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C K K ; ~ ~ KK: 3TOMY nYTeLLleCTBeHHMKY I? M O p e n X a B a T e J I I O n O n X t i 0 l3OCXOI l i T b OIIMCaH>?e BOCTOKa

rlr

A ~ u M3,a i i M C T B O B a l i H O e r e p O n 0 ~ 0 h fy r e K a T e R ,
a,102; CM.: Jacoby F., 1912 ,

p a c c ~ a 3 b 1 B a n o c bM o 6 a K ~ p ! r k ~ a (cp.
x

C T ~ 2725).
.

J ' I I o T ~ ~ ~ J I ~ H yHKMa 3 a I i I i b l X @ O ~ M
aHTMYHOr0 H a 3 B a H I i R 6 a K T p M k l j e f l

li ~ ~ K T P M
HM
~ ~ I I M ~ H
~ ~~ KT Oc TRO P p~aI3~J I M W R X p O H O J I O r M q e C K O r O X a p a K -

repa. MOXHO ~ ~ M ~ T M THLa ,n,p M M e p , YTO @ O P M ~ I~ a - i o i 11 -a B C T ~ C Y Z I O T Y PaHHMX a B T O P O B , a @ O P M ~ IH a - U O [


II -L(LVq
lr nO3nHMX, IiO if 3 n e C b Y ~ T K Or p~a H M U b 1 n p O B e C T I l H e n b 3 R . YXe )' r e p O n 0 Ta M K c e H o + o ~ r a n p O C K a n b 3 b I B a I O T no O n H O M Y Pa3Y @ 0 p h l b 1 H a --CUP01 .

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L $ P ~ ~ M ~ H T ~ x , I I p U B e n e H H b l X , & ~ O A O ~ O M , M M O r y T 6 b 1 ~ bOTHeCeHbI H a

ero c q e T . Ho Hona6ufi onpeneneaao y n o r p e 6 n ~ eI $~ o p ~ yH a - m q .


Bce Xe CMbICJIOBbIX pa3JIWYMk M e X W PaHHUMM M nO3nHMhfIi @ o p h ? a hlli, CYER IIO T e K C T a M aIlTWYHblX a B T O p O B , HeT. B . T ~ m
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oii
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~ C K O ~ ~
M c e n e n ~ u n c ~ o caTpanun,
ir
a HasnaIiMn Ha -cam K C ~ ~ ~ B K M mapXMM, R B ~ R B U I ~ ~ 'laCTbH)
~CR
CaTpanMM, 110 BnOCJlenCTBMAi, B rOCynapcTBax,
B O ~ H M K U I M Xlia p a s ~ a n u e a xC e n e ~ ~ n n c ~hloHapxMM,
oii
npe~pa~~~weiicn
B CaTpanMK). B BeK A B ~ Y CCMblCn
T ~ pa3nMqMR n B Y X ~ ~ ~ H O B U ~ HaMI ~ O C T ~
MeHosatrm cTpaH 6bin yme yTpaqeH, a aBTopb1 3~01-oBpexeHFr, HanpuMep
C T ~ ~ ~lIIMpOK0
O H , nplth4eIrRnM Ha3BaHMR Ha -:q
, 3aMeHRR MMM Ha3BaIIMR Ha -a
(Tarn W.,
1951, c.444,445, 1-4). O n ~ a npennonome~ o
lilje B.Tapria IIe nOnTBepXnaeTCR MCTOYHIiKahTM 11 He MOx'eT 6 b l T b n p m n l o ( Altl~eilnF., 1, 1947, c.276, 277; Walbarik F.W.,I 1, 1967, c.7-64).
K ~ lKt ~ e t i o ~ a ncl re 6 ~a CBOm CTpatlY CaMM 6aKTpMfi~b1li MX 6 n ~ m a k B
IUlte C O C ~ ~ M ' n? p n h l b l ~ COOTBeTCTBMehI npeBHerpeYeCKOMy
~peBlieIlepCLi,iJCKMXHa@KCRX Y1 - Y BB. n O H.3. RBIIReTCR Ha3BaHMe O R ~ 0 f 113
i ,,CTP~H"
( d A y & ) BBgxtri- . n o ~ c e f BepORTEiOCTU,
i
310 Ha3BaHlle
OT!IOC>tJ1OCb lie TOnbKO K CTpaHe, ti0 M K ee rnaBHOhly rOp0,LLy (Altheim F.,
I, 1947, c.88). ,&tanetcma~ npnHannexHocTh 3102 + O ~ M OnpenenReTcn
~ I
HeKOTOpbIMIi ee @ O H ~ T K ~ ~ C K U MO CMO ~ ~ H H O C T R M M ,XapaKTepHbIhiU 2nR
M ! ~ , ~ ~ ~ c KMo ~~ Bo ~ C T M ~ C KA3bIKOB
O ~ O
(KentR.G., 1953, c.8, 3 1 ) . C O ~ C T BeHHo nepcri,iJcKaz (mro-sanan~anx p a ~ c ~ a n@oghia
)
peKoticTpyMpyeTcn,
C nOhlOUIbM 3jIaMCKOTO 622' BOCIIpOU3BeneHMR, KaK Bgx~i-. HO I$ MeCTHaR,
631cTpbiGc~a~
@0pMa, - BO BCRKOM CnyYae, B IIepMOE, HenOCpenCTBeHHO
n p e f i u l e c ~ ~ y m w ee
~ f inepexony B ,,Sam", - nonmHa OTnmaTbcR OT TOG,
KOTOpaR n,$JeuCTaBJIeHa B EQeBHeneyCHnCKMx HannMCRX; ee peKOHCTpyI1PYMT K ~ K "Eh.0x-i.-(AltheimF., 1925, c.42,43; I, 1947, ~.88,89;HerzfeldE.,
1968, ~ 3 2 2 , 3 2 3 .'
) ~ T I I M O ~ O T M~RB H H O ~Ha3BaHMR
O
T O W 0 He YCTaHOBneHa. B . T o ~ a u 1 enpOM3BOnMn
~
er0 OT KOpHR, O T KOTOpOrO 06p330~aH0Ii
a ~ e c r a i i c ~ oCJIOBO
e
baxtar- , ,,TOT,K T O npeuocTasnxer Haqnemalrryro no(
Tomaschek,
1896, C T ~ .28d4; cp..&W, C T ~ .923). BIInm, tributor"
(Kent R.G.,
rti4MO, P.r.k'eHT TaKXe CBR3bIBan e r o CO CrIonoM baxtar13. X e p u Q e n ~~_axonm,ao

sTa Q o p M a npencrasnetia B a s e c r d c K o ~
~ a3sa-

Vax 6 r x , K o T o p o e , no em M H ~ H Z I W , c n e R y e r n o H m a r a K a K
, , S ~ K T ~ H ~ ~ C[mpg3'
K ~ %
(Henfeld E.,1947,c.754; 1968, ~ . 3 2 2 , 3 2 3 )EWH
.
3m T a K ,

KKK o m f o f i

n3

m p ,

IT2 M O H O CYKTaTb, YTO. ApeBHILII @ P M ~ H a 3 - m

Te.

~ I K T P K U IIpeUCTaBJIeHa K B

Asec-

~ ~

1953, c.52). Cp. a n e c r ~ f i c ~ ocnoeo


e
Toro x e K O ~ H R badra-.
,
so.-^^.
rioprum" ( o c ~ o s acpe:rirero pona), M bzxtri(ociiosa xerrcKoro poxa)
( A ~ w. ~ ~ 6 . 9 2 3OnliaK0
).
@. AJIbTsafi~~ 0 0 6 1 u eOTKa3hlBaeT 3TOMY Ha3BaHMKI B ~ I ~ ~ H C3TAiMOJIOrWM
K O ~
(Altheinl F ., 1. 1947, c.3 1 1 ) . n o Hame3ry
MHeHMM, peUiiiTenb1ihlX BhiBOIIOB 3 A C C b nOKa.elue nenaTb tie;lb3R.
Cpena 3anaa~h1xapafruen 310 13a3saticre. B ~ o f iero Gopve. ~ o ~ o p z ~
rratia B apesvenepcMnclcMx HannricRx, nepmanocb oveHb nonro, no ~paii1iei:l
Mepe B U B.H.3. O H 0 e14e 661~10B xonp (hlarquart J ., 1901. c.87.fiS). k i ~ o i i
OKa3aJIaCb cyxb6a 3TOrO Ha3BaHMR B cabf0fi 6aK~pHii.'S'Xe3 n?CBiiOCTll Olio
nepemno ctiasana B Liaxl ,Baxl :
BOXJJO B ne~-erinaxria k-yriraiiocp.
CaCaHPUCKHS 1: ~ @ T ~ ~ I I ~ T C h1OHCTaX
KMS
R.,11. 1967. c.4. 43. 43: fi!'KoriMH B.F., 1969, c.140; npe;rrio:rometiiie P. TeEnx, TO yrca3aiiiioe ira3uaIiMe OTHOCHTCR 1le K Fanxy, a K Farnaiiy, KaXeTCR HaM COBep!lleliiiO lic)'62IIEIT~~~H
3 a~~ e~ hM
1O )H 0. npCR?aTHJlOCI~ B Balx IT COX?Zi!!llilO~b 3 nOC;ie3tiek c ~ o e i i@opa:e n o Harlrero r3pealelrLi R KatrecrBe 1ia3ija1iiixrop:>::a. 6 ~ 2 ruero tieKorna c.ronirrrefi G ~ K T ~ , :Oi-iioc>l~enh~io
I~.
npe>rewi ii 0 6 ~ ~ 0 ~ TenbcrB 3~01-onepexoxa cyLuecT~~.er
IrecitonbKo r0ue.L; ~ D C I ~ I I XCor:izciio
.
O I H O ~ ~Pi3 IIMX, ZORB3eHMe :\;S33aiilii,iX I i O B b l X ~ S ~ CIB HI ? 2 I l ( ! i I!pli\OlOll
s 6aK~pli10~ioshrxrinealeii -- TosapoB ( ~ a e s x i.~Corn.ict:o
j
z!)!.roiI. y ~ 3 3allHblk nepe>rCn RB1i;ICR !7e3ynbT3TO>l 3aKOIiOhlCp1101~0 ?.i?ilTiiOI-0 hot??TAlqeCKOrO pa3911TA1R 1; OC)'UleCTB1i~ICR me-TO I? npOl$eX)r?K? >leX,l\' 2XehletlMDCKMM H K~LUallCKIfMR{>CMeHChhl.k~2~01it211,
COrJ3CHO ipeibefi Toqrt?
3peli&iR,HOBbIe @0pl?h1C O C Y L L l ~ C T S C B ~ l Cl $O CTaphI>lir ii:)'iT!i C ?;ilOl.O !i;i'(Z.la nrrcbh?etr~ok@rr~caulir?noc:iejiii!x. i?m6oe ro:ii<oBa!ikiz yxs3a::iioio n:I)CXOZa Heki36ex'~o CBR3aIIO C O ~ L R C ! I ~ I I M ~ BM ~ c T M ~ ~ c . :lL ; lol !~! l:1 1 i i ~ ~ K i ) f i
@ o p~~a 3 s a n ~6i ai ~ ~ p s E~ ~i 6: i -ri L131ii ,B3illikika. .
K nEianeKTy TOXapOE B03BOZr?JI @ O ~ M Y Balx (c saplia:i~a:rr) i1.Alap.L;sapr. Ewe Ha py6exe traurer o c-rone-rl?>io ~ r1ipaski:Ibtic no.-nie-iriz. YTO zrix
y ~ a s a ~ ~ nifaneiirti
oro
sapaKTepcri irepexoz o r ~1 . IiaK 15 8 ii. ! . T o x a p c ~ a f i
@op>ra ri nonar:a B ~i!inr!ii:iii:c rPsc1.L: B Bi::ie ',:SIIE . U~~I.T,Z.i! T.:I. . A R - : ~ T!ifiCKa~ x e aoph4r: &STEsnne-rcx ~ i c ~ y c c r e e ~ i r i bo6p33o~latii~e>!.
ra;
);;isH O B p e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ p > 113
~ ~Ba?tl
r u l (Marquart
efi
J .. 1901, ~ . 8 8 , 8 9 :cTfiOCliIe3bHO
a ~ e c ~ ~ l i i c@ophtbr
~ o i i TaK x'e
Christensen A: 1943. c. i 6: lierzfeld E..
1968, c.322).
Pe3yIbTaTo~ 3aKOHO3iepIiOrO Pa3BIITItR MeCTHOrO Lllia3L'KTa CYMTa,7
. nasan ~ o s ~ r o ronpenerrexlix
o
3roallr I l i a 40phiy Balx Q . A n b ~ x a i l ~Ile
n e m y , O H orrfoclin e r o K qitcny cor-n&ific~irx
It.lii 6n~i3h-oporrcTseHtibrz

MM ~ i a p c y ~ i ini .e p e x o ~

Or >&>I

TOM n n a n e K T e O H n a T r l p o B a n B p e M e l i e M

M e m y a x e h q c l i l i n c ~ o i l M K Y I U ~ H C K O3110XaMM.
~
A B ~ C T M ~ C K Y H&
)
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tl C.n-1Tan

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I I ~ ~ ~ C T ~ B . ' I H In O
p OW
h i e~X~Y T O P I I Y K ) C T y n e H b B pa3BMTMIi

0 r B 1 M n a T r r p o n a n n p e h l e r 1 e M r p e s e c K o r o r o c n o n c T s a (Alu~eirnF .,
1925, c.42-44; T, 1947, c.88-90; 1549, c.23). K MHeHMM (b.AnbTxaI?Ma
n p M M b l K a K J T B b I C K a 3 b l B a I f l l R u.hg. n b f l K 0 1 1 0 ~ a no 3TOMY n O B 0 w . 0 1 1 T a K X e
CYtiTaeT, TO B ~ B O ~ I O U M1MI H T e p e c y m u e r o H a c I I ~ ~ B ~ ~n pI e M
n c RT a B n e H nepexon O r> 6 > 1 , M B a ~ e c ~ i i k c ~ (ot ~f oi p h i eB I ~ A M Tc p e n H e l i p a l i c K o e cnouo,
B 3 H T O e 143 x m o r o ~ 3 b 1 ~n eap l i o a a r r a q a n a n a p 4 a t i c ~ o r o B J I ~ ~ ~ I Y ~
( ~ ~ ~ R K O I 1<.h'I.,
~ O B 1956, c.54. Cp. O n H a K O c.384, I I p M M . 2 ; O l r me, 1971,
c.137,152).
K O Y e I i b p a l l l 1 e M y B p e M e H M OTIlOCiiT ~ O ~ M
B uY~> Balx 3 . A . r p a l f T O U C K M ~ ~OH
.
r I O n a r a e T , YTO 4 0 p h l a C 1 6 b l T o B a J I a B KBKMX-TO JlliUIeKTaX
6 a K ~ p l i Mi i n l l p a k o l i 0 ~h1eXQ'
Hefi M M ~ n i r e kYXe B >'-ly B B . D O H.3., nOC, no ero h i l r e l i u m , 6 b m o
I C O ~ I , K Y M M e l l H O B TO B p e L i R ~ a 3 n a t i ~B'ai!lika
e

C T B ~

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i
1575, c.85,90).
I j a ~
K a X e T C R , VTO 1raa6onee B e p O R T H b I M M3 T p e X p a C C M O T p e l 3 H b l X h l l l e lfMG R B n R e T C R I I e p B O e . n e f i ~ T B M T e n b H 0 . @ 0 p M a Balx ( C B a p k i a H T a M ~ ) H e
3aCBl4.lneTeJIlCTBOBaHa p a l f e e T O X a p C K O - K > l U a H C K O r O B p C h l e H l i , a n e p e X o n
8 r b O n p e n e n e H H O M n 0 J I d x t e ~ l i l t B 1 , K a K I3 6 B 1 , C B O ~ ~ C T BR~3 Hb l K Y
K y I l I a l 3 C K H X TeKCTOB. H a s ~ a ~ MBx6Te
, - K O T O p O e IIpM.qOXeH0 fi Anecre
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,
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., 1943, C. l o , ] 1 1
0
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C T B ~ H H O@~ O ~ M O
&,~ no B c e f i BepORTHOCTM, CneJJyeT qMTaTb K a K BZxli(B ~ B ~ C T M ~ C K ~OJMI @ ~ B M
I l eTT ~3 H a K a n n R 1 ) l i p a C C V a T p M B a T b K a K HCK y C C T B e l i H O a ~ e c ~ i i 3 ~ p o s a i i ~peamaym
y r o
@ o p ~ 3a.d
y
. IIpennonarae~an
llpOMCAyIO.iHaE CTyneHb C 6 B pa3BliIltit 6 r B 1
l i i i r n e 6onee p e a . 7 b H c
I r e n p e n c r a B : r e H a . C c b ~ n a ~ bx ce ~H a ~ r ~ n l i i i nc M~T~e pea T y p H L 1 e ( K ~ KIT Ha
a ~ e c ~ l i i i c ~ l Ti eeK)C T b I B UeJlRX g a T l i p O B K 1 i BCTpeqaIoLUMXCR B HMX &OPM TOro l i n U MHOrO OHOhlaCTPiKOHa ~ p a i l PMCKOBaHHO
~e
N B O O ~ L U li~ ,B YaCTHOCTli
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ii BZIllika
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K M X
m R O ~ O ~ H ~ Z I ~EHa M
~ ~Rp M l .6i ,a ~ ~ p u f i li3BeCTHO B

UeB,

T a K x e , s ~ n ~ ~B oc e, r o i i p 2 H O R 3 b I W O I ' O

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o i i

TO H ~ ~ B ~ H M
noC ,M H C I ~ F ~ K~I. T I I M lCi e, c T a p I l I e n B. iro 11.3. ( Thierne I' .,
1937, c.93). B ~ ~ I M ~ P ~ @ U ~ C ' C K HT eXK C T a X O H 0 n 0 8 B n R e T C R JlMLUb B K y W a l l CKYH) 3noxy. K TOMY x c npoiicxoxnerrue n a r r t r o r o H ~ ~ B ~ I IH M
e nRn o n l t e RCHO, M M 3 H a q U I b H a R CUR36 e r 0 C 6 a K T p M e G , B M n I i M O , M O X e T 6 b l T b O C n O p e H a
(cp. Tarn W ., 195 1 , c. 165).
K p o ~ e~ a 3 n a t r M ~ B ~ x t r i(c
- ~ a p ~ a ~ M
~ 6onee
a ~ wn o) 3 n ~ e r 0 ,npori3B O n l I O r O OT t i e r 0 MMeIlM Ganx ( C B ~ ~ M ~ H T ~ B
M KMa q) e,C T B e M ! ~ c T H o ~ oCOOTBeTCTBMR A p e B l I e r p e q e C K O M y ~ a x ~ ~
l a ITpUIfUMatoT I l a 3 B a l f M e
PiHOTaa
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, BOCTOK,i l n M 6a');Tap 3 a h l H H , T.e. 3 e M n R BOCTOKB.
B Cpealll.le

B e K a M B H O B O e B p e M R M e C T H O e H a C e n e H M e U M e H O B a n O T a K 0 6 n a c ~ bE a i l -

( P ~ r r e pK. M X ~ H ~ I K H.B.,
O B T , 1874,
6axrap B A s e c ~ eCOOTBeTCTByeT C n O B O ap&twtara- ,
imu a p X r a - - , , n e ~ a u ~ ir lro 3 a n u n , ~ . e ., , c e ~ e p ~ b ~ k C" .p e n ~ e n e p c i r n w o e C n o B o 9 ~ Z x t a 1 c o x p a i r i i n o s ~ a q e ~ ,,cesepn
~ i e
(Ail\', c ~ 6 . 7 9 , 8 0 ) , a
B r e o r p a @ ~ i l c e c t i o hc~h r ~ r c n ey 1 1 0 ~ p e 6 ! 1 ~ n ~c~y bn ,R no a p ~ n t i c ~ o rfe io r p a $ktii, n p r r n i i c a i i ~ o i ih l o ~ c e c yX o p e ~ a u i r U
, n R 0 6 0 3 i f a q e ~s e~h ~i e n b cornom.
T O X a p O B , 3 + ~ a n r i r o m ii n p o q i t x 1 r a p o n o B ,,CKM@MI~"
(hlarquart J ., 1901.
c. 140).
B l i a 3 B a l i i f l i L a x ~ a py B l f n e J l i i COOTBeTCTBMe a H ~ l < Y H o f i6 a K T p ~ l ieLUC
no o r K p 1 , : r i i r t i ~ p e ~ i i e i ~ c p c ~ a ~{annwceii,
c ~ i l a
a c n e n o n a r e n b l l o , M no 3113K O M C T B ~c c o z e p x a u l r h l c n B I I L T YI I ~ ~ D ~ H
Bixtri
~ I ~ M . B e~ponefic~oii
l i a y ~ c TO C o o T m e T c T m i i e 6 ~ 1 ~ 1: 10p 1 ~ 3 1 i a i 1 0B XYh1 B., n p l i 3 1 i a ~ a nero
~ ri B
xi B. ( f ' i f ~ r e pfi. l i ~ ~ H L I KH . OB . ~, 1,
~ 1874, c.6 1-63). B H a C T O R U e e B p e xa

ir c o n p e a e n b t r L r e T e p p M T o p l i u

~ . 6 2 , A 4 2 ) . TepMliHy

hlH B T 3 2 X l l K C K O h I l i 3 b l K e C;IOBO 60);Tall


Ta

a l i T l I q H O . L l ~I I a 3 B S H I I M

IIPMHRTO B K a q e C T B e 3 K B I i B a X e i l -

G ~ K T ~ I (3CT,
~ I I 1,1978, ~ 4 9 8 , 4 9 9 ) Omsk-0;
.

