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GHADEER

Forbidden unto you (for food) are carrion and blood and swineflesh, and that which hath been

dedicated unto any other than Allah, and the strangled, and the dead through beating, and the dead through falling from a height, and that which hath been killed by (the goring of) horns, and the devoured of wild beasts, saving that which ye make lawful (by the death-stroke), and that which hath been immolated unto idols. And (forbidden is it) that ye swear by the divining arrows. This is an abomination. This day are those who disbelieve in despair of (ever harming) your religion; so fear them not, fear Me! This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam. Whoso is forced by hunger, not by will, to sin: (for him) lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

- Surah 5: Verse 3

1 st Part: Once we look at the verse above, we realize it talks about disbelievers being despaired. What does it mean?

a) Dispair: “Yas” or despair is the opposite of hope. Ref: Qamus al Muheet Vol2, page 260

b) Disbelievers: mean Idol worshippers/People of the book

2 nd Part: The religion is completed today This means that yesterday , the religion was not complete! It means that Allah provided something in the religion today, which completed it.

Now, is this “thing” new or old? Logically, it’s going to be new, something not provided before. If it was “old”, the religion would have been completed ‘then’, not ‘today’.

3 rd Part: Completed religion

Religion

‘today’. 3 r d Part: Completed religion Religion Idealogy Shariah Religion comprises of Idealogy and Shariah.

Idealogy

Shariah

Religion comprises of Idealogy and Shariah. Idealogy is never ending, thus can never be “completed”. Example: Allah/Tawheed. Something new can be learnt about Allah everyday, till the Day of Judgment.

But Shariah can be (is) completed.

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WHAT ARE THE OPINIONS OF SCHOLARS WITH REGARDS TO THE THINGCOMPLETED?

There are 6 opinions:

1)

The verse descended at the beginning of ad-Dawah.

Ans:

The 1 st condition of disbelievers being in despair does not fit here. At the beginning of ad dawah, the disbelievers were hoping to destroy Islam and Prophet’s claim. One of the ways to destroy Islam was battles. 2 nd condition: The religion was not complete yet.

2)

They say it was revealed on the day of Fath al Makka. It was in 8 AH

Ans:

a)

Fath al Makka was only w.r.t the idol worshippers but not People of the book

b)

Religion was not complete yet

3)

Was revealed after Surah al Baraat

Ans:

a)

It only effects Jews, not idol worshippers and Christians

b)

In 9 th AH, religion was not yet complete

4)

Was revealed on the day of Arafat

Ans:

a)

Let’s assume that the verse descended that day and religion was perfected. But the other

condition that it should put the disbelievers in despair is not being fulfilled here. Hajj doesn’t put them in a state of despair because they wouldn’t care if Muslims perform Hajj or not.

5) Sunnis say: Don’t look at the hadith but look at the verse. It talks about certain type of food

being forbidden. Eg: dead meat, swine, blood etc. Thus Allah, after mentioning this, completed the religion Ans:

a) Whether Muslims eat dead meat, swine etc or not, should not put disbelievers in a state of

despair

b) These rules were revealed earlier as well:

i) Surah 2, verse 173

He hath only forbidden you dead meat, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that on which any other name hath been invoked besides that of God. But if one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits,- then is he guiltless. For God is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.

ii) Surah 16, verse 115

He has only forbidden you dead meat, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and any (food) over which

the name of other than God has been invoked. But if one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, - then God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

iii) Surah 6, verse 145

Say: "I find not in the Message received by me by inspiration any (meat) forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be dead meat, or blood poured forth, or the flesh of swine,- for

it is an abomination - or, what is impious, (meat) on which a name has been invoked, other than

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God's". But (even so), if a person is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits,- thy Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

iv) Surah 5, verse 90

O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination,- of Satan's handwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper.

Looking at all the opinions, it is seen that they didn’t fulfil the conditions mentioned in the verse namely:

a) The disbelievers should despair

b) The religion should be completed

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6)

This opinion is the opinion of the Ahlulbayt

- ?

First, we understand the meaning of “kuffar”. What do they wish or desire from Muslims? The following verses will indicate what the disbelievers want us Muslims to do:

Surah 3: 69

It is the wish of a section of the People of the Book to lead you astray. But they shall lead astray

(Not you), but themselves, and they do not perceive! (People of the Book want to misguide you)

Surah 2:109 Quite a number of the People of the Book wish they could Turn you (people) back to infidelity after ye have believed, from selfish envy, after the Truth hath become Manifest unto them: But forgive and overlook, till God accomplishes His purpose; for God Hath power over all things. (People of the Book want you to leave Islam)

Surah 9:68 God hath promised the Hypocrites men and women, and the rejecters, of Faith, the fire of Hell:

Therein shall they dwell: Sufficient is it for them: for them is the curse of God, and an enduring punishment (They want you to be flexible -?)

Surah 6:38 There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have We omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end. (They want you to be patient with their Gods-?)

Surah 40:14 Call ye, then, upon God with sincere devotion to Him, even though the Unbelievers may detest it. (They don’t want you to pray to Allah)

Surah 9:33

It is He Who hath sent His Apostle with guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it). (They don’t want you to spread the religion of Allah)

Surah 9:61 Among them are men who molest the Prophet and say, "He is (all) ear." Say, "He listens to what is best for you: he believes in God, has faith in the Believers, and is a Mercy to those of you who believe." But those who molest the Apostle will have a grievous penalty. (As above in 9:33)

Surah 3:72

A section of the People of the Book say: "Believe in the morning what is revealed to the believers,

but reject it at the end of the day; perchance they may (themselves) Turn back (They want you to leave the religion of Allah)

So we see that the kuffar hope all the above things from Muslims.

