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NASA-TM-109783

13s
..

,_,

q.o

":

ii

(NASA-TM-lO978B)
NUTS
AND
(PRACTICAL
APPLICATIONS
OF
AND
NUTS
FOR
THE
DESIGNER)
Goddard

Space

Flight

Center)

BOLTS
BOLTS
(NASA.
135

N96-71964

Unclas

Z9/37

0010466

NUTS

AND

(Practical
of

Applications

Bolts

for

BOLTS

and

the

Nuts

Designer)

by
James
NASA

Goddard

Kerley

Space

Greenbelt,

Flight

MD
Code

January

Center

20771

754

1980

Preliminary

Symbols

Symbol
A

Meaning

Page

Bolt

cross-sectional

Bolt

area

4-4

area

2-13

Bolt

deflection

3-17

Af

Effective

Area

of

gasket

Area

of

steel

g
A

Used

frame

Compliance

Thread

area
under

3-29

compression

under

3-29

compression

reciprocal

1/K

outside

Pitch

4-4

of

stiffness
3-28

diameter

2-11

diameter

2-11

p'
Dw

Washer

mean

A-2-3

diameter

Young's

Modulus

2-13

Eb

Young's

Modulus

for

bolt

4-4

Ef

Young's

Modulus

for

frame

4-4

Young's

Modulus

of

gasket

3-28

ES

Young's

Modulus

of

steel

3-28

Applied

Load

F'

Friction

FB

Additional

bolt

load

4-4

FE

Additional

load

capacity

4-5

Total

Force

added

Summation

of

dF'

2-7

3-4

load

e
Horizontal

reaction

A-2-1

force

HI
H2
K

New

screw

Washer

Bolt

F/A

torque

force

A-2-1

force

A-2-4

3-4

stiffness

Frame

gf

friction

friction

Stiffness

Kb

2-11

3-4

stiffness

3-4

Stiffness

of

gasket

3-29

Stiffness

of

steel

3-29

Ks

xiv

Bolt

grip

Grip

length

2-13

length

Lf

Effective

Length

of

Length

of

of

4-4

bolt

frame

4-4

length

3-28

gasket

g
Summation

of

Torquing

force

Screw

forces

per

dN

2-7
2-5

advance

pitch

3-28

steel

Ls
N

in

one

turn

thread
2-5

revolution

Applied

PD

Pitch

diameter

Total

thread

Ratio

of

2-13

load

A-2-3
friction

bolt

force

stiffness

to

A-2-1
frame

stiffness
S
n

s
s
S
x
S
Y

Normal
Shear

3-4
stress

A-3-1

stress

A-3-1

Normal

stress

(x-direction)

A-3-1

Normal

stress

(y-direction)

A-3-1

Torque

Tension

T 1

Linear

2-11
load

3-50

dimensions

of

plate

tear-out

10

T 2
V

Shear

Applied

force
force

Moment

Diameter

dF'

Incremental

friction

dN

Incremental

normal

Moment

arm

Shear

factor

Distance

r 1
r 2

5-8
5-9
3-49

vertical

arm

of
of

2-5

torquing

washer

2-5

force

face

2-11
2-5

force

2-5

force

3-49,50
5-3

from

reaction

area

normal

screw

centerline
force

line

to
=

rl+r2/2

2-6

Radius

to

inner

edge

of

threads

2-5

Radius

to

outer

edge

of

threads

2-5

xv

Bolt

Total

AL

Change

Ab
Af
A
g
As
41
A2

Bolt

3-35

deflection
in

3-35

length

3-17

deflection

Frame

3-17

deflection

Gasket

3-29

deflection

Steel
Bolt

2-13

elongation

retainer
elongation

Frame

Angle

at

deflection

Summation

of

of

3-29

deflection
each

(each

of

ends

2-7

values

2-5

inclination

Angle
between
the vertical
normal
to the thread
face

and

A
2-10
2-13

Strain

Coefficient
u1
u2

of

2-1

friction

Thread

coefficient

of

friction

2-11

Washer

coefficient

of

friction

2-11

o=o t

Tensile

Shear

stress

Angle
plane

from
plane
of unknown

3-1,3
3-1,3

end)

incremental

thread

its

2-13

stress

5-8

of known
stress

xvi

stress

to

A-3-3

SECTION
PROBLEMS

Proper

and

of

the

of

analysis

of

be

these

Q.I
bolt
how

Why

is

and

nut

the
by

it

so

of

from

the

accurate

employed.

