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Ch03HW
Due:11:59pmonFriday,March18,2016
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

Position,Velocity,andAcceleration
LearningGoal:
Toidentifysituationswhenposition,velocity,and/oraccelerationchange,realizingthatchangecanbeindirectionor
magnitude.

Ifanobject'spositionisdescribedbyafunctionoftime,r (t)
(measuredfromanonacceleratingreferenceframe),then

theobject'svelocityisdescribedbythetimederivativeoftheposition,v (t)
=

describedbythetimederivativeofthevelocity,a(t) =

dv (t)
dt

r (t)

dt

dr (t)
dt

,andtheobject'saccelerationis

Itisoftenconvenienttodiscusstheaverageofthelattertwoquantitiesbetweentimest1 andt2 :

v avg
(t1 , t2 ) =

t )r (
t )
r(
2
1
t 2 t 1

and
aavg (t1 , t2 ) =

t )v (
t )
v(
2
1
t 2 t 1

PartA
Youthrowaball.Airresistanceontheballisnegligible.Whichofthefollowingfunctionschangewithtimeasthe
ballfliesthroughtheair?

Hint1.ThePullofGravity
ThereasontheballcomesbacktoyourhandisthatitisbeingpulledonbytheEarth'sgravity.Thisisthe
samereasonthattheballfeel'sheavywhenit'srestinginyourhand.Doestheweightoftheballchangeat
differentheights,oristhepullofgravityconstantthroughouttheball'sflight?Whatdoesthistellyouabout
theaccelerationoftheball?
ANSWER:
onlythepositionoftheball
onlythevelocityoftheball
onlytheaccelerationoftheball
thepositionandvelocityoftheball
thepositionandthevelocityandaccelerationoftheball

Correct

PartB
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Youaredrivingacarat65mph.Youaretravelingnorthalongastraighthighway.Whatcouldyoudotogivethecar
anonzeroacceleration?

Hint1.Whatconstitutesanonzeroacceleration?
Thevelocityofthecarisdescribedbyavectorfunction,meaningithasbothmagnitude(65mph)and
direction(north).Thecarexperiencesanonzeroaccelerationifyouchangeeitherthemagnitudeofthe
velocityorthedirectionofthevelocity.
ANSWER:
Pressthebrakepedal.
Turnthesteeringwheel.
Eitherpressthegasorthebrakepedal.
Eitherpressthegasorthebrakepedalorturnthesteeringwheel.

Correct

PartC
Aballislodgedinaholeinthefloorneartheoutsideedgeofamerrygoroundthatisturningatconstantspeed.
Whichkinematicvariableorvariableschangewithtime,assumingthatthepositionismeasuredfromanoriginat
thecenterofthemerrygoround?

Hint1.Changeofavector
Avectorquantityhasbothmagnitudeanddirection.Thevectorchangeswithtimeifeitherofthese
quantitieschangeswithtime.
ANSWER:
thepositionoftheballonly
thevelocityoftheballonly
theaccelerationoftheballonly
boththepositionandvelocityoftheball
thepositionandvelocityandaccelerationoftheball

Correct

PartD
Forthemerrygoroundproblem,dothemagnitudesoftheposition,velocity,andaccelerationvectorschangewith
time?
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Hint1.Changeofmagnitudeofavector
Avectorquantityhasbothmagnitudeanddirection.Themagnitudeofavectorchangeswithtimeonlyifthe
lengthchangeswithtime.
ANSWER:
yes
no

Correct

PhETTutorial:ProjectileMotion
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandhowthetrajectoryofanobjectdependsonitsinitialvelocity,andtounderstandhowairresistance
affectsthetrajectory.
Forthisproblem,usethePhETsimulationProjectileMotion.Thissimulationallowsyoutofireanobjectfroma
cannon,seeitstrajectory,andmeasureitsrangeandhangtime(theamountoftimeintheair).

Startthesimulation.PressFiretolaunchanobject.Youcanchoosetheobjectbyclickingononeoftheobjectsinthe
scrolldownmenuattopright(acannonballisnotamongthechoices).Toadjustthecannonbarrelsangle,clickand
dragonitortypeinanumericalvalue(indegrees).Youcanalsoadjustthespeed,mass,anddiameteroftheobjectby
typinginvalues.ClickingAirResistancedisplayssettingsfor(1)thedragcoefficientand(2)thealtitude(which
controlstheairdensity).Forthistutorial,wewilluseanaltitudeofzero(sealevel)andletthedragcoefficientbe
automaticallysetwhentheobjectischosen.
Playaroundwiththesimulation.Whenyouaredone,clickEraseandselectabaseballpriortobeginningPartA.Leave
AirResistanceunchecked.

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PartA
First,youwillinvestigatepurelyverticalmotion.Thekinematicsequationforverticalmotion(ignoringair
resistance)isgivenby
2
y(t) = y + v 0 t (1/2)gt ,
0
wherey0 = 0 istheinitialposition(whichis1.2mabovethegroundduetothewheelsofthecannon),v 0 isthe
initialspeed,andg istheaccelerationduetogravity.
Shootthebaseballstraightupward(atanangleof90 )withaninitialspeedof20m/s.
Howlongdoesittakeforthebaseballtohittheground?

Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
4.1s

Correct
Noticethatthisvaluecouldbedeterminedfromthekinematicsequation:Approximatingthefinalheighttobe
y(t f ) = 0(keepinmindthatthelocationwhere y = 0 isinsidethecannon,nottheground),thekinematics
equationbecomes(v 0 0.5gt) = 0 ,ort = 2v 0 /g = 4.1s .Thiscalculationisinterestingbecauseit
showsthat,forverticalmotion,thetimetheballisintheairisproportionaltoitsinitialspeed.