K a K HI1 ~ 0 6 3 a 3 i i l f ~ f n b i iy 0p a B l I ? t l l f C G a x r s p : 6 a ~ ~ p M R ~, ~ K a 3 a l i l i l ~ CViIlM
T a n ero 1 i e n ~ 3 n(cp. K a ~ v l i n s o nH.G .,
C OZHOG CTOPOHbI - 6 0 2 b l l r 2 ~3B)'KOBaR
comnancrili.,

1912, c.1, n p ~ ~ . Bl )c a M o M acne,


6 n i i 3 0 c T b y K a 3 a H H b I X H a 3 B ~ ~ l l Mf i

~ t TCp;lllTo,7l!aJll~1IOrO
x
coxepxaHlin,

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c :~pyroG-

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Y1 n .
11p1io5peno @ a ~ r i i u e c h - i~ i o a ~ ~ ~ e p c ~ i n c ~ o - ~
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.
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BOCTOKY r C M ~ m e i i .napona>txc, oseaunHo? 6b1n rpatrrrueii E ~ K T P U E I
m m b co c r p a ~ o i inaponaMucanoB (cp. Xy, 2; 9-Eratos.th .,fr . Ir! B,
23, Berger ) . I l p ~TOM sanarr~oiir p a ~ e u e i iM ~ n m rCsllTaXaC6 peKa MK?
(Strabo , XY, 1, 1O:Sratosth .> fr . IrI B, 6 , Rerger: Artian - ., .Anah..
y , 6 , 3; 111d .; u , 2=Eratos,th .> f r . B, 9:
Berger ) : TeKywax Ha ror
c I.GPEI IIaponahmc, u.m K a s ~ a 3(Strabo , XS', 1, 1 3 s E r a t o s t h ., fr .
U B, 12, Berger ;Arrian ': ., Y, 4, 1 =IEratosth.,, fr. 111 B, 13, Berger ) .
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~ X H ~rpaHUUa
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.
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l4
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o
.?r\:lah .: lli. 28. 4; 29, I ;
Curt ., Yn,3, 22,23; 4, 22-25;Diod ., XYTl, 82. ! , 3 ; Strabo , X x 1,26;
2, 9, lo), xnii riao6opo-r ( Arrian .; Anab, 13;,22,1; Strabo XY, 1, 2 6 ) .
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~
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~ ,17, 18, liCIIO;Ib30B2BUIe~OMaTepMan
HeIiMaxa, cp. H, 1, 17=Deimzc;cl1., fr. 2c) J e w ~ a x n a x e npoTExeHHocTb
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10; 1). Y ~ ~ U H U0113
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B

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O K~a Iq e C T B e n 0 C n a
K ~ l t i i i i i i l c ~ o >uapm
~y
i \ h l i l ~ p o X a n ) ~( Strabo , n, 1: 9 ) . n a p o n a h r u c a n b i
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~OKOTT);, npe;rwecrneiifruh-y
A.wii~poxana ( Strabo , XY, 1: 10; 2, 9 ) ,
CYMTa!lliCL y x e v a c r b m MHIIIM ( c p . P l i n ., N.H .; Y 1, 7Sj.
B ~ H T ~ ~ Y Hr pOa n~r ?Iw u l w 6 a ~ r p l l f l@ a r p p a p y e ~T a K m e c p e n M c T p a a , p a c n 0 n o x e i i H b l . u B;IOXb C e B e p H b i X CK.'ToHOB Taspa (Strabo , n,1, 14; 5, 31 ;
);l, 8,1 , Chl.: Ruge W .; 1934, C T ~ 44).
.
XOTRh l H e H M e 0 T a K O h l h I e C T O n O n 0 ~ c a i i j r p a n a p o n a ~ ~ i c a n bRr B I I H . T ~ ~ O
CT
~ , T ~ J I I , H O ~O~T

XeHMM 6 a K T p M M B b I C K a 3 b I B a X l i , B l m l I M O , M H O r M e a B T O p b 1 , B O C X O n K T O H 0

M OYeHb

COMHMTeJ1hkI0, YTO

Xe

B p e 3 y n b r a ~ e~ o ~ o p h i s

1914, C

T ~ 494,
.

no rop (cp. Kiesslinp


495; Tarn W . W . , l ? j l , c. 8 8 - 9 0 ) . 0 6 r n r z ~XOTE
.
w kre k r e i l o ~
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a F i c i c w s ropas n o i r s v , , q , o c b > c K o p e c B c e r o ,

B c n e n c T B u e HeRCli'3CTM M3j10-

y CTpa6oHa. CTpa6oli.
n e p e n a e a f l cnosa A n o : l n u ; r o p a , x a p a ~ ~ e p w 3 y eApwm
r
H Mapi-uatry s ~ e z - i e
I! OT,hi?qaeT, 4 1 3 3 i U CTp.'~lI,l OKP)'";?t{LI
r O p a h f M ( X 1, 10. 1 ) . XOTR 3i2
X a p a K T e p M C T M K Z OTIiOCltTCR, ti C)lLiIHOCTli, JlMillb K A p n ~ HO
, CC M O X H O
E O H E T ~T a K . Y T O OH^ B K E E O Y ~ M~ TM a p r u a ~ y K
. TOMY x e y I I x i i ~ ~ i fMi a p r i c a e c K r ! s rop K a i s e r i f i . c y . 3 ~no y ~ a 3 a 1 1 u mH a ,Znkikiy u s O K ~ ) / X H O C T ~ <iI.
coo6rirexr:e
Anoa;~o.zopa o e l - e ~ eB O K I ) ~h ~l a p r ~ a t r ~ n~ ol ,c ~ p o e ~ t l o f.-\tiil:i
O X O ~ Zr ( Sfrabo. X1: !0, 3).
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n p k l h f e p l i o TaKOI.0

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KaK

I< 3 p a T o c @ e H y , ~ 0 ~ 0 p b l Ifi M
i ?HOBaJl

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py6ema 6 a K T p j i a H b I ewe O u H a . 6 e 3 b l h l ~ H ~ a .R, r O p H a f f c T p a H 2 " (&prvrj ) ,
no ~ o r o p o f inpoxonjir rpamiua c h l a p r ~ a ~ o Bi in n o T b no O ~ c a(Geogr .,
Y1, 10, 1). B U C T O W l l t < e n T 0 3 e ~ e f f 3 T a r O p H a R M e C T H O C T b , B I I R U M O , yn0hiiiIIanacb B OnucaHIm h f a p r l i a ~ b ~
a , H e E ~ K T ~ MHe
~ Hcnysail~o
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M y cahioro n r o n e ~ eo ~~ e i Mi n e T pesa r o n b ~ Bo C O O ~ ~ ~ Ho Ar pMa H m l a x M a p r M a H b 1 .
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CXeIytoLLIee:

20

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~
M B K ~ I O Y ~ B U I BH ~c e 6 ~
n a p o n a ~ r i c M K a ~ ~ a 3llpescra~ne~ixie
.
o T a p e K a K KIXIIOM py6eme
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., u, 266-268). B AP)'rOM MeCHLIMM ZeCaMH r ~ p ~ a i 1 1 i R("DC bello CIV
fr. 35).
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n o n a r a n , w o B IIO3TMqeCKOM R3bIKe n y ~ a r i a ,,nenHrraR 6 e 3 u ~ a
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.Cnenosaren~no,M n y ~ a r l y~ H ~ K O MnpencTaBneHwc
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pasaenxmme2 CKM@OB 11 6 a ~ ~ p ~ f i u e ~ .
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K ~ KMcronKoBaTL y~a3arrueK a n m c @ e ~ aIra A p a ~ c py6ex hiemny
c.1 !; J u n ~ eJ ., 1939, c.51, n p ~ M . 5 ;~ R H K O M.B.,
B
19753, c.52).
6aKTplifi~ahlMM C K M @ B MM
P ~o?x e ~~ I , I T L
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~ ~O
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x A p a ~ c o h l ? ( hlarknart J , I , 1946,
H ~ o
B 6 a ~ r p a sM ~ C ~ K ~ ~
npononxaer:
H R X , ,,Ha B O C T O K o r wix ( ;oGc 66'
c.127) HO y rep0n0Ta 3Tli AlaCCareTbI 3a ApaKcohi XlfByT IianpOTHB IiC)
,
IIO
Ty
CTOpOHy
( n i p r p ) W M H O r O A p a ~ c a XMByT
,
P E T ' au'r0Xi 7 7 ~ 6 ~
cenoaoB ( I , 2 0 1 ) , a Ere 6 s ~ ~ p ~ k uree np o. n o ~TaKHte r r o n p a 3 y ~ e ~ acnee~,
~ a c c a r e ~ ~(Per.,
r " 739,740). B naT1irrcKoM nepeBone A~liei3aB CoOTBeTJYli npYrMM UCTOYHMKBM, qTO A p a ~ cOTneXReT hlaCCareTOB 01 nepCrtnCKMX
CTBYIOUCM h1eCTe ~ O B O P I ~ T C R : , (, f~~~l T
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nnane~rlifi ( I . 205. 209-21 I ) , H O H B TOM cnygae o 6a~rprifizaxi i w e r o He
(succe~ldunt ) K T ~ ~ I C H rnyxo.
M ~
myhimuero A p a ~ c a " (Descr ., 916,
rOBOl>liTCJ?. O Y ~ B M ~yKa3aHMC
HO,
Kannric@e~aIre CBOZMTCR K LLBHHbIP.1 r e 9 1 7 ) . B nepeBone I i p ~ i c w i a ~ a,,3a
:
( p o s t ) HHP.III? 3a (post ) I I O T O K O M
pOnOTa. CJ'nff lI0 UMTEipOBaHHbIM OTpbIBKah?, Kannr:c@e~,IlpIiBOLlE CBOe
A p a ~ c a K B O C T O K ~ (ad ortum ) [XMB~TJ
hlaccare~b~"(Per ., 7 18).
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napa+pa3a noRcrixer: ,,3a ~ T M M Mn e p ~ e 6 1 ? Ka ~BOCTOKY,
~
no ~y c ~ o p o i r y
covrtI<elrMR r e p o u o ~ a . B
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a ~c~w@ahfri
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c
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6 o ~ a j Ka.-inlic@el{ nonKpenMn ccbrnrtofi Ha aHanorti.rHoe ! ; ~ a 3 a ~ r i erepoC 0 0 6 U e ~ i i e, & i o ~ r ~ c rraKxe
?~
BocxonMr K KannxcGesy (Markwart J .>
nora, m e A p a ~ cBbrcTynaeT B Kacrecrse py6exa nnR 3raccareTon ( ~ O O T B ~ T 1; 1946, c.129). M sneca XBHO 3ahie1~00 6 p a ~ e Kanniic@e~a
~ ~ e
K repomCTE!'lOlriyiO Bh!DepXKy M 3 TeKCTa ~ ~ P O Z O6e3
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~R
XOZIiP.1 f fi!ro~licrix),nOCq>iTaB TaKyIo CCbInKS. Teal 6onee !.>i?CT>?ofi,i!TO:
KOTOpOe B OpririiHane BbIrnrinrir TaK: NaccareTbr xriey-r ,,no iianpaBneiirim
cornacHo reponory, HeKoTopsre ~a31-,rna;iri LqaccareroB C K ~ ~ @ C K ~ :HapoM
no ~y
K BOCTOKY M BOCXOAY conHua ( npbq hCj T E K U ~ ihiov aua-rokb~>:
noM ( I , 201).
CTOpOHy ( iT&pvv)peKM A p a ~ c ,HanpOTMB I ~ C C ~ ~ O H O B(Herod.,
"
?, 201).
hfoxtce~ G ~ I T ~K?a n n ~ c + e ~p ,a 3 p a 6 0 T a ~ U ~ fci~ o moporiijporpa+aqek b r o r ~ an o n a r m r , YTO cseneHaR ~ M O H M C M Xo Maccarerax, ~ ~ I ~ M C T B ~ B ~ H I I L I ~
CKyKl CXeMy ~ N HaH OCHOBe cTap02 CXeMbI, ~03naHHofierne 30 IIOXOnOB
y K a n n ~ c + e ~BaO, C X O ~ R THe K r e p o n o ~ ya, K r e h - a ~ e mo, ; ( i < o ~ yE I rnaBHbrx
~
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i
51 ~c~!.mrifi c Hero
IiCTO'IHIIKOB r e p o n o ~ a YCM
,
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R
CXORCTBO 3THX cBefie?IMfi
APZKC,3ali>iCTBOBaX M 3 Fee W Il~enCTaB;!t'!lIie 06 A ~ a ~ KaK
c e py6exe
C naHHbIMM r e p 0 ~ 0 T a( hiarkwart J ., 1, 1046, C. 139; m a v e ~ L H H K O
x.3.:
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.Qpyrnh~a cnosami: 3 a 1 i ~ r c r a o ~ aTO
n
1975a, c.52,54). Ho g i c n o n ~ s o s a ~ K
~ rae, ~ i . - ~ a c + enawai-IX
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r e p o ~ o - r anpxnpencTaBnearie 113 n1iTepaTypHoro M C T O W U . K
310
~ ? iie I I C K X ~ ~ ~ HXOTR
O .
hIO 3aCBMneTeJIbCTBOBaHO B lIpMBeneHH0k BbIUe UIfTaTe M 3 COWHeHMR CTP;?npennonoxeHae o TOM, wo nIiTepaTypHbIM K C T O ~ ~ M K O >KI a n n ~ c @ e ~ a
6 o ~ a(XI, 14, 13). K TOMY x e wiTHposaIrrroe coo61qea~er e p o n o ~ ao hiacsnecb 6b1n r e ~ a ~ e( k Junge J.,1939, c.251, ~ a 3 a ~ m e epaHee
c ~ BepoRTcarerax ( I , 201) He 3aIiMCTBOBaHO y r e ~ a (~~ ~e R~ H KI?.B.,
O B 1975a, c.52,
H ~ I Mli H ~ M( I ~ ~ R H KM.B.,
O B 1975a, c.63), Tenepb MLI Cqz-iTaeM HenpMeM53,65) .
XeMbIM, TaK KaK O P O T H ~ P O T P ~ + A Z I ~ C K CXeMa,
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c T p a ~ 0 i i " ; cp. !.ZOMlffi2HJie Kypmiesi O , , n y c n ~ r n i ~ . ~ x

6 ~ c c n e n o s a T e n a06bimo Y L ~ ~800
I :( ~ a n p m e p C
: ~BHUKM
r.I?.,
R 1940, c.13;
Paxhimosa P.M., 1963, c.44), npm>iMaa wcnpameHwe ocrlngentz , npeznomeHHoe
K3ZaTCIlRMK TCKCTa KypIIm. HO B Tf2KCTe CTCKI luc@paLXXX.

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y K a n n ~ c a e ~ onpenenmacb
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,
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( O K O ~ O 15 KM: OUeHKY CTanMR KYPUMR
CM.: ~ ~ R H K OM.B.,
B
1970, c.40,
nplihl. 65) - 3TO ILInpHHa AOnMHbI n ~ n l i ~ l i h l eK
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., Anab ., 1Y,5, 3 , 4 ) . me-TO B Tex x e
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M CTOMT KpeIIOCTb T a 6 ~ 1( Arrian
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)
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m., Anab .; lY, 1 , 4; 5; C M . : r p w r o p b e ~B.B., I-, 1881, 29>30; EW,
I , 1967, c.91; cp. Tam \Y.V,! ., 1951, c. 102; miase - H e r ~ a r FI.,
o ~ 1957,
c.51,52. CnOp 0 ?Oh?; ~ ~ ~ ~ C T B M n$i
T ~ Y~Tp~iLlaHa
J I ~ I I O
HBXRnaCb YaCTLIO
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fi
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o Cornriaire)

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OCeZnOIQ HacmeHH T ~ I I I K M T C K Ooa3uca
~O
(TpUI'OpbeB B.B., 1: 1881, c.27; cp. l'ePZIIOXKLM A.M., 1550, c.153) It,TU (3epraH51 ( ~ O ~ ~ YH.T.,
H O 1576,
B ~ c.29). B OnHOM
c.7)'~ae (-4n2h ., lY, 1, 4 j o s o c~::x!rr
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Tma~ca.

25

Knponona (Curt ., YII, 6, 17-23 ) ero HaceneHue ~ a s s a ~,,Moryuecro


BeHHbIM HapOAOM ( valida gens
) M ~ M ~ K ~ I ~n0n
O B 3" .T m HapOAOM, K O H ~ W O
He, Morn0 IIOApa3YMeBaTbCR HaCelIeHHe O n H O r O TOnbKO r0PO@. B a m ~ o MeMaKeHbI
,
3AeCb YnOMRHYTbI nOTOMY, W O ~ u ~ o n o CqUnb
TaJICR MX UeHTPOM. TO, W O 3AeCb HMenaCb B BHAy U'2JIaR 06nacTb, CBURe, 0 6 p a 3 0 B a ~ ~ OOTe Ha3BaliHR o6nacTenbCTByeT CaMO CnOBO Memaceni
TH * M E I I m a K r )M~J M
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nacb nonriHa 3epama1ia, n p e 1 f M y ~ e ~ ~ ~ e l i 1 i 0 ~C6a nh a~~a ~p b~ a ~anmiora,


;la u nonlirra Karrr~aaapbrf (Tomaschek W
., 1, 1877, c.63; EapTonbn B.B., M,1965, c.487,488; ~ ~ ~ C CB.M.,
O H 1950, c.173, 176)
CO CKil~liefirpaHIiWT He T O J b K O C O ~ A M IIOHKWaeMaR
~H~,
KBK nO:Il.M3
n o n n ~ u ~ e 0~6an.a c ~ bKce~tinnbr (B nonuHe K a m ~ a n a p b u ) r a t m e ,,conpeaen1,aa" (confinis
) co C ~ ~ i 4 1 i e l(i Curt ., YU, 2, 1 4 ) . MII~IMI:
cnoBahiti, B roii K O H I I ~ ~ L V I IKOTOPOG
~:
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y
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,
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,
sepes I I ~ C T L I H M (cp.
4rrian
Anab ., 111: 30, 6) ECKa He 40CTMrnH oastica K a m a ~ a p b x ,
TO IIOKETIIO, EOqeXlf' CTpZHa K ClBe;;y OT A p a ~ c a( h h l y n a p b ~ )CvMTanaCt
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, O T O ~ nepcbI
~ I ~ ? Iia3b1B ~ W Tb e x p 0 ~ 0 A
~ .HenpOXOnliMbJM e r 0 Ha3blBaMT B TOM CMbICJIe, W O OH
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.?