These

but

joint

used,

completely

not

tests,

con-

fasteners

resulting
a

are

careful

the

complexity

joint

difficult

to

combinations

often

analysis

head
is

they
are

combined

assumptions

are

not.

Some

explored

by

the

in

to

be

positive

decision

on

what

used

in

an

application,

and

applied?

of

the

bolt

locations

next

stresses

be

root

are

make

should

should
the

It

thread

where

critical

impossible

these

areas

prime

difficulty

and

to

under

the

radius

stresses

measure

or

loading

under

usually

even

calculate

conditions

experienced

bolts.

Q.2

What

other

selection
A.2

and

The

joint

is

materials,

labor

assurance
Q.3

by

What
nut

A.3

are

quality

from

most

bolt

most

encountered

with

bolt

the

control

same

difficult

and

to

inspection

problems

between

manufacturer
find.
have

manufacturers

some

both

to
induced

different

present
Increasing

forced
remain
by

difficulties.
costs

reduction

for

in

quality

competitive.
geometry

errors

in

bolt

applications?

Geometry
moments

in

and

Consistency

is

reliability?

variations

manufacturers

and

joined,

prevents

aspects

torque

bolt

occur.

requires

questions.

Because
the

by

CONNECTIONS

design

assumptions

various

much

A.1

The

variables

basic

BOLTED

being

geometry.

verified

following

and

materials

these

if

WITH

analysis

the

joint

effects

should

ENCOUNTERED

joint

sideration

as

errors
a

function

can
of

induce
geometry,

additional
as

shown

joint
in

forces
figure

and
i.

I-i

la
Bolted
Not

lb

Surfaces

Hole

lc

Drilled

Parallel

an

at

Head

Angle

of

Id

Bolt

Perpendicular
Centarline
Figure

Geometry

Q.4

If
forces
to

it

were

acting

predict

A.4

the

in

on

that

and

in

of

in
the

The

critical

stress

is

the

bolt

in

threads

and

the

Perpendicular

Bolt

Centerline

forces

and

accurately
why

would

references

Not
to
Bolt

Of

moments

all

it

listed

variation

bolt

nuts

Nut

of

still

the

be

difficult

fasteners?

wide

the

and

of

to

additional

joint,

these

induce

determine

three

is

both

bolts

to

of

Face

which

nut/bolt

there

threads,

analysis

bolts

possible

stresses

Figure
clearly

errors

Not

and

must

of

the

take

generally

in

in
the

stress

nut.
this

the
nut

below

Any

point

levels

next

along

thorough

variation
first

out

few

into
threads

to

the

bearing

point

of

maximum

account.
of

surface.
Bolts
stress,
are

not

predicted

and

nuts

at

always

"average
by

most

break

stresses".
analyses.

1-2

at

their
Yet

only

"average

stresses"

If

bolt

engineers

were

would

predicts

define

only

the

local

points

in

These

local

points

would

not

bolt

load

tightened

spring

the

"average

bolt

driven
back

have

been

will

not

produce

yield

point"),

which

the

to

same

one

of

"Two

I
1
Stress
(from

Figure

2a

- Theoretical

'

i-3

(and

analysis

then

major

would

have

yield

regions

why

value

--

--

the
bolts

second

force.

Nut_

Nut_/_
3.85)

typical

I
2

examples"

'

I'
J
Factor,

Distribution

in

Nuts

and

be

yielded.

when

reason

some

which

there

already

certain

Concentration
Reference
5}

Stress

an

positions

(Conventional
(Kma x

point

plastic

clamping

Top

by

original
is

up

yield

would

their

their
This

torqued

its

point

into

to

to

yield

threads

is'released.

which

up

Bolts

time

References:
Kulju,

Ken,

"How

1967.

Cnalupnik,
Roots,"

James
Experimental

D.,

"Stress
Mechanics.