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Now, if we look at Surah 108:3 (al Kauthar), we know that Prophet did not have a son. Knowing this, the disbelievers were waiting for a tragedy to befall on the Prophet as evidenced by the verse

Surah 52:30 Or do they say:- "A Poet! we await for him some calamity (hatched) by Time!"

Thus, we realize that the disbelievers were waiting for the Prophet to pass away. They were assuming the holy Prophet to be just a poet, so that once he dies, the people will forget his teachings and his religion too.

Also, check the following verse for a similar desire, the disbelievers had towards the Prophet Surah 8:30 Remember how the Unbelievers plotted against thee, to keep thee in bonds, or slay thee, or get thee out (of thy home). They plot and plan, and Allah too plans; but the best of planners is Allah.

From the past, we see that they had battles with the Prophet and they did not complete their promises and agreements etc. So the only hope they had now is to wait for the Prophet to pass away so that they can control muslims again.

In Ghadeer, they saw someone being elected who they fought with in Badr, Khandaq, Khybar etc. All the kafirs, knew Imam Ali too well. In Ghadeer, when Prophet chose Imam Ali, they thus became hopeless since a successor was chosen to carry forward the teachings of Islam.

What is the “new” thing though?

In al-Kafi volume 1, page 289, number 4: This new thing was the bayah which was forced on everyone, was an obligation. Hadith by Imam al Baqir (a.s): He spoke about many issues first, then about Ghadeer and said that Prophet gathered people and everybody later gave bayah. Allah would send one obligation after another and wilayah was the last obligation that was sent, then the verse 5:3 descended. Imam said it meant Allah was saying that he will not send anymore obligations.

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HADITH IN SUNNI BOOKS

1) Khateeb al Baghdad in Tarikh Baghdad Volume 8, page 284, hadith no: 4392

It reaches Abu Hurayra. It says anyone who fasts on the 18 th of Dhil Hijjah, it is like he fasted for 60 months and it is the day of Ghadeer Khum, when Prophet took the hand of Imam Ali and said “Am I not your wali?” They said “Yes”. He said: “Whoever am his mawla, Ali is his mawla.” Umar came and congratulated him and said “Today you have become my mawla and mawla of all believing men and women.” Then the verse descended.

SUNNI OBJECTIONS:

Ibn Kathir in Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah said:

a) The hadith above contradicts the hadith in Bukhari an Muslim and says it was revealed on the Day of Arafat Ans: Tadhkirat al Khawwas by Ibn al Jawzi, page 30 states that there is no contradiction between the 2 ahadith because the verse can be revealed twice. Eg: Bismillah was revealed both in Mecca and Medina.

Our shia scholars say that Ayat e Ruh was revealed more than once. Surah Fateha was revealed twice Ayat 33:33 was revealed in Umm Salama’s, Ayesha’s, Fatima’s (sa) house and in the mosque too.

b) If you fast that day (Ghadeer) it is like you’ve fasted for 60 months, but if you fast during

Ramadhan, it is like you’ve fasted for just 10 months.

Ans:

In Sahih Muslim, it states that someone fasts for the month of Ramadhan and the next 6 days

of Shawwal, it is as if he fasted for the entire life

From as-Suyuti: If you’ve fasted 6 days in Shawwal, is it as if you have fasted for one year

Whoever fasts one day from Arafat, it is as if he has fasted for 1000 days (Reference?)

Whoever fasts for 3 days from any month, it is as if he has fasted for his entire life (Ref?)

[There is one problem in the chain All the narrators are reliable though except one who is unknown. But Al Baghdadi said he is saduq.

Ad-Darqutni narrated from the unknown guy, thus the chain is good since ad-Darqutni is stronger than Bukhari]

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HADITH AL GHADEER Is it authentic?

1) Sunan an-Nisaei Vol 5, page 130, hadith no: 8464 Narrated by Abi at-Tofail. He attended the event of Ghadeer possibly 4 years old then (maybe doesn’t remember). He asked a companion, Zaid ibn Arqam who was also present in Ghadeer. Zaid said that the Prophet asked them to make a minbar and said that his death is near and that he is leaving the thaqalain (2 weighty things) behind. Allah is my mawla and I’m the wali of every believer. Then he took Imam Ali’s hand and said whosoever wali I am, Ali is his wali.

2) Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah Volume 5 page 228 by Ibn Kathir His teacher (adh-Dhahabi) authenticated this hadith and said that he was amazed to see the number of chains this hadith has.

3)

He talks about Hadith Al Ghadeer, mentions its chain of narrators and then says, “this is what I was able to ascertain about this hadith; the hadith makes the researchers certain that it is an authentic hadith and that it produces knowledge (certainty). This hadith has alot of chains of narrators, which

Ibn Ukda collected it in a book. Ibn Hajar has said that some of those chains are authentic and some are (hasan). To conclude, the two parts of this hadith are Sahih (man kunthum maula fa hadha Ali un maula & allahuma wali man walah). And the first part is Mutawatir. Any researcher can tell this if they looked at the chain of narrators, and what I have mentioned is enough.”