$,..

m m i r u e a B c a q A O ~ O B O ~ B (" hlarquart J., 1901, c.138, 139; Markwart J.,


1938, c.137, 153; Minorsky V., 1937, c.331).

TO c 0 0 6 4 e ~ u e0 r o s 6 o ~ ePi A p m r e , ~ ~ C C ~ O
B3RTO
~ H HO3 ,~ I I H ~ ~ C K
TpaWlWU (Marquart J
., 1901, c.147). Ha Hee nocTaTomro npospav~io
.
YKa3bIBaMT CnOBa 0 ROrOBOpe, CB~eTenbCTByIOruIie,q T 0 3neCb nORpa3yMesaercff c ~ a 3 a ~ u0 6e A p m e ( Markwart J
., 1938, c.153). 310 c ~ a s a Hue, CBR3aHHOe C M M @ O J I O I ' K ~ ~ , ~ o ~ ~ B
3~e3nbl"
o C T n l l r r p u ~(CMpKYc) H
ApeBHUM IIpa3pfiKKOM THparaH (0 nOCJIeaHeM CM.: n ~ r y n e ~ c ~ H.,
a f f1956,
c.334-338), O W H b pW0 6bmo BBeneHO H B M P W C K ~ 'M C T O ~ M Y ~ C K M3nOC.
~
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Uapb M p a ~ a H, Aapacrra6,
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c ~r y c ~ b rcTpenoK
li
A p w , oHa nponerena orpoMHoe paccromne a BOH3UnaCb B ,,opexoBoe
n e p e ~ o "( gBzbun ) .
B COWHeIiIf~CpenHeBeKOBbIX &TyCyJIbMaHCKHXaBTOpOB Ta6apa, Caan ~ 6 aIi E ~ P Y H U
CTpena Aprma JIeTMT OT T a 6 a p a c r a ~ aHa BOCTOK (Markwart J ., 1938, c.14, 138, npKM.1). n o TaGapu, OHa nOCTMraeT AMYlapblf, no Caanti6u - h?eCTa, Ha3bIBaeMOrO I-0361% (1.e. O ~ ~ X OnepeB O ~
B O ) . B MeCTHOCTti XynbM o6nacra 6aJIxa. n o EepyHK, OHa neTuT 20 K p 6 riMx npenenoB X o p a c a ~ aM e w O a p r a ~ o i iH T o x a p u c ~ a r i o(Eep);ria,
~
Y,
1973, c.239: Y l , 1975,c.141; CM.: Markwart J
., 1938,c.14, npahi.1).
Toxap~ic~a!l3neCb HyXHO IIOIIEIMBTb, O'leBMlyiO, B Y3KOM ChfhlCJle, K 2 K 06nacrb c ueHrpohi B TUIeKaHe, a Qaprawy - KaK oo'nacrb onlioro us npwroKOB
pewi K m y s a hiexqy h a r n a ~ i o ~11 M r n ~ a ~ t i l n e ~ (cp.
5
Marquart J
., I , 1896, c.31, n p m . 136).
Haxfex Ha BbICTFen Aprnrra COAepXMT Pi ~ ~ X , T ~ B I U " ~ CCOYliHeHUe
KO~
,,A!?~ 0 ~- x
1 p%
a ~ " ,cyaR no IiOTOpOMY cTpena nerena OT n a r m u x ~ a p r a p a(TaGap ~ c ~ a ~20a )6 p w - r o s a ~ a ( ~ . e .O p e x o ~ o r oJepesa) ( .\lark\+-art
..
1938, c.11, 14, 1 7 5 ) . B , , A s e c ~ e "cTpenoK Pxma (.r\pri~nj n y c ~ s ecrpm!;
~
or ropbi .4puGc~axXruyra n o ropbI X s a ~ s a( Yt. YIlI: 6. 7 , 3 7 , 3 8 ) . H ~ M
KaXeiCR, ?TO li B 3TOM Cnygae MMeeTCR B BMSY T O Xe CKa32lIMt' 0 6 Aprirrre.
xopomo ~ s s e c r ~ no oe s m e ~ yHpaHcKoMy snocy, B ~ o r o p A
o p~ m nycKaeT
crpeny O T rop Ta6aplicra~a Ha BOCTOK ( m o e TonKoBaHtie chi.:
., 1947, c.442-444). C ropoii X s a ~ a a( XvanvantHerzfeld E. E
)
MOXHO ConocTaBPiTb ropon X o a ~ a( Xodva ) , p a c n o n a r a ~ m ~ iH
iac ~
&KTp n f c ~ o h i (1.e. n e ~ o ~6epery
)
O ~ c a( Ptol ., Geogr ., r l , 11, 7). 3101

O ~

K O ~

;m?rrra M K p n y s a .
npnnene~iibriih ~ a ~ e p a acexneTenbcTByeT,
n
YTO r o 3 6 0 ~,,AmapawU/B11a" - TO, ilecoMHeHHo, O p e x o ~ o cH e p e ~ oM P ~ H C K M Xc ~ a 3 a ~ M inoHwMaei,
Moe KaK MeCTHOCTb (Markwart J
., 1938, c.14, 15, 137, n o P. @OH
L11~a~enb6epry;
patiee M. h l a p ~ s a ps ~l r ~ a xDzi - roin
BMecro Gozbon , CM.: hfarqualt J
., 1901, c.138; B. Mm3opc~Mii TOnK0Ba.J
Cozbon KaK ,,Lying below Gdz [ S ~ I I J " :
chf.: Minorsky V . ,
!937, c.331). B . M ~ n < o p c ~ ~MCXOAR
iil,
M 3 I I p e ~ n ~ X t c e HM
lM
i ~ 3TMMOJ70Tliii,
~
~ 1 4 2 1ro36c111 K cesepy OT 06nacr~ir y 3 r a ~(nonrmbi peK A6a - LUli6ept i i 6
- - A I ~ x o G ) , h1CXily CpC~I3?BeKOBLiMH rOpOi(aMl$ AHAS~A
(.;taxoil)
lr K e p ~ y s( K e p ~ xHa i \ ~ y n a p s e ) ( Alinorsky
V
., 1937,
c.3; 1, 332). O p e x o ~ o enepeBo, npenen MpaiicKiix 3 e ~ e n bB n p a l ~ c ~ oTpaii
3 1 ~ ~ 1Bcerna
4,
noMeu[aeafoe y X~tynapbiiunri ee ~ ~ M T O KBO,,AurxapaB,
iviilie" npRM0 CBR3alfO C A p a ~ r o h r K
, O T O ~ LTYT
I ~ ?Xe OTOWeCTBXeH C Bex9OTOM ( A ~ y l ' l a p b ~ f i M
) . M ~ H H OApaiir 11 RBJHeTCR, C O ~ C T B ~ HrpaHJiuefi,
HO,
, . i i e n p ~ x c I , Q ~ i ~AnR
~ k " IIepCOB. A p a ~ r- 310 LipaHCKOe COOTBeTCTBMe 3liiii~rioxryA p a ~ c y Kposre
.
TOrO, B a 1 1 ~ ~ ~ 1JrirTepaType
1ok
HhreeTCR M IIpRMOe
;:E?;i~CT?'lbClBO 0 TOM, 'IT0 CKa3aHlie 0 CIp2:lKe A ~ ~ (Kh C~ a Apiiru)
,
6~1:lo CBH33HO C ~%T~MU/BCKOGpeK0fi A p a ~ c( P s . - ?lut .: I)e flllv
.,
,
1). C J I ~ ; U . ~OTMeTMTb,
T
q T O llO.?eT CTpeJIbI ApiXIa OT T36ap11~12~a
30 ApsHra, me HaW7Iblfblfi ii K O H ~ W ~RyHKTbi
I ~ ~
yKa3hIBaIoT, OseRMi0i0,
!<a MeCTa COIIpliKOCI~OBeIiMRiipaHU2B C Tq'pali42Mii, n o o 6 4 e COOTBeTCTByeT
rparilllle CKli4mi no K ~ B K ~T.e.
~Y
rOpahl
,
rlipK2~1!Ei,li . 4 p a ~ c y ,KOTOpaR
ZaHa s o p o r ~ i z p o r p a + ~ < q e c ~cxealz,
o B p a 3 p a 6 a ~ b r s a r u e f i cKwnMc+eHohr.
~
h l e c ~ a ,B KoTopLie CpeAIieBeKoIioe n p e z a ~ r i en o ~ e ~ ~ ~O ap eqxoo ~ o e
d e p e ~ 0 Qaneh-0
,
He BCerna COOTBeTCTBOBanH ~ ~ ~ ? c T B I ~ T ~ TpaHM&3;\l
J I ~ H ~ I M
coepeMeHHorO 310hqy npenaririm M p a ~ a (cp. J f x k w a r t J
., !938,
c.iz8, E ~ M M 1. ) . B ~ r . q ~ ~TpaalimioHHoe
io,
npzaclasnei-Isie ii rpaaaue c KG~ii.E?i~?dKaM:f
no A p a ~ c y A p a i r y H;ZeT Ii3 ijiy6Oh-~:%
rip?BHOCT::, Pi :-iesicK,?MseHO, 910 0110, KaK M hlHOTIie xpyriie hlOTI?SLI Il03JXIIeTO MpaHCKOrO
3110Cd, BO3HKKJIO IIepBOHa~~bHO
Ha BOCTOKe (B EaKTplii-~?).
I?. M a p ~ s a p rB ~ B Apame
T
,,Amxapauyiiua", M ~ H O P U ~ YnXp m o e
y ~ a s a ~ i axe o r o ACTOTEUK~,
peKy C o r ~ a3 e p a ~ r u a (hlskwart
~
J .,
1938, c.137, 153). 310 npeAnonoxulae OcHoBaHO Ha OTO~eCTBneHliM
r 0 3 6 0 ~ aC hfeCTHOCTbH) K a s 6 u o ~ ~, I I O M M H ~ ~ M
ApjTMhl
O$
apMR7ICKiiM aBTOPOM,C e G e o c o ~ ( hlarkwart J
., 1938, c. 15). n o c n e ~ a a i i ,paccKa'
I
.

WKOB, TOBOPMI, '110 3TOT lIOJIKOBOAeU , , C M I I O3aBOeBW


~
E a x , ~li BCm
CTpaHy KymalfOB, A 0 npyroU/B CTOpOHbi B ~ ~ M K o U / B PeKM I I O n Ha3BaHMeM BexPOT, A 0 MeCTa noA Ha3BaHMeM K a 3 6 ~ o ~ (" T ~ ~ - M K ~ T M
n.X.,
~ R H1979,
c.58; Marquart J
., 1901, c.83; h.lark\vart J
., 1938, c.34, 137).
npli nOMO4U CnOXHbIX M COBCeM He 6 e ~ i I I 0 p ~ b CI xO ~ O C T ~ B ~3 T~O HT OMCO~
O ~ I U ~ H UCR ApjTMMM MCTOqHMKaMM M . M a p ~ s a p
JIo~anki3yer
~
K a 3 6 a o ~6 n ~ 3
IIaifKama B I j y x a p c ~ ooa3iice
~
( Markwart J
., 1938, c.i38-153). Ho,
BO-nepBbiX, r0360H, Y ~ O M I I H Y T ~BI ~OIIMCaHliK Xopaca~IaK IOry O T PeKM
Apatir - B e x p o ~ ,Mernny 0 6 ~ 1 a c ~ ~ h pacnonorneIitiLIMrr
lli,
onpenenem0 K
Iory OT A~yAapbki (cp. Minorsky V
., 1937, c.3311, BpRn nw hqoxer
6 b i ~ bTOXAeCTBeH Kas6~011y,HaXOARrUeMyCR 110 ApyT)'lO CTOPOHY peKM BexPOT. Bo-BTOP~IX,JIOKaJIM3allMR CaMOrO K 3 3 6 ~ 0 x a B E Y X ~ ~ C K 0OaA
3 ~Tc e
nocrpoeHa Ha OqeHb U I ~ T K OOCHOne
~~
(cp. T p e ~ e pK.B., 1954, c.140). B0331OXH0, H21lpM>lep, q T 0 Ka36ii0ri COOTBeTCTB!;CT Cpe;lIfeBeKOBOMy TOpOA)'
Kec6a M coBpeaiemioMy roponrruy KacGki tre2aneKo O T Kapmri (Mac&H M.E., 1975, c.47; K a 6 a ~ C.K.,
o ~ 1977, c.115).

+OB,KOTOpbIX Ha35IBaK)T ~ B P O ~ ~ ~ CEKr oI Te'


~ 1M
L"IiliC
~ ?RR;IReTCR
.
TaK%;erpa~ i u e i ih l ~ Xsueri
~ ~ Hy Esponofi" (Yn, 7 ; 2 j . Barite OH iionctiEeT. s ~ ynoo
A I R H ~ TC
~ KI E~ I~@ C K ~ ~
? ~a~ p o z , g a ~ n oGnac~h,
~ a e ~ ;iexanxj:Io npmio 3a IICTPOM
q' K ~ ~ ~ H npeneX0B
M x
A31i~:KaKOBbIMIf RBJIHIQTCH EaKTpbl. OHMH3C?nRK)T
f3eainuj, pacnonoxembie 6 m x e K ceBepy. Hanee HasMtiaiorcR rycrbie neca
a O ~ L L I M ~ 6e3:7~1prbie
H ~ I ~
Kpax; riariporus, j!e~.iil?], 06paureiisbre K Ta~rahic w i E a ~ r p a He
~ , n&nuew,: s e n o ~ e s e c ~ o~f yi n b r y p b r " (411; 7 , 1). E p e w ,
-,.coni:;c;moi;, Kypai2;: (cp. Rardon 13 ,,
193s. c.:o:,i:
;ic: ;.lojici;Ii;ofi
B y i ~ a
nocnoB e ~ p o n e i i c ~ i CKII@OB
ix
K A n e ~ ~ a l i n p(cp.
y YIi, S, 11: 9, 1 ) :
yTBepX@eTCR: ,, ... TbI 6yneLUb Mh*eTb B HaC c ~ p a x e f .43:1;:
i
if EBpoIIb1. EcJIli
6b1 H ~ He
C OTnenRn Ta~raac:MLI conpjmacznJ:cb GLI c 5 3 ~ ~ p : i e f i3a
; TariaMCOM Mbi33HWMaehl3ehlnI.I BnIIOTb a0 @paK5iMn (3.'n, 8 , 3 0 1 .
Jlexarryee B OCHOBe 3TMX COObUleHMM Ilp~~CTaSJ!el~liL'
i) TOjf;3eCTBel'aH2iica (Cbipnapb~),RBXRBm2TOCR py6ejitoM MeXHy 63~rp:iiIua?f;i li CKii@ a a i ~c, T a ~ a i ~ c o a(EoHoar)
i
: siiaaasmria? B hleoriiixy
( . ; ~ L I O B CXIOPZ)
KO~

A ~ U UME ~ p o n b ~ .
~ O K ~ ~ ~ T ~C ~B ~O C~npaBOTb1
T~ B O

MHOrMMH 6onee n03nliMMM aBTOpaMU, B TOM q U ~ n e A ~ M C T O ~ ~ ~ O M


( Schwarts E.,l957, c. 126; cneuM~bH0o n p ! - i H a ~ e ~ ~ oKc n~ U
~ra~xy
nepBoro pi3 IMTUpOBaHHbIX c0061~le~Mk
CM.: Jacoby F., 1921, ~ 1 6 . 6 5 0 ) .
0 T a ~ a u c eKaK rpaHnue A ~ A uME s p o m Kypurur roBopMT ewe B O ~ H O M
KdeCTe CBOerO COUMHeHMR: C K M @ ,,KOTOpble
~I,
X m y T B E ~ p o n eIIpOCTHpamT,
CR no nprrMoMy tianpasnerium OT n e ~ o kC T O P O H ~ I0 p a ~ u 1 .ni o f;opwcr$eaa u
oTTyna n o T a ~ a l r c a ,npyroti p e ~ u .Tarrauc npoTeKaeT M e w Esponoti A
A s ~ e i i " (Yl, 2, 13, 14). AaBHo y x e oTMeseHo, TO onpeneneaue rpaHuuaI
A3lai r i E s p o n b ~y K y p m n c o s ~ y w oatianormwb!M onpeneneHmM, naHHbIM
AH
A b i o n o p o ~ : ,,C~uc$cti&ie Hapom1 B ~ I J I O T ~n o p e m T a ~ a w c ,oTnenxmqetidf;,,~;;?r'
E ~ p o r r y01 A3UPf" (1, 55, 4) - A M o p a a ~ o 3aMMCTBOBaBILIMM
~,
3neCb, BUWMO, y Tpora: , , T a ~ a ~ rne
c , HaXonMTCR W ~ B ~ C T Ipy6em
I ~ I ~ A~IIEI
A EBPOR ~ I " ( Get ., 5) ( Jacoby C ., 1875, c.570; hlarquart J
., 1893, c.522).
TO CXOnCTBO He ~n)'qakHo, T a K KaK KypIl.Uk BMeCTe C & ~ O ~ O ~ OM MT p o r o ~
3aBMCRT OT K n ~ ~ a p x a .
Ho npencTasneHxe o 6 a ~ r p a i i c T
~ ao~~a a c eKaK rpaHaue A ~ MnNE B ~ o nb1 C B O ~ ~ C T B ~ H HHeO TOJlbKO K ~ k i ~ a p x OHO
y . 6b1n0 0
6 AnR ~BCeX COBpe~
hfetaiHK0B Ane~caiinpaM YYaCTHMKOB eTO IIOXOAOB (TOMCOH 0.: 1953,
c.190; E n b ~ i l u ~ M in.A.,
i
1961, C.105, 106). B o ~ ~ ~MHeHMH)
K M K).K)Hre
(Junge J ., 1939, c.51), ero npwnepmmanucb He ~ o n b u oMeHee o6pa3oBZHHbIe M OCBeAOMneHHbIe, 110 U CaM A n e ~ c a H n p ( P l u t ., Alex ., 45;
Plin ., N.H ., 1'1: 4 9 ) . OHOrOcnOncTBOBan0 no ~ p G ~ eMepe
i i no s ~ c n e miwtn H e ~ o n a ~u anarpotina. M3 TO TO npencTasnerrMx ~ i c x o n mITo.'~rnmi^, c q r i ~ a a m t i ,YTO T a ~ ~ a r i n
c ,o Koioporo nomen A n e ~ c a H ~ snagaer
p,
B
Meo~riny(Strabo
, X i , 7, 4 r f r . 7), a y n o n w ~ n ~ sr a n ~ c ~ ~ oKnasan
rapx ( FGrHist
, BB, 2, 1927, c.441). nocne Toro, KaK a e ~ o l Ma ~
naTp0h-x CTa-rIIi nOKa3bIBaTb, 910 peKa, KOTOpp Ha3bIBanK T ~ H ~ U C G
112M ,
=MOM nene - RKcapT, snanamurufi B Kacnwirc~oe
Mope, CTOpOiiHHKaM n o .?i?i:TiJ:Ta, ZGr7~r&3Is'51>3,l i T 0 3 i c C 2 i p ? - BCe-Tax2 Ta X:e PeKa, 0 Kolopofi rG~ o p m
n o x l i ~ n n 1.e.
~ , Tairagic, ~ n a s a m u & B M e o ~ i ! ~n p, u m o c b 06oc:roBb1Bal-b 3 T Y CTapYK) T O W Y 3peHWR (Strabo , X I , 7, 4). B O ~ M O X H O
TO
, TaKMhf CTOPOHHUKOM ~ o ~ K K 6b1n
J I ~A p
Ta ~
c ~ o 6 y n K, O T O ~ ~~ HI ~~ CoqmeHue
J I
n a ~ p o ~ n( aStrabo , X 1 , 7 , 3 =fr. 20) u ynoMman o TOM,TO T a ~ a ~Ha3bIic
BaeTcR R K C ~ ~ T O
(Arrian
M
., Anab .,
30, 7 =fr . 2 5 ) , HO, TeM He Merree,
npunepxlisiWIcR n p e m e r o s s m m a Ha T ~ H ~ u c - ~ KKaK
c ~ ~HaT r p a m w

q;;~!