PartB
Whenthebaseballisshotstraightupwardwithaninitialspeedof20m/s,whatisthemaximumheightaboveits
initiallocation?(Notethattheballsinitialheightisdenotedbythehorizontalwhiteline.Itisinitially1.2mabove
theground.Theyellowboxthatisbelowthetargetonthegrassismeasuringtapethatshouldbeusedforthis
part.)
Expressyouranswerwithappropriateunits.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Usethemeasuringtapetodeterminetheheight.Aligntheplussignatthebeginningofthespoolwiththe
horizontalwhiteline,anddragtheendofthetapetothemaximumheightoftheballstrajectory.Youcan
zoominoroutusingthemagnificationbuttonsabovetheFireandErasebuttons.
ANSWER:
20m

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Correct
Noticethatthisvaluecouldbedeterminedfromthekinematicsequation:Sinceyoufoundittakes4.1s forthe
balltoreachtheground,itmusttakeroughly2.1s toreachthemaximumheight(usingtheunrounded
2
answer),whichisgivenbyy(t = 2.1 s) = (20 m/s)(2.1 s) (1/2)(9.8 m/s 2 )(2.1 s) = 20.4 m or
20 musingtwosignificantfigures.(Since20 misconsiderablylongerthantheinitialheightabovethe
ground,itisagoodapproximationtopretendthattheinitialpositionofthebaseballwastheground.)

PartC
Iftheinitialspeedoftheballistripled,howdoesthemaximumheightchange?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Youcanusethesimulationtohelpwiththisquestion.Settheinitialspeedto40m/s,andagainmeasure
themaximumheightwiththemeasuringtape.Youwilllikelyhavetozoomouttoseethetopoftheballs
trajectory.
ANSWER:
Themaximumheightincreasesbyafactorofnine.
Themaximumheightincreasesbyafactorofthree.
Themaximumheightincreasesbyafactorof1.7(squarerootof3).

Correct
Sincetheamountoftimeittakestoreachthemaximumheighttriples,andsinceitsaveragevelocityingoing
upwardalsotriples(theaveragevelocityisequaltohalftheinitialvelocity),theheightitreachesbefore
stoppingincreasesbyafactorofnine(distanceisequaltotheaveragevelocitymultipliedbythetime
duration).

PartD
Eraseallthetrajectories,andfiretheballverticallyagainwithaninitialspeedof20m/s.Asyoufoundearlier,the
maximumheightisroughly20m.Iftheballisntfiredvertically,butatananglelessthan90 ,itcanreachthe
samemaximumheightifitsinitialspeedisfaster.Settheinitialspeedto25m/s,andfindtheanglesuchthatthe
maximumheightisroughly20m.Experimentbyfiringtheballwithmanydifferentangles.Youcanusethe
measuringtapetodeterminethemaximumheightofthetrajectoryandcompareitto20m.Whatisthisangle?
ANSWER:

45

30

75

53

63

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Correct
Noticethattheinitialspeedintheverticaldirectionisgivenby(25m/s)sin(53 ) = 20m/s .Theball
launchedatthisanglereachesthesameheightastheverticallylaunchedballbecausetheyhavethesame
initialspeedsintheverticaldirection.

PartE
Inthepreviouspart,youfoundthataballfiredwithaninitialspeedof25m/sandanangleof53 reachesthe
sameheightasaballfiredverticallywithaninitialspeedof20m/s.Whichballtakeslongertoland?
ANSWER:
Theballfiredatanangleof53 staysintheairlonger.
Bothballsareintheairthesameamountoftime.
Theballfiredverticallystaysintheairlonger.

Correct
Theverticalcomponentofthevelocitydetermineshowlongtheballwillbeintheair(anditsmaximum
height).Thehorizontalcomponentoftheball'svelocitydoesnotaffectthishangtime.

PartF
Thefigureshowstwotrajectories,madebytwoballslaunchedwithdifferentanglesandpossiblydifferentinitial
speeds.

Based
onthefigure,forwhichtrajectorywastheballintheairforthegreatestamountoftime?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
ThinkabouttheresultofPartE(thinkabouttherelationshipbetweenthemaximumheightofsomething
thrownupwardandtheamountoftimeitisintheair).Doesthetimeintheairdependontherangeofthe
trajectory?
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ANSWER:
TrajectoryB
Itsimpossibletotellsolelybasedonthefigure.
TrajectoryA
Theballsareintheairforthesameamountoftime.

Correct
Allthatmattersistheverticalheightofthetrajectory,whichisbasedonthecomponentoftheinitialvelocity
intheverticaldirection(v 0 sin ).Thehigherthetrajectory,themoretimetheballwillbeintheair,regardless
oftheballsrangeorhorizontalvelocity.

PartG
Therangeisthedistancefromthecannonwhentheballhitstheground.Thisdistanceisgivenbythehorizontal
velocity(whichisconstant)timestheamountoftimetheballisintheair(whichisdeterminedbythevertical
componentoftheinitialvelocity,asyoujustdiscovered).
Settheinitialspeedto20m/s,andfiretheballseveraltimeswhilevaryingtheanglebetweenthecannonandthe
horizontal.Noticethatthedigitaldisplaynearthetopgivestherangeoftheball.
Forwhichangleistherangeamaximum(withtheinitialspeedheldconstant)?

ANSWER:

90

60

45

30

Correct
Whentheballislaunchednearalevelground,45 istheoptimumangle.Iflaunchedwithagreaterangle,it
staysintheairlonger,butitshorizontalspeedisslower,anditwontgoasfar.Iflaunchedwithasmaller
angle,itshorizontalspeedisfaster,butitwontstayintheairaslonganditwontgoasfar.Theproduct
betweenthehorizontalspeedandtheamountoftimeintheairislargestwhentheangleis45 .