Fastening

determine
heads

the
and

in

example,

will

unbroken

The

or

crucial
the

high

stress

develop
rolled

for

form

uniform

grain

flow

stress

in
Bolt-Thread
1968.(4)
Costs,"

and

around

forgings,

grain

with

unbroken

flow
stress

its

to

smooth

for
flow

are
"V"

most
shaped

radiused

threads

roots

in

formed

threads.

-.,

i .q

) 2.)
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-.

2b-

Coarle

_-.S

lines.

critical

P;nl

rl_o

the

concentrations

"runout"

Machined

compared

will

concentrations
head

and

(Editorial)

threads

Controlled

concentrations.
cracks

and

heads

reduces

formation

Joints,"

1973.(5)

bolt

fillet

threads.

thread

Concentration
September

January

methods

Bolted

(3)

Reliability

Engineering.

Fabrication

soon

High-Strength

May

"Controlling

to

Design

Design.

Assembly

This

to

Machine

rrznq_
order
mxkm4
ro[
ovef|zlo
bolts.
I|tandard
at
bottom_
hzqh
numbwr,
Itrellel.
I
(rroa
kferl_*

i!!

....
0

rLqmte

etend4r4
and
nut|
are
qlve
ht_h
AI

1-4

2c

s0
-

1o0 lso

SCrenqth
threedm
nltorm

.o

2s0 (percent)

4dvlntl_e
of
_rse
Ln _utm
io due
to
lo_d
4_m_bu_zon

more
:n

Q.5

Why
are

are

so

offered

A.5

It

is

in

of

are

Q.6

a
What

variable
A.6

One
structural
angularity
Some
fatigue
Reference

to

offering

design

many

difficulties
around

approach

which

may

be

which

geometric

of

which

of

joint

have

been

in

various

is

is
not

and

by
profound

its

figure

r_uct

L_

fatigue

1'4tLque

of

tOO
4gl

Flqure

rffoct

7_t

Of

Nut

An._htrlty

(_,e,,,_r,,c,
6)

1-5

the

get

design?

effect
life

seating

IS0

Anmulalr*ty

of

proper

nut

Nut-race

results

0.5

addition,

geometric

from

l*fe

to

In

is

on
nut

3).

developed

inclinations

Ln

most

joint

be

using

considered.

circumvent
has

to

wrong.

impossible

2OO

"

solutions

important

better

eliminate

7).

o_

any

solutions
or

important

variable

illustrated

with

an
can

conclusions
tests

it

designer

integrity
(as

if

the

is

begin

which
it

of

It

to

misleading

However,

example

the

than

techniques

difficulty

one

before

all

solutions.

either

presented.

is

consider

problems

design

design

presented

manual?

before
these

assumptions
there

difficulties

this

a good

difficulties
aware

many

1.5
(deq.)
on

f'atL.ue

LLfr

of
(see

the

Inclination
effect
more

on

of

fatigue
at
can

Additional

F.

In
bolts

is

amount
which

one

nuts.

However,

proper

design

variable
the

sure

Make

sure

If

the

to

bring

it

due

the

Q.7
before

to

A.7
is

(7)

stresses
stress

due
by

from

Publication.

bending

bolt

load

design
these

to

calcu-

the

angularity

measuring

the

gap

of

some

below.

problem
of

testing

of

manual.)

bolts

and

problem

by

takinc

following:
being

bolt

made
the

two

to

joint

bolted

and

flat,

the

nut

meet

factors
in

most

problems

bolt

that

the

bolt
that

bending

all

stress

in

manufacturing

are

are

assumptions.

nuts

difficulties

washers

common
(i.e.,

not

contribute
both

angle

flatness.

the

and

and

use

required
of

equally,

consider

considerably
and

should
direct

minor

to

bolts.
be

"average

investigated
tensile

combination?
of

(Some
areas

the

that

two

can

both

this

are

assumptions

major

on

surfaces.

be

stresses

bolt-nut

the

of

to

surfaces

other

methods
this

reprinted

requirements.

lead

the

designer

list

given

these

can

critical

in

with

Establishment,

direct

which

head

shown

These

stresses"

the

cannot

seating

many
a

Life

effect

interface

surfaces

been

as

plates

flat

the

contrary,

How

references.

Cahners

circumvent

such

that

take

actual

can

flatness

has

threads

the

adverse

surfaces

negligible).
On

an

the

have

assumptions

bolts

has
designer

controlled

bolt

determined

that

together

design

be

precautions,

Make

Now

Bolts,"

can

40%.

head.