m.

m,

30

CTOPOHIIMKM ~ ~ o J I u K J I M T BMnenM
~
B
TOM, TO cTpaHa no ~y c r o p o ~ yT a ~ a ~ c-a R K C ~ n~p T
o u~3 ~ o ~.,ensv
u~
(?hdrn ) , A XMBYUIMe TBM C K W @ ~ I~ ~ o T ~ ~ ~ J,,eXOBbIe
I R M T ~Tpenbl"
( o & ~ T o ~2 h a r i u o ~
) ,B TO BpeMR KaK BepXHRR A BOCTOqHaR A ~ MenM
R
He npOM3BOWT ( Strabo .XI,7, 4). P ~ C C M O npeBKM
T ~ ~ T CTpen
~
3aTaHaMCCKUX CKII@OB CnyTHliKM A n e ~ c a ~ n pBnOnHe
a
MOrilM, KOrLla CTOJIKHVnMcb c ~ T M M M ~ ~ ~ l ( t ) ayhTi a~tii a ~ c a :C K H ~ rrycKann
~ I
B H M X cTpenbr
qepes peKy B T O M M ~ C T m
C ,e olra 6b1na ~ e m ~ p o ~(oArrian.,
ii
1Y, 4 , 2 ) .
Yro KacaercR o-rcyTcTsLin enri B s e p x ~ e i i ,1.e. y n a ~ e ~ ~ r o ri iM O ~ R ,ji
~ o c ~ o s ~ .43m,
o i i TO eLue n o noxonoB A KcaHnpa B as~n.niofi HayKe
ee
ycTaHoBMnocb MHeliMe, TO ,,em" ( t ~ d j - ~ )- nepeBo, n m 6 ~ ~ XOJIOZ
( Theophr , Hist. plant
., n , 3 , 3 ; l y , 5, I), - pacTer TOJILKG
,
A~UM
( Theophr ..
u Enpone ri nprialopcxxx, 7.c. s a n a n ~ b ~ xqacTRx
H., 1903, c. 220-225).
Ilist. plant
., l y , 4, 1 ; 5, 5; CM.: Bretzl
~ e f i ~ ~ ~ M T e J I bi~piicT06y:i
ii0,
ll0,XqepKMB2Jl, qTO DaXe B T ~ K Oile~iiCl0fi
~
c ~ p a t i eA ~ M IKaK
~ , r i i p ~ a , ~, H~~CT
~ O, C H ~enki
I , n ~ M X T ~ I (" Strabo ,
XI; 7, 2 =fr .19: T T E ~ K ~62
V
KLL; ~ h - d ~ q vK &
~ i m v
@ ~ E : I )E.: ~
To O ~ ~ T O R T ~ ! ? ~s rCo TI?BXprrc~o6yn
O,
( Strabo ,XI,
7 , 2 =fr . 19) 5i Knurapx ( Diod .>XYI1, 59, 4) 31ranii 0 6 o t 5 r . t ~,,enan
~ ~ (iha!ril)n c e s e p ~ o f i .
, llpOTliBOpe9MT, KaK
ropxoii VaCTM kfHnMM ( iiJ,i'enger F ., 1913, ~ . 3 6 ) He
HaM KaXeTCR, MHeIIIiIO CTOPOIIHIIKOB ~ ~ o x ~ <06KOTCyTCTBl{M
~ u T ~ 3TGrO LiePCB2 BO BHyTpeHiiefi A ~ M I RO~%?OXHO,
I.
3707 KT O ~ ~ R C H R6Jl1130~~b30
~ M
ceeepsoir qacri! ITii31ii1 K rpa~ixileE B ~ O I (cp.
I ~ I npencraBneHMe K.~i?i-apxa
0 6.1ki3G~TM G ~ K T ~ ~ ? ~i?H A
L Ip x o c r i ~K ~ O H T M ~ ~ C K O AIOpX):
MY
Clln ..
?'Ti. 3>4; 4, 27).
Lcjni A ~ H C T OZ~~~~ ~ C
J IT B I ~ TrOBOpwI
~JI~F:O
0 eJIOBbIX JleCaX B CTpme 3a
TaHaMcoM, T O BnOnHe BepORTTfO, 9TO OH OCHOBbIBiWICR npM 3T0M He TOnbKO
152 C ~ 6 ~ ~ ~
H ~e ~i ~f ;~ ? ~~ bH
H0,M
~ KaK
~, ~ lix BO
, MHOTMX npyrMS C.V4aRX, Ha
nzi!tibrx Kn~irapxa.Torna 6 y ~ e noaxTm
r
s ~ a s e ~ ~b1c~a3b1uarruii
ne
K~PUMR
; (33, 7, 4 j . ,,o6a:p1!~1x
o , ; . ~ c T ~ I xi~ecax" ( profuiiciar. siivae

?!

8 $ f . ~ . C e p r e m ~ o~ c t o n yn e p e a o n m m o ~ o' E ~ T ~ K,,II&x~ura';
~ K onpeaen= KaK
( C e p r e e f i ~ ohl.E., 195 1,
,,nusry ~ e @ a n o ~ c ~ y mAbies
",
cep!idonica L.
c.565). Ho 06b1wo c n o m 'EAbrq nepeBomT K B K ,,enb3',
Pinus pima ; cqmaeTcs, m TaKoe a ~ a q e ~ u3m
e cnoso ~ ~ e y lx eoy r o ~ e p a(Hehn \I ., 1902, c.296).