PartH
Howdoestherangeoftheobjectchangeifitsinitialvelocityistripled(keepingtheanglefixedandlessthan90 )?
ANSWER:

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Theballsrangeisthreetimesasfar.
Theballsrangeisninetimesasfar.
Theballsrangeiseighteentimesasfar.

Correct
Sincetheverticalcomponentofthevelocityisthreetimesaslarge,ittakesthreetimesaslongtohitthe
ground.Thehorizontalcomponentofthevelocityisalsotripled,andsincetherangeisequaltothehorizontal
velocitytimestheamountoftimetheballisintheair,therangeincreasesbyafactorofnine.Theresultsof
thisquestionandthepreviousquestioncanbesummarizedbytherangeequation,whichis
R = 2v 0

sin()cos()/g

PartI
Now,letsseewhathappenswhenthecannonishighabovetheground.Clickonthewheelofthecannon,and
dragitupwardasfarasitgoes(about21mabovetheground).Settheinitialvelocityto20m/s,andfireseveral
ballswhilevaryingtheangle.Forwhatangleistherangethegreatest?
ANSWER:

50

35

40

30

45

Correct
Sincethecannonisveryhighofftheground,theballwillbeintheairforanappreciableamountoftimeeven
iftheballislaunchednearlyhorizontally.Thus,theamountoftimetheballisintheairisntproportionaltothe
verticalcomponentoftheinitialvelocity(asitwaswhenthecannonwasontheground).Thismeansthatthe
initialhorizontalvelocityismoreimportant,resultinginanoptimalanglelessthan45 .Youshouldrealizethat
therangeequationgiveninPartH,R = 2v 0 2 sin()cos()/g ,isnotvalidwhentheinitialheightisnotzero.
Youcanalsoverifythat,ifyouchangetheinitialvelocity,theoptimalanglealsochanges!

PartJ
Sofarinthistutorial,youhavebeenlaunchingabaseball.Letsseewhathappenstothetrajectoryifyoulaunch
somethingbiggerandheavier,likeaBuickcar.Comparethetrajectoryandrangeofthebaseballtothatofthe
Buickcar,usingthesameinitialspeedandangle(e.g.,45 ).(Besurethatairresistanceisstillturnedoff.)Which
statementistrue?
ANSWER:

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ThetrajectoriesandthustherangeoftheBuickandthebaseballareidentical.
ThetrajectoriesdiffertherangeoftheBuickislongerthanthatofthebaseball.
ThetrajectoriesdiffertherangeoftheBuickisshorterthanthatofthebaseball.

Correct
Sinceweareignoringairresistance,thetrajectoryoftheobjectdoesnotdependonitsmassorsize.Inthe
nextpart,youwillturnonairresistanceanddiscoverwhatchanges.

PartK
Inthepreviouspart,youdiscoveredthatthetrajectoryofanobjectdoesnotdependontheobjectssizeormass.
Butifyouhaveeverseenaparachutistorafeatherfalling,youknowthisisntreallytrue.Thatisbecausewehave
beenneglectingairresistance,andwewillnowstudyitseffectshere.SelectAirResistanceforthesimulation.Fire
abaseballwithaninitialspeedofroughly20m/sandanangleof45 .Comparethetrajectorytothecasewithout
airresistance.Howdothetrajectoriesdiffer?
ANSWER:
Thetrajectoriesareidentical.
Thetrajectorywithairresistancehasashorterrange.
Thetrajectorywithairresistancehasalongerrange.

Correct
Airresistanceisaforceduetotheobjectrammingthroughtheairmolecules,andisalwaysintheopposite
directiontotheobjectsvelocity.Thismeanstheairresistanceforcewillslowtheobjectdown,resultingina
shorterrange(thesimulationassumestheairisstillthereisnostrongtailwind).

PartL
Noticethatyoucanadjustthediameter(andmass)ofanyobject(e.g.,youcanmakeareallybigbaseball).What
happenstothetrajectory(withairresistanceon)whenyouincreasethediameterwhilekeepingthemass
constant?
ANSWER:
Increasingthesizemakestherangeofthetrajectoryincrease.
Thesizeoftheobjectdoesntaffectthetrajectory.
Increasingthesizemakestherangeofthetrajectorydecrease.

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Correct
Sincethesurfaceareaincreasesifthediameterincreases,theobjectissweepingthroughmoreair,causing
morecollisions,andagreaterforceofairdrag(infact,ifthediameterisdoubled,foragivenspeed,theforce
ofairdragisincreasedbyafactoroffour).Thisgreaterforceofairdragcausestheobjecttoslowdownmore
quickly,resultinginasloweraveragespeedandashorterrange.

PartM
Youmightthinkthatitisneveragoodapproximationtoignoreairresistance.However,oftenitis.Firethebaseball
withoutairresistance,andthenfireitwithairresistance(sameangleandinitialspeed).Then,adjustthemassof
thebaseball(increaseitanddecreaseit)andseewhathappenstothetrajectory.Dontchangethediameter.When
doestherangewithairresistanceapproachtherangewithoutairresistance?
ANSWER:
Therangewithairresistanceapproachestherangewithoutairresistanceasthemassofthebaseballis
decreased.
Itneverdoes.Regardlessofthemass,therangewithairresistanceisalwaysshorterthantherange
without.
Therangewithairresistanceapproachestherangewithoutairresistanceasthemassofthebaseballis
increased.