This

in
News,

by

(6)

for

in

one-degree

cycles

Aircraft

gives

stress

being
a

107

Fatigue

nomogram
article

effect

following

1968.

Design
a

of

bending,

above,

the

induced

the

Royal

Stresses

adverse

example,
at

Bolt

July

of

This

for

the

67174.

provided.

lations

of

Seating,"

issue

Reference

For

in

an

the

strength

given

Bending

1972

have

strength,

"Variation

for

21,

will

endurances.

Nut

Report

"Nomogram
Aug.

and

are

of

Technical

seating

fatigue

E.,

Inclination

under

long

reduce

discussions

Kiddle,

in

nut

endurance

pronounced

inclination

the

or
and

the

major

practical
ways

to

analysis

1-6

problem

areas

methods

for

get
are

around
given

them
in

in

bolt

elimination
in

design

subsequent

design
of
or

by

sections

I.

The
stress
uniform.

2.

nut

not

distribution

may

be

manufactured

perpendicular

3.

The
to

4.

The

5.

Part

across

the

with

to

the

its

axis

of

bolt
head
bearing
surface
the
axis
of
the
bolt
hole.
axis

of

mating

bolt

hole

surfaces

may

may

threads

interface
the

may

not

not

not

be

surface

bolt

not

be

be

may

hole.

be

perpendicular

straight.

parallel

when

bolted

together.
6.

Lubricating
the
stress
variations

7.

Types
of
suitable

8.

The

9.

The

Methods

of

part

project.

of

and

to

nuts

in

may

may

the

washer

cause

not

be

materials

materials

may

manufacturing

analyze

bolts
occurring

inspection

may

may

"average

loads"

be
suspect
within
the

and

application

quality

may

control

not

and

compared
bolts.

be

with

may

be

reliable

and

stresses.

shock

present

Methods

in

additional

Vibration

and

in

the

control

used

torque

induce

could
14.

quality

methods

on

may
13.

head,

incompatibilities

stresses"
peak
stresses

Methods
poor

12.

bolts

including

of

Analytical

for

the

poor.

"average
actual
ii.

and

together,
problems.

methods

be
i0.

materials
used
or
compatible.

variables

clamped
present

threads
and
under
in
the
bolt.

applications

for

bolts

and

nuts

problems.

used

to

prevent

shock

may

be

encountered

and

vibration

may

be

inadequate.
15.

Problems
stud

Q.8

What

(without

is

one

nut),

practical

when

using

including

way

to

the

the

use

circumvent

bolt

of

many

as

inserts.
of

the

above

variables?
A.8

There
to

verify

is
the

one

torques

illustrates

this

with

and

bolt

simple
and

method
nut

experimental

method

preloads
in

which

combination.

applied
two
This

plates
method

which
to

are

can
joint.

held

requires

be

used

Figure
together
prototype

1-7

II

nuts,

bolts

type

and

system

assembly,*
and

(to

possible).
flat.

the

Make

sure

and
on

and

turn

given

in

second

estimated
the

others

of

of

either

compressed.

of

would

tested

with

the

yield

bolt,

However,

it

lubricated
such
systems

have

all

nut,

most

threads

been
and

its

or

not

washers

tight.
of

or

the

plates

wrench
to

reach

torque

from

estimates

twisting
in

the

50%,

with

figure

4.

plate
70%

again.

and

torques

90%

were
higher

than
If

too

low,

then

the

same

as

mark

bolt
of

inherent

the
the
until

length.
the

variables.
could

be

plates
know

the

being
only

permissible

vacuum
systems.
be
used.

the

procedure

the

the

of

calculated

applied.

to

be

control

torque

reached
even

smooth

and

measurement

of

as

torque

re-measure

important

may

1-8

hand

was

actually

as
space
or
should
then

up

appreciably

torque

accurate

the
is

yield

calculated

Then
an

of

the

the

nut

mark

torque

110%

the

and

much

bolt

reputable

indicated

yield

to

reached.

