in this way. Currently we all use the
term consciousness in many different and often ambiguous ways. Precise definitions of different
aspects of consciousness will emerge ... but to make precise definitions at this stage is
premature."
The ambiguity of the term "consciousness" is often exploited by both philosophers and scientists
writing on the subject. It is common to see a seminar on consciousness begin with an invocation

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81

of the mystery of consciousness, noting the strange intangibility and ineffability of subjectivity,
and worrying that so far we have no theory of the phenomenon.
So any theory of consciousness, if it is to be a successful one, needs to be embedded in the known
facts about the world. As far as we can tell, consciousness is prima facie a biological
phenomenon. Therefore, any model of consciousness needs to have robust biological foundations.
It becomes thus necessary, in order to understand the wherefroms and whys of consciousness, to
really tackle the biological phenomenon.
1. Consciousness is actually the only thing we can be sure of: we are sure that "we" exist,
and "we" doesn't mean our bodies: it means our consciousness. Everything else could be
an illusion, but consciousness is what allows us to even think that everything else could
be an illusion. It is the one thing that we cannot reject.
2. Unfortunately, precisely consciousness, of all things in the universe, still eludes
scientists.
3. Physics has come a long way to explaining what matter is and how it behaves.
4. Biology has come a long way to explain what life is and how it evolves.
5. Neurology tells us an enormous amount about the brain, but it cannot explain how
conscious experience arises from the brains electrochemical activity
6. But no science has come even close to explaining what consciousness is, how it
originates and how it works?
7. One wonders if there is still something about the structure of matter that we are missing?
8. Could one say that the origin of life came about when a set of particles arranged in the
right way were tipped into a sort of energy equilibrium that jiggled things back and forth,
in obedience to physical laws (modern physical laws of course)
9. And as this interaction of physical laws become more complex (where we study the
trends of their overall behavior: chemistry, biochemistry, biology, etc.) they eventually
led to organisms that interact, not solely on a biochemical level but at a macro-level too,
perceiving, processing, and interacting on a level of general summary of all the micro
interactions (what we call consciousness).
Department of Sanskrit is curious, how did this transition, between being a little chemical
interaction factory (a single cell and its organelles) to a large-scale physical interaction
machine (a creature with organs) occur?
It has been said that life is biology's greatest embarrassment. Almost all biologists are materialists
and believe in the "fact" of evolution. But when they attempt to trace life back to its beginning
the so-called "fact" proves rather to be that miraculous "something" which came out of the ocean
and subsequently, thanks to another mysterious and miraculous mechanism, became alive. And
for a third miracle, this living "something" somehow developed consciousness. - - - - - - - - - - Hopefully, the combined contributions of this broad range of viewpoints could shed some light on
the difficult, complex and elusive subject of consciousness. Unfortunately, there was instead a
high level of confusion, interdisciplinary rivalry and even hostility. Chalmers has, in fact,
challenged the attendees to address the hard problem of consciousness, which he says is actually
not one, but many, theories. We join him in the challenge; meanwhile we believe that there
remain two fundamental mysteries,
"How Was Life Created?" and
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"What Is Consciousness?"
Can evolution explain life and consciousness?
By Ken Van Cleve and Brunla Van Cleve,
Ph.D.
PS 1. No TA/ DA admissible. 2. There is no need to write full paper, just shorts notes are
welcome. 3. This seminar is not for API score so join the discussion for academic purpose only.
4. Only light refreshment will be served. 5. Please do confirm your participation so that you are
given enough time to share your views.
Ashutosh Angiras
Convener
09464558667

Dr. Rajinder Singh


Principal

For more details of seminars, conferences, jobs and workshops etc. kindly visit to
Philosophy News in India:
http://newsphilosophy.wordpress.com

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83

CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE

Dr. Soma Chakraborty, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, East


Calcutta Girls College, Lake Town.

Mr. Lakhwinder Singh, M.Phil. (Psychology), Public Relations Officer,


Runwood Homes Plc, UK.

Dr. Pundrik Ojha, Associate Professor, P.G. Department of Public


Adminsitration, P. G. Govt. College for Girls , Sector-11, Chandigarh.

Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, P. G.


Govt. College for Girls , Sector-11, Chandigarh.

Mr. Devdas Saket, Research Scholar, Department of Philsophy, Vikram


University, Ujjain (M.P.).

Ms Priyanka Sharma, Research Scholar, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla


(H.P.).

Ms Poonam Pant, Research Scholar, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla


(H.P.).

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84

Instructions to the Contributors


Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389) welcomes contributions in all
areas of research proposed by the Centre. All articles are sent to experts who evaluate each
paper on several dimensions such as originality of the work, scientific argument, and
English style, format of the paper, references, citations and finally they comment on
suitability of the article for the particular Journal. In case of review articles the importance
of the subject and the extent the review is comprehensive are assessed. Prospective authors
are expected that before submitting any article for publication they should see that it fulfills
these criteria. The improvement of article may be achieved in two ways (i) more attention
to language (ii) more attention to the sections of the article.
Format of Submission: The paper should be typewritten preferably in Times New
Roman with 12 font size (English) and Kruti Dev (10) with 14 font size (Hindi) in
MS-Word 2003 to 2010 and between 2500 to 3000 words. They should be typed on
one side of the paper, double spaced with ample margins. The authors should
submit the hard copy along with a CD and a copyright form to be sent to the
editorial address.
Time Line: The last dates of submission of the manuscript are as follows:
For April to September Issue: 31stAugust every year.
For October to March Issue: 31st January every year.
Reference Style:
Notes and references should appear at the end of the research paper/chapter.
Citations in the text and references must correspond to each other; do not over
reference by giving the obvious/old classic studies or the irrelevant. CPPIS follows
The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition. The Chicago Manual of Style presents two
basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date.
Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of
sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars. The notes
and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities. The author-date
system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences.
CPPIS follows the first system i.e. Notes and Bibliography.
You can visit the following link to download our CPPIS Manual for Contributors
and Reviewers for further instuctions:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/137190047/CPPIS-Manual-for-ContributorsReviewers
https://www.academia.edu/8215663/CPPIS_Manual_for_Contributors_and_Review
ers

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85

CPPIS, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)


Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) Pehowa
is a joint academic venture of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa and
Society for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS), Haryana
(online) to do fundamental research in the field of Humanities and Social
Sciences.
SPPIS Newsletter
The Centre also circulates a Newsletter which includes new information
related to events, new articles and programme details. One can register
himself on the below given address and will get regular updates from us.
Link for registration:
http://positivephilosophy.webs.com/apps/auth/signup
All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for
review are to be sent to:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal,
Chief-Editor, Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy,
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS),
Pehowa, Distt. Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India)
Mobile No.09896848775, 08288883993
E-mail: cppiskkr@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com
Website: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

My objective is to achieve an intellectual detachment from all philosophical systems, and


not to solve specific philosophical problems, but to become sensitively aware of what it is
when we philosophise.
- Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal

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