.r~ecax" ( vastae silvae


) (YII, 8 , 16), o ,jIecax M cl~erax"
( silvae et nives
) (YH, 8, 13) B caMbm oraancHrfb1x p a k o ~ a x
cTpaHbl 3a T ~ H ~ M C O
blecia
M . n p o 1 i 3 p a c ~ a ~ uenM
x (ens IUpeii~a, Picea
scl~re~lkiana) , Gn~x&kukieK o6nacm C p e n ~ e i iC b ~ p a a p b ~,U e ~ ~ p a n b H ~ I GT R H ~ - l l j a ~He
b s a n a n ~ e eY a ~ ~ a n b c ~ xpe612,
oro
- HaxonMnlicb 3a npenenahur reorpac+wqec~oro~ p y r o s o p arpeKoB roii nopbI, K O T O ~ ~ IHe
M 6bmK
3HaKOMbl IlpMCbipnapbMHCKMe 3eXlnM BbILUe n03n~efiLUer0 XopjttellTa. 0 CyLfleCTBOBaHI.IM enOBblX JleCOB B CTpaHe 3a Tatia~cohfCOBpCMeHHI?KM A n e ~ caHnpa, B M ~ M McnenaJIu
O,
s a ~ n r o s e ~n ~meb :s?. ocHoBarrMu enosbIx crpen
Bretzl
H
.,
1903,
~345,346).
CKII@OB (
Hpyroe pacTerrHe, + u r y p ~ p o ~ a s ~B ea e~ i ~ w oHayKe
ii
Hapnay c enbro
i-caK nm6mqee x o n o a M pacTy4ee ronbko B E ~ p o n eM np~6pejic~1oii
A ~ MJ~,
310 , , n n ~ ) ~(" K L T T ~ )
~ ( Theopllr
., Hist . plant .,
3 , 3 ; 1Y, 4,
1; CM.: Bretzl H ., 1903, c.243). M nrImm, no DaHHbIM Knirrapxa, cnyr,
H M K I ~Ane~carinpaHammi B cTpaHe 3a T a H a l i ~ ~ hK
l . y p u ~ i ip a c c ~ a 3 ~ s a e 1 , I
'110, Korna MaKenoIicKMe BoMribr 1IepenpaBJ:jiucb sepes T ~ H ~ Inpecnenyx
~c,
CKII@OB,
Ha n)'T%i MM BCTpeTM17IiCb BbICOKIiC ZepeSblI, CTUO!Il~I KOTOPblX 6b1) (Yn,9, I j j . n p a ~ n a ,
mi , , O G B M TK~IK)UOM"
~I
( hedera contexerat
Tenepb B ex hiecTax, K K O T O ~ L I ~ LhIi o x e ~O T H O C M T ~ C R310 cooiiille~ue,I.?.
B M O ~ O J Iii.TW
~~~O - 3 a n a ~ ~ bqaCTRX
lx
KKYP~MMHCICOTO
x p e 6 ~ aIieT
, H i i BbICOK M X RepeBbeB, IIM nnmu~a,a nocxenaero HeT it B 0 0 6 ~ B
e Cpe~weiiA 3 ~ l i(0
3HaYellMM yKa3aHHOrO coo61xeri~f~K y p i u i ~nnn MCTOPMH @nopbl C p e , ~ ~ e f i
A ~ MCM.:
M no no^ M.T., 1958, c. 18-26).
K o r ~ aCIIYTHMKM AneKcaHxpa rOBCpWIIi 0 Tarfauce KaK rp2HMLte 6aKTpFifi~eBCO C K M @ ~ MTO,
M , KOHeWO, MhlenM B BM,ZJJr hIeCT0, Tne A n e ~ c a ~ i a p
CTOnKHynCR co C K M ~ ~ M11 H3 a ~ nepenpxmncrr
e ~
sepes p c ~ arrP
y cpaxeHun
c HHMH,T.e. 0 6 n a c ~ bCpemefi Cblp~apali,a T O W ~ P . nepenpauy y cpemceeK O B O r O X O ~ X ~ I IcoBpeMemoro
T~,
n e ~ u ~ a 6 a n(oa hiecTe nepenpasL1 AnexcaHnpa B ~ T M XMecTax CX.: J ~ M T B I ~ I ~ C KE.A.,
H G 1960, c.9 1-96; . .Xr;rir~:rrfC K I < ~E.A.,
~
O K J I ~ R H I ~ KA.n.,
OB P~HOB
B.A.: 19/32, c.297-299; k;l:<, I? 1963,
i , i i ~ o r 2 anO.?arilP3T: 5; ca~pc.iet:"c~o Ger:a6arja, I; c:i\rc:x
1;.25S) ~ i j i ~i;aK
)13KOhI MeCTZ peKK (m,I , 1967, c.96: In,
1974, c.26). C T ~ ~ cK!i&03
H Z ~ 1.
Kypir~ifiOpMetITMpOBaHa OTHOCMTenbHO 6 3 ~ i p K i Ha
i CeBep ( stl)~e"trioni
ProPiora ) ( y n , 7 , 4). ~ e i i c ~ ~ ~ i ~cpemfee
e n b ~ reseHuc
o,
Cs~paapbxHa ysaCTKe, K O T O ~ ~661~1
I B M3BeCTeH CnyTHMKaM AneKcaHnpa, MMeeT B OCHOBHOM
mpoTHoe HanpasneHMe. C o r n a c u ~ b cc ~TeM, TO T ~ H ~ H c - ~ ~a ~K~cu~w~oTi i
r p a ~ ~ u m-i Cbxpnapa~TonbKo no BnaneHuR B Hee X o m a I j a ~ b r p r z ~aa ,

n,

a?

'T1.
,+

nanee - TOT nocnenri~ii,u cnenoea~enbao,CTpaHa 3a Tarialrco~- TeppMTOPMR He TOnbKO K CeBePY OT Cblp~apbM,HO It K BOCTOKY O T X0~xa-6aKblpr a m ( r o p 6 y ~ o ~H.T.,
a 1976, c.28), M ~ ~e
I MOXeM n p e n n o n o x e ~ n eo TOM,
w o BepxHee TeqeHHe Talrar?ca-R~cap~aari~asaoiiT p q H w n - TO X o m a E a ~ b ~ p rKaxeTcH
a~,
HaM HenpneMJreMLrM.
3 e ~ n 0~5 p, a l r r e ~ ~ b Kr eT ~ H ~ ur7
ME ~c K
~T P M M ,C~~OO B ~KMy p w x , tfe nurrrem , , s e n o ~ e q e c ~ oKi iY ~ L T Y ~ ~ (I ' human0
'
cultu
) (Yn, 7, 4),T e
qaCTMWO B03AenaHbI YenOBeKOM. 0'4eBMm0, 310 3eMnM He CKK@CKP!~,
TaK
KaK C K M ~no
~ IK,y p w m , 6 ~ 0 no
0 ~~~ ~~C T L I H
HeRTPOHYTLIM
M,
,,qenoBeyec~ o i ~i y n b ~ y p o f i(" human0 cultu
) , us6erax ,,ropopon" ( urbes) M
, , n n o n o ~ o c ~ bn~ox~ r e l " ( opulentos agros ) (MI, 8, 23) BIIAKMO,snecb
cnen _ C M Y T H ~ I Xcsene~iiii,n o x o n u s u r ~ x20 C ~ ~ T I I M K OABn e ~ ~ a l f n p036, oam c a x C e ~ e p ~ o5iei p r a G unri nonuH ~ I I ~ Y MM KAHrpeHa
~
E ~ K T ~ I InpocTnpmuaxcR
R,
n o Tar~alrca, - opraHKqecKaR sacTb Bcero
p a c c ~ a r p e s a e ~ o r~oo h l n r ~ e ~c ~ccan e e u i t ,n o c x o n ~ u ~ e Kr oK,~urapuy Ose-

nMwo, non Earc~pueirB na1iHo.v cnyqae riMecTcn B Buny n o 3 n ~ e a x e ~ e r i ~ n cKaR E a ~ ~ p u i i ca-rpanuz,


c ~ a ~ BKnmsmmarr C o r n ~ a ~( ~cy 06
~ 3 ~ 0 i icaTpanrui I ~ R H KMOBB, 1965, c.40). Merree sepoririio, uro non ~ r p u e i 3necb
i
nOHHMaeTCR ~ ~ ~ K O - ~ ~ K T ~ MUapCTBO
~ ? C K O( ~~ M T B ~ W K
J ~ . A, l"60,
c.91. Cp i972, c.169). XOTRB C 0 4 M H C H M l i Kypr11.1~
I.! n@c.Gx
r n w a , 6onee ~ O ~ ~ HqeM
R H
B p, e m Ane~cariapa,B C g~ e ram
' I T O ~ L I Kypwiii rIpencraenRn ce6e I j a ~ ~ p u K
m ~ Kc B R c 9 ~
WpCTBO.
O ~ H ~ tra
K Oc$ophiuposatfue n p e a c ~ a n i ~ e ~ rK~ r i i
ilorpa~iimoii
peKe hfornii 0 ~ a 3 z r bBJIr?zHJ?e u z r i r e p a r y p y e M C T O ~ H M K M
-Knurapxy 6ana u s s e c r ~ aqepes K a n n u c @ e ~ acrapaR o p o r ~ ~ ~ p o r p a c $ w . i e c ~ a ~
CXebla, OTHOCRUBRCR K O BpeMeHM n o nOXO2OB A n e ~ c a ~ n pCynR
a . no TOMY.
KaK 31a c x e m onricaHa y Apucro~enrr.T a ~ a r ? cn, p e n c ~ a s ~ r e t mpyKaBoM
~~ii
. 4 p a ~ ~ri306prtite~
a,
B H ~ G
TOXe BIIZZaI9IlIJiM B I\{eoTuny ( hlet ., 1. 13, 15,
16) HO 4 p r r c ~ o r e msnecb Hriqero lie roBcprir o T z ~ a l r xaic
c ~ nor~s..i>mo;:i
PeKe, Ji, Ha~K07bKoMOKHO CyitliTb no nPYrMhl ABHHbIM. IIPeZCTaBXeHMe 0
- - T ~ H ~ KM~ c KI ~paHIwe M e x w E ~ p o n o i rii 43ueii O H He p a 3 3 e n ~ n( Jacoby F,
1922, C T ~ 2072,
.
2073).
Fsm~rneecxoncrso B TOM Bonpoce c nam~brhrnKniirapxa o 6 ~ a p y x u BaeTCR B COIIIiHeHIZM K~ec1i11- DPYTOM JI&lTepaTYpHOMIiCIOWMKe K n ~ r a p xa. 6 a r c r p u a ~ ay Krecun, ah- i r y K y p m t ~ ,- ~ p a i i B~ A3iiri
i ~ ~cTpaHa. a
npeReJIOhl A3li1i B TeX MeCT2X RBJllleTCR Ta~ar:c.B TO me BpeMR ,,sapBap-

cKne ilapoabl y nolrra" ( C ~ Rno


H KOI~T~KC
06MTaf04Me
TY,
33 Kalmaao~lleii)
paccenetrbl ,$lrnoTb no T a i ~ a ~ c a " ( D i o d., II, 2. 1 , 3 = fr. 111; CM.; n b ~ i i KOB bf.R., 1965, c.39; 1975, c.144-146). K TOMY x-e K r c c ~ f YnOMKtiaCT
i
06
,,OTpOMHOhi 03epe" B Kacnuiic~oii3eMJIe ( Aelian ., N.A .: );Yn, 3 2 ) , TaK
YTO Tartaric hlOXeT O ~ T ~ K CrO
~ T LC CeBepa. M C T O ~ K O B ~ H
naHHb1X
M ~ K T ~ C U0R
Taltaucc Kah: cnenelr~ii0 nByx peKax, Dotie 11 Cbrpuapbe, coBMeuteIilibrx B
o6pase on1108 peKrr, nox$oraer 06affcl1u~b KaxyuuecR npoTrieopelirin B
3TMX DaririLrx ( r a ~ r t enpoTMnopeqMn HC pa3 or.weYanMcb; cx~.:Hanpltiirep,
Kmmbl~olz1' ., n, 1897, c.272-274). ~ ~ K T y~ KM ~ Re c t t K~ ,~ MK y KypU M R , npOCTlipaeTCR BnnOIL n o Ta!rarica. 310 OTp3XaeT peXJIbHy10 O ~ C T ~ H O B K Y : ~ ~ K I ~ I I ~carpanun
~ C K ~ yme
R
B O BpeMeita Krecllrr cyucecrsoBana B Tex
rpaHi.iUax, B KaKHX 3aCTa'Ili ee CnOaBHXHHKlf A~leKcaltnpa( ~ L R I I K OH.B.,
B
19b5, c.39; 40).
Cbrpnapbn npencraeT B KaqecTse peKlt Ta~iauc,miia~a~orueil
u Me0~1tk~
ti ff~nffW11~eficff
.-p2!ilili?fi E~porrbrM AHIIM,
4' pa3!tb!X 2BTOpOB if B pa3libIX
oporwpa@liqecr<~s
cseziax. XOTRB H ~ K O T O ~CI: I,~IIX
! ~ R X3.111amropbl 14 hiorJIM 33M>5i:CTI30BaTbRPyr ? ilpyra, BCe Xe ii~COATIieliIi0,YlO T3KIte npeACTaB.reriitR @ophrtipo~a:~Mcr,a a~l-rrliiroiireorpa@iiri M ~ e s a n ~ c ~or nh ~ oOT
o apyTOTO. 3 ~ h?O>Ki!0
0
0 6 ~ R ~ l i l TeM,
i ~ b VTO n0~0611b1enpe;lCTaBXe!IitR CyUeCTBOB U M rl B >leiTli~if~ p a l i 0 ~ 3 b l ~CpeAe.
0 i i O11M 6b1ni1 nOpOx.qeIIbI UIaBHb1h.I
0 6 p a 3 0 ~Te3l @aKTopo>l.l l T 0 M Cb~pJlapbri Ii OH OZkiHdKOBO Ha3bIBXWICb
CKH@CK&I.II CXOBOM D a n u , B Hapuualarenbliohi c m r c n e , , p e ~ a " ,KoTopoe ri
nepezasanocL no-rpesec~t!KaK T d u a c
(OMif, 1979, c.7-85, 286). P e ~ a
DEnuz i~ii<-raeTcriB , , X ~ e c r e "c a ~ o l i, Z . T H H I ~ O ~M~ c a ~ o i ionaciioii ii3 peK
( Y s . , L Y , ~ ;h o p ., 77) T i COOiBeICTByeT, OYeBrUHO, Tai1akicy KaK Cbrpnapbe (ABaer! B.M., 1950: c . 4 2 4 5 ) . , & ~ a i l c ~ c ~~ ey p s r " ( dZnav6 tiira ) 9 9
C KCT0pb:hI;t CpWalOTCR ~ B ~ C T M ~ ~repOM
C K M ~(Yt,,!!, 71, 74; XLg, 3 7 , 3 8 1 ,
COOTBeICTBYWT B TaKOh? CrryYae TatiaMCCKEihl C K M @ ~ M( A 6 a c ~B.M., 1956,
c.44,45)

9 ~ a i (nepeeonm Pi X6aee Geger 1%' , 1882, c 196 dje tii;a'nlsd~e D&u.


Gershevltch I.. 1959, c. 189 the Turanim D h u c .

34

HeIlMff COnpOBOjKRaeT 3 T M YIIOMMIialIi<II IIOHClleHMehl, YT0 OKC ,,pa3rPSHMw s a e ~ " :m ~ i, , p a s s e n ~ e ~ "( m a pasa y n o r p e 6 n e ~rnaron bpi{w , azrm
pa3 - 6LEipYW
) , 6aKTpMati0~M cornlfarioB @, 1, 15; Xr,8 , 8"Eratosh.,
f r UB, 63, Berger ; X I , 1 1, 2 ) , npweM C o r n ~ a ~,,gacnonomeHa
a
sblnie
6 a ~ T p ~ i a i l no
b l tranpasneHIuo K B O C T O K ~ " ( X I , 1 1 , 2 : - V ~ I P K E L & Vnpbc
~
Fw 7 j i ~B m r p ~ ~ c )TOM
B me nyxe rOBOpMT 0 6 O ~ c rel r o n e ~ e f i : , , S ~ K T phiaHa OrpaHirsecra ( n ~ p t o p a ~ r c u ) , ,H.a cesepe M nocrorce @nb d i & K T W V li;l
avaroXGu) corgrraHahiit Bnonb oc~a~rbiroii
YacrM O ~ c [OT
a
THKTa rioa
::MaHbl orpbiirt~eiib~
( ~ ~ p l o ~ l t o vj r...
a cHa lore ti BHoab Ifa sanane ( d ~ b 62
pa??p$,oia~
~ ai'rl
i F6oewr
) E j a ~ ~ ~ ~ l~an~o on biyme
i
O ~ M C ~ H H O ~
IiacTri Oh-ca" ( Geogr., Y 1, 12, 1) .
J? f i p a 6 0 ~ ,13 M a p m y n r o r ~ e ~ eCBOII
n npencTanneHMR 0 6 O ~ c KaK
e
py6eme >lCXTy EaKTpMeG J1 CornlialiOfi 3alWlCTBOBaJIii, HeCOMlieHHO, y 3paT O C @ ~ H ~(Rerger 1-1 .
1880, c.319; E J I L H I ~ ~ n.A.,
K U ~ 1961, c.143;
.
1978,
c.6).
O
n
~ i o~s n p ~ s e n e ~ ~ ~ r * .
Berrlard I' ., F r a ~ ~ c f o r1-1.
t- P
32ecb coo6~1eir1~ii
!?a 3TY TeMSr CTpa6011 UMTMPYeT C n p R ~ 0 f iC C ~ I J I K H
Oa~ ~
3paroc@erta. Y 3paroc+e11a nonoxterfue 0 6 O ~ c KaK
e r p a i i ~ q ensnrrnocb opr a s i i ~ ~ r c r aui ia c r m e r o oporiinporpa@itvecxoic cxehm, % ~ o % ~ o cl Kaaxai
33, TXliy!llerOC;i R IUIiPOTHOM i<anpX%leHUIl, TeKyT
reM tia ana an nne p e m : OKCM H ~ c a p OKC
~ . oTaen
miiruen. a B K C ~ PT corniriiqe~OT caKos, npwre~.4
~ 2 0 . 7rcp,
~
c s a n a ~ aHa BOCTOK (OCHOBIIO~
1t3nox-e1?1
Strabc .: X I . 3, 8 Eratosth .,fr . UB, 63, Berger ) .
Ho 3iapiiri H IIronerV:efi BtiecnM cyuecTsexrioe M
3paioc+exa 06 O ~ c KaK
e
norpaaasrto8 peKe. B To spebrn IcFi y C ~ r p 2 6 0 ~ a :
rip~hioB O C ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ B O ~3 pR aL~Lo Ic~+ ~e ~
O BCR
a , Cornrciiia IrokieueHa K BOCTO:<y OT ~ Z K T ~ I I I Y
? , hlapul5a M n~OJleMe9K BOCTOKY OT EjaKTplil! HaXOnMTCR
. x ~ i r nqacrb
~
C O ~ I ~ M a~ apyran
I I ~ I , sac-rb, - K ceaepy OT f j a ~ ~ p i i hifir
r ? . o6ancIIReS1 3 T 0 &i3>leH?HMeTeM: YTO M a p m M nroJ!eh?efi KOliTa.h?!:H!!pO~3a:!wCXC:.iy 3 p . i o " ~ ~ ~ ac npyroG cxer\.iol, nocxo~limeil,no-ss$n;rhroxqy; K rxnnapX). Ii ~OCWIOHMK~.
31a nOC7leAHRR OTJTMsaJlaCb TeM, YTO BepXHeC TeqeHlie OKca r i Rxcap-ra a ~ e i 6a:no
i
Hanpasneao c Boctoka wa sanan, a C o r n ~ a a anoh2eUeHa K CeBePy OT FaKTpliH. A ~ ~ ~ c T B M T
eCnH
~ ~ IIOChiOIpeTb
~Ho,
Ha KapTy nToJIeMeff, TO h l O X H O 3aMeTHTb, 'IT0 BCR HOMeHKJIaTypa C C B ~ ~ HWCTIi
O ~ ~
C o r a ~ % z ~npusannemr?r
br
3 ~ 0 kB T O P O 6onee
~,
n o 3 a ~ e fcxehie. B rom~ofiqacIM C o r a r a r b ~n o ~ e m e r i aArleKcaHnpU9 K P ~ ~ ~ Hc~ene1111n
RR,
o K O T O ~ Onoc~

McTopMKaM .4ne~calinpa,T.e. K OCHOBHOMY ~ ~ C T O : I ~ I 3I ~p Ka r~ o ~ + e Ha. Ija nepebffi B3mR.Q,3 T O T rOp0.4, KaK M3BeCTH0, ~ 0 3 5 ~ ~ e ~ H
l a~ Gepeblfi
ry T a r i a ~ c a - f i ~ c a p r a sa1iri;MaeT
,
Ira KapTe OueHr, cTpaHtroe nonoxetiiie: Ha
K p a k H e ~tore C~l-nKaHbl,hfliOr0 WXHCe HCTOKa XKcapTa. 130 e r 0 IIoSIOxeHMe BnOJIHe COOTBeTCTByeT npeACTaBneHMRM ~ ~ ~ T o c I $OH
~ EHaXOatiTCE
I~:
npRM0 K BOCTOKY UT EaKTpbl ( K O O ~ A H H ~EaKTpbl
T~~
- 1 160/41, A n e ~ CaHnpMIi K p a f i ~ e l !22'141 O , CM.: Geogr., y l , 1 1 , 9 ; 1 2 , 5 ) . O T ~ ~ero
I B
OT fiKcapTa O ~ ~ R C H R ~ TTeM,
C R 'IT0 M a p ~ r r~ ~ 0 6 p a o6nacrb
3~n
BepXOBbeB
tfKCapTa no tiosciiurebry M C T O W M K ~- MTmiepapHm Max. G u e ~ M w o1, i 3 ~ e HUB KOOpLiMIIaThi 1iCTOKa ~ K C ~ OH
P T3a6b1n
~ , COrnaCOBaTb C HIfhlM KOOpnlitiarb1 Ane~carrnp$ilrICpafirteir, ocTasuB ux n p e x m M a .
Mrak-, 5' CTpa60tI" ti ~ T O : : ~ , M ~rRp a ~ ~ u eEi ai ~ ~ p r i ior,qenxm~eii
i,
ee o r
Corfi~arrbi,R B J I R C T C R OKC,r.e. AMynapbR. O n p e n e n e ~ u ex e pacrronoxeHUR C O ~ ~ M
OTI~OCIi~TeJIhlIO
~ H ~ I
~ ~ K T ~a M
UMeHHO
U , K BOCTOKY MTIH CeBepy,
n p o ~ 3 n o n r i ~nco~- p a s ~ i o ~ l yn ZByX nepcmx, o ~ p a r n a r o ~rise
~ x pasiihle
opor~nporpac$zqectc,zecxeAibr.
TOG Xe PO'I!? Dh!C'C)'llaeT OKCy II~IMHWR:
6aKTpIig~KkifiHapOU ,,OrpatiHqusaeTcR !includitur ) peicok OKC" (N.H., Y I , 48) . 0 6 1 , 1 m ~ 3 n a r e J I U TeKcTa n n u ~ w nnprifipih.ranli B 3 1 o ~
nrecTe sTeHtie Ochq so 8.Je~.~e(iiceH O l - ~ e u a eBapIiaHTbl
~
~ 3 c h 0 :O C C ~ U
, SOccus , Oxus
(Detlefseil D ..
1904, c.138). O s e n x a ~ o ,nocnenriai? sapriafir K n o n x e e ~ ~ I npinmT.
T L
HeO ~ X O L I M I I ~ O CTaKOrO
T~
YTeHMR CTaHOBIlTCR O C O ~ ~ H HROC H O ~ ?npU yseTe KOliTeKCTa paccMa-rpmaeh$oro c o o 6 u e i i r i ~ .n n r r ~ u i iFOBOpUT: TOT iiapol
(62KTprifi~b1) 3arigi~aer nporuBononoxHym c r o p o ~ yropbr naponaiiric
J I P O . I I ~ I ~ C T O K O B H ~ n aM orpaiiriliunaercz p e ~ o i iOKC. n o r y c-ropoaq(ultra ) j ~ a s o ~ ~ n cornxazibr,
~cn
r o p o a ~ a ~ a ~ a w mr.i r Aneltca~xptiz
lo
112 KpafiHrtX EpCilenaX GXfiIIhr.71&
OCHOBZHHaR A J I ~ K c ~ H L ~Benui;rr?.r".
~oM