that

as

the

are

bolt,

bolt

be

was

be

the

proto-

of

quality

tables

would

yield

as

thickness

torques

to

will

joint

yield

use

is

torque

however,

of

head

from

computed

torque

Continue

point

Note,

110%

the

calibrated

plate

turn

in

plates

drawn

torque

If

on

used

their

the

its

for

angle

90%

be

Hold

torque.

the

for

and

bolt

yield

the

washers

can

test

the

prototype

of

the

be

reduced
of

quality

10%

yield

torque

yield

applications
degreased

bolt

to

the

increments.
yield

the
a

to
under

trusted

nut

processes

from

or

below).

of

when

nuts

the

Mark

same

combination

*The

30%

the

increment

This

up

section

theoretical

the

nut

faces

the

Take

simple

is
and

the

be

manufacturers

apply

properly,

other

of

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A.12

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the

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used
themselves?

the

that

with

the

incurring

metallurgy

of

ex-

the

used?

Are

all

them
are

are
always
aware
working
with?

marked

in
of

1-18

such
the

way

type

that
of

is

applied

the

be

design

what

to

on

should

specifications

systems
costs?

improperly

effect

safety
factor
load
capacities

incorporates

expected
cessive
Is

the
and

of
safety
factor
for
the
materials?

dynamic

should
vibration
Has

of

finishes

high-

ordinary

ductility

threads

of

hard

lock-nuts

for

the

expense

the

following:

specified

for

use

which

What

temperatures

questions

What

Will

specific

be
specified
much?

design

torque

lubricant
If
so,
how

surface

be

of

bolt

mechanics
or

nut

using
they

the

What

are

the
ing

the

effects

tightening
it
more

of

What
installation
operation?

How.

reliable

How

tamper-proof

been

torqued?

well-meaning
"just
to
Even
and
to
o

keep

What

effect

What
design

are

What

How
or

The
review

In

and

be

outlined

design

and
by

the

after

yield-

torquing

they

vandals,

the

nut

an

what

but

have

with

extra

twist

in
the
threads
can
be
done

minimum?

manufacturing
and

nuts

distributions
not
known,
a

in

during
of

method?

process

have

on

the

nuts?

the
commercially
for
bolted
joints?

should

gaskets
covers

be

used

and

with

always

attempt
the

to

bolted
for

following
for

be
tightened
from
being

should

integrity

the

the
bolts

of

reliable

give

bolt

effects

military
established
How
do
these
different

caution

in

bolted

combination?

that

adequate

does

to

the

the

compare?

designer

satisfied

bolts

who

stresses

some
criteria

should
retainer

it,

the

the
exact
stress
bolt
head
are

materials

joint
o

most

necessarily

mechanics
safe".)

of

criteria
o

are

in

are

"turn-of-the-nut"

are

these

performance

the

(Not

the

What

tools

is

be

though
under

over-yielding

operation?
than
once?

make

answer

each

joints

he

their

answers

similar
question

has

intended

sections,

developing

to
prevent
damaged?

their

flanges

check

list,

before

he

configured

will

is
have

job.

some

specific
to

some

approaches
of

these

will

practical

questions.

1-19

23

Q.18

What
and

are

bolt

A.18

The
High

some

report,

"The

Strength

Traask,
excellent

The

Torque

by

Commerce

developed

and

tensions

J.

and

I.

Bureau

in
are

torques

Tension

Price
of

bolt
head
is
relatively

The

the

length

of

on

the

bolt

or

and

for

D.

K.

Standards_l_s"

does

(except

devices

reference

not

for

have

an

an

extremely

long

influence

the

torque.
below.

We

development

lubrication

other
on

Several

bolt

Bolts"

Corporation}l_d"
Westerlund

_'
in

reference

it
the

references

due

to

applied

the

proportions

of
a
lessening

describing

by

references
Roland

L.

"Tightening

Assembly
can

high

strength

bolts).

the

fastener
of
the
in

through
locking

more

effects

detail

of

torques?

additional

Lubricated

this

assumed
on
its

torque-tension

are

applied

torques

appreciable
for

Repeated
installations
locking
device
causes
explore

for

relations

relations.
the
same

shall

between

valid

to
the
nut.
(It
is
short
and
lubricated

torque-tension

tested

Self-locking

this

generally

applied
to
the
that
the
bolt
threads.)

