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Institute Of Technology And Management

Gurgoan, Haryana

SAE Baja Asia 2010

The Techie Tyros

Design Report 2010

Vikrant Dalal
Vice-captain and Head of Design Team
SAE BAJA ASIA 2010 Design Report

Vikrant Dalal
Vice-captain, Head of Design Team

Copyright © 2009 SAE International

1.0 ABSTRACT 5. Wheel base – 130 cm or 52 inch approx

The objective of the Baja competition is to design a Baja 6. Braking distance – 1400 cm
all-terrain vehicle that embodies innovation, simplicity
and functionality, delivering high performance and safety 7. Turning radius – 240 cm or 96 inch
at a reasonable price. This report details the
considerations, functions and processes behind the
separate vehicle subassembly
The design of Baja 2010 is divided into follow section:
Baja-2010 is an international competition sponsored by
the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). Engineering 1. CHASIS AND ANALYSIS
students are given a challenge to design, simulate and
manufacture a “fun to drive”, versatile, safe, durable, and 2. ENGINE AND TRANSMISSION
high performance off road vehicle.
The Techie Tyros 2010 Baja team consists of 22
undergraduate students in Automotive and Mechanical 4. BRAKES
Engineering. The goal of the 2010 car is to improve on
some of the key areas that have caused the team 5. STEERING
problems over the last few competition years. These
areas are: suspension, steering, driveline, hub and 6. SUSPENSION
fabrication tolerances. It was decided that, while making
components lightweight is important, strength and 7. HUB DESIGN
durability of key components would not be sacrificed for
weight reduction. All subassemblies and components
were researched and designed to meet pre-established
team expectations. 3.1 CHASIS AND ANALYSIS
For designing, simulation, analysis and optimization of
The kind of body we are required to manufacture is a
the vehicle components various software such as Pro-E
unitized body. The roll cage is of utmost importance for
(design and analysis), Cosmos (analysis and
us as it would be the one which would provide safety to
simulation), Optimum K and suspension analyzer
the driver, mounting points for various systems and even
(Suspension design and analysis), ADAMS and IPG car
ergonomics and looks to the vehicle.
maker (vehicle dynamics) are used.
The design targets of our vehicle for Baja 2010 are as
follows: The material used in vehicle must fulfill the SAE Baja
requirements. The proper equilibrium should be acquired
between the design requirements, cost and weight to
1. Maximum speed – 60 km/hr
achieve an unbeaten design. The available materials
that fulfil the requirements are AISI 1018, 1020, IS1239
2. Weight of vehicle – 270 kg
part-1 and 4130.A comparison was done to select the
material by considering various properties and cost of
3. Ground clearance – 20 cm or 8 inch
each material.
4. Track width – 140 cm or 56 inch approx
In order to optimized the strength, durability and weight
Table 1: Material property of Chassis cosmos was used to analyze the chassis for
all six loading condition. The six analysis tests conditions
are front impact, side impact, rollover impact, heave and
STRENGTH OF PER AT YIELD POINT the loading on the frame from the front and rear shocks
(KSI) (RS)
After running all five analyses it was found that there is a
AISI 1018 53.7 29700 600 15 need of additional member. After having added these
members, a second analysis using identical loading
AISI 1020 42.7 29700 2200 36 constraints was completed and results of these tests are
shown in table 2.
IS 1239 59.12 29700 765 18.5
For front collision test stress diagram and displacement
AISI 4130 65.1 29700 2500 25.5 diagram is shown in figure 2 and 3.

Table 2: FEA Analysis results

Graph 1: Weight and Cost comparison
Type of case Force applied Result
3000 83
2500 82
Front Collision 4500 KN Passed
Wight (KG)

Cost (Rs)

1500 Side Collision 1200 N Passed
1000 78
500 77 Rollover 1800 N Passed
0 76
AISI 1080AISI 1020 IS 1234 AISI 4130 Front Bump 810 N Passed

cost(*10) weight
Figure 2: Stress analysis for front collision
AISI 4130 and IS 1239 part-1 having good yield strength
will allow the usage of tubing with smaller wall thickness.
This will in turn reduce the weight of our chassis. Also
4130 and IS 1239 part-1 are more ductile than other
materials so it will deform more before its ultimate
failure. But cost of per meter length of 4130 is 2.5 times
more expensive IS 1239 part-1. So considering the
above said factors we have chosen IS 1239 part-1 pipes
to be used for our chassis.


