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# 7-3 Logarithmic

## Functions and Inverses

Kiran Satyavarapu
Algebra II
Coolidge High School

Objectives
To write and evaluate logarithmic expressions

Logarithms vs Exponents
2 (8) = _____ ?
What number goes in the box so that 2 raised to
that power gives you 8?
2 (16) = _____ ?
2 (2) = _____ ?
3 (9) = _____ ?

Continuation
2 (1/2) = _____ ?
Consider the example, 2 -1 =___
So how much is 2 (1/2) = _____ ?
How about 3 (1/9) = _____ ?

Continuation
Finally, how much is 2 (1) = _____ ?
Finally, how much is 3 (1) = _____ ?

Conclusion
The relation between Logarithmic functions

## and exponential functions:

y = 2 (x) is the inverse of y = 2x

What is a logarithm?
A logarithm is the power to which a number must be
raised in order to get some other number

If x b , then log b x y
y

## Exponential form in Logarithmic

form
100 = 102

81 = 34

36 = 62

Evaluate Logarithm
What is the value of log832?

Example 2
Evaluate the Logarithm log5125

Book Work
Page = 456
Problems = 12 31
Where? Separate Sheet of paper

## Yes! Turn it in the bin

UP, DOWN, UP
If y b x , then

If log b y x then

If 7 3x , then

If log 4 64 3 then

If 25 = 5

If 729 = 3

If 1 = 10

then

then

then

Log525=2

Log3729=6

Log101=0

If

1

2

then
1

1
8

log 1 ( ) 3
2 8

## Lets try some:

Converting between the two forms.
Expo Form

3x 7

Log Form
log 3 7 x

10 2 100

log10 100 2

4 64

log 4 64 3
log5 251 2

5 2

1
25

1
32

log 2

1
5
32

32 9

log3 9 2

10 1000

log10 1000 3

## Lets pause for a second . . .

If y = bx then logby = x
x in the exponential expression bx is the logarithm in the

equation logby=x
The base b in bx is the same as the base b in the logarithm

## NOTE: b does not =1 and must be greater than 0

The logarithm of a negative number or zero is undefines.

Common Logs
A common log is a logarithm that uses base 10.

## You can write the common logarithm log10y as

log y
Scientists use common logarithms to measure

## acidity, which increases as the concentration of

hydrogen ions in a substance. The pH of a

## substance equals log H , where H is the concentration

of hydrogen ions.

Evaluating Logarithms
Ex: Evaluate log816
Log816=x

16 = 8x
24 = (23)x

## Convert to exponential form

Rewrite using the same base. In
this case, base of 2
Power of exponents
Set the exponents equal to each other
Solve for x

24 = 23x
4 = 3x
x=4/3

Therefore, Log816=4/3

Evaluating Logarithms
Ex: Evaluate log 64
log 64

1
32

1
x
Write an equation in log form
32

1
64 x
32

## Convert to exponential form

1
6x
5
6 x Rewrite using the same base. In

2
25
this case, base of 2. Use negative expos!

-5 = 6x
x=-5/6

Solve for x

1
5

Therefore,log 64
32
6

## Lets try some

Evaluate the following:

log 9 27

log10 100

## Lets try some

Evaluate the following:

log 9 27

log10 100

## Graphs of Logarithmic Functions

A logarithmic function is the inverse of an

exponential function
In other words, y= 10x
and y=log10x are
inverses of each other.

y = 10x

Y = log10x

reflection?

## Lets try a more complicated one

Find the inverse of y=log5(x-1)+2
y=log5(x -1)+2
x=log5(y -1)+2

Switch the x and y
x-2=log5(y -1)
Subtract 2 from both sides
y-1=5(x-2)
Rewrite in y=abx form
y=5(x-2)+1
The inverse of y=log5(x-1)+2 is y=5(x-2)+1

## Lets try some

Find the inverse of each function:

Y=log0.5x

y=log5x2

y=log(x-2)
Hint: what is
the base?

Solutions
Find the inverse of each function:

Y=log0.5x

y=log5x2

y=log(x-2)

## How does this help us?

We dont have a way to graph a log, BUT we can

## graph an exponential function. If we can find the

inverse of the log function and graph it, the graph of
the log is simply the reflection of the exponential
function.
y=log2x?
y=2x
Now, make a table of values:

X
y=2x
-3

0.125

-2

0.25

-1

0.5

## What is the domain and range

of this function?
D: all real numbers. R: y>0

y=log2x
x

y=2x

0.125

-3

0.25

-2

0.5

-1

look like?

## What is the domain and range

of this function?
D: x>0. R: all real numbers

## Graph of y=log2x and y=2

Graphing both

functions, we get
this.
Where is the line of

reflection?

y=x

## Lets try one:

Graph y=log3(x+3). Determine the domain

and range.

## Lets try one:

Graph y=log3(x+3)

## Lets try one:

Graph y=log3(x+3)

## Lets try one:

Graph y=log3(x+3)

## Determining the domain and range

y=log2x

Domain: x>0
Range: all real
numbers

y=log3(x+3)

Domain: x>-3
Range: all real
numbers

How can you predict the domain and range without graphing?
Write a sentence summarizing how to determine domain and range.

## Predict: what is the domain and range

of y=log3(x-2) and y=log3(x)+1
y=log3(x-2)
Domain: x>2
Range: all real
numbers

y=log3(x)+1
Domain: x>0
Range: all real numbers
Note: the +1 moves the
parent graph up but does
not affect the left or right
translation, so the domain
remains x>0