What

A.19

of

relations

fasteners

Q.19

applied

report.

effect

between

between

Fasteners,"

Department

torques

relations

Relation

Threaded

U.S.

classical

tensions?

include
Roehrich,

Threaded

Engineering,

be

found
torque

shown

in

that
can
figure

2-3

be

Fasteners"

8.

force
to

be

in

Electric
by

1977L13)In

reaction
assumed

Stresses

Westinghouse

June
the

"Torquing

Bengt
this

last

components

distributed

into

Converted
Clamping

to
Force

Friction
Head
of

Under
Nut

10%

40%
50%
Thread
Friction

Figure

Q.20

After

The
acting
consider

- Torque

friction,

considered
A.20

in
next

on

the
a

the

what

square

Forces

the

important

torque/preload

logical
bolt

is

Reaction

variable

during
thread

its
which

2-4

next

Breakdown

variable

to

be

relation?
should

consider

torque-up.
is

easy

To
to

the
do

this

understand.

force
first

balance

Torquing

Torque

r ce

Normal

Force

T
Figure

Force

2-5

Balance

on

Bolt

Force

Pa

CJ
rll_i.l

|%_=

/r

/,

,., I

=
0

1\

I
_J

I II
!
I

II
I

II
I

tI
I

i
I

I
I

,_

II

\\

,_

t\

J'

_J

_J

I
_J

!/

I /I

QJ

_J
(2
I

_J
t_

1.1

l,l

2-6

Refer

to

square

threaded

to

jack

the

Q.21

is

The

from

"p"
the

often

with

and

i0

load

angle

6?

angle

base

the

show

torque

helical

equal

to

P.a*

is

applied

W.

is

of

mean

which

centerline

as

calculated

using

length

2_r,

to

reaction

the

radius

where

helical
is

normal

= _i+r2)/2,

wedge

the
force

and

of

distance
line,

"p"

is

the

pitch.
e

is

generally

small,

then

tan

&

or

p/2nr

radians).

Q.22

What

A.22

Referring
thread

are

are

Let

the
to

"N"

which

figures

the

total

force

is

the

is

and

acts

the

applied

F',

"N",

resist

that

the

+The
symbol
values.

single

thread?

forces

acting

be

lifted

along

the

forces

on

single

or

the

bolt

dN

or

is

vertical

axis.

"[dN"+for

all

"W".

which

applied

reaction

result

torque

of

"W"

Pa.

torque

is

always

opposed

to

motion.
and

"W"

all

which

means

the

to

the

The

forces

also

down

force

directions

the

to

opposite

horizontal

to

ii,

of

friction
to

also

on

weight

acting

acts

the

Note

and

summation

and

"F"

act

below.

"W"be

threads

forces

explained

clamping

*P.a

screw

Since
(in

the

taken

thread

lift

incline

height

jack-screw.

to

What

A.21

Figures

have
and

produce

vertical

axis

components

of

they

must

torques
the

in

therefore

are

bolt.

the

and

balance.

always
The

vertical

perpendicular

applied

torque

is

arm

distance

a.

horizontal.

the
[

force
is

used

"P"
to

multiplied
represent

2-7

by

the

moment

the

sum

of

small

incremental

DLrect
J.on
of mot ion

(on _tc)

rix_

\vrLc[on
A_'_

_
Unit
_oml
normal
forte

_tx

What
the

A.23

is

the

coefficient

thread

r,
In

developed

where

forte
,_s dN.
_ts&
on sll
of I:he threads

Piqure

Q.23

and

Appendix
which

vorce,

|riCt_oII

11

is

Friction

Porces

relationship
of

the

u,

applied
this

relates

Wr

the
mean

force

manual,

these

tan

thread
2nr

2-8

the

lu.
is

fr*ctao,
threads

dr'

on
is

on Thread

the

axial

of

Pa

scCxnq

of

between

friction

A1

to,_l

all
p,.)

N.

forte

base

applied
radius

torque
of

the

Pa,
screw

w?
the

following

formula

is

variables.

tan

pitch

u
_

(2)

This

result

can

Given
o

be

jack

If

the

is

given,

of

friction

"r"

is

If

the

screw

is

"W"

available
the

radius

Given

the

It

and
when

in
the

thread
same

generally

to

and

if

be

said

available

of

to

be

the

then
_

can

as

in

the

formed

the

only

thread

of

calculated.

the

available
the

one

thread,

high

are

strength

desirable,

mandatory

selecting
most

where

force

given

are

In

of
threads

the

of

case

of

torque

then

"r",

threads

(or

available

given

threads

thread.

screw

be

advance

designed.