The initial design is shown in the Figure 1. Some notable

features are the fact that the design consists of 4 main
members: the roll hoop, the horizontal hoop, and the two
perimeter hoops. As mentioned above the design was Figure 3: Stress displacement for front collision
made using the Pro-E solid modelling package.

Figure 1: Roll cage model in Pro-E

Comparison between previous years roll cage we are using M&M champion transmission. To increase
design is done and the results are shown in table3. the torque following options were available:
1. Manipulation of power transmission outside the gear
Table 3: Comparison of pervious 3 years design box using gears, sprockets and chain.

2007-BAJA 2008-BAJA 2010-BAJA 2. Engaging the reverse gear lever while driving in all
ROLLCAGE ROLLCAGE ROLLCAGE the forward gears and using the first gear in forward
as reverse gear.

3. Using the transmission system in normal conditions.

Poor High High
We decided to work on the 3rd option due to following
Average High High
1. We were able to check the weight
Poor Good Very good

2. Reduce the cost of the vehicle as we avoided
ELECTRONIC the use of additional gears, sprockets and
More Less Sufficient
DEVICES chains.
3. We used standard parts, thus increased the
To heavy Medium Light reliability of the transmission system.
High Low to Low To find the speed of the vehicle corresponding to
high different gear ratios, the formulae used is
9/10 4/10 8/10 2π×N×R×60
Velocity on road =
1000 ×𝐺
N=revolutions per minute
A quick look at the engine: R=outer radius of the tire in meters.

Power - 8 kW at 4400 rpm Some of our calculations for normal orientation are as
Max Torque – 19 Nm at 3000 rpm
Table 4: Normal orientation
Engine was given to us. Thus we had a little choice while
working on engine. Configuration of our vehicle would be Final Speed Speed (km/hr)
rear engine rear wheel drive. We decided to keep the Gear (km/hr)
maximum speed of the vehicle at 60 km/hr as the vehicle Ratios D=22 D=24
is not about larger speed but greater torque and stability. inch inch

As per the rules of the competition, the engine cannot be First 31.45:1 0.65D 14 16
modified in any way. This restriction causes the design
emphasis to be placed on the choice of transmission. Second 18.70:1 1.109D 24 27
For the transmission we have several options:
Third 11.40:1 1.82D 40 44
A manual transmission (4 or 5 speed): this system would
allow the driver to select the right gear from the available Forth 7.35:1 2.82D 60 68
gears allowing more control over the vehicle. This is
seen on most manual cars with a standard “H” pattern. Reverse 55.08:1 0.38D 10 9
A sequential transmission: this is similar to the manual Hence for maximum speed of 60 km/hr, we selected
transmission, but the “H” pattern is eliminated and tires of 22 inch outer diameter.
replaced with a different shifting pattern. For example in
a race car, the motion of the shift lever is either “push Further, for better economy, we assume engine rpm to
forward” to up-shift or “pull backward” to downshift. be ranging from 2750 to 3250 as maximum torque
These transmissions are usually found in either produced by the engine is at 3000 rpm. In between this
motorcycles or all terrain vehicles. This type is most range the torque produced by the engine is almost
suitable of our vehicle as it has good sensitive i.e. why
constant. Thus, for better economy, the range of speed 𝑶𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝑹𝒂𝒅𝒊𝒖𝒔
Velocity on road = 𝑨𝒏𝒈𝒖𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒗𝒆𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚 ×
𝒈𝒆𝒂𝒓 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐
in each gear, for the driving tires of O.D. 22 inches;
operating in normal forward orientation is:
For the normal orientation of the transmission system
First - 10 to 12 km/hr and maximum speed of the vehicle as 60 km/hr radius
Second - 15 to 18 km/hr comes out to be 11 inches. Apart from outer radius of
Third - 25 to 33 km/hr the tire, other factors for the selection of tires include
Forth - 40 to 51 km/hr tread width, tread design, side wall width, load handling
Reverse - 8 to 11 km/hr capacity, number of plies and treads on side wall etc
which define the traction ability, tire resistance to wear
Apart from this, for mounting the engine we are going to and puncture and performance of the tire on various
use neoprene rubber mountings. terrains.