Silsila as-Sahiha by al Albani Vol 4, page 343, hadith number: 1750

وبأو ،بلاط بيأ نب يلعو ،بيصلحا نب ةديربو ،صاقو بيأ

نب دعسو ،مقرأ نب ديز :مه )ةباحصلا نم ةرشع( نع هقرط عجم نأ دعب نيابللأا لاق

وبأو ،يردلخا ديعس وبأو ،كلام نب سنأو ،سابع نباو ،بزاع نب ءابرلاو ،يراصنلأا بويأ

108103 /9 "عملمجا" في يمثيلها اهنم ةيربكةفئاط عجم ،ةيرثكىرخأ قرط ثيدحللو :هصن ام لاق

انيقي ثيدلحا ةحصب اهديناسأ ىلع ملاكلا قيقتح دعب اهيلع فقاولا عطقي

".ناسح اهنمو حاحص اهنم" :رجح نبا ظفالحا

ةريره

اهنم لي رسيت ام تج رخو

امم

لاق ،درفم

ّ

ُ

ُ

تركذ دقو

باتكفي ةدقع نبا اهبعوتسا دقو ،

ادج ةيرثكيهف لاإو ،

ً

-

امو ،هقرطو هديناسأ عبتت نلم رهظي امكملسو هيلع الله ىلص هنع "رتاوتم" هنم لولأا لب ،هيرطشب حيحص ثيدح ةجمترلا ثيدح نأ: لوقلا ةلجمو

)1750 مقر ثيدلحا 343/4 ةحيحصلا ثيداحلأا ةلسلس( .ةيافكاهنم تركذ

He goes onto say,

“If you know this, the reason why I mentioned this hadith and showing that it is authentic, is because I have seen Ibn Taymiyyah weaken the first part of this hadith, and about the second part he claimed that it is weak. He did this because of a habit of exaggeration of being too hasty in weakening the Ahadeeth before collecting its chains and deeply looking at them.”

تفرع َ اذإ

في هعرست نم يريدقت في ةتجانلا هتاغلابم نم اذهو ! )418417/4 "ىواتفلا عوممج" رظنا :شماه( !!!بذك هنأ معزف ،رخلآا رطشلا امأو

.ناعتسلما اللهو ،اهيف رظنلا ققديو اهقرط عميج نأ لبق ثيداحلأا فيعضت

،ثيدلحا نم لولأا رطشلا ف

عض ّ دق ،ةيميت نبا ملاسلإا خيش تيأر نينأ هتحص نايبو ،ثيدلحا ىلع ملاكلا ريرحتل عفادلا ناكدقف ،اذه

)1750 مقر ثيدلحا 343/4 ةحيحصلا ثيداحلأا ةلسلس(

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4)

Fath al Bari Vol 7, page 74 by Ibn Hajar Asqalani.

ةدقع نبا ا

هبعوتسا دقو

ادج قرطلا يرثك وهو يئاسنلاو يذمترلا هجرخأ دقف ، هلاوم يلعف هلاوم تنكنم ثيدح ا

ً

مأو

ّ

( :لاق ،نيلاقسعلا رجح نبا

.)74/7 يراخبلا حيحص حرش ،يرابلا حتف( )ناسحو حاحص اهديناسأ نم يرثكو ، درفم باتكفي

The hadith, “Whoever I am his Maula, Ali is his Maula”, has been narrated by Al Tirmidhi, and al Nisaei and it has many chains of narration, which ibn ukda gathered in one book. And many of its chains are sahih and hasan

He also says in another book,

Tahdhib al Tahdhib, volume 4, pg 213: “Ibn Jareer Al Tabari has gathered this hadith in a book, and it has doubles the number of people who have mentioned and authenticated this hadith. And also Ibn Ukda paid special attention to gather this hadith in one book and has narrated it from 70 companions or more.”

اضيأ لاقو

نبا سابعلا وبأ هقرط عمبج نىتعاو هححصو ركذ نم فاعضأ هيف فلؤم في يبرطلا ريرج نبا هعجم دقو ، طقف مهاسم رفن نع ةلااولما ثيدح ركذ

هنكلو ، عنقم هيف

و برلا دبع نبا هركذ ام فلؤلما زوايج لم : تلق

( : ملاسلا هيلع بلاط بيأ نب يلع يننمؤلما يرمأ ماملإل هتجمرت ءانثأ

ً

. )213/4 بيذهتلا بيذته( ) رثكأ وأ

ً ايباحص ينعبس ثيدح نم هجرخأف ةدقع

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WHAT DOES THE HADITH MEAN?

1) Majma az-Zawaid Vol 9, page 105

Prophet asks, “Am I not AWLA on the believers and my wives are their mothers?” the believers replied, “Yes”. Prophet said, “Then whoever I am his maula, Ali is his maula.” (Al Haithami says: its narrators are reliable) لوسر انعسم ناإ دهشن :اولاقف ةبحرلا في )ع( يننمؤلما يرمأ مهدشنا موي اوماق ياردب رشع انثا نأ« ىليل بيأ نب نحمرلا دبع نع هدنسب يلصولما ىلعي وبأ ىور

هلااو نم لاو مهللا ، هلاوم يلعف هلاوم تنكنمف :لاق ،الله لوسر يا ىلب :انلق ،متهاهمأ يجاوزأو يننمؤلمبا لىوأ تسلأ :مخ ريدغ موي لوقي )ص( الله

2)

)105/9 دئاوزلا عممج( .اوقثو هلاجرو ىلعي وبأ هاور :يمثيلها لاق ».هاداع نم داعو

Sunan ibn Majah hadith number: 113

Prophet asked the believers, “Don’t you know that I am AWLA over the believers than they are over themselves?” The believers replied, “Yes”. After this he said, “Then whoever I am his maula, Ali is his maula.”

