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7-3 Logarithmic

Functions and Inverses


Kiran Satyavarapu
Algebra II
Coolidge High School

Objectives
To write and evaluate logarithmic expressions

Logarithms vs Exponents
2 (8) = _____ ?
What number goes in the box so that 2 raised to
that power gives you 8?
2 (16) = _____ ?
2 (2) = _____ ?
3 (9) = _____ ?

Continuation
Now how about this example?
2 (1/2) = _____ ?
Consider the example, 2 -1 =___
So how much is 2 (1/2) = _____ ?
How about 3 (1/9) = _____ ?

Continuation
Finally, how much is 2 (1) = _____ ?
Finally, how much is 3 (1) = _____ ?

Conclusion
The relation between Logarithmic functions

and exponential functions:


y = 2 (x) is the inverse of y = 2x

What is a logarithm?
A logarithm is the power to which a number must be
raised in order to get some other number

If x b , then log b x y
y

Exponential form in Logarithmic


form
100 = 102

81 = 34

36 = 62

Evaluate Logarithm
What is the value of log832?

Example 2
Evaluate the Logarithm log5125

Book Work
Page = 456
Problems = 12 31
Where? Separate Sheet of paper

Yes! Turn it in the bin

UP, DOWN, UP
If y b x , then

If log b y x then

If 7 3x , then

If log 4 64 3 then

Ex: Write the following equations in logarithmic form

Remember: If y = bx then logby = x


If 25 = 5

If 729 = 3

If 1 = 10

then

then

then

Log525=2

Log3729=6

Log101=0

If

1

2

then
1

1
8

log 1 ( ) 3
2 8

Lets try some:


Converting between the two forms.
Expo Form

3x 7

Log Form
log 3 7 x

10 2 100

log10 100 2

4 64

log 4 64 3
log5 251 2

5 2

1
25

1
32

log 2

1
5
32

32 9

log3 9 2

10 1000

log10 1000 3

Lets pause for a second . . .


If y = bx then logby = x
x in the exponential expression bx is the logarithm in the

equation logby=x
The base b in bx is the same as the base b in the logarithm

NOTE: b does not =1 and must be greater than 0


The logarithm of a negative number or zero is undefines.

Common Logs
A common log is a logarithm that uses base 10.

You can write the common logarithm log10y as


log y
Scientists use common logarithms to measure

acidity, which increases as the concentration of


hydrogen ions in a substance. The pH of a

substance equals log H , where H is the concentration


of hydrogen ions.

Evaluating Logarithms
Ex: Evaluate log816
Log816=x

Write an equation in log form

16 = 8x
24 = (23)x

Convert to exponential form


Rewrite using the same base. In
this case, base of 2
Power of exponents
Set the exponents equal to each other
Solve for x

24 = 23x
4 = 3x
x=4/3

Therefore, Log816=4/3

Evaluating Logarithms
Ex: Evaluate log 64
log 64

1
32

1
x
Write an equation in log form
32

1
64 x
32

Convert to exponential form

1
6x
5
6 x Rewrite using the same base. In

2
25
this case, base of 2. Use negative expos!

-5 = 6x
x=-5/6

Set the exponents equal to each other


Solve for x

1
5

Therefore,log 64
32
6

Lets try some


Evaluate the following:

log 9 27

log10 100

Lets try some


Evaluate the following:

log 9 27

log10 100

Graphs of Logarithmic Functions


A logarithmic function is the inverse of an

exponential function
In other words, y= 10x
and y=log10x are
inverses of each other.

y = 10x

Y = log10x

Where is the line of


reflection?

Lets try a more complicated one


Find the inverse of y=log5(x-1)+2
y=log5(x -1)+2
x=log5(y -1)+2

Start with the original function


Switch the x and y
x-2=log5(y -1)
Subtract 2 from both sides
y-1=5(x-2)
Rewrite in y=abx form
y=5(x-2)+1
Add 1 to both sides
The inverse of y=log5(x-1)+2 is y=5(x-2)+1

Lets try some


Find the inverse of each function:

Y=log0.5x

y=log5x2

y=log(x-2)
Hint: what is
the base?

Solutions
Find the inverse of each function:

Y=log0.5x

y=log5x2

y=log(x-2)

How does this help us?


We dont have a way to graph a log, BUT we can

graph an exponential function. If we can find the


inverse of the log function and graph it, the graph of
the log is simply the reflection of the exponential
function.
Lets start with an easy one: what is the inverse of
y=log2x?
y=2x
Now, make a table of values:

Graph of y=log2x and y=2

Make a table of values

and graph y=2x


X
y=2x
-3

0.125

-2

0.25

-1

0.5

What is the domain and range


of this function?
D: all real numbers. R: y>0

Graph of y=log2x and y=2

Now, reverse the coordinates to graph

y=log2x
x

y=2x

0.125

-3

0.25

-2

0.5

-1

Prediction: what will it


look like?

What is the domain and range


of this function?
D: x>0. R: all real numbers

Graph of y=log2x and y=2


Graphing both

functions, we get
this.
Where is the line of

reflection?

y=x

Lets try one:


Graph y=log3(x+3). Determine the domain

and range.

Lets try one:


Graph y=log3(x+3)

Lets try one:


Graph y=log3(x+3)

Lets try one:


Graph y=log3(x+3)

Determining the domain and range


y=log2x

Domain: x>0
Range: all real
numbers

y=log3(x+3)

Domain: x>-3
Range: all real
numbers

How can you predict the domain and range without graphing?
Write a sentence summarizing how to determine domain and range.

Predict: what is the domain and range


of y=log3(x-2) and y=log3(x)+1
y=log3(x-2)
Domain: x>2
Range: all real
numbers

y=log3(x)+1
Domain: x>0
Range: all real numbers
Note: the +1 moves the
parent graph up but does
not affect the left or right
translation, so the domain
remains x>0