3.3 TIRES Reason:

Selecting the tires is one of the most important things as 1. Built with a 6 ply rating and a reinforced casing
the whole vehicle is in contact with the road on these 4 makes these one of the most puncture resistant tires
points or rather patches. Also for designing an all terrain in the market today.
vehicle tires form the most important part. They should
be such that they are able to provide enough traction on 2. Large shoulder knobs wrap down the sidewall to
all kind of surfaces so as to transmit the torque available provide excellent side to pull out of the ruts without
at the wheels without causing slipping. causing sidewall failure.

3. The deep tread and open wing design provides

excellent clean-out with each lug and an improved

4. Special natural compound delivers added traction.

5. Smaller tires in front results in a smaller magnitude

of moment on the wishbones due to cornering forces
during steering.

Outer diameter of tire – 21 inch 6. Use of the larger outer diameter tire at the rear helps
Outer diameter of rim – 10 inch to provide good ground clearance and also 8 inch
Tread width – 6 inch treads provides good traction to the power wheels.
Aspect ratio – 0.68
Number of plies – 6 3.4 BRAKES
Rear The criterion for designing the brakes stated as per the
rule book is that all the four wheels should lock
simultaneously as the brake pedal is pressed.

For designing the braking system this year, we

calculated the weight of our vehicle in static condition as
well as in dynamic condition as per the deceleration (0.6
g) and stopping distance. In static condition it is around
60kg on each front tire and 110kg each on the rear tire.
But in dynamic conditions, we consider weight to be
85kg on each tire, the front and the rear. We have
Outer diameter of tire – 22 inch
calculated the dynamic weight using the formulae as
Outer diameter of rim – 10 inch
given below:
Tread width – 8 inch
Aspect ratio – 0.75
Number of plies – 6 Front axle dynamic load = 𝑤1 +
One of the most important parameter for the selection of 𝑔×𝐿
the outer diameter of the tires in rear was the maximum
Rear axle dynamic load = 𝑤1 −
speed of the vehicle. The relation between outer
diameter of the tires and the vehicle speed is as given 𝑔×𝐿
below: Where,
W1=Weight on the front axle in the static condition.
W2=Weight on the rear axle in the static condition.
g = Acceleration due to gravity. The above highlighted specifications have been selected
W= Total weight of the vehicle. for our vehicle. We selected these as per our design of
H=Height of center of the gravity. the braking system for 5.9 m/s^2 deceleration.
L= Length of the wheel base.
Deceleration of the vehicle is α.
We planned to use disc brake in all four wheels. Initially
we thought of using disc brake in front and drum brakes After a comparative study on different steering which are
in rear but problem with drum brake is of locking .For available in the market it was found that the best suitable
achieving the condition for locking at once on the steering for our vehicle is central roller and rack. Table 6
application of brake paddle, it is preferred to use disc in shows results of our study on steering.
all four wheels. Some formulas that we used for
designing our brakes: Table 6: Steering comparison
𝑓 𝑓
T (disc) = 𝑊1 × 𝑔 × 𝑅1 + 𝑊2 × 𝑔 × 𝑅2
Types of cost weight Sensitivity efficiency
T (disc) = 𝜇 × 𝑅 × 𝑃 × 𝐴 × 2 × 𝑛𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐 𝑝𝑎𝑑 steering and
Where, response
T (disc) = Frictional torque on the disc
f = deceleration
W = weight of the body Rack and low light poor fine
R = Effective radius of disc pinion
R1= Radius of front tire
R2= Radius of rear tire
Central low light good good
P = Pressure applied by the TMC.
roller and
µ= Coefficient of friction
R=Radius of the disc
A= Area of the caliper for disc brake
P= Pressure applied by the master cylinder. Recirculating high medium poor Very good
Using these formulae, we have done our calculation and ball type
selected our brakes. Some of calculations are shown in
the table 5: Worm and medium heavy poor medium
Table 5: Brake pedal force calculation
F Pr D1 D2 R R1 R2 Worm and medium heavy Very poor good
kg mm mm inch inch inch