لاق فيوعلا ةيطع نع ناميلس بيأ نبا نيعي كللما دبع انثدح يرنم نبا انثدح :18476ح دحمأ دنسم

لاقف كنم هعسمأ نأ بحأ ناأف مخ

وهو ارهظ انيلإ ملسو هيلع الله ىلص الله لوسر جرخف ةفحلجبا

هلاوم يلعف هلاوم تنك نمف لاق ىلب اولاق مهسفنأ نم يننمؤلمبا لىوأ نيأ نوملعت متسلأ سانلا اهيأ يا لاقف هنع لىاعت الله يضر يلع دضعب ذخآ

تعسم امككبرخأ انمإ لاق هاداع نم داعو هلااو نم لاو مهللا لاق له هل تلقف لاق

مقرأ نب ديز تلأس

انك معن لاقف سبأ نيم كيلع سيل هل تلقف مكيف ام مكيف قارعلا لهأ رشعم مكنإ

ريدغ موي

هنع لىاعت الله يضر

يلع نأش في ثيدبح كنع نيثدح لي

انتخ

نإ هل تلقف

3) Sahih Sunan Ibn Maja by al Albani, volume 1, pg 56, hadith number 94 and 115:

The Prophet asked, “Am I not AWLA on the believers than themselves?” (He repeated this in a different form) They replied, “Yes”. Then he said, “Then this is the WALI of whomever I am his maula.” (Al Albani says: Authentic) يلع ديب ذخأف ،ةعماج ةلاصلا :رمأف ،قيرطلا ضعب في لزنف ،جح تيلا هتجح في الله لوسر عم انلبقأ« :لاق بزاع نب ءابرلا نع هننس في ةجام نبا ىور

مهللا ،هلاوم ناأ نم ليو اذهف :لاق ،ىلب :اولاق ؟هسفن نم نمؤم لكب لىوأ تسلأ :لاق ،ىلب :اولاق ؟مهسفنأ نم يننمؤلمبا لىوأ تسلأ :لاقف )ضر(

)115 94ح 56/1 نيابللأل ةجام نبا ننس حيحص( ».هاداع نم داعو هلااو نم لاو

4) Silsila as-Sahiha by al Albani Vol 5, page 261, hadith number 222

Prophet said that after an argument of some companions with Imam Ali, they came to the Prophet and he (s) said: what do you want from Ali? He is from me and I’m from him. He is the wali of every believer after me.

If the hadith is interpreted to mean “love”, then it renders it meaningless because of the words “after me”

One uses “after me” to denote one of the 3 things:

i) Place

ii) Time

iii) Status

We believe, it was speaking about status.

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If sunnis say that it is about “time”, it again proves Imamah If sunnis say that is about “place”, then this is not acceptable since Prophet and Imam Ali were in two different countries. (Imam Ali was in Yemen during the argument)

Now let’s focus on this statement “Man kunthum maula fa hadha Ali un maula”.

The Shia point of view: Prophet Mohammed transferred the rights of guardianship over the Ummah to Imam Ali in this statement. (use of the word MAULA)

Sunni point of view: Prophet Mohammed is only saying, “Whoever I am his helper, Ali is his helper” or “whoever I am is friend, Ali is his friend.”

However, if we want to understand this hadith, then we need to look at the whole context. The main disagreement lies in the interpretation of the word MAULA.

Root of the word Maula = Wali This root can be used to create many words in many forms, such as awla, waali, wilayah, maula etc. The Prophet used this root in three different sentences in this hadith.

The first time he used it is when he asked: “Am I not AWLA over the believers?” The second time he used it is in: “Whoever I am his MAULA, Ali is his MAULA.” The third time he used it in: “May Allah be the WAALI of whosoever is the WAALI of Ali.”

All three highlighted words have the same root - Wali

In order to prove that the second word, MAULA means Guardian, we need to understand the first sentence. Here the Prophet was actually referring to a verse from the Holy Quran - Surah 33:6 The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers. (part of the entire verse)

Let’s look at what the Sunni scholars have to say about the meaning of the word AWLA:

Shaykh Ibn Jareer Al Tabari, in his Tafseer, volume 11, pg 146 Ibn Jawzi in Zad al Maseer volume 6, pg 190 ibn kathir in his Thafseer, volume 3, pg 476 Al Shawkani in Fateh al Qader, volume 4, pg 301

All of the above scholars say that the word AWLA here means Guardian, which means the person who has control over others; or he who has ownership on the believers more than themselves. Such a person can make decisions for the believers without their permission. So, we have proved that the first sentence in the hadith is referring to Guardianship.

The Prophet wanted the companions to acknowledge his guardianship; he wanted them to admit that he indeed has more authority over them than they do to themselves. Once they admitted this, he went on to say, “Fa man kunthu maula fa hadha Ali un maula”.

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Our proof that Maula has the same meaning as Awla is

1. The context - those two sentences must be in context with each other. The Prophet asked the believers to admit something and then went onto make a statement. This means there was a direct relationship between the two sentences.

2. To make it even clearer, the Prophet used the prefix Fa(Fa man kunthu maula fa hadha

)

before the sentence. Fais the equivalent of “then” in Arabic. It proves a relation between what was said earlier and is going to be said next. This further proves a direct relation between the statements.

Conclusion: The Prophet must have used the same meaning in the two sentences; otherwise it does not make sense to connect the two. Additionally, it would be a source of immense confusion, why would he intend them to mean different and yet form a relationship between them? (Specially that both, awla & maula, had the same root)

It proves a relation between what was said earlier and is going to be said next.

Sunnis will attempt at this point to bring in a relation between the 3 rd statement and 1st.

Third statement: Allah humma waali min wala

We tell them that the relation between the 1 st and 2 nd statements is already proven; now the burden of proof is on them to establish a connection between the 1 st and 3 rd statements.

