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Helen Huang-Hobbs
Introduction to Gases and Gas Laws

40 minutes

OVERVIEW/ RATIONALE
Students have recently completed a unit on fuel efficiency, heat transfer, and energy. Today they
will more formally learn about gases and the kinetic molecular theory. We will initially surface
prior knowledge of gases and their properties. Today they will take guided notes on the properties
of gases and the kinetic molecular theory, and apply their understandings to a warm-up activity.
With any remaining time we will move into a discussion of pressure, and formal definitions for
pressure.
ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
Chemical compounds appear in our lives every day.
Understanding the microscopic properties of matter gives us information about macroscopic
behavior
GOALS/OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to:

## The Kinetic Molecular Theory assumptions.

Kinetic energy is proportional to temperature

## Students will know:

Vocab: kinetic energy, gases, ideal gas, real gas, energy, heat, temperature,
pressure

STANDARDS
Next Generation Science Standards:
Crosscutting concept: Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system
is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena. (HS-PS1-1)
Disciplinary Core Ideas: PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and
neutrons, surrounded by electrons. (HS-PS1-1)
Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each
other. (MS-PS1-4.)

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MATERIALS
Google Slides Presentation on introduction to gases
Balloons, ice water, hot water, empty soda can,
Printed Cornell Notes
Smartboard or projector
PROCEDURES
OPENER (5 minutes small group+ 3 minutes group discussion)
As a class opener, students will be asked to draw three pictures. Three balloons with 10 gas
molecules inside. The balloons are at three different temperatures -180C, 25C, and 100C. They
should use words and captions to describe what is happening with the molecules insides of the
balloons.
As a class we will discuss their understandings and current beliefs about the movement of gas
particles inside of balloons.
BODY OF THE LESSON (Mixed: 25 minutes discussion/demonstration/ individual
practice)
I will using Cornell notes, introduce the topic of Kinetic Molecular Theory to students. Students
will take notes and understand the physical characteristics of gases, and the nature of gases. We
will apply their new understandings to their balloon diagrams. I will try to show Charless Law
effect of temperature on volume, but since the effect can be difficult to see I will show students
two video clips of a balloon in liquid nitrogen, and one in hot water. I will have students revisit
their balloon diagrams after this viewing.

https://youtu.be/Z0F3q1ZCwf4?t=46
https://youtu.be/NplVuTrr59U?t=106
Limited time: KMT application questions on the sides of the notes can be completed for
homework.
Extension/with extra time: Move into a discussion of pressure - air pressure conversation is very
relatable to the can crush demo!
CLOSER (5 minutes)
Can Crush demo - I will ask students, what happened to this can? What properties of gases/KMT
would explain this phenomena?
ACCOMMODATIONS
Content will be delivered visually via powerpoint slides, and verbally via lecture. Demonstration
will be used for visual learners. Objectives for the lesson, and an outline of the timing will be
stated at the beginning of the class to help those who specifically need scheduling and structure
(ADHD, anxiety). Printed guided notes are made for students with visual processing, or literacy
issues. Students will work in groups on the final task of evaluating and modifying their balloon
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diagrams, and during this time I will move throughout the room offering assistance and
reinforcement as needed.
ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION
Individual practice will be monitored throughout the lesson and will guide instruction. Group
activity will allow for students to assist one another in mastering the
The exit slip will serve as a formative assessment and allow me to see which parts of gas
properties students have mastered, and how they can apply these learnings to a demonstration.
Warm up next day:
What KMT assumptions support the following properties of gases:
Expansion, fluidity, and compressibility?

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