Correct
Asthemassisincreased,theforceofgravityonthebaseballbecomeslarger.Theforceduetoairdragjust
dependsonthespeedandthesizeoftheobject,soitdoesntchangeifthemasschanges.Asthemassgets
largeenough,theforceofgravitybecomesmuchlargerthantheairdragforce,andsotheairdragforce
becomesnegligible.Thisresultsinatrajectorynearlythesameaswhenairresistanceisturnedoff.Thus,for
small,denseobjects(likerocksandbowlingballs),airresistanceistypicallyunimportant,butforobjectswith
alowdensity(likefeathers)oraverylargesurfacearea(likeparachutists),airresistanceisveryimportant.

PhETInteractiveSimulations
UniversityofColorado
http://phet.colorado.edu

VideoTutor:BallFiredfromCartonIncline
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionsatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

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PartA
Considerthevideodemonstrationthatyoujustwatched.Amorecompleteexplanationofwhatyousawwillbe
possibleaftercoveringNewton'slaws.Fornow,considerthefollowingquestion:Howwouldtheresultofthis
experimentchangeifwereplacedtheballwithanotheronethathadhalfthemass?Ignoreairresistance.

Hint1.Howtoapproachthisproblem
Thekinematicsofthesituationinthevideoareactuallyquitecomplexprovingthattheballmustlandinthe
cartwouldnotbeeasy.
However,giventhattheballdidlandinthecartinthevideo,youcananswerthecurrentquestionwhether
theball'smassaffectstheoutcomequiteeasily.
Theballisaprojectilethecartisanobjectmovinginastraightlinewithconstantacceleration.Youknow
thekinematicequationsthatrelateposition,time,andvelocityforthistypeofmotion.Iftheball'smassisa
factorinarelevantequation,thenitwillaffecttheoutcomeifnot,thenitwon't.
Ifyouperformtheexperimentwithaheavierball,theball'sinitialvelocitywillbelower,andtheballwill
thereforefollowashortertrajectoryandstrikethetrackclosertothetrigger.Butthekinematicequationstell
youthatthecartwillstillbeatthesamelocationastheballwhentheballreachesthetrack.
ANSWER:
Theballwouldstilllandinthecart.
Theballwouldlandaheadofthecart.
Theballwouldlandbehindthecart.

Correct
Theballlandsinthecartregardlessofitsmass.

EnhancedEOC:Exercise3.7
Thecoordinatesofabirdflyinginthexyplanearegivenbyx(t)
and = 1.2 m/ .
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2

= t

andy(t)

= 3.0m t

,where

= 2.4 m/s

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and

Ch03HW
= 1.2 m/s

Youmaywanttoreview(

pages7277).

Forhelpwithmathskills,youmaywanttoreview:
DifferentiationofPolynomialFunctions
VectorMagnitudes
DeterminingtheAngleofaVector
Forgeneralproblemsolvingtipsandstrategiesforthistopic,youmaywanttoviewaVideoTutorSolutionof
Calculatingaverageandinstantaneousaccelerations.

PartA
Calculatethevelocityvectorofthebirdasafunctionoftime.
Giveyouranswerasapairofcomponentsseparatedbyacomma.Forexample,ifyouthinkthex
componentis3tandtheycomponentis4t,thenyoushouldenter3t,4t.Expressyouranswerusingtwo
significantfiguresforallcoefficients.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Youaregiventhepositionfunctionsofthebirdintime,inboththexandydirections.Howcanyouuse
thosetofindthevelocitiesasfunctionsoftimeforthebirdineachdirection,v x (t)andv y (t)?
Whenyouenterthexandycomponentsofthevelocityfunction,Masteringexpectsyoullenterthem
separatedbyacomma.Besureyouincludetheentirevelocityfunction,includingthetimevariablet,ifthat
componentdoesvaryintime.
ANSWER:

v (t)

2.4, 2.4t

m/s

Correct

PartB
Calculatetheaccelerationvectorofthebirdasafunctionoftime.
Giveyouranswerasapairofcomponentsseparatedbyacomma.Forexample,ifyouthinkthex
componentis3tandtheycomponentis4t,thenyoushouldenter3t,4t.Expressyouranswerusingtwo
significantfiguresforallcoefficients.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
FromPartA,youhavethevelocityfunctionsofthebirdintime,inboththexandydirections.Howcanyou
usethosetofindtheaccelerationsasfunctionsoftimeforthebirdineachdirection,a x (t)anda y (t)?
Whenyouenterthexandycomponentsoftheaccelerationfunction,Masteringexpectsyoullenterthem
separatedbyacomma.Besureyouincludebothcomponents,eveniftheaccelerationiszeroinone
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direction.
ANSWER:
a(t)

= 0,2.4 m/s 2

Correct

PartC
Calculatethemagnitudeofthebird'svelocityatt

= 2.0s

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
FromPartA,youknowthevelocityofthebirdinxandyatanytimet.Howcanyouusethosefunctionsat
thetimespecifiedintheproblemtofindbothv x (t)andv y (t)andthenfindthemagnitudeoftheresulting
velocityvector?
ANSWER:
v

= 5.4 m/s

Correct

PartD
Letthedirectionbetheanglethatthevectormakeswiththe+xaxismeasuredcounterclockwise.Calculatethe
directionofthebird'svelocityatt = 2.0s.
Expressyouranswerindegreesusingtwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
FromPartA,youknowthevelocitycomponentsofthebirdinxandyatanytimet.Howcanyoufindthe
directionoftheresultingvelocityvectorfromthesetwocomponents?
Youmightstartbymakingasketchofthevelocityvectorsinxandy(withthexaxishorizontal),addthem
asvectors,andexaminetheangleoftheresultantrelativetothexaxis.
ANSWER:

= 300

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Correct

PartE
Calculatethemagnitudeofthebird'saccelerationatt

= 2.0s

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
FromPartB,youknowtheaccelerationofthebirdinxandyatanytimet.Howcanyouusethose
functionsatthetimespecifiedintheproblemtofindbotha x (t)anda y (t)andthenfindthemagnitudeof
theresultingaccelerationvector?
ANSWER:
2.4 m/s 2

Correct

PartF
Calculatethedirectionofthebird'saccelerationatt

= 2.0s

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
FromPartB,youknowtheaccelerationcomponentsofthebirdinxandyatanytimet.Howcanyoufind
thedirectionoftheresultingaccelerationvectorfromthesetwocomponents?
Youmightstartbymakingasketchoftheaccelerationvectorsinxandy(withthexaxishorizontal),add
themasvectors,andexaminetheangleoftheresultantrelativetothexaxis.
ANSWER:

= 270

Correct

PartG
Att

= 2.0s

,isthebirdspeedingup,slowingdownormovingatconstantspeed?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
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Thinkaboutthedirectionofthevelocityvectorandtheaccelerationvectorrelativetoeachother.Iftheyare
theinthesamedirection,isthebirdspeedinguporslowingdown?
ANSWER:
speedingup
slowingdown
movingatconstantspeed

Correct

VideoTutor:BallFiredUpwardfromAcceleratingCart
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionsatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

PartA
Considerthevideoyoujustwatched.Supposewereplacetheoriginallauncherwithonethatfirestheballupward
attwicethespeed.Wemakenootherchanges.Howfarbehindthecartwilltheballland,comparedtothedistance
intheoriginalexperiment?

Hint1.Determinehowlongtheballisintheair
Howwilldoublingtheinitialupwardspeedoftheballchangethetimetheballspendsintheair?Akinematic
equationmaybehelpfulhere.Thetimeintheairwill
ANSWER:

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staythesame.
quadruple.
becutinhalf.
double.

Hint2.Determinetheappropriatekinematicexpression
Whichofthefollowingkinematicequationscorrectlydescribesthehorizontaldistanced betweentheball
andthecartatthemomenttheballlands?Thecartsinitialhorizontalvelocityisv 0x ,itshorizontal
accelerationisa x ,andtisthetimeelapsedbetweenlaunchandimpact.
ANSWER:

d=

1
2

ax t

d = v 0x t

d = v 0x t +
d=

1
2

1
2

ax t

ax v 0x t

ANSWER:
thesamedistance
twiceasfar
halfasfar
fourtimesasfar
byafactornotlistedabove

Correct
Theballwillspendtwiceasmuchtimeintheair(t = 2v 0y /g,wherev 0y istheball'sinitialupwardvelocity).
Whensubtractingthehorizontaldistancethecarttravelsintime,t,fromthehorizontaldistancetheballtravels
intime,t,theterminvolvinginitialvelocityofthecart(whichisalsothehorizontalvelocityoftheball)cancels
out,leavingonlyd =
furtherbehind.

1
2

ax t

(wherea x isthecart'shorizontalacceleration).Theballwilllandfourtimes

VideoTutor:BallsTakeHighandLowTracks
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionsatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

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PartA
Considerthevideodemonstrationthatyoujustwatched.Whichofthefollowingchangescouldpotentiallyallowthe
ballonthestraightinclined(yellow)tracktowin?Ignoreairresistance.
Selectallthatapply.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
AnswersAandBinvolvechangingthesteepnessofpartorallofthetrack.AnswersCandDinvolve
changingthemassoftheballs.So,firstyoushoulddecidewhichofthosefactors,ifeither,canchangehow
fasttheballgetstotheendofthetrack.
ANSWER:
A.Increasethetiltoftheyellowtrack.
B.Makethedownhillanduphillinclinesontheredtracklesssteep,whilekeepingthetotaldistance
traveledbytheballthesame.
C.Increasethemassoftheballontheyellowtrack.
D.Decreasethemassoftheballontheredtrack.

Correct
Iftheyellowtrackweretiltedsteeplyenough,itsballcouldwin.Howmightyougoaboutcalculatingthe
necessarychangeintilt?

VideoTutor:RangeofaGunatTwoFiringAngles
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionsatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

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PartA
Whichprojectilespendsmoretimeintheair,theonefiredfrom30 ortheonefiredfrom60 ?

Hint1.Howtoapproachthisproblem
Whichcomponentoftheinitialvelocityvectoraffectsthetimetheprojectilespendsintheair?
ANSWER:
Theonefiredfrom30
Theybothspendthesameamountoftimeintheair.
Theonefiredfrom60

Correct
Theprojectilefiredfrom60 hasagreaterverticalvelocitythantheonefiredfrom30 ,soitspendsmore
timeintheair.

EnhancedEOC:Exercise3.13
Acarcomestoabridgeduringastormandfindsthebridgewashedout.Thedrivermustgettotheotherside,sohe
decidestotryleapingitwithhiscar.Thesidethecarisonis21.5mabovetheriver,whereastheoppositesideisa
mere1.5mabovetheriver.Theriveritselfisaragingtorrent51.0mwide.
Youmaywanttoreview(

pages7785).

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VectorMagnitudes
Forgeneralproblemsolvingtipsandstrategiesforthistopic,youmaywanttoviewaVideoTutorSolutionofDifferent
initialandfinalheights.