3.0 3.21 16.25 16 98 10.5 11

• Central roller and rack.
• Turning radius – 8 feet.
2.5 3.86 16.25 16 98 10.5 11
• No. of teeth on the Rack bar =36
• Length of rack = 144mm
3.0 3.84 17.78 16 98 10.5 11 • The ratio of the rack and pinion = 12:1
• The axial pitch of the Rack bar = 6 mm
3.8 3 17.78 16 98 10.5 11 • Steering ratio –7.8:1
• No. of universal joints in column = 2
3.2 3.58 17.78 16 98 10.5 11 • Column inclination from horizontal- 45 degree
• Removable steering wheel assembly for the ease of
3.0 4.44 19.05 16 98 10.5 11 driver exit in time specified as per the rulebook.
• No. of the tie rods = 2.
3.2 3 16.25 16 98 10.5 11
Figure 4: Central roller and rack

Where the parameters shown above are as under:

F=Pedal force required for braking (kg)
Pr = Pedal ratio
D1=Diameter of the TMC (mm)
D2=Diameter of caliper cylinder for the disc (mm)
R = Effective radius of the disc
R1=Outer radius of the front tires (inch) While designing the steering system the constraints that
R2=Outer radius of the rear tires (inch) we possessed were centre alignment of steering system,
track width, human effort at the steering wheel and the
desired response of the steering system.
Apart from deciding the steering ratio we have not been *Double wishbones are usually considered to have
able to design the linkages, tie rods etc as presently we superior dynamic characteristics, load handling
do not have the gear box of steering. capability and are still found on higher performance
The formulae used for steering calculations are:
Spring Design started with some arbitrary parameters
𝑪𝟐 = 𝑿𝟐 + 𝒀𝟐 within the constraints

𝑿 = 𝑪 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒑 + 𝒂 + 𝒃 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒒 − 𝒂 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒒 Constraints: Weight, ground clearance required and

space limitations
𝒀 = 𝒃 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒒 + 𝒂 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝒒 − 𝑹
Estimated weight of 250 kg approx.
Where, vehicle
C – Length of tie rod
X, Y – lengths as shown in fig 5 Driver with 90 kg approx.
p, q – angles as shown in fig 5 accessories
a – length of steering knuckle from center of tire
b – Perpendicular distance of steering knuckle from pivot Total weight with 340 kg approx.
point as shown in fig 5. driver

FIGURE 5: Steering knuckle Unsprung mass 75 kg approx.

Sprung mass 265 kg (at max. with


Now according to design for rear wheel drive 40% of the

total weight will be distributed at the front portion and the
remaining 60% of the weight will be at the back or rear

From the above estimated weight we find that weight

distribution at one side of front end will be approximately
70 kg and at one side of rear end will be approximately
3.6 SUSPENSIONS 105 kg. So, all the calculations will be done taking this
weight distribution only.
Suspension is the term given to the system of springs,
shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to 3.6.1 FRONT SUSPENSIONS
its wheels. The suspension systems not only help in the
proper functioning of the car's handling and braking, but The spring damper would be placed at the centre of the
also keep vehicle occupants comfortable and make your upper wishbone as shown in the figure 5.
drive smooth and pleasant. It also protects the vehicle
from wear and tear. Taking ground clearance to be around 8 inches and load
of 70 kg on each tire. Thus static load on each spring
would be 140 kg as spring is mounted at the centre of
This year we are going to use equal wishbone the wishbone
suspension in both front and rear because of the
following reasons:- Figure 6: Front suspension on optimum k

* Double wishbone designs allow the us to carefully

control the motion of the wheel throughout suspension
travel, controlling such parameters as camber angle,
caster angle, toe pattern, scrub radius more.

* In a double wishbone suspension it is fairly easy to

work out the effect of moving each joint, so you can tune
the kinematics of the suspension easily and optimize
wheel motion. Front spring design specification of our vehicle is shown
in the table 7.
Table 7: Front suspension spring details Table 8: Rear suspension spring details

Length of spring 171 mm Length of spring 230 mm

Total length(spring + 291mm Total length(spring + 490mm

damper) damper)

Wire diameter 7mm Wire diameter 11mm

Mean coil diameter 51mm Mean coil diameter 80mm

Allowed travel of spring 100mm Allowed travel of spring 72mm

Stiffness 20N/mm Stiffness 30N/mm

Pitch 19mm Pitch 19mm

No. of active turns 10 No. of active turns 10

Total no. of turns 12 Total no. of turns 12

Initial compression (after driver is seated) = 33.3mm

3.6.2 REAR SUSPENSION From initial compression we conclude that the

movement of shaft required is 6.3 degrees
Here also the constraints were ground clearance 8
inches, vehicle weight 110 kg on each tire and 3.6.3 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF WISH
movement of transmission shaft as shown in figure 7; full BONES
angle being 15 degree, full jounce 3 degree and full
rebound 12 degree FRONT SUSPENSION

In here, we keep the mounting point of the spring on the

upper wishbone and at its end. The rear suspension
system is as shown in figure 7.