%-20

jack

the

the

clamping

radius

be

or

of

given,

lifted,

screw

lifted

coefficient

can

also

"W"

or

from

are

threads

above.

given

calculated.

consists

and
u

, formed

10-32

Pa

be

rolled

design_roblem
as

torque

the

necessary

radius
or

coefficient

of
be

the

weight

and

emphasized,

that

mean

lifted,
_

given

on

given,

9:

revolution
the

the
(2)

can

specifications

be

the

given

be

"r"

is

maximum

for

to

then

figure

per

radius

formula

"p"

in

If

"W"

known,

known,

"p"

mean

weight

from

coefficient,

nuts,

such
can

is

depends

many

the

as

pitch

the

also

The

"Pa",

should

and

if

weight

friction

known,

is

"W"

screw

torque

bolts

is

advance

"Pa"

which

calculated.

known.

torque

be

can

calculated

"r"

Given

and

"u"

threads

its

force)
be

square
or

known,

can

follows:

advance

"_"

Pa

as

with

then

friction

screw

screw

clamping

surmnarized

the
cases

the

sizes

even
proper
the
are

catalogues.

2-9

33

Another
of

bolts

there

factor

and
are

nuts

six

variations

can

only

The

there

quality

This
will

the

Q.24

What

of

thread

methods

of

gives

catastrophic

of

friction

assure

to

have

load,

as

in

better

several
several

connecting

together,

plate.

and

it

loss.
(U)

is

usually

reliable

torque

reading

analysis

developed

loads.

torque
new

bending
structure

many

as:

the

the
is

to

bolt

classical

relations
Foisy

holds

controlled

method

local

and

preload

variable,

i.e.,

previously

the

used

analysis

tapere_

will

are

currently

which

predicts

be

thread

above

instead

introduced.

available

for

threads?

One

A.24

take

stock

overriding

desirable
take

ma3ority

other

usually

to

coefficient

uniform

square

standard

design

vast

allowing

also

such

bolt
usually

usually

becontinuedanda

of

bolt

Coulomb

and

in

equation,
are

included,

is

off-the-shelf

above
There

it

always
one

fails,

the

be

although

from

larger

(u),

bolts

bolts

in

not

that

supplied

single

angle

smaller

If

be

is

selection.

may

Although
lead

can

the

which

remember

variables

in

variables

to

is:

reference
Analysis

R64SE45
(15)

Class

of
1

Nut

July

31,

and

Bolt

1964,

torque
Torques,

General

and
by

Electric

preload
James

E.

Corp.

Report.
What

Q.25

is

considered
A.25

The
a

3_

normal

an
in

angle
to

added
square
8 which

the

thread

variable

in

this

analysis

which

was

not

threads?
is

the

face.

2-10

angle
(See

between
Figure

the
12.)

vertical

and

Dp
(P_tch

F*qu_'e

Q.2

How
to

A.2

the

are

all

torque

The

of

diameter

Dp

T
as

?apezed

the

load

torque

12

Oxamete_)

Thread

variables

relation
is

VA_t

related

to

this

variable

and

analysis?

related

follows

Aaq_e

to

(from

the

applied

Appendix

load

A2)

F,

and

to

the

pit_

(D+b)

(3)
T : F
where

-_2 [ Tan

_ +

Ul

Sec

thread

outside

thread

lead

angle

thread

form

angle

+ U2

diameter

2-11

2 Dp

]
b

washer

face

diameter

Ul=

thread
coefficient
friction

of

u2=

washer
coefficient
friction

of

Q.27

How

A.