PartA
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Howfastshouldthecarbetravelingjustasitleavesthecliffinordertojustcleartheriverandlandsafelyonthe
oppositeside?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Startbydrawingadiagramthatshowsthepositionofthecarattakeoffandatlandingontheothersideof
theriver.Createanxycoordinatesystemthatmatchesthediagram.
Considerthatthecarmovesinprojectilemotionwhileitisintheairandthatitinitiallymoves(only)
horizontally.
Howlongwillittakeforthecartofallverticallyasitcrossestheriver?Fromthis,howcanyoudetermine
thevelocityitmusthavehadattakeofftojustmakeitacrosstheriver?
ANSWER:
v0

= 25.2 m/s

Correct

PartB
Whatisthespeedofthecarjustbeforeitlandssafelyontheotherside?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Howdothespeedsinxandychangeduringtheflightofthecaracrosstheriver?
Considerthatthehorizontalaccelerationofthecariszerothroughoutitsflight.Whataboutthevertical
acceleration?
Fromtheinitialvelocitycomponentsandtheaccelerations,howcanyoufindthefinalvelocitycomponents
andtheoverallmagnitudeofthefinalvelocityonlanding?
ANSWER:
v

= 32.1 m/s

Correct

EnhancedEOC:Exercise3.30
AtitsAmesResearchCenter,NASAusesitslarge20Gcentrifugetotesttheeffectsofverylargeaccelerations
(hypergravity)ontestpilotsandastronauts.Inthisdevice,anarm8.84mlongrotatesaboutoneendinahorizontal
plane,andtheastronautisstrappedinattheotherend.Supposethatheisalignedalongthearmwithhisheadatthe
outermostend.Themaximumsustainedaccelerationtowhichhumansaresubjectedinthismachineistypically12.5g
.
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Youmaywanttoreview(

pages8588).

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Centripetalaccelerationonacarnivalride.

PartA
Howfastmusttheastronaut'sheadbemovingtoexperiencethismaximumacceleration?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Considerthattheastronautismovinginuniformcircularmotion.Howisthevelocityrelatedtothe
accelerationinthismotion?
ANSWER:
v

= 32.9 m/s

Correct

PartB
Whatisthedifferencebetweentheaccelerationofhisheadandfeetiftheastronautis2.00mtall?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
InPartA,youusedtheaccelerationexperiencedbytheastronaut'sheadatadistance8.84mfromthe
centerofrotation.ForPartB,youwillneedtoalsofindtheaccelerationoftheastronaut'sfeet.
Whatquantitydescribingthemotionwouldbethesameforthehead,feet,andanyotherpointalongthe
centrifugearm?
ANSWER:
a

= 27.7 m/s 2

Correct

PartC
Howfastinrpm(revolutionsperminute)isthearmturningtoproducethemaximumsustainedacceleration?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
FromPartA,youknowhowfasttheastronautismovinglinearlyinm/s(tangenttotherevolving
centrifuge).Butwhatisthedistancethattheastronautmovesineachspinofthecentrifuge?
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Usingthesequantities,howcanyoudeterminethedesiredrateinrevolutionsperminute?
ANSWER:
1
T

= 35.5 rpm

Correct

EnhancedEOC:Exercise3.37
Thenoseofanultralightplaneispointedsouth,anditsairspeedindicatorshows38m/s.Theplaneisina18m/s
windblowingtowardthesouthwestrelativetotheearth.
Youmaywanttoreview(

pages8893).

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VectorAddition
ResolvingVectorComponents
Forgeneralproblemsolvingtipsandstrategiesforthistopic,youmaywanttoviewaVideoTutorSolutionofFlyingina
crosswind.

PartA

Lettingxbeeastandybenorth,findthecomponentsofv P/E
(thevelocityoftheplanerelativetotheearth).

Expressyouranswersusingtwosignificantfiguresseparatedbycommas.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
StartbydrawingadiagramwiththecardinalpointsN,E,S,andWmatchingtheproblemstatementfor+x
beingeastand+ybeingnorth.
Then,drawthevectorfortheplanesdirection,andthevectorforthewind.
Calculatethexandycomponentsofeachvectoralongyourcoordinatesystem,beingcarefultoensurethat
thedirectionscorrectlymatchthesigns.Howcanyoudeterminetheoverallvelocityvectoroftheplane
fromthecomponents?
Whenyouenterthexandycomponentsofthevelocityvector,Masteringexpectsyoullenterthem
separatedbyacomma.
ANSWER:
vx

,v y = 13,51 m/s

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Correct

PartB

Findthemagnitudeofv P/E
.

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
FromPartA,youhavethecomponentsoftheoverallvelocityvectoroftheplanerelativetoEarth.Howis
themagnitudeofavectorrelatedtothecomponentsofavector?
ANSWER:
v P/E

= 52 m/s

Correct

PartC

Findthedirectionofv P/E
.

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
FromPartA,youhavethecomponentsoftheoverallvelocityvectoroftheplanerelativetoEarth.Howis
thedirectionofavectorrelatedtothecomponentsofavector?
Takecaretocalculatetheappropriateanglerelativetothecardinaldirectiongiven.Doyouhavetoincludea
signfortheanglehere?
ANSWER:

= 76 ,southofwest

Correct

DirectionofAccelerationofPendulum
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandthatthedirectionofaccelerationisinthedirectionofthechangeofthevelocity,whichisunrelatedtothe
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directionofthevelocity.
Thependulumshownmakesafullswingfrom/4to+/4
.Ignorefrictionandassumethatthestringismassless.The
eightlabeledarrowsrepresentdirectionstobereferredto
whenansweringthefollowingquestions.

PartA
Whichofthefollowingisatruestatementabouttheaccelerationofthependulumbob,a.
ANSWER:
isequaltotheaccelerationduetogravity.

isequaltotheinstantaneousrateofchangeinvelocity.

isperpendiculartothebob'strajectory.

istangenttothebob'strajectory.