They are not connected because, in the 1 st statement, Prophet is addressing the Muslims. Same is the case in the 2 nd statement. However in the 3 rd statement, he has changed direction, he (s) is now addressing Allah (swt). Therefore it is a new statement, a new issue.

The hadith of al Ghadeer thus means whatever Imam Ali tell us, we do it because Imam Ali owns us and we are his slaves.

We have proven the meaning of the hadith from the hadith itself. And next we will prove the same meaning from an event other than the event of Ghadeer Khum, but still from the Sunni sources.

23 yrs after the death of the Prophet, after the death of Uthman & before Imam Ali became the

Caliph, when the Muslims wanted him to accept khalifath, this is what took place:

“Imam Ali asked everyone to gather in the mosque as he wanted to ask them something. Once everyone had gathered, he asked them, “Whoever heard the Prophet say in Ghadeer Khum what he said let him stand up”?

30 companions seated in the mosque stood up, and admitted that they heard the Hadith. The

Narrator (Abu Al Tufail) then said, “I left while something negative was in myself, and then I met Zaid Ibn al Arqam (a companion) and told him about what I’ve heard from Ali”, then Zaid ibn al Arqam said, “Why do you deny this? I have heard the Prophet saying this”.

Referenec: Al Haithami authenticated the hadith in Majma al Zawaid, volume 9, pg 104 &

Albaani said this hadith is authentic in his book, Al Silsila al Sahiha, volume 4, pg 331:

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،ماق الم لاق ام مخ ريدغ موي لوقي )ص( الله لوسر عسم ملسم ئرما لكللهبا دشنأ« :مله لاق ثم ةبحرلا في سانلا )ع( يلع عجم :لاق ليفطلا بيأ نعو -

لوههههسر يا ىلب :اولاق ،مهههههسفنأ نم يننمؤلمبا لىوأ نيأ نوملعتأ :لاقف هديب ذخأ ينح اودههههههشف يرثكسنا ماقف :ميعن وبأ لاق ،سانلا نم نوثلاث هيلإ ماقف

:هل تلقف مقرأ نب ديز تيقلف ،ا يهههههه

نب رطف يرغ حيحههههههههههصلا لاجر هلاجرو دحمأ هاور :يمثيلها لاق ».كلذ لوقي )ص( الله لوههههههههههسر تعسم دق ،ركنت امف :لاق ، اذكو اذك لوقي ايلع تعسم نيأ

يههههههسفن في نأك تجرخف :لاق ،هاداع نم داعو هلااو نم لاو مهللا ،هلاوم اذهف هلاوم تنكنم :)ص( لاق ،الله

)331/4 ةحيحصلا ثيداحلأا ةلسلس في نيابللأا هرقأو ،14612ح104/9 دئاوزلا عممج( .ةقث وهو ةفيلخ

)331/4 ةحيحصلا ثيداحلأا ةلسلس( .يراخبلا طرش ىلع حيحص هدانسإو :نيابللأا لاقو

If this hadith meant friendship why would Imam Ali bring it up 23 yrs after the death of the Prophet? Why did he ask the companions to admit this? Why did he ask this in the period when the issue of his Khilafah was being discussed? And why did the narrator almost deny this hadith?

When we turn to the Quran Surah 9:71 And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another

If the Prophet was referring to the ordinary friendship, then this verse already says that the believing men and the believing women are protecting friends of each other. There was no need for Imam Ali to repeat that, and there was no need for the companions to admit this, and nothing will cause the narrator to have negative feelings toward this hadith. So, we can clearly conclude that he was referring to Guardianship, in which he meant to say, “I am not taking this right from anybody, I already got this right from the Prophet, and I am accepting this position because of my duty, not because anybody wants me to.”

Why did the companions not follow this hadith? Our answer is, wasn’t the appointing of Prophet Mohammed established from the time of the Christians and Jews? Did they not know he will be coming and he will be the final Prophet? Yet why did they not follow him? Similarly with the companions, it is their issue. That is not an indication that there is a flaw in the hadith.

In Musnad by Ahmed Ibn Hanbal, hadith number 22461:

“A group of people, one of them is Abu Ayub Ansari, came to Imam Ali and said “Salamun Aleikum Maulana” Imam Ali replied, “Why do you call me Maula when you are Arab people?” (Arab people here means free, not slave) They replied, “Because we’ve heard the Prophet saying in Ghadeer Khum whoever I am his maula, Ali is his maula.”

لاق

ثرالحا نب

حيار

نع

يعجشلأا يعخنلا طيقل نب

ثرالحا نب

شنح

انثدح

مدآ

نب

يىيح

انثدح

الله ىلص الله لوسر انعسم اولاق برع موق متنأو مكلاوم نوكأ فيك لاق نالاوم يا كيلع ملاسلا اولاقف ةبحرلبا

يلع

لىإ

طهر ءاج

راصنلأا نم رفن اولاق ءلاؤه نم تلأسف مهتعبت اوضم املف حيار لاق هلاوم اذه نإف هلاوم تنكنم لوقي مخ ريدغ موي ملسو هيلع يراصنلأا بويأ وبأ مهيف

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Al Albaani said in his book, Al Silsala Al Sahiha Volume 4, pg 340: This chain is good, and its narrators are reliable. Al Haithami also said in Majma Al Zawaed volume 9 pg 104: The narrators of Ahmed are reliable.

Again this proves that the meaning of the word Maulain this context is Guardian, and not friendship because Imam Ali said “Why do you call me Maulana when you are free people?”, and the reply was what they’ve understood from Ghadeer Khum ie. They are the slaves and Imam Ali owns them.