@nee -- I i ~ c a p Mr c a m 3a ~ r (N.H,
i
~Y1,48, 49). n e p e HaMM
~
onucaaae,
D OCfIOBe KOTOPL~~O
JIeWiMT OGhlqllaR, nOYT1.i 0611(enp~~RTaR,
CXeMa 3paToc$elfa: nap0r:aliir~:O t l X2 K a m a s ? OKC,O T A ~ . V R M U ~ ~~? C K T ~ L OT
~ ~COTI ~ ~
.zr:;iilcs, tficczpr. crzen~~::ri::icorruiiiucs c i caKoij. p p a ~ ~ya i ,i : i i i i i i l ~ E
onxcarirrr? X ~ c a p ~K acxeMe 3 p a r o c 4 e ~ anpricoenxHeabr z a m b l e aexqoaa,Ma. M T ~ K)', h M i - I H R B KaqeCTBe py6eXa 6 a K T p ~ l Mi COrnMa~b1T0;i;e Qliry.
PMpyeT OKC,T.e. A M Y A ~ P L R .
XOART K

T a ~ o eMCTOnKOBaHMe C O O ~ I U ~ H H IIJLHHiiR
H
flO3BOJfReT OTBepFHyTb HapJMaHHbIe nOCTPOeHMR, CBR33HfIbIe C qTeHUeM O C ~ ~Q T IfOCTpOeHMR
W
MCXOi
B KaqeCTBe Il~rpaHPfW~fi
peKM
J U T 213 TOTO, 410 OX, 0 1 ~ e q e ~ H b l f3AeCb
6aKTpHU lia sanane (XOTROx 6onee HHrDe KaK r p a m u a He @rypwpyer),
TojKnecTBeH T e w e ~ y T. ~ KB, . T o ~ a r u enOHMMan
~
paccMaTpmaeMoe coo6UeHHe ~ ~ M H H KaK
R
y ~ a s a ~ Ha
a e s a n a ~ ~ rpaHIiuy
y~o
s n a n e ~ ,@iono~a
e
u
~ B T U ~ Za tMc n~m s a m x M a p r u a ~ y(Tomaschek, 1896, ~ ~ 6 . 2 8 0 6 M.KMc).
c,nPiltr CqMTaJl, qTO nOA OXOM3AeCb MMeeTCR B B W I I ~ ~ + R H C K O - ~ ~ K T ~ M ~ ~ cKan rpaauua npmeprro r o r o me BpeMeaw, ocrasmBmaR MaprUaHy 3a
6aKTpMek, M '410 B 3TMX MeCTaX HaIIIeJl rpaHliUY AHTMOX KOrna CTOnKI I ~ X C Ry nepenpaBbI sepes peKy Aplrii c B O ~ C K ~ M~ W
B T M A ~( M Kiersling:
~
, ~ ~ 6 . 4 9 3~) .~ M ~ TYTO
H M
IiMKaKMe
,
MCTOWUKM He n0,TITBCp~aIOT
1914
TOiK.QeCTB0A p w ~( r e p ~ p y n a ) Pim XOTR 6b1 TOnbKO er0 HMXHerO TeseHUff
( T e m e ~ a )c OXOM.E i . M a p ~ 5 a pTaKme
~
nonaran, v ~ oOx B nalrrioM ccnysae
03tiaqaer s a n a ~ ~ yrpaaaqy
m
6 a ~ ~ p r r i i c carpanmi,
~ol
s ~ m s a n m e f hfaprtiai
111' (Markwart J ., 1938, c.4, nprm.3).
YKa3aEfUe UCTOWMKOB Ha 3~aqU~~nbfib1fi
YrfaCTOK O K C (~A M Y J ~ F L J ~ ) ,
01 UCTOKOB A 0 BbIXODa B CKMGIIX),
KBK Ha rpaHMUy MeXJIJ' EaKTpirefi M
~
i70 .<MYC o r m a ~ o kn0,CQIyiaMaeT BOIIpOC 0 pea?bHOCTU T ~ K OrpaH!-iLLLI
ZapLC. TOT BOnpOC 3aTparEiBa7CR B O MIrOrUX p a 6 o ~ a xIi o c o 6 e ~ r i oOCTpO
JHCKyTMPYeTCRB IlOCJIenHee BpeMR.
M13oriie MCCneAOBaTeJIM CKnOHHbI 6b1nU IlpUHUMaTL ~ ! Y ' K B ~ . U ~ H)'Ka33O
H i i 2 Ha OKCKBK Ha r p a l m w . T ~ Kr , . h . PO~JIUHCOH
CQiTan, YTO E ~ K T P M
-R
3 T 0 O ~ I L I I I P H ~ ~CTpaHa
II
MeXW r ~ ~ A y K ~ l L I Ue hOICCOM
l
( A ~ y z a p ~ e f i11033),
gli KOTOpOrO TlpOCTMpZleTCR hlaJI0 M35e~T~blfi
M PenKO lia~2~1eH~blii
PCrriOii
C O ~ A U ~ (H ~Rawlinson
I
H.G
., 19 12, C. 1 , 2 ) . C T O ~ O ~ ~ ITaKOTO
I I K K htH 2:+MR I I ~ U H M M ~ XOKC,
H
o r p a ~ ~E ~~ K a~ M
~~aKcesepe,
) ) ~ 3a ~ L i - z p z p ~ ~ ,
a OKC,O M ~ I B ~ H ) ~ &~ ~ K T ~HaM BOCTOKe,
I O
- 38 OnKH M 3 ee J!eni,.ix npHT0K C 9 , peKY K y ~ ~ y 3( aC ~ B H U K r.I?.,
H ~ ~ 1 9 4 1 , c.10; hlaHiiier!ti?:~x>i .)I.>.!..
1957, c.38)
KOK'IY ( Herzfeld E ., 1968, c.323).
'3piir;sanb1ioii ro.;~iispeswz npM;repxsisa.?cr? J;.Xizp;.irii;,.: '2,: zr.:
Siweiuw, r i o r p a ~ ~ w o pf ie ~ o r i6b1na A t . f y ~ a p h M~ ee n p a s ~ gE>.:-:oi< CypXaIaapLR, TaK ' I T 0 B . Q e f i ~ ~ ~ l i ~ e n b C
HO
~ ~~TRl iMOrpaiIlfT-'r~~r~ H ~ .on,... !>?KTpI<IO
'
c cesepa M 3ana,qa, a He c cesepa M BocToKa. M ~ P M Homatio,
.
cnyiin CltpXaHAapbIO C Bamehf, CeEePO-BOCTO'IH61M WCTOKOM A."r)')@pbli, 0 KOTOpO?,i
OH y3HUf M 3 OIMCaHIlR ,,IIleJlKOBOTO ~YTII",0TOXAeCTBti.rl Baxm C !Ipyrofi
peKofi, C ~ ~ a B U l e f i c IOTO-BOCTOZIHbIM
R
tfCTOKOM A h ~ n a p b K ,3a X O T O ~ ~ ~

m,

37

npmlmanacb peKa A~nepa6aM Kytri~lsa,unu K O K YnepeHec


~ ~ rpmnw
Ha 3 T Y peKY. HO TY Xe nyTaHMIIy C peKaMU U rpaHHrIaMH AOnwteH 6b1n COBepLUUTb yXe 3paToc+e~,aI5TOpiiTeT AnR Mapma (Markwart J ., 1938,
c.27, 28, 77, 78, 1 SO; I, 1946, c. 141). 310 cnoxaoe noc-rpoeaue, o c ~ o BaHHOe Ha YHCTbIX IIPeAlIOnOXeHHRX, BbIrnRWT OYeHb UCKYCCTBeHHbIM U
ocTasnaeT MEioro wexcaocrek. H ~ ~ O H X THanpuMep,
HO,
s a s e M.
~ MapKBapr
3aCEIBnReT MapUIia, 3aliMCTBOBaBlIIerO y 3paIoc@eHa er0 O p o r ~ p O r p a @ M ~ ~ C K Y HCXeMy,
)
Cah?OCTORTeJlblfOCOBepWaTb Ty Xe C 2 . w O I I I U ~KOK~,
TOpyIO A 0 Her0 CAenan ?paToc@Cti. A.Xepp~rur,CCbIJIaRCb Ha M. M a p ~ s a p Ta, nonaraeT, 1110 XOTR BepxHee T C Y ~ H UO~ ~ c H
a a KapTe n r o n e ~ ~e 3~ 0 6 pamaer Ilnrizm B KaqecTBe peKIi, norpa~wwoiiM e w y E a ~ ~ p u eui C
i orw3 ~ 0 f i O, H 0 BCC iKe COOTBeTCTByeT Baxmy, TaK KaK
Cyme rpaHKW MeXJI&' 3TMMIf CTpaHaMM IipOXOnlina BAOnb ~ ~ ~ ~ B I I I ~ H xpe61a
c K o ~ (Herrmann,
o
1942, c16.20 13). E.n. HeHMcoe TaKme rronaraer, YTO nambre aaTIirIHaD:
auropon oTpajsamT nonomewie, Korna rparrm,a M e w E a ~ ~ p ~M eCorm{ii
airoCi npoxoaana no Baxnry M Ah-ryAapbe (&HHCOBE n . , 1977, c.17).
H ~ M
KajhTTCR, YTO IIpMHUMaTb rPaHUM IIO O K Ci ~a ~ o i iK, ~ K ~O 3~0 6 paxtaIOT ee aHTWIIibIe aBTOpbl, M IlpRMO IIepeHOCMTb ee Ha COBpeMeHyvM
K a p q , nbrTaRcb H G TC ~O O T B ~ T C T B pemym
~ ~ I ~ ~rpsiauy
~
B peanb~oiireorpa+ari: He ~ O ~ B O ~ R cnenymutie
M T
O ~ C T O R T ~ J =H
CaI nBp~a.s n e ~ u eTeseI M R O K C ~06pasymuero
,
rpaemy hxemm E a ~ r p ~ eMi iCor,qumok, KaIc
ero orrpenenRcT 3 p a ~ o c @ e-~ caaqana
,
c mra rra cenep, a sa1er.i c BocToKa
~2 sanan, - Ha IIepBb1k B3mRR, olpamaer n e i i c ~ ~ ~ ~ e nHanpasneHue
a~ioe
3epXHWO H CpenIferO TeYeHMR AMy~apbMMnIi ee JIeBbIX IlpMTOKOB (cp.
C r a s x c ~ u iG.R., 1977, c.36). Ho CXOZCTBO snecb Kaxyrrreecx. 3paroc4ea
COBepIiIelIHO He 3lIaJI BepXOBbeB O K C M~ BepxHHk, R O ~ T O T Hp~C&T ,O K
310k P K H nOCTy.?MpOBaH IiM TOnbKO Ha OCHOBaHHU TeQPeIHqeCKflX CO06pawteHuk. CorAUaIGi, npUMLIKZ04aR Y MapM~aU ~ I T o ~ K~ 6Ma ~~ R
~puu
C CeBepa E BOCTOKa, TaKXe, Ha nepBb1k B3mRi[, MOXeT 6b1Tb On03HaHa Ha
conpe~emioiiKapre, TaIc YTO m x ~ 3 ee
~ 1sac15 oKaxeTcrr npaMepHo Eznax~ ' t ~ t i 0 h .$iL ~ M i l a h ? l ? p o ~(cp. Bernard P
.; Erancfofi H.~-p ., lQ7E,
c.5) - Ho 5% sro He TaK. Corzuaaa Mapma K n ~ o n e ~ B
e xyKa3aHHbIX EMU
rpaHUUaX - IiCKyCCTBeHHOe C03DaHK.5, KOTOpOe RBMJIOCb pe3yJIbTaTOhl
ppyx p a 3 ~ b i xn p e ~ c ~ a s n e 06
~ u3i r o l crpaae. H w a x ee sacla - 310 CormaHa 3pa~oc+eaa,cesepaax - C o r n u u a r~irmapxau l l o c u ~ o m ~ .
Komenmui COTAU~HLI,
CBR3aHHaR C IIpeZCTaBneHUeM 06 O K C KaK
~
38

rpafiaue u ~ 0 0 6 c~ o~p o2 r ~ p o r p a @ ~ q e c c~ xo ek~ o k3 p a ~ o c @ e ~sbrpmea,


Ira C T P ~ ~ O H O
CM
o r:n u a ~ a- c-rpalra, pacnonoxeH1raR , , ~ e m ~ " @ f l &)
OKCOMU ~ ~ K C ~ ~ (XI,
T O M
11, 2). ~eficTBUIeJIbHo,y C~pa60Hali O C O ~ ~ H H O
y n 1 o n e ~ e RCorwarra @ a ~ r u l r e cp~a n~~ i o s ~ r a v T
~ ap a ~ l c o ~ c w a unri
~e
Masepaa~axpy, Mewypeqbm O ~ c aM HKcapTa (Herthelot A,, 1930,
KM~~
12).
c.190; M ~ k w X tJ., 1, 1946, C. 139; CP. C ~ B M U T.M.,1940,~.5,
Ho T ~ K O B OC~ o r n u a ~ a 6una X M I I I ~ B Y C ~ O B H O~~ a p ~ o r p a @ u q e c ~ o M
cxeMe 3 p a ~ o c + e ~ M
a .a p r i ~M I l ~ o n e ~ e fBi O, C ~ ~ M H X31y
B cxelriy, o ~ ~ o c ~ n 1 . 1
K Y C J I O B H O ~ ~, , C O T ~ ~ M B
BCe
H ~ Te
' ' O ~ L C K TKOTOPble,
~I,
KaK OHM CYHTaJIM,
ZOJIXHbI 6b1Tb IIOMeWCHbI M e m y OKCOM
M H K C ~ ~ T(O
MM
H 2 B CKM($IIM),
XOTR B MCnOJIb3OBaHHbIX Mh4H MCT0431MtiaX 3Tki O ~ % ~ K T OTtibOL~b
L I
IiC 06rl3aTenblro cerr3br~an~cb
c Corjwarrofi.
Apyrwe uccnezosaTenM, IianpoTkrn, nontrocTbm brriri Yac-rMwro OTpIiUaiOT peaJIbHOCTb rpaHMub1 no O K C ~)TBep;iinaX,
,
XITO E ~ ~ ~ ~ C T E M T C J I ~ H O C T M
rpaHEiua npoxontina no ropah?. Erue ~ . T o l r r m ecqaran,
~
YTO rpa1lMua He
yorna npoxonriTb no O ~ c y E
. a ~ ~ p i K. i ~~ ,no3,qiier:
K
Toxaplicraii, irpocTilpanacb 01 ruyqyrcylrra 00 ~o,qopasxenac Corliia~oii;no Xenesabrx B o p o ~ ,
BKnIoYaR nonlmy peKM Teph?esa ( Tomasc!lek R? 1; 1577, c.27; 1896,
~ ~ 6 . 2 8 0 5 hltioro
).
BIiimatiiix 060i~0saiir:m ra&:oii x c Towu 3pCIiMR yzenun M.M. HLRKOIIOB.
110 ero h l ~ i c ~ t i m
O, S i12
~ ivior 6~116I - P ~ H M U Z~~P~I M W I manbao: peKu Bcsrna coenmrxmr, a ropbi - pa35ezliii~m~.
~ ~ K T ~noMZI,
2 0 6 ~ 0T O X ~ ~ H C T33fiMM3na
~ H Y , 06~11~j11ibie
IlpOCTp2HCTBa OT ~ M H ~ ~ K A~0 ' L U ~
I'wccapc~oroxpe51a a X e n e s ~ b ~Bxo p o ~ ,RnnrlRcb Sacceii~oaxC p e n ~ e kM
Bepx~eiiA~ynapbli,BKnmsaR ee EpaBbiC IIpliTOKki C~p~aiIJ2pb10,
K~~$MPHMraH, Baxm M peKM K ~ ~ R ~ UoniitibI
c K o ~(nb5i1:0ii0i3 >$.hi., 1954, C. 123;
1954a, c.308; 1956, c.23, 25). 3 ~ TyO ~ I K3peHi:H
~
npononxae-r apryMe1rTIiposaTb 5.8. CTBBMCKMG.
OH ~ s i i ~ Iaj ea ~ ~ p i-< Toxapiiz~ari
~o
onpeaenz~~oi~
MCTO~UKO-KyJXbTypH0k
O ~ ~ ~ C T LKOTOPPR
M ,
IlpOCTIiPaeTCR OT r1iHn~~)'lLIa
a o r w c c a p c ~ o r oxpe6ra, BKnto'i3R noriocy r i p a ~ o d q ~ c ~;lob Iic;i~i@a,
z
KepK L unu
~
naxe Yapmoy: M O X B ~ I - ~ I Bbacceiiti
~ ~ T
Cpcxririi ii o ~ ~ i : iUepxireii
c~i~
, L \ i y n a p ~ ~( S~avisi;? B. J ., 1977, c.253-35'7: Clr?ai:c~iiii 5.2., i950,
c.43-46; 1977, c.38, 40, 4 1 ) . K 70%x e TOlii.;e 3peIirIX CK;l0tIRZTCil 1'. @pair:
5 a ~ r p w s- ~ y n ~ q p m iUeaTp
ii
06rmipsoro pafioiia. onoRcaaHoro ropami
1ia ceBepe, BocToKe M mre M op01~iae~:oro
1 y ~ a p b e G joIra .qenMrcn Ha R B ~
YzcTu: mxtHym, 1.e. A$raHc~miTj'p~ecraii,li ceBepH]m, n p a ~ o 6 e p e m y m ,
1.e. T~,D,XHKMCT~I~
(@pail P., 1972, c.12, 31, 234, 235, Cp. c.74). B 0 6 ~ e h 1 ,
MOXHO CKa3aTb, YTO npe2CTaBJIeHMC 0 & ~ K T P M
K aM
K 0 CTpaHe, 0 6 a e n ~ ~ f f B -

mefi oaswcbr n A ~ ~ ~ H CTypKecTaHa,


K O ~ O M mmmrx qacreii T ; i r ~ ~ u ~ i i c ~ a l r a
M Y ~ ~ ~ K u cRBnReTCR
T ~ H ~cefiqac
,
n p e 0 6 n a @ 1 0 4 ~U~M 3 Her0 MCXOnRT KaK
us 0 6 ~ e n p m i m o r o(cp. MTH, r, 1963, c.8; r a + y p o ~E.T., 1972, c.78;
r a 4 y p o ~E.T., I J ( u 6 y ~ ~ c A . & i .1980,
,
c.235).
M o m ~ os n o m e cornacuTbca c reM, uro rpar-ruqa M e w E a ~ r p u e i ia
C o r m a ~ o f ino O ~ c y- ycnoBaa (Macco~B.M., 1950, c.175, 176) u TO
3Ta YCnOBHOCTb O ~ X R C H B ~ T C ICKnOHHOCTbK)
I
aHTU%IX aBTOpOB npOBOfiUTb
py6emu IIO PeKaM (CT~BWCK&
E.R., 1976, c.44). H0 Henb3R He yQfT61Barb, s T 0 M W R YCnOBHOCTli nOJIXeH 6b1~bnOBOR B peUIbH0k ~ e f i ~ ~ ~ l i ~ e n b HOCTM M ZITO aHmrMarr reorpa+sri He MeHee sacro, seM no peKaM, npoBomina rpaHaubr M no r o p m (cp. mmHyro rpaauuy E a ~ ~ yp TmO ~ Ox e 3 p a ~ o c 4- e ~ .a ) .
Ecnu rOBOpMTb 0 PeaJIbHOCTM rpaHUWI no A ~ y a a p b eB qenoM, TO, oseBIUHO,cnenyeT BbmeJrIiTa B 3~0.uBonpoce m a acnema: peKa K ~ KrpaauW KynbIYpH2.R M PeKa K a K ~paHUUaa,E(MHHMCTpaTMBHaRMnM IIOnMTEiseCKan. B OUeHKe 3TUX aCneKTOB, ~ ~ ~ Y C ~ npaB
O B Hn.OLepHap:
,
Ahfynapbri
HHKOrRa He 6b1na KYnbTYPHbIM P Y ~ ~ X OOM
CO
, ~ ~ H HBO CBOeM Gacceke,
HO W C T O 6bl~aJIa,
U B npeBHOCTU H nO3EHee, ~ R M M I M C T ~ ~ T H B H
WO
l U~ nOnM~
m e c ~ o i irpz~wueii ( Bernard P., Francfort H,- p
. 1978, c.60,
69) . 3 m e T ~ TO
~ , ~ C T O ~ K~ oMo 6 4 esawe ~ m c u p rpaaamr
p ~
sroporo pona.
Coo6rne~wrrC~pa60HaH H ~ o n e ~ e 06
rr O ~ c K
e ~ KrpaHuqe E a ~ r p Mu ~
C0r~aEib1TaKOBbI, WO CaMU no ce6e OHU ~ ~ ~ C T B U THe~ MOfyT
~ ~ H O
HIt
nonTB?pLlH~b.IiM OnpOBeplHy~bpeaJIbHOCTb rpaHA4bI n0 A ~ y n a p b e - B
cMbIcne u nporrrmeHHocm ee, u XapaKTepa (cp. Bernard P ., Francfort Hp., 1978, c.9). Y ~ a s m r ecoo64e~urrC ~ p a 6 o ~M anronehtex B O C X O ~ R T
K 3pa10c@eKy. H0 ~ P ~ T O He
C ~paCIIOnarUI
~ H
C O ~ C T B ~ H H ~ I MCBefieHMRMM
II
0 DaJIbHek A3m. @aKnte~KMeMaTepUmbI, Ha KOTOpbIX OH IfOCTpOAJI
CBOX) cxehiy, samcTBosajiar, B OCHOBHOM,
y I ~ C T O ~ K K O BAJIeKcaHfipa
( Bernard P ., Francfort H - p
., 1978, c.6, 12). Bsicltaz~~sa.-;ccb
a npemonomeme o ~ ~ B M C K ~ T O C 3parocGe~a
TW
B TOM OTHomeHm OT a e hronma ( E n a ~ u w ~ GB.A.,
i
1961, c.142, 143). q~06b1Y C T ~ H O B M T ~K, ~ K O B ~ 6
I b 1 n ~OcHoBamR y 3 p a r o c 4 e ~ amrr onpeneneaEa rpaHnmI Memy
E a ~ ~ p M eHk C O ~ R H ~no
HO
O ~K C ~HYW(H0
,
PaCCMOTPeTb
yKa3amR
wcrop~A
~ on e~~ c a ~ n H
paa 3101 cser .
yKa3aHMR Ha py6ex hiemAy Gaxrpueii u Cormmoi;- MOXHG ~ 3 ~ n e r i b
w o w c a cnewmrrrux
~ ~ ~
c06brr6 acropm A n e ~ c a ~ n p nepexop.
a:
Eecca

!t

Bcnen 3a HUM A n e ~ c a ~ n psepe3


a
OKC~3 E ~ K T P HBWC o r n u a ~ yB 37-9 r .
~ . 3 . B, H O B ~nepexoa Ane~carmpaqepes OKCu3 E i a ~ r p mB Cormatry
328r. DO Ti.3., XBHXeHMe A n e ~ c a ~ pU 3a C O ~ A U ~E H
E~K
I T~U
B H
327
) r.

-10

20 H.3.

Coo6me~1ie o nepexone Ijecca ~1epe3OKC npmaAnemT, OqeBltmlO,


,
OT A n e ~ ,,o~lilIUUIb~~fi"
TpantiUMU. AppMaH rOBOpUT, T O S ~ C Cy6e1-an
campa, nepenpmuncrr lrepes OKCM yuen B I ~ ~ B T ~pacnonoxelrabre
KM,
B
Cornuiic~oficTpwe (Anab., M,28, 9). To x e caMoe y K y p w ~XOTR
,
B KaYeCTBe MeCTa, Kyna ynanMnCR Gecc, Ha3bIBaeTCR npOCT0 C O ~ W ~(Yn,
I I ~4,
?!:I. 8 3103%co06~e1i~tl-i
0 MapllIpyTe E ~ c HIiYerO
c ~
He rOBOpMTCR, r i C l f 0
I O : I ~ K 9O10, Fecc, nepenpaBMsrnHcb qepes OKC,nonan B C o r n ~ a ~ayuhrerf,
.iO B 06nac1b HaB~aKll ( B ~ ~ X H
YaCTb
R E nOJlUHb1 K a l ~ a n a p b u )HO
. no TOMy
x
i
r
e Cah?O>fy MapllIpyTy ,~~OII;rceii
6 ~ 1 nnp0kni M AneK~aHnp,TaK KaK OH
npecnenoaan Eecca no narahi.
C o o 6 u e ~ ~ ioe nepesone A;ie~campaqepes OKCTaKxe IIpJMaZlnYXHT
..o+lr~nians~ofi"r p m ~ t w i ~
h-o-ropyo
,
nepeamT ti Appua~i(iLrlab,!'r, 39.
3 . 4 ) ; M Kypwiii (Yn,5 , 13-18>. Mapupyr noxona . 4 n e ~ c a ~ n pKa O ~ c y
r! 32 OKCOM
OIIMCPH B HCTO'lliMKZX mOBOnbHO n o n p o 6 ~ 0 ,l-i Ha OCHOBaHHU
2 : 3rO OliPCaliMR I?CC?IC~OEaTeJI1I
IlOYTH e~UH0,Q~UIHO
YKa3bLBaWT Ha Kens+
X Z K H a hiecTo neperrpaebl A>eKcaH;lpa qepes h4ynapbW. K TOM^ onpenelilHHX),Ha Ham BsmEn, HUI53n lie IIpMCOeDiHMTbCE.