Correct

PartB
Whatisthedirectionofawhenthependulumisatposition1?
Entertheletterofthearrowparalleltoa.

Hint1.Velocityatposition1
Whatisthevelocityofthebobwhenitisexactlyatposition1?
ANSWER:
v1

= 0 m/s

Hint2.Velocityofbobafterithasdescended
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Whatisthevelocityofthebobjustafterithasdescendedfromposition1?
ANSWER:
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowD
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowA
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowH
Thevelocitycannotbedeterminedwithoutmoreinformation.

ANSWER:
H

Correct

PartC
Whatisthedirectionofaatthemomentthependulumpassesposition2?
Entertheletterofthearrowthatbestapproximatesthedirectionofa.

Hint1.Instantaneousmotion
Atposition2,theinstantaneousmotionofthependulumcanbeapproximatedasuniformcircularmotion.
Whatisthedirectionofaccelerationforanobjectexecutinguniformcircularmotion?
ANSWER:
C

Correct
Weknowthatfortheobjecttobetravelinginacircle,somecomponentofitsaccelerationmustbepointing
radiallyinward.

PartD
Whatisthedirectionofawhenthependulumreachesposition3?
Givetheletterofthearrowthatbestapproximatesthedirectionofa.

Hint1.Velocityjustbeforeposition3
Whatisthevelocityofthebobjustbeforeitreachesposition3?
ANSWER:
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verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowB
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowC
verysmallandhavingadirectionbestapproximatedbyarrowH
Thevelocitycannotbedeterminedwithoutmoreinformation.

Hint2.Velocityofbobatposition3
Whatisthevelocityofthebobwhenitreachesposition3?
ANSWER:
v3

= 0 m/s

ANSWER:
F

Correct

PartE
Asthependulumapproachesorrecedesfromwhichposition(s)istheaccelerationvectoraalmostparalleltothe
velocityvectorv .
ANSWER:
position2only
positions1and2
positions2and3
positions1and3

Correct

ArrowHitsApple

Anarrowisshotatanangleof = 45 abovethehorizontal.ThearrowhitsatreeahorizontaldistanceD = 220 m


away,atthesameheightabovethegroundasitwasshot.Useg = 9.8 m/s 2 forthemagnitudeoftheacceleration
duetogravity.

PartA
Findta ,thetimethatthearrowspendsintheair.
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Answernumericallyinseconds,totwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.FindtheinitialupwardcomponentofvelocityintermsofD.
Introducethe(unknown)variablesv y0 andv x0 fortheinitialcomponentsofvelocity.Thenusekinematics
torelatethemandsolveforta .Whatistheverticalcomponentv y0 oftheinitialvelocity?
Expressyouranswersymbolicallyintermsofta andD.

Hint1.Findv x0
Findthehorizontalcomponentv x0 oftheinitialvelocity.
Expressyouranswersymbolicallyintermsofta andgivensymbolicquantities.
ANSWER:
v x0

D
ta

Hint2.Findv y0
Whatistheverticalcomponentv y0 oftheinitialvelocity?
Expressyouranswersymbolicallyintermsofv x0 .
ANSWER:
v y0

v x0

ANSWER:
v y0

D
ta

Hint2.Findthetimeofflightintermsoftheinitialverticalcomponentofvelocity.
Fromthechangeintheverticalcomponentofvelocity,youshouldbeabletofindta intermsofv y0 andg .
Giveyouranswerintermsofv y0 andg .

Hint1.Findv y (t a )
Whenappliedtotheycomponentofvelocity,inthisproblemtheformulaforv(t) withconstant
accelerationg is
v y (t) = v y0 g t

Whatisv y (ta ) ,theverticalcomponentofvelocitywhenthearrowhitsthetree?


Answersymbolicallyintermsofv y0 only.
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ANSWER:
v y (t a )

v y0

ANSWER:

ta

2v y0
g

Hint3.Putthealgebratogethertofindt a symbolically.
IfyouhaveanexpressionfortheinitialverticalvelocitycomponentintermsintermsofDandta ,and
anotherintermsofg andta ,youshouldbeabletoeliminatethisinitialcomponenttofindanexpressionfor
t

2
a

Expressyouranswersymbolicallyintermsofgivenvariables.
ANSWER:
t

2
a

2D
g

ANSWER:
ta

= 6.7 s

Correct

Supposesomeonedropsanapplefromaverticaldistanceof6.0meters,directlyabovethepointwherethearrowhits
thetree.

PartB
Howlongafterthearrowwasshotshouldtheapplebedropped,inorderforthearrowtopiercetheappleasthe
arrowhitsthetree?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinseconds,totwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Whenshouldtheapplebedropped
Theappleshouldbedroppedatthetimeequaltothetotaltimeittakesthearrowtoreachthetreeminus
thetimeittakestheappletofall6.0meters.

Hint2.Findthetimeittakesfortheappletofall6.0meters
Howlongdoesittakeanappletofall6.0meters?
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Expressyouranswernumericallyinseconds,totwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
tf

= 1.1 s

ANSWER:
td

= 5.6 s

Correct

EnhancedEOC:Problem3.59
AccordingtotheGuinnessBookofWorldRecords,thelongesthomerunevermeasuredwashitbyRoyDizzyCarlyle
inaminorleaguegame.Theballtraveled188m(618f t)beforelandingonthegroundoutsidetheballpark.
Youmaywanttoreview(

pages7785).

Forhelpwithmathskills,youmaywanttoreview:
SolvingQuadraticEquations
VectorMagnitudes
ResolvingVectorComponents
Forgeneralproblemsolvingtipsandstrategiesforthistopic,youmaywanttoviewaVideoTutorSolutionofAbatted
baseball.