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DISCUSSING THE CLAIMS OF THE AHLE SUNNA AND OUR REPLIES

Claim 1:

Maula = walaya = Helper, NOT Guardian Waali = wilayah = Guardian

The Prophet could have used Waali to imply Guardianship, why did he use Maula?

One of the proofs they use is from the book, Lisaan Al Arab, which is somewhat a dictionary. One of the famous Salafis who used this is Othman al Khamees. He went to Lisaan Al Arab, and picks only one scholar, who’s meaning of the word Maula agrees with his own definition and uses that as proof.

Reply:

However if we were to refer to this book, under the word Maula, there are many other scholars who disagree with this meaning (Maula = helper).

Here are some:

Ibn Manzur in Lisan al Arab, volume 15, pg 402: “Maula is guardian who has authority over people.” ."كرمأ كيلع يلي يذلا يلولا :ىلوملاو" :402/15 برعلا ناسل يف روظنم نبا لاقو

Al Raghab al Asfahani in al Mufradaat Fi Alfadh Al Quran, pg 885; “There is no difference between Wilayah and Walayah in terms of meaning. The real meaning is Guardian or to have authority over something. The word wali and mula are used in having authority over something.” :هه425 دودح في فىوتلما نياهفصلاا بغارلا لوقي ،ةنسلا لهأ نم نآرقلا مولعب ينصصختلماو نيرسفلما تاملك فيو

."كلذ في نلامعتسي لىولماو ليولاو ،رملأا ليوت هتقيقحو ،)اهحتفو لادلا رسكب( ةللادلاو ةللادلا :ونح )اهحتفو واولا رسكب( ةيلاولاو ةيلاولا"

>6/بازحلأا< :لىاعت لاق ،ىرحأ يأ اذكب لىوأ نلاف : لاقيو ،هيلو وهف رخلآا رمأ ليو نم لكو" :اضيأ لاقو)885ص نآرقلا ظافلأ في تادرفلما(

.رملأا ليوت نىعم في لمعتست ليولاكلىولما نأ نياهفصلاا بغارلا نم فاترعا انهف )887ص قباسلا ردصلما( .}لخا

Al Faraa said in Maani al Quran volume 3, pg 134: Wali & Maula is one in the Arabic language … and we’ve heard Walaya & Wilaya having the same meanings. (Abu al Abbas also said something similar)

ً

ةيلاولا في رسكلاو حتفلا في اهانعسمو اضيأ لاقو

"

."برعلا ملاك في دحاو لىولماو ليولا" :134/3 نآرقلا نياعم هباتك في هه207 ةنس فىوتلما ءارفلا لاقو

.)برعلا ناسل نع لاقن( ءارفلا لاق امم اونح سابعلا وبأ لاقو

"اعيجم امهيينعم في

Ibn al Atheer said in al Nihaia fi Ghareeb al Athar volume 5, pg 228: “Whoever have authority over something, then he is his Maula or his Wali”. ثيدحلا بيرغ يف ةياهنلا( ."هيلوو هلاوم وهف هب ماق وأ ارمأ يلو نم لكو" :ىلوملا يناعم ددع نأ دعب ريثلأا نبا لاقو - )228/5 رثلأاو

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Claim 2:

The Prophet was in Mecca for Hajj, however he did not mention anything about Wilayah of Imam Ali there. He made this statement in Ghadeer Khum, which is in Johfa, 160km from Mecca. Why did he not say it in Mecca itself if it was so important, where he would have had a bigger crowd? Most of the people had already gone home after Hajj from Mecca itself.

Reply:

15

16

16

First of all, the Prophet mentioned Hadith Thaqalayn during Hajj, which is by itself enough to prove the wilayah of Imam Ali. Even if the incident of Ghadeer Khum did not take place, that hadith is sufficient to prove the position of the Ahlul Bayt and wilayah of Imam Ali.

Additionally, if you look carefully at the map, you will observe that there are two lines, green line and a red line. At the bottom of the map is Mecca, if you follow the line right to the top, then that is Madina. The green line represents the way travellers usually used to travel from Mecca to Madina. The red line represents the line which Prophet Mohammed used to travel to Madina when he was hiding from the Kuffar, in the cave. It was not the usual route. Now observe the position of Mecca. It is in the middle of the mountains. Sunnis assume that people can go directly to their homes from Mecca. In reality this is not the case, due to mountainous terrain, they need to travel to Johfa, which is a connection point. From there they can go their respective ways. This means that most of the people accompanied the Prophet till Johfa, after which they went their separate ways. Thus he did not lose most of the people as the Sunnis assume.

Let us say he did lose most of the people. Everybody went home, and only the people of Madina were left with him or the people who lived around Madina. This is still enough. Why? Let’s read the following verse –

Surah 9:101 And among those around you of the wandering Arabs there are hypocrites, and among the townspeople of Al-Madinah (there are some who) persist in hypocrisy whom thou (O Muhammad) knowest not.

This proves that the people of Madina and those around needed more attention, they also had the most influence on Islam and its future. The Prophet wanted to focus on them in particular, and place extra emphasis on them.

Now there is only one more problem we need to clarify from within this question. Sunnis will ask why did he not make the extra effort in Mecca itself? Why wait till Johfa?

Reply:

He wanted this EXTREMELY important event to be a memorable one. It is a fact that the memory recalls those incidents much better which took place around exception circumstances. The Prophet wanted this event to be memorable, he wanted to embed it into the minds of the believers so no one can claim later to have forgotten it. This is why he stopped them all in the middle of the way, in an unusual spot like Johfa and made the statement.