HO B OnHCatiKM IIOXO~aK O K CUMeeTCR
~
OZ<a neTanb, KOTOpaR, K a K
5 ~ 2 ~ n0o,s a o n ~ eyTBep;i\li@Tb,
~
910 B CoweHMrrx U C T O ~ I ~ K OA
Bne~ca~npa
:i:r ~ C T K ; I X : J K ~ ~ Z ~ ? H:i3
G OKCK ~ Kua rpuisiw hremy F a ~ r p n e i ui CornwaHOE (cM., iianptih5ep: C T ~ B ~ ~ CE.X.,
K K ~1977,
; ~ c.37). C y ~ qno K y p u ~ ,
. ~ ~ : : K c ~ I I ;H
Ia~ IiyTki M 3 ~ Z K T
K ~OKCYTlpOIlIeJl TI0 CorZ16i~icr<ofi
;i).CTblHe,
~RliYBllIefi~E
Ha ~pOTRXeHKU400 CTanMeB (Yn,
5, 1-12). Y~e?h?eo 6 r n o
II>ICiMMSMT B n2HHO.M Cnrsae IiOCJle~OBaTenbHOCTbCO~EITX?
TT;:cB, KaK0fi
~ .IIpe;ICT2B.72!ia
"
:;,i..
y KypIliiR. ~ 2 1 1 3 ~COi"JIaC1iThCR
0
C 31117-1 KFLV--':i, T a l i Kay
.....,.-?L?PXlE ZOZ.?e~OllaTS.ll:7Ii(>2Tb REnReTCR pe3YXbTT"TOM :iC-::'CZT3Elx71h:X
:...,:,..I
- poe:ii!B Kypmr;~. Ko~.i6mii~pya
s cBoeM r ~ ~ ~ o ; i c e 235
s ~ a i-- F ~ C J ~ WOH
,
nbrTailcri p a c c ~ a 3 o KoHUe Eiecca, n p m ~ n e m a n p i k ,IFoi.:z.:-:rImeclcoM
T ~ ~ A U L W M(Curt ., >TI,4, 1-19; 5 , 19-26, 36-43; cp. Dicd ., X m ,83,
7-$) , CoBMecTIiTb c OnncaxilWehS nepenpmbl gepe3 OKCno , , o @ R ~ F ? ~ ~ H o ~ "
~ p a ~ , u r a(Curt
~ t ., >-, 5, 13-18, 27; cp. Aman .,Anab ., m,29, 3-5; O m came nepenpasbr B c ~ o e i rocaone g o n m o s o c x o m n K n r o n e ~ e m ,cp.
Kornemann E.J935, c.130). C O B M ~ J Q ~olcasanocb
HM~
He oseab YfiaWbIM
">?

rn

t
eCTb OCtfOBatfMRnOnO3peBaTL, qTO B ,, P O M ~ H T M Y ~ C K O BePCMM
~"
0 nepe5
i
npase sepes OKC ~ 0 0 6 u etie roBopmocb, M TO, KOHCYHO,
3a~pyg11mo ;
npaeMnhHoe coenMHeHlre ~epcrtii) , M B K ~ ~ O H ( ~ HKM yM p m nepexon
~
sepes
i
C O ~ U M ~ ~nyCTb111K)
C K ~ M CTan npeLIUleCTBOBaTb nCpenpaBe uepe3 OKC.MeM y TeM B , , P O M ~ H T M Y ~ C
TpanUUMM
K O ~ ~ " nepCXOn Yep3 3 T Y nYCTblHm Cnenosan 3a pacnpaB0ii c 6 e c c o ~(cp. Diod.., XYn, 83, 7-9 ~i pro1 ., 19) , a
31a nocrremxn, C ~ Z Rno npyrofi BepcwU, npou3oy:rra y x e nocne neperrpaBbl qepes OKC( Arrian., Anab .,a,
29,6-30, 5 .= Ptol.,fr. 14).
B , , p o ~ a r f m s e c ~ o i i TpanMluili
"
@irypriposanu M E a ~ ~ p M i i c K~ a ~ ,
Cormriic~an ~ Y C T ~ I HCM~ .e n e ~ow n~e p ~ o k ( Curt ., YE, 4, 27-29)
CBII3aHb1, OYeBMWO, C nOXOAOM A n e ~ c a m p a01 6aKTp A 0 O K C (cnen0~
b
BaTenbHO, 310 IIYCTblHR MeXny ~ U I X C K M M Oa3MCOM M A ~ y n a p b e i iy Kenu+a). 0 ~ ~ o p opaCCKa3brBanOCb
ii
( Curt., Y n , 5, 1-12; Diod., m,pro!.,
B
CBR3M
C
C
O
~
~
I
T
I
.
I
MMeBJUMMM
R
~
~M,
h?eCTO YXe IlOCJIe ncpenpab:
19)
Yepe3 OKC ( eCnM MCXOnMTb M 3 peaJIbH0fi ~OC~C~OBaTeIlbHOCTM
co61,1~~fii,
TO TO, cKopee Bcero, Kapurritrc~ancTenb K Iory OT oa3wca Kapmli).
,,04M~XlbHaR" TPaAHWR TaKXfie HaMeKaeT Ha 3111 ZBe IIYCTbIHM, KOrZa
ynomieaer o TPYAHOCTRX,
Koropbie nperepneno ~ o i r c ~A on c ~ c a ~ n pB Oa
3 p e m noxOn2 K O K CM~3a O K C O( ~Arrian.,
~
Anab., U,3 0 . 6 ) .
Cooo'rrre~ue o cnenyromeM nepexone AneKca~fipa qepes OKC ~3
6a~~pm
B C
i o r n ~ i a ~ .npencrasneHo
y
B o6enx rpazriwnx. B ,, o@~in~iani,H0fi:( TpaLIIIU41Ii A n e ~ c a ~ a PeUIIiB
p,
B03BpaTUTbCR Pi3 ~ ~ K BT Cornwaey,
P
raeT K O K CH,
~ nepenpaBmmicb ~ e p e 331' peKy, OKa3hIBaeTCR B Cor:waHe ( Arrian ., Anab ., IV, l j ? 7 ; 16, 1; c u r l .,\'11,10, 1 3 ) . O nepzxonc
sepes OKC ~ O B O P M T C RHa TOT pa3 M B , , P O M ~ T M Y ~Tpa3~11misi:
C K O ~ ~ A~X ~ K 1
caanp neperrpasiincx sepes OKC M ,,noKOpan c o r m i i u e ~~ ~ o p o pa3"
ii
( Cud., Yn, 10, 15; Diod., x m , pro!., 24). Gym I10 TOMY, YTO /l,riel:CaHnp AOCTMr peKM OKC Ha qe1Bep~hlfi2eHb ( Curt., !'IT: 10. 13). J:x
I ~ C ~ O I I ~ ~ O B ~ : I I~e
~ C L6nr:xaGruiie K b a n s y riepenp2sbi. C ~ o p e encerct:
MaKeZOHCKOe B O ~ ~ C K &In0
O
TI3 ~ P O T O ~ C F I H C G
J.Xe .FOpOie I! !I?lXiIp33:?noch oi:.?rb 3 p a j i o ~ eiien1id;a.
I
OWHb BaXHO AJIR yCTaHOBneFiM5 nO&THHHbIX rpaHUrr Me-MI 6 2 ~ 1 pliek M C O ~ R M ~npOCJIenliTb
HO~
nBMXeHMe AneKca~npaM 3 c0~lT.HaHb1B
6aKTpliKI B KOHUe er0 npe6b1BaHriR B 3TMX CTpaHaX. B , , o @ & ~ u M ~ J I L H o ~ ~ . '
I
TpaIiItHJi OCHOBHbIe BeXN 3 T O r O DHXeHUn T;II(OBLI.n o A p p ~ a ~ Ay n, e ~ (

CTpaHe IIapeTaKOB ( Anab., 1Y,22, 2 ) . M e w C O O ~ I U ~ H M ~ 0M 3MMOBKe


, 4 n e ~ c a ~ n pw a p a c c ~ a s o0 ~6 ocane cKanbr X o p ~ e ~Aap p n a ~rOBOpMT o
B3RTHM C O T ~ ~ CCKanbI
K O ~( Anab.,
~
lY, 18,4-19,j). BonpeKM IIOqTM 06ZeMy y6ej~ne~M1o,
nOpRnOK M3nOXeHUR Y Appriaria 3neCb He COOTBeTCTnyeT n e l i c ~ a w ~ e n ~ rxoay
~ o ~ ~06b1Tllfi.
y
310 onrm ~3 Tex Y ~ C T ~ IcnysaeB,
X
!1
o K O T O ~ ~ Inpenynpexnaer
X
caM A p p l r a ~( Anab., IY, 8 , l ; 14,4), Korna
'
;
!I
OJi rpynIDipyeT ~06blT>iR
Ife B X ~ O H O J I O T M ~ ~ CnOCnenOBaTe.~bHOCTri,
KO~~
a
no cxonc-r~y,no a ~ a n o r ~(CM.
a 0 6 TOM npaexte y A p p ~ a ~ a : S c h E.,,
~ a ~ t ;:
~
ii
1957, C. 145; cp. r a + y p o ~G.T.? & i 6 y ~ ~ n l . E.M.,
ic
1980: c. 2 5 3 ) . B n a ~ I.
! i o ~c.qysae T ~ K M ~ IarianorwnibIM13
M
C O ~ ~ I T M R MAppaari
U
cqen o c a w CorIM~CKOCC K ~ _ ' I ~11I CKaJIbI X O ~ I I C liI I nOCTaBiITI
~
M X ~ X ~ O MX .p o ~ o n o r a I I1
qeCKMe HeyBR3KM, BbITeKamLUMe M 3 T ~ K O G TIOC~e~OBaTe~bHOCTlI,
6b~1l1
Ii
oTMeseHbI ewe B.B. Tapaohf, XOTR B ~ I B O KoTopbre
~ ~ I , OH nenaer $33 3 T O F O
:;.-n
. . G , n ~ r r e a : i ~K, ~ X Y T C R HaM ~e o s e m ynaqrIbrbiri ( Tarn \V. W.,
r, 1948:
<. 72,?3). B I!CTOWMKe A p p I i a ~ a0 B3RTUM Cornriiic~oiiCKanbI paCCKa3bI~ ~ I I O C npmiepHo
L
B TOM me MecTe, B K ~ K O MroBoprinocb o B ~ R T M MCOOT,
a e ~ c ~ s y m ~ eii
u e cKa--ibI
k
A p r r ~ a s aB , , p o ~ a ~ i ~ r i . ~ e cBepckiii
~ o i i " (cp. Curt.,
p
B
Yn! 11 ; . Diod.: XYn, pro!., 2 5 ) . n o liypwim, A n e ~ c a ~ nnpMruen
i
0 6 n z c ~ b);opiietia! ' ii x e r i w c n 33ecb Ha P O I C C Z H
pu,
~ 4: 21-30; Epit.R.G.
2;le.Y. hf.: 28; -.-06 3TOIvf C O O ~ I L ~ ~ HI:Y~UMR
.~
HU
..KaK
. . .06 O R H O $ J ~ B _ ~ ~ E C X ~ ~
pat_
$ 1 ~ 2 3o
3 B3RTMM C K L T ~ I E P r r e ~ aCM.:'Markwart
.. - . . .
J., - .1938,
.. . . c. 73). 3 a r e ~
. i A ~ ~ ~ C ~ H ~ ~ p , ~ ~ ~ & ~ ~ & ~ 3-e ~~ ls x~ x(& ini agrum
. ~ ~ Cctiianurn):'
i i ~ K
n,p-c g m ~ m i K~KOG-TO
o
, , ~ p e n o c ~ ~a i nepenpaBHncx
"
.
sepes
~ . . peKy
.... .. OKC 1;
/
, -. .
e x .
M., 3 2 ) . Kypmifi r o ~ o p r ~i
i ~o ~eiicrsiir;sXpaxepa,
-.
.>.-Gc;~~:cR
pzccxa3 o Hrix c s o 6 ~ ~ i e ~ or i IIOKOpeHIiIi
e~
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y ; ~ ; a i;.v,~;:<::;:z
~~,~
PIS, 5, 2) .
5 3;p.-..
.A-~ia.2
I ~ U ~ C K O G r" p a r i w v , cofir,!r~x, n p o l i c x o z : >: crpz~ie
!iZpeTmOB, oxeecesrj1 K Ijaicrpna~e.0 5 ZTOM csmexenzcrsy;rrr f i a m ~ i e
1

--

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8.

''3 'mzimx TeKcTa ICypum -4 n p a a m m 0 6 m 0 naeTcx B @ o p e Oxyartes


Ho 3 pyKOiiI;Cir:< Z w o aanxmiiriz Cohortandes, KoTOpOe, HeCOMHeHHO, S E n R ~'TC.Y IicKaiite;iiicr.i xi:.$exx
Chorian,jr, (>iakrnart J., 1938. c., 73: 74).

43

Tpora: A ; ~ e ~ c a m,,pBc.ry1run B 3 e ~ n m6a~lpMaHoB( in terran-r Bactria,l:mj. c ~ a n o f iX o p ~ e ~ iinri


a , C u c u ~ r ~ ~ M~ pnepenpa~ofi
a.
wpe3 OKC,a
rlorurn) ii )KeHuJICR [la P o K c ~ H ~(' Anecd.
.
Rue., Laur. 174- 176, Bamb.
.:ic~e,
~{OXCT~ ~ I T
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I
6
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a
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,
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,
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no
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4apb
::'M.
K;iK ~ Y A T OOTnliYaeTCfl OT C O ~ C T B ~ ~ I ~H ~
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L
M flpUCTyllHn K CKaJIe C i i ~ P i ~ i f @ p a
T ~ ~ T C6Ra ~ r p r i ~ c ~3eh~neii.
o
f
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( Curt., YU, 2, 19; cp. Diod., prol., 29), c o o r v e r c ~ ~ y r o u i ecKane
B
Xoi l r a ~ ,m p m p y r !IocrlezHero rxoxona . A n e ~ c a ~ a p~a i 3C o r n n a ~ hB~
pMeHa n p e n ~ e ~ ~ TpaDllWM.
~ y l ~ ~~ Oe C~J B3RTMH
I ~
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~ a s u n@analfry ( no11 1rpenRonnTenbcreoM Kpa~epa?)Ann noicoperixn O T i!aBTaKOB B 0o'~lac~lb
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R
rpymoii r o p ~ o i aoporoii
i
( Curt., YI11,
;nexmi
B c ~ p a ~
napeTaKon
y
cocToRnacL ocana cKanbr Xopweiia, nnM Cwcn?, 33, 3 4 ) . 3necb, 13eCOM11e~IH0,hieCT0 0TnpaB~leHMHCOBMeQeHO C MeCT0h.i
i
t
~
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p
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A
n
e
~
c
a
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p
,
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llp1i6blTMR, IlpM 3TOM Ha3BaHMe nepBOrO BhITeCIiMnO Ha3BaHrie BTOporO
2
i
l
~
6
h
B
~
.
6aKTpb1,
~
rile
Ii COeaMHMnMCb BCe MaKenOHCKUe OTPRDbl, flpMm
( hiarkwart J., 1938, c., 7 3 , npMbi.1). ~ e p n o ~ o q a ~ rCl _O~Oo ~ U ~ H M ~ ~ ~ M ~ ~ O
L L I L ' J U I ~ ! ~153 C T P ~ H ~napeTaKoB
I
n G y 6 a ~ e i i ~Bo3hfom~0,
1.
YTO no2 ruecTMB BWy, 'ir0 MaKe~OHCKOeBOGCKO, OTIIPaB~DIlIMCbM 3 O ~ J I P C T HHaHTBKOB,
;I!ICRH~,IM ~ O S O A O M A n e l i c a ~ ~ pOT
a
cKanLI
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c
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Ma wMencx o B M S ~
-. npn6bmo B o 6 n a c ~ bnaperaKoB. Ho sra nyrattuua UonxHa 6braa conepxaiioso3 ero K ~ o w e q ~ ouentr
i i - K ropo,zy E ~ K T B
~ TaKoXi
~ I . c x p a e HalIaueTbcH )'KC B o 6 ~ UCTOqHMKe
e ~
K y p ~ i Mi ~Auonopa, 1.e. B COYMHeHMM K ~ M - . .j i l t ? Ha caKoH 6 ~ x 112
0
uenbm,
a
, T U I I I ~no60~1rbrxr3nH3OZO>l noxoaa. Ecnu
~ a p x a Tofi
.
me T ~ ~ I L I M ~U PJ M
~ HH ~ U J ~ ~
eX
u eI ~oms,
T
rperbx Bepcax. F I o c ~ o ;:CSOZHI>IG IIV1IK.I 3~01.0 .sia:~:u~:'~a
r~efic:-eii-renbaoHa,yo;liL-1ci; B sepxtieii
'
: I ~ K Y otia T O M ~ o c x o K
n L~jrli~apxi;
~ ~
( F o s R.L.,1975: c.534): T O ; HaUO
;acrri onw war,^ Kam~ariapbri,r,ie-T0 B o6nac~1iKeura, To 6b1.70 6b1 MHTepe4)'MaTb, KOIIT~MIiHai!I110 B T O P O ~if~ T P S - T ~ C ~BepCUI1
?
npii3BCJI cX>l K n ~ r a p x .
C??0 COnOCTaBIiTb P ~ K O ~ I C T ~ Y ~ ~ P O BMa13MPYI
~ I I H ~ I ~A,TeKCa~npa
~
C coo6ueKyp~utGn3~1araer~ T YBepcMiO IaK: A Z ~ K C ~ HabicTynmI
UP
~3 3 ~ x m e r ona:iIiSISlM Cpe~HeBeKOBhl);~OPOX13IIKOB0 IlyTli OT Kerua 20 6a;ixa (CM.0
repR ( c n e i l o ~ a r e r l s ~ 133
o , o 6 x a c ~ iH
i ~ B T B K O13BHanpauiincn
)
B 06nacl-b Fa.
F a p ~ o r r bB.B.:
~
i ? 1963, c.,:??, 193; Tornaschek W.:I , i8SS. c.
3a6a (S.U, 4, 1) ; Ha ~ p e r z~l tdi b I I ~ T W y, K ~ K O ~ O - T,,yue~ibri..:
O
HaQ ~ o i i c 3:,
23).
Cornacxo
3 T l i h l ~ O P O X I I I I KO~T M
Keula
,
qepe3 o6nacrb rysapa
K O M p13pa31LiIacb CHeXHaR 6 y p ~(VM,4, 2-ii?; cp. Diod., XSrn>pro].,
io
Xene3~1,rx
~
o
p
o
r
T
e
m
p
e
nepexona,
OT >E;e.~e3~hls
BOPOT qepe3
29) noC.?e flOAMOml?,oKa3a~HofiB O ~ ~ C K 'CI?~H~lki@p@hl,
O H 0 0TnpaBl.inOCb
I ?pale3 20 53Xxa - nRTb nZpeXOLIOB. IIepBaR IIOJOBiiHa JrK23aHHOr0n\'lM
fia;ibWe 5 ~ l e ~ ~ l l l l l e ~I T~O Xh0l3 fIlpOTIiH
i
CaKOB (YIi: 4, 2 0 ) . If.>fapK~2pT,
\lOr.la
6 ~ 1COOTBeTCTBOBaTb TpeXWeBHOMy n0XOzy ~ ~ ~ h - c a t i i Bn;IOTL
lpa
npaBiiIIbH0 ~ a ~ n 0 3 l f a B l ~B 1 3TOM
? ~ c0064eH111i C:leQbI C ~ M O C T O X T ~ ~ ~ H O ~ ~
1 0 )'LUe,TbH. A J ~ ~ ~ c c ~
PBliraHCb
H
I
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,
lia
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nepc:rri p a c c ~ a 3c ~B ~ R T ~ I H C KC ~~ ~. r~cI ~ ~ ~ i orMerrm,
@pa,
YTO c a m ocaaa
>lor npeOpOXeTb 3 T O T n):TL K M C N O a Y TpeTbeTO ZHR. Ta326a: 5 TaKC>i C.I!'CKZTbi I? Caaqa ee C~.<MM.ZM@PORI
33eCb BblIl?'ZUeHbI, IIOCKOXLK!. 0 HMX )'
*at, 2O;ljSHa COOTBeTCTBOB3Tb O ~ J I ~ C T ry3apa.
II
Dropan nO:iGBiiHa nyTii>
K y p ~ u i xpaccica3biBanocb B npyroii sepcriri ( Markwait 3
1938, c.,73).
OYeBMaHo,
COOTBeTCTBYeT
3an.iIaHiipOBaIlHOhly
AneKca~npohf
LUeCTiiaHeBB ~ I ~ M Mnoxox
O,
B oo'nacrr? rasa6a npenrrrec~eoeanBcTynneHIim B CTpaHy
H
O
~
noxoay.
I
~
nepenpasa
qepe3
OKC
6na3
KpenocTrr
6bina
cosepuelia;
napeTaKoB, m e EiaxozMnacb c ~ a x C
c iic~~~f@pa.
iicopee
ncero,
B pairone Tepxrc3h. TO me KacaeTcR 6y6aKelib1, TO 2 C T b
A p n c ~ o 6 y n ,cynn no c o x p a ~ ~ i ~ r u~r pt ~
a r~sci ~e r r ~e rao~noBecTBoBaFiMR, ~ ~ U ~ T ~ I K ~ B BI LOIIIiCaIfKI!
' &
?T!i;i C ~ 6 b l ' i ~E:; , $ ~ h i 3 ~ ~ ~ i 4 . 1 c ~ o j i . . ~ ~ ~ - 2CHOBBHIIR EO.TaraTb. '4TO Ot!3 11pl!.\?eFIiO COOTBeTCT3:.'?T K03,C.!!2!ILLI?ll>'
()'TTai:lO, T.e. 0 6 3 a c ~ i Ky;i~6a.
i
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a
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6 a ~ r ~ xC
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YLUeXbP 6 y ~ y TCOOIBeTCTBO5aIb xeJIe3~b1BOpOTa. K ~ )'me
K rOBOpUnOCb,
TO c ~ a n aCxcMhlu+pa, r s e 6bina ornpaanriosa~ac ~ a n b 6 aA n e ~ c a ~ q ~
6 . 7 ~ 3310ro ,,YLUW~R,
roplioro npoxona" ( saltus ) hiaxei;ot;cKoe BGGCKO
' o K c ~ H ~H ~~ ,~ O I I ~ TBC 6R a ~ r p n a ~(4e &$ hWLaT>
(Xl,fl, 4).
EOIIaJIO B CHeXHYRJ 6ypm. HO COrXaCHO APYrMM UCTOYHXKaM, CHerOnaLibl
M3 COnOCTaBneHMR 3TMX ~ 0 0 6 ~ ~ 1 eBLITeKaeT,
~lifi
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I! ~IpOnOEG.T5CT3CliHbIeTpyLLHOCTIi, C YeM &i CBR3aHa 6b1na nOMOLIib CHCHmBmaRcR yme 3a npenenahqr? Cornriz~brI? pacnorromeHaas, OYeBHnHo,
>!ri+pa: : - z n X o p l j e ~ a ,iiMenlr Mecro K ~ Kpas o o Bpexm o c a m ero c h - a n ~ ~
. . .
44
. 3 . . , l r , 21, 10; Plut., Ales., 53), n p e r p ~ a ~ r r r esixi o a B

/i.
c