PartA
Assumingtheball'sinitialvelocitywas60 abovethehorizontalandignoringairresistance,whatdidtheinitial
speedoftheballneedtobetoproducesuchahomeruniftheballwashitatapoint0.9m(3.0f t)aboveground
level?Assumethatthegroundwasperfectlyflat.
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Startbydrawingandlabelingadiagramshowingthestartinglocationoftheball,theinitialmagnitudeand
directionofitsmotion,andwhereitlands.Howfardoesitenduptravellinghorizontally?Howfardoesitend
uptravellingverticallyfromitsstartingposition?Inwhatdirection(s)doesitaccelerate?
Createanappropriatecoordinatesystemtousefortheproblem,andidentifytheballsvelocitycomponents
intermsofthatcoordinatesystem.
Considerthattheballmovesinprojectilemotiononceitleavesthebatandisintheair.Now,considerthe
fivekeykinematicvariablesforboththehorizontalandverticaldirections(displacement,initialvelocity,
finalvelocity,acceleration,andtime).Whicharegivenintheproblem?Whicharentknown?Howcanyou
solvefortheunknownquantitiesneededintermsofwhatisknown?
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Whatistherelationshipbetweenthetimeittakestheballtotravelhorizontallyandthetimeittakestheball
totravelverticallyfromthepointwhereitishittothepointwhereitlandsontheground?
ANSWER:
v0

= 46 m/s

Correct

PartB
Howfarwouldtheballbeaboveafence3.0m(10f t)highifthefencewas116m(380f t)fromhomeplate?
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Howlongdoesittaketheballtotraveltothefence?Usethistofindtheballsheightatthistime.
ANSWER:
h

= 75 m

Correct

Problem3.50
Itiscommontoseebirdsofpreyrisingupwardonthermals.Thepathstheytakemaybespirallike.Youcanmodelthe
spiralmotionasuniformcircularmotioncombinedwithaconstantupwardvelocity.Assumeabirdcompletesacircleof
radius6.00mevery5.00s andrisesverticallyatarateof3.00m/s.

PartA
Findthespeedofthebirdrelativetotheground.
Expressyouranswerusingthreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
v

= 8.11 m/s

Correct

PartB
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Findthemagnitudeofthebird'sacceleration.
Expressyouranswerusingthreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
a

= 9.48 m/s 2

Correct

PartC
Findthedirectionofthebird'sacceleration.
Expressyouranswerusingonesignificantfigure.
ANSWER:
a

= 0 abovethehorizontal

Correct

PartD
Findtheanglebetweenthebird'svelocityvectorandthehorizontal.
Expressyouranswerusingthreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
v

= 21.7

Correct

Problem3.68
Arockisthrownfromtheroofofabuildingwithavelocityv 0 atanangleof0 fromthehorizontal.Thebuildinghas
heighth.Youcanignoreairresistance.

PartA
Calculatethemagnitudeofthevelocityoftherockjustbeforeitstrikestheground.
ANSWER:
v

2
v0
+ 2hg

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Correct

Problem3.69
A5600kg cartcarryingaverticalrocketlaunchermovestotherightataconstantspeedof40.0m/salonga
horizontaltrack.Itlaunchesa43.0kg rocketverticallyupwardwithaninitialspeedof42.6m/srelativetothecart.

PartA
Howhighwilltherocketgo?
ANSWER:
h

= 92.6 m

Correct

PartB
Where,relativetothecart,willtherocketland?
ANSWER:
inthefaceofthecart
inthecart
behindthecart

Correct

PartC
Howfardoesthecartmovewhiletherocketisintheair?
ANSWER:
L

= 348 m

Correct

PartD
Atwhatangle,relativetothehorizontal,istherockettravelingjustasitleavesthecart,asmeasuredbyan
observeratrestontheground?
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ANSWER:

= 46.8 abovethehorizontal

Correct

PartE
Whatistherocket'strajectoryasseenbyanobserverstationaryonthecart.
ANSWER:
therockettravelsinacycloid
therockettravelsstraightupandthenstraightdown
therockettravelsinaparabola

Correct

PartF
Whatistherocket'strajectoryasseenbyanobserverstationaryontheground.
ANSWER:
therockettravelsinacycloid
therockettravelsstraightupandthenstraightdown
therockettravelsinaparabola

Correct

Problem3.65
Asnowballrollsoffabarnroofthatslopesdownwardatanangleof40 .Theedgeoftheroofis14.0mabovethe
ground,andthesnowballhasaspeedof7.00m/sasitrollsofftheroof.Ignoreairresistance.
Assumethecoordinateoriginisatthepointontheroofwherethesnowballrollsoffandthatthepositivexdirectionis
totherightandthepositiveydirectionisupwards.

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PartA
Howfarfromtheedgeofthebarndoesthesnowballstrikethegroundifitdoesn'tstrikeanythingelsewhilefalling?
ANSWER:
x

= 6.93 m

Correct

PartB
Drawx tgraphsforthemotioninpartA.
ANSWER:

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Correct

PartC
Drawy t graphsforthemotioninpartA.
Plotpointsatt

= 0 s, t = 0.4 s, t = 0.8 s, t = 1.0 s, t = 1.3 s

ANSWER:

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PartD
Drawv x

graphsforthemotioninpartA.

ANSWER:

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Correct

PartE
Drawv y

graphsforthemotioninpartA.

ANSWER:

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Correct

PartF
Aman1.9mtallisstanding4.0mfromtheedgeofthebarn.Willhebehitbythesnowball?
ANSWER:
Yes
No

Correct
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis89.1%.
Youreceived30.28outofapossibletotalof34points.

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