Which piece of news will be more memorable for you? One that was mentioned during the regular news time? Or one that the TV channel would suddenly cuts its program to broadcast it? This is why it was chosen for the Prophet to declare the guardianship of Imam Ali in Johfa and not in Hajj.

17

Claim 3:

The Shia has made a big deal out of something very small. It was a very trivial incident, which they have blown out of proportion. Prophet Mohammed said this to make peace among the companions, as some of them were displeased with Imam Ali. That is all. It was merely a small disagreement that the Prophet wished to sort out and thus made this statement.

Some of the authentic hadiths the sunnis use to support their argument are:

Majma al Zawaid, volume 9, pg 108:

Also Ahmed al Hanbal narrated it, under hadith # 21883:

Prophet sent some people including Imam Ali to Yemen, to preach Islam. There they were displeased with something about Imam Ali. When they returned, the Prophet asked them, “How was Ali?” They told him regarding what they were displeased about. At this the narrator said that the Prophet had a red face which showed his anger and replied, “Man kunthu waliuh fa Ali un waliuh”. The narrator then said, “I will never hate Ali again”.

يحنننح دننننسب 21883 قرب هدننننسم يف دمحأ ىور

لاجر تنكو هسأر عفرف :لاق ،يريغ هاكش امإو هتوكش امإف ؟ كبحاح تيأر فيك :لاق انئج املف ،ايلع انيلع لمعتساف ةيرس هيف كهونننننسأ لا :تلقف ،هيلو يلعف هيلو تنك نم :لوقي ههجو رمحا دق )ص( يبنلا اذإف )ضرلأا ىلإ رظنلا ريثك يأ( ابابكم )108/9 دئاوزلا عمجم( . يحصلا لاجر هلاجرو رازبلا هاور :يمثيهلا لاق».ادبأ

يف ي لونننسر انثعب« :لاق بينننصحلا نب ةديرب نع )هل ظفللاو( رازبلاو

Al Nisaei, volume 5, pg 130:

Musnad Ahmed, volume 5, pg 358, hadith # 21950:

“I had something in my heart against Ali. Me and Khalid ibn Walid were sent to Yemen with Imam Ali as the leader. We didn’t like something about imam Ali. When we told the Prophet about it, his face changed and he said, “Man kuntu waliuh fa Ali un waliuh”

Albani said this hadith is authentic according to Musnad, in his book Silsila Sahih, volume 4, pg 337 ىلع رم هنأ ،هيبأ نع ةديرب نبا نع )دمحلأ ظفللاو( 21950 قرب 358/5 هدنننسم يف دمحأو 130/5 هننننس يف يئاننسنلا ىور ينثعبف ،كلذك ديلولا نب دلاخ ناكو ،هيش يلع ىلع يسفن يف ناك دق هنإ« :لاقف ، هيلع فقوف ،يلع نم نولوانتي هو سلجم

،كنود :ديلولا نب دلاخ لاقف ،هننسفنل سمسلا نم ةيراج يلع ذخذف :لاق ،ايبننس انبننحأو ،يلع اهيلع ةيرننس يف )ص( ي لوننسر :لاق ،ابابكم لاجر تنكو :لاق ،سمسلا نم ةيراج ذخأ ايلع نإ :تلق ث ،ناك امب هثدحأ تلعج )ص( يبنلا ىلع انمدق املف :لاق .»هيلو يلعف هيلو تنك نم :لاقف ،ريغت دق )ص( ي لوسر هجو اذإف يسأر تعفرف

يحنننح داننننسإ اذهو :ينابللأا لاق

)337/4 ةحيحصلا ثيداحلأا ةلسلس( .هدحو لسم لاجر نم وهف ناميلس

ناك نإو ،امهلاجر نم وهف ي دبع ناك نإ ةديرب نبا نإف ، لنننسم وأ نيسينننملا

رنننش ىلع

Musnad Ahmed, hadith #19081 Tirmidhi, hadith # 3645 Albani said this is authentic in his book Sunan Sahih Tirmidhi, volume 3, pg 521, hadith # 3704:

Similar to the previous ahadith, a group of people came to the Prophet and complained about Imam Ali. The first person said something, Prophet kept silent, the second person went onto say something, he kept silent and so forth till the fourth person complained. At this the Prophet

18

showed anger he had never shown before and replied, “What do you want from Ali? Ali is from me and I am from Ali. And he is the wali of all the believers after me.”

521/3 ينابللأا

يف ىنننن

هانربخأ )ص( ي لوننسر انيقل اذإ :اولاقف )ص( ي لوننسر باحننحأ نم ةعبرأ دقاعتو ،هيلع اوركنذف ةيراج باننحذف ،ةيرننسلا

تمدق املف ، هلاحر ىلإ اوفرنننصنا ث ،هيلع اوملنننسف ي لونننسرب اوأدب رفنننسلا نم اوعجر اذإ نوملنننسملا ناكو ،يلع عننننح امب

ضرعذف ؟اذكو اذك عننح بلا

ماق ث ،هنع ضرعذف ،هتلاقم لثم لاقف ،ثلاثلا ماق ث ،هنع ضرعذف ،هتلاقم لثم لاقف ،يناثلا ماق ث ،)ص( ي لوننننننسر هنع

نإ ل؟يلع نم نوديرت ام ل؟يلع نم نوديرت ام :لاقف ،ههجو يف جرعي بننن

يحح دنسب 3645 قرب يذمرتلا ننسو 19081 قرب دمحأ دنسم يف هاج

يبأ نب يلع هيلع لمعتننننساو ،اننننميج )ص( ي لوننننسر ثعب« :لاق ،نيننننصح نب نارمع نع )3712ح

يحصتب يذمرتلا ننس

يحح(

مف ،بلا

يبأ نب يلع ىلإ رت لأ لي لونسر اي :لاقف ةعبرلأا دحأ ماقف )ص( يبنلا ىلع اوملنس ةيرنسلا

غلاو ي لونننسر لبقذف ،اولاق ام لثم لاقف عبارلا ».يدعب نمؤم لك يلو وهو ،هنم انأو ينم ايلع

يأو

. يحح دنسب 8474ح 132/5 ىربكلا ننسلا يف يئاسنلا هاور ا

Reply:

Those are incidents that have happened in different time, place and has nothing to do with Ghadeer Khum because this incident actually happened before Hajj, where as Ghadeer Khum happened after Hajj. This happened in Madina, when Ghadeer happened in Johfa.