~~~

-7

,,.??

.$

n a p e ~ a ~ e(cp.
~ y Curt., YM,2, 20). C O ~ C T R ~ HMMClleM
H ~ I M Ce 3 3 1 ~ k i T I i M K 8
6bln0, OUeBMflI10, ,,Clic5iMM@pn , a , , X O ~ H C ~ ~ OMnM
M " , , X O ~ H ~ I ~ Oero
M",
Ha3111BanM
Mhfel3If 06nacrn iinM nJleh?eHI1, BlIaCTMTeneM K O T O ~ OOH~ XB-~
JIRnCR.
Y n o ~ u ~ i y r ,,cyana"
a~
n o ~ a n ~ 3 0 s a n a nc o~ - p a 3 ~ o ~ yC. a ~ a r c y6eXkITellhliaU, K B K HaM KXKeTCR, JlOKaJIM3aUMR ee, rOpa3nO Gonee COOTBeTCTB)'KlLUaX AallHbIhl MCTOUHMKOB, UerM BCe npenJIOXeHHble BnOClIeQCTBMM,
6brna O ~ O C H O B ~ IB{ .~T o . z ? a r n e ~ oHa~ Marepuane K y p r a i ~(YW,
2, 19-23).
OH nohqeqaeT 3 T Y , , C K U I ~B" p a i i o ~ eX e n e 3 ~ ~ 1~xo p o r IIbIHe
,
fjysranaxolia jrnM ~ y x r a ~ x o l f(Tornasd~ck
a
W.,
I, 1877, c. 27-30, 120; c riiihq cornaceH r p n r o p b e ~B.B., n , 188i ,c. 192). Ecnr! TO TaK, TO K P C ~ O CcnyT~,
x ~ i u l n ay~6 e x ~ l u ennR
~ C r i c r i ~ ~ + pHero
a
C B M T HaxonMnacL
~I,
lia cKane,
B 0 3 ~ h l ~ l a ~ l J l 1laX
e ~ ~ ,,BO~OT~MM",
ir
a A ~ U H H i~! IY ~ ~ K M
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k
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: ~ ~nons no ~y CTOpOliy xpe6ra, RsnRncn c a w u ~
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, , s o p ~ ~ " . M enpOYiih1,
~~y
B.Tosfarrre~,HcXOm M 3 T ~ K On o~~ a r 1 ~ 3 a l u - i ~
c ~ u i ' i bC~r i c ~ i ~ : i @ p~i
s ,GOBOZli.1 cesepwb~iinpenen 6arcrpjis n o Xene3iibrx
R O ~ O T :~ O T . " .w lie unonlfe nOcnezOBaTenbHo ( Tomaschek W.1, 1 8 7 7 , ~ 27,
.
cp. c. 3,5 0 ) .
Ctia,ia Ciicii~l{@pa,Irnif X o p ~ e l i a ,ssnRnacL, osesxnwo, He CTOnbKC
K ~ ~ : I o c neiic~srtrenb~io
T~~,
3anripasrueii npoxou B cTpaHy (Xene3rible
33pOT"erKO
oGoii~iiC EUI-2 ) , CKOnLKO nOrpaWNrMbIM IIOCTOM, K O T O D ~ ~ ~ ~
o~areiix7lia Gonblrroii nopore pyo'ex M e m y EaKTpMefi if Cormia~iok.Y
r I ! ~ O T ! i B O ~ O ~ O ~ H 5n
I Sp e , ~ e a o sa x e ~ e ~ ~ i r r c E
~ ao ~i i~ p x Hl ~~ rB ~ C T21iano~ H
l i i q ~ 3 1 f iE O I . ~ ~ ~ ~ M ' I H
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nOCTYI:
IH~
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riala: 3TO > . 3 ~ i i e roptible IrpoxonbI
) , BenymMe B
EatiTpam (Diod,li, 6 : 1 , 3 = Ctes.,fr. 1b ) , CBeneHax o K O T O ~ ~ IKXr e c ~ f k
rro~epiiwynx3 orrr?caHIix n o p o r ~,,or 34eca n o E ~ K MTMH~MZI"
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blc
cnoe kisaka hya
I,~apauraka
ti si [njkabru;,
yno~pe~ne~B
~ HannwcM,
brx
K a K ,nasy-

, , c e p n o n ~ ~ " ,nouKpenrletillble apxeojlorliliecKMMM AaHHbIMM


H.-P., 1978, c. 9, l o ) , He Moryr 6blTb nomeprH Y T ~ I coMHeii:Ilo. I I o c ~ o n b ~enMiicTne1iiroe
y
MecTopomneHMe n a 3 y p ~ ~ a ,
~MT" H

(Bernard

P., Francfort

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~?
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: B ~ ~ X O KOKLIII,
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maria fiapnx

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O
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ii
mMnM B 6anaxruaxe (Herzfe!d E ., 1968, c.323). P.n.Qorcc TaKXe CclklTaeT, lrT0 CorLWa~aB !IpeBf i o c i ~pacnpocTpaHn;iacb
i
li Ira I O X H I , I ~ ~6eper Ahf)lnapbl?, ~ ~ Z m l I a rBr ,saCTHOCTM, BCIO noJllti-iy K O K V ~(IF o r R.L.1975, c.559) ; n . 6 e p ~ a p
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~ , ,,60jll,1uaR C o m ~ r a ~ aK"a K aL\IIiHlirenii.

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Benlard

P ., Francfort H.-P..1976,

C.

1
, ,

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i u y w i e sbisonbi.

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,
113

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me H ~ ~ ~ M ~C I aI p c ~na3y~ y
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ee tiax ,,~onb1wyluC O T R I ~ I ,~ cp.Bernard
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ki
rITo ~~~~~ii c?pZQ:iiii<2
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ie

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( ~ M P Y H I I ,1963, c.161).

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B C e r O C .223)'pMTOhl: 2 TaKXe C pa3JIMYIfbIMM MCKYCCTBeHHbIMM CMeCRhM,


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1.e. IiMeHHO na3yPU1) ..." ( DPi; Ul; C M . Kent K.G.,
1953, C. 109,
112, 137, 152; Schrnidt E.F., n , 1957, c. 5 0 ) . T ~ xKe 6bmo M hirroro nos n ~ e eA
. . E . @ e p c ~ moTMelraeT, YTO nasypur yacro chieruusa:1ii c pasnxlrH b I h l l i COenHHeHURMM hlenii, HanpMMep C OKParUeHHbIM JIa3JrpMTOM 11 CpeZi1
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Kelira" ( D ~ ~ c M
A.E.,
~ HYn, 1962, c.133, 134). B 3 ~ 0 i CBR3M
i
o 6 p u a e ~lis
c e 6 ~BHuMaHwe r r a s ~ a a u ecpeniieseKosoro ropona M o6nac~irKa6ynsir,
pacnonoxeiiabIx npRMo K ceBepy OT C a ~ a p ~ a w ny aCKnoiroU r o p (Tomaschek W, I, 1877, c.85) 3 r o ~ a 3 s a 1 i ~n ep o ~ 3 ~ e z eOT~ oK O ~ H R
o 6, 4 e r o c
npeBHenepcwcKm OnpexeneiirieM na3ypn~a,kapautaka : rrpeBaeilepc.
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~IE
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. . noxy-~tiri;in3
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~ J I O C ~l r ~ oi c p a c ~ a ; n p i . , ~ e e ~ BlilaRcsi B axeMeHIacKIix ABOpUaX B Cycax, 6 ~ 1 n~a 3 r o r o n n e i i ati3 aaypili-a
( Bernard P., Francfort H.-P.,1978, c. 71).
n p e ~ c ~ a n e ~06
l i eO K C KaK
~ n o r p a ~ a m o i ipeKe npocnemasaercR I?
B M ~ ~ H C K
TpUULUIM.
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ria IIap$R1.c' KO41 R3b:tce ti3 T y p a a ~ aynohuiHaercR ,,~O;I?:CTBOApn-Baxm" ( ba-1 21d VZXSj:
m ~ e c m o eTarcxe K W Apizoxmo no nereana\i ~ y r n a t i c h - ~. ?x : o ~ e ~KOTO.
p " e ~ ~ . i c ~ y nBa emine
~ ,Zj1.ia s o p a i z ; i ~ s o Brpaeiiu:" (~5x3c . 1ivarisZn
v'irland ) . 3Aecb cnoB0 VZYS, ,,wx", RBnReTCR, KOHeQlO: nepeOCMbIcneHEieM cnosa vax;, ,,pexa b a r n ' ' (Altheim F., I , 1947, c. 8 7 >88):
CTaBLUeM B03hlOXHbI.M, KOrna l7OCnenHee Bb!rn,r~O 113 ~ I I O T ~ ~ ~ ~ BI ~KH3 - I I R
WCTBe Ha3BaHIlR Bcek A ~ y n a p b ~O. ~ ~ B HB ~naIlH0.M
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MY
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e
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B CBR3M C npOHNKHOBeHUeh1 M ~ N M X ~ ~ C K hfIiCCMOHepOB
EX
153 MepBa B
,-

52

3 e n l ~( ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ h l e i I HKbel pf i~ k i ) ,OTKYUa OHM HallpaB~IH;lliCI~B Cora. C ~ M O


iipencTaBlielrMe o Baxme KaK norpariiis~rofipeKe hiorno ~ ~ I ycBoeHo
T L
MaHMXeRMM B h l e p ~ eMnll E Z ~ XrUe
~ , nOnr0 CylUeCTBOB~M3IlaYMTCnblible
nzaii~ixeGc~we
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. RM. , 1977, C. 178).
M
B KaqCCTBe py6exeB L ~ K T M T ~ K ,B B H T M ~ ~ HTO p~ ~~ l i ~BblCTj'naWT
pirii r o p b ~M peKM. C on~ioiiC T O P O H ~ Iee orpairriswsaeT f r r ~ i n y ~ y KOTOu,
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MOrJIa BKnlOYaTb M IfeCKOflLKO COCeaHUX.
I.V. P Y A N K O V

BACTRIA

LN THE ANTIQUE TRADITION


( General data about the country:
its denomination and territory)

The aim of the paper is restricted by the task t o look into the subject
matter of t h t concept 'Bactria" itself in the sence used in the antiqi~esources.
The way the task is put presupposes, in the first place, the study of thc in-formation about the territory and denomination of Bactria. These two
items form the main content of the present paper which is a part of a
large inviistigation o f Bactria which is being prepared by the author T I O W .
The main consideration in tlie paper is given t o the information of Greek
and Roman antique sources, though, when necessaw? other sources sucli
as Avesta, ancient Persian, middle Iranian, A m ~ e n i a nand middle age Muslim
texts are used.
Tlie first part of the work deals with the information about the dznomination of Bactria. The author comes t o tlle conclusion that the denoniaatior~
of both country and people o f Bactria is of a pure geographic but not ethnic
origin. Its first and tlie most narrow special meaning was both the Balkh
oasis fed by tile waters of the Balkhab river, a i d the population of that oasis.
If this denomination is applied to a wider region it can only mean that tile
Balkh oasis is r e c o ~ i s e das the centre uniting t!ie \vllc!e region and t!ie region
itself is a political or admL~istrativeformation. At tile same t i n e h e coi~lcidence of the territory of the formati011 with its ethnic and culturai cornmu-nity was sometimes possible.
The second part o f the work deals with the information about the territory of Bactria. The author comes t o the following conclusions. In antique
tradition rivers and mountains served as borderlines o f Bactria. From one
side it is limited by the Hindukush which is called Parnasus in earlier sources
and Paropanisus in later ones. The transfer points on tlie mountain roads of

tlie Hindukush seem t o be the natural borders o f Bactria. F r o m another


side the borderline of Bactria is made by the Amudarya river which is called Arases in the earlier sources and Oxus in tile later ones. According to
the geographical conceptior~sof antique autllors the Amudarya river from
tile upper reaciies t o its outlet into the Scythian deserts is the borderline
o f Bactria. Ho\\#cver a thorough analysis o f the basis o f tliese conceptions
S ~ I O M ; that this intcl-PI-etation of the Amudarya as the borderline is true
only for tile place o f .Alexander's troops crossing a t Kelif. The study o f
AlesanJer's f~trtlleriilovernent sllow that the situatio~lin tiie upper reaches
of tiie ..\!nudarya was different. I t was described in the two versions of the
antique tradition. .Accr)rdins t o one of them tile area between tile soutliwest spurs o f :lie I-Iiss~irn~ountairiridge and die Amudarya t l i o u s l ~differed
fro111 Bactrja proper. st tile saimc time was distinctly separated f r o m Sogdian3 a j -.ccll. t2 i ~. o i- i1.' l n g t o tile other version this was directly called Bactria.
\ire have reasi)ri to si~pposethat besides the above mentioned area sonie
uther tiirritories o n the riglit bank o f the Amudarya and the P m d j such as
t i \'akhsli va!!ey. K a r a t e ~ i nand possibly K~illistan and a part o f Kulab
\\ere aiso forming Bacli-ia. T h e Aniudar)ia served as tile borderline o f Bactria
a
bit 10iver approxiniatc!y from Kelif as gar as Kerki.
\'k see Bactria within the above mentioned borderlir~es owing mainly
to the inforn~atiorigiven by Alexander's historians. This Bactria conten;porary t o :Ilex-ndei \\>as in o u r opinion o n e o f those administrative units
of :he"lc!laernenian state, ivliic!i were referred t o as "people.. o r ,,country"
i : ~ the sources. Judging by tlie information o f the written,sources we can't
ascertain ~ v h e t h e rBactria within those borderlines was really an ethnic and
cultural comit~unitytlio~iglitliis seems quite possible.
In the sources contemporary to Alexander and earlier, the Sirdarya ri\?er called Tazais a,:!~r1i~:itinned a.: another borderline o f Ractr-ia. In this
case Blctria is understsod as a satrapy that is an administrative unite.
larger tiian "people" o r " c o ~ i n t y "but less stable. A satrapy could include
some neighbouring countries besides the wain one.

A6aes B.M., 1956. - A 6 a e a B.M. CKU+CKUG6 b 1 ~u p e ( i j o p ~ a30poac~pa.

.t-chiv O r i e n t b i ,

, XXlY,1956,N~l.

6apiOnbn B.B., 1, 1963. - 6 a p T


;<Or0 HaLUeCTEt4R. C O ~ .T.T.
, M., 1963.
6aoTOnbn 5.5..U, 1965. - 6 a p

71.

~ U P ~ H L1
* ,9

T 0

4 6.6. Typ<eciati
t

3nOXy MOHrOnb-

n B.B. Corn. Coy.,

T.E.

M., i965.

xtiura e p a 3 y ~ n e ~ v ~
. na q a i ~ a r HayKM
.?
o 3ee3ilax. Tatiixt'iii, 7975.
6 3 . - A 6 y - p - P a i i x a ~ M y x a h i h . i e n t r 6 ~A x ~ e an n 5 M p y H M . C06pa~ueceenetiil2 nns nowatifla p.pa:ouetitiocreG ( ~ ; r t i e p x o r u f i i .
neo.k.M. 6 1 7 ? 1 i K l l ~ o r n
0 .. , 1963.
6poMneR 0.8., 1973. - 6 p 0 M n e k 0 . 6 . ~ T H O CM BTHOlpilQL4R. M . , 1973.
Sy6tiosa M .A. , 1975. - 6 y 6 H o 0 a M.A. Ao6b1qa none3tibix uci;onaewblx a
C a e a ~ eAi ~ U BH XY1 - X I X SB. M., 1975.
B R ~ M ~C.A.
H H , n, 1949. - B 2 3 ri r u H C.A. Masep~;ans>
nu MC~OPM'IUCKO~, r e orpaaue T y p i i a f e i i u c ~ a ~ C
a .o o B u e t < ~ e3.- MBR~CTI~R
T~~KM~HCK
bi'nuilna
O T O AH
CCCP , 1949. NO1.
y p o B 6 . r . G C S R ~ R XCp~ntieL?ASL~LI
&I l i l p a ~ aB
r a a y p o ~6 . r . , 1966 -. r a
a x e ~ e ~ n n c ~nepuon
nt?
( Y l - 1 Y 8s. no ~ . 3 . .-Academia
)
N a z i o ~ i d cdei Uncei,
CCCLXW, No76. 1966.
'rabypoe 6.r., 1972. - r a @ y p o s 5 . r . TaornuKK. ApentieGu~i?.I:PFB-IPS i.5
...,.,,,nt!eee~oeaa K C T O P M P . M., 1972.
rs@ypos 6.i-., ~ ~ 1 6 y t i w nA.l4.,
~ c ;gag. - r a i y 9 o e s.F.,li ., 1: y -?, 11 i r C A.M. P.neKcaHap ~ ~ ~ K ' & ~ o H
H cBOCTOK.
K M ~
M., i98Ci.
r o p 6 y ~ o s aH.T., 1976. - r o p 6 y H o B a H.T. O e p r a ~ ano ceeneii:lrizA a t i r t i q n i l x asTopos. B KH.: Mc~opklnu KynbTypa Hapoaos C p e n ~ e kAonw ( S ~ B R ~ ~ O
H CTL
cpentiue a e ~ a.) M., 1976.
r p a ~ l ~ ~3.A..
c ~ 1975.
~ f i - r p a H T 0 B c K U fi 3.A. G BOCTO'ih.0L4paHCii'riX nnehreHax KywancKoro apeana. B W.: U e ~ r p a n b ~ aA
n~MR
6 t(ytuaHcKym 3noxy.
7.n. M., 1975.
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=*
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