Figure 7: Rear suspension on optimum k


For the smaller half drive shaft, the distance between

spring mounting point and shaft hinge point is 12 inch 3.7 HUB DESIGN
approximately. Thus, for 15 degree spring movement is
80 mm as calculated by the formulae: The hub assembly has a very important contribution
towards vehicle’s weight. So to achieve our main
LENGTH OF ARC = RADIUS * ANGLE SUBTENDED objective of reducing the overall weight of our vehicle we
have to reduce the weight of wheel assembly. We have
So for 1 degree movement of shaft deflection of spring is a detailed study of previous year’s wheel assembly. It
5.3 mm was made up of mild steel that why weight of the
assembly is extremely heavy. This year we have
Rear spring specification after designing the rear decided to use aluminium alloy for the manufacture of
suspension is shown in table 8. our hub .we are also using some standard part such as
disc, spline cut alto shaft etc to reduce the cost of our
hub assembly. Wight of this year hub assembly is about
3kgs and 400gms which is 4 times less than previous
TABLE 9: Hub weight comparison
Hub assembly weight of 3kg and 440gms
2010 7.0 CONTACT
Hub assembly weight of 14kgs and 780gms
2009 Vikrant Dalal
Hub assembly weight of 22kgs and 340gms Mechanical Engineering student
2007 Institute of Technology and Management,
FIGURE 8: Hub design on pro-e
Web site – www.thetechietyros.com
Email I.D. – vikrantdalal@yahoo.co.in

Address: V.P.O Goela Khurd, Najafgarh New Delhi


4.0 CONCLUSION Type 4-stroke, gasoline
Lombardini engine
As discussed earlier, our approach is to design for the Displacement 305 cc
worst and still optimize so that we avoid over designing. Compression Ratio 8:1
This would help us to reduce the cost. Power 8 KW
Torque 19 NM at 3000 rpm
The approach that we followed is iterative in nature and Drive Train
processes like reverse engineering are adopted in order Transmission 4 speed manual constant
to select various systems from the ones, existing in the mesh gear box with 1
market. This step would ensure standardization and reverse
reliability would follow as a by part. Company Mahindra alpha champion
Our top priority would always be the safety of the driver
Chassis Type IS 1239 Steel Pipes
and working in this direction, we will strive to add
aesthetic value and a sense of ergonomics to the Overall Length 1400 mm.
vehicle. Wheel Base 1150 mm.
Overall Width 1600 mm.
5.0 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Front Suspension Double Wishbone
Rear Suspension Double Wishbone
The design process is not a single handed effort and so Ground Clearance 250 mm
it is my team, whom I wanted to thank for standing with Shocks coil-over
me under all circumstances. I would also like to express Front Travel 200 mm. (75 mm rebound
my gratitude towards our Mechanical department and on and 125 mm jounce )
the whole towards the college for supporting us and Rear Travel 100 mm (75 mm rebound
believing in us. SAE has provided us with an excellent and 25 mm jounce )
platform for learning and showcasing real life projects. Vehicle Weight 270 kg
While working on the project, it was really heartening to Wheels/Tires
see that the people from industry were willing to help us Front Tires 21 in. x 6 in. ITP Holeshots
and they provided us with their precious time.
Front Wheels 10 in.
Rear Tires 22 in. x 8 in. ITP Holeshots
Rear Wheels 10 in.
1. S.S.Rattan ,2005,”Theory of Machines” Performance
Approach Angle 80 degrees
2. V.B. Bhandari ,2007,”Design of Machine Departure Angle 60 degrees
Elements” Top Speed 60 km/hr
Rear Wheel Torque 1584 NM
3. SAE , 2008 ,Advanced Vehicle Technology ”

4. Thomas D. Gillespie ,2008 ,”Fundamentals Of

Vehicle Dynamics”