Our proof for this; Book of Al Dhahabi, Tareekh al Islam, Chapter of Kitab al Maghazi, pg 690:

(He said: This is an authentic hadith, which al Bukhari narrated some of it) “Khalid ibn Walid and others were sent to Yemen for 6 months to make Dawa. They did not succeed in making them accept Islam. Prophet then sent imam Ali and ordered him to tell Khalid and the rest to return back. Back obviously refers to Madina where the Prophet was. Imam Ali once he reached Yemen made the people all stand in a straight line and read the Prophets letter to them. At this first attempt, they all accepted Islam. He then sent a letter telling the Prophet about this (obviously with Khalid ibn Walid and the rest in their way back as the Prophet had ordered). When the Prophet read this letter the he went into Sujud and sent Salaam on the tribe of Hamdaan, the tribe which converted”

:690ص يزاغملا باتك يف ملاسلإا خيرات هباتك يف يبهذلا ركذي

يبنلا نأ :هاربلا نع ،هدج نع ،هيبأ نع ،يعيبنننننسلا باحنننننسإ يبأ نب فنننننسوي نب يهاربإ لاقو :نميلا ىلإ يلع ث دلاخ ثعب« ىلإ هوعدي رهشأ ةتس انمقذف دلاخ عم جرخ نميف تنكف :هاربلا لاق ،ملاسلإا ىلإ هوعدي نميلا ىلإ ديلولا نب دلاخ ثعب )ص(

دلاخ عم مي ناك لجر لاإ )عجري يأ( دلاخ لفقي نأ هرمذف ،هنع ي ينننن

ر ايلع ثعب )ص( يبنلا نإ ث ،هوبيجي لف ملاننننسلإا

انيلإ اوجرخ موقلا نم انوند املف ،يلع عم بقع نميف تنكف ،هعم بقعيلف يلع عم )ىقبي يأ( بقعي نأ بحأ )هعم بهذ يأ(

ث يلع انب ىلصف

يبهذلا قلعو».نادمه ىلع ملاسلا ،نادمه ىلع ملاسلا :لاقف هسأر عفر ث ادجاس رخ باتكلا أرق املف ،)ص( ي لوسر ىلإ

عب يراسبلا جرخأ ، يحح ثيدح اذه :لوقلاب ثيدحلا اذه دنس ىلع

يلع بتكف ،اعيمج نادمه تملسذف )ص( ي لوسر باتك هيلع أرقو انيديأ نيب مدقت ث ،ادحاو افح انفح

.دانسلإا اذهب ه

ىلع قفتم :لائاق يبهذلا هبقعأو . ادولا ةجح يف )ص( ي لونننسر ىلع نميلا نم مدق ايلع نأ هاطعو يلع نب دمحم لاقو يننـبهذلا نامثع نب دمحأ نب دننـمحم نيدلا سمش ظفاحلل ملاعلأاو ريهامملا تايفوو ملاسلإا خيرات( ."هاطع ثيدح نم هتحح

.)ـه1419 – م1998 ةثلاثلا ةعبطلا – يبرعلا باــتكلا راد – يرمدت ملاسلا دبع رمع :قـيقحت - ـه748 ةنس ىفوتملا

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What do we understand from this?

That Imam Ali had sent Khalid ibn Walid and the rest back to Madina with the letter to the Prophet and then this is where the incident which the Sunnis refer to, took place. This has no relation to Ghadeer Khum, and it was in Madina before Hajj.

In this hadith the Prophet showed anger, not in the case of Ghadeer. In this hadith he was replying to the people, in Ghadeer he gave a speech. In this hadith the Prophet spoke to a small group of people, in Ghadeer there was large crowd. In this hadith the Prophet used the word Wali, and in Ghadee Khum he used Maula.

Thus the two incidents are not related; they are separate and took place at separate times. However, we believe that this hadith can also be used to prove the guardianship of Imam Ali. The reason is the Prophet said “Ali is the wali of all believers after me”, which proves that he meant guardianship and not friendship since Quran already proved that to everybody before and after the Prophet.

)9:71 ةبوتلا(

ضعْ َب هاَيلِ و َ أ

ْ

ْ هُ ُ

عْ َب تُ اَنمِؤْ مُ لا و نَ وُنمِؤْ مُ لا

َ

ْ

ْ

و

َ

[Pickthal 9:71] And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another

20

Claim 4:

Bring the hadith of Ghadeer Khum through authentic chains, from the Shia books.

Reply:

The Hadith is Mutawater according to Al Ekhtisas for Shaykh Al Toosi, pg 216.

The Shias also have it with authentic chains, some of which are narrated in:

Al Khisal for Al Shaykh Al Saduq, pg 55.

Usul Al Kafi for Al Kulaini, volume 1, pg 286, hadith 1, Chapter of “Allah & the Prophet’s Appointing on the Imams one by one”.

-------------

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