Nomographs,

27
solve

is

this

bolt

nut
(2)

size,

(b)

torque
be

values.
give

load
as

used

to

Further,
(a)

to

optimize

friction

friction),
to

machined

most

are

relations.

lubrication

optimized

the

programs

follows:

desirable

For

today?

computer

effective

be
(d)

to

and

modified

most

can

practical

torque

obtain

(for

varied

stud
be

to

Variables

rules

and
can

coefficients
(c)

made

slide

bolt,

equation

equation

give

the

threads

desirable

most

the

lead,

reliable

screw
"D

"

design

or

the

can
best

P
thread
the

angle

8 .

optimum

(e)

washer

(controlled

by

To

determine

conditions,

U2),

such

stiffness

as

and

desired

hardness

lubrication

to

eliminate

galling,

etc.
Q.

28

Give

some

utilized
A.

28
Co.,

specific

in

design

Machine
New

June

Mechanics

for

General

Motors
for

this

equation

146.

Fastener

Tension

Laughlin,

is

in

Lubricated

8,

1967,

Bolts,

p.

171.

Statics

on

Schaum

Publishing

(16)

Institute,

Torque

Assembly

Holowenko,

Engineers,

Nomogram

Thompson,

p.

Stresses

Design",

Harris,

Hall,

1961,

Torquing

where

problems?

Design,

York,

"Machine

references

Control

Engineering,

Dynamics,

Ronald

"Design
"What

L.

Roehrich,

(12)
and

The

Bolts,

Roland

Charles

Press
News",

It's

November

All

Co.,
May

N.Y.
22,

About",

1976,

O.

197_

Terrence

p.

22.(18)

described

by

TURN-OF-THE-NUT-METHOD

Q.29

What

is

the

A.29

This

is

following
steel
inch
30,000

bolt
bolts

of

grip
psi.

turn-of-the-nut-method?
preload

method

behavior.

are

stretched

length
(See

when
Figure

which

Because

can
of

their

approximately
the
13.)

2-12

stress

be

elastic
.001

in

the

modulus,

inches
bolt

the

is

for

each

approximately

Steel

Example

bolt

30

30,000

load

106

psi

in

1"

sq

Bolt

1.001

Length

30,000

Grip

lbs

under

psi

stress

in

(30,000)(i).
(1) (30,000,000)

.001

in

Figure

Since
o

P/A

and

the

=
is

tensile

A/L

the
of

the

area

written

as

aL/E

is

30,000

psi

grip

pendent

and

in

is

d.

the

solving

for

_/L

which

.001:

up

to

of

grip

bolt
If

30,000

grip
a

two

extension

the

bolt.

simply

psi,

(independent
for
inch
will

grip
be

i.e.,

the

will
bolt

.002

is
times

be
diameter

to

be

equation

is

the

is

the

equation

i,

page

1-10)

elongation
inde-

(I)

desired

can

be

preload

re-

stress

gives

strain

when

any

stretch
of
.002

steel
of

the

per
to
=

is

inches

bolt).

inches

gives

bolt

.001

pre-stressed

(90,000/30,000)

2-13

the

(_/L

that

stretch

(from

equation

30,000
30,000,000

would

of

example

if

means

there

is

deflection
The

30,000,000,

strain,

bolt
modulus,

this

Therefore
is

Young's

or,

Turn-of-the-Nut-Method

length,

of

13

stress

where

bolt

P L
AE

per

two

.006

inch

inch

30,000
90,000

stressed

long

psi.
psi,

inches.

the

A quarter inch 20 bolt means that the bolt has 20 threads


per inch or 1/20 = .05 inches pitch per thread. _"__refore, every tin_
that this bolt (i.e.,
1/4-20) rotates one turn, it advances
.05 inches. For example, if a four inch grip 1/4-20 bolt is robe prestressed

to

90,000

inches.

If

we

stretching
the

then

turns
lf

the

(i.e.,

this

Refer
ratio
the

not

the

area

our

of

stretched

the

to

seating

.012

work

work

being

have

goes

goes

into

bolted

be

turns
rather

twisted

of

.012/.05

nut

by

cause

nut.

holt

additional

amount

turn).

the

on

bolt

bolt

computation.

on

torques.

experiences

during

This

The

durina

Dre-toruue

pre-torque

the

is

effective

value

is

or

other

the

flatness

be

turned

up

example,

two

inches

apart

.0_
the

turn
more

is
to

For

warped

the

nothing

plate

affected

or
by

the

of

entire
the

than

draw

compressible

nut

of

snug

inch

thick
a

theoretical

these

plates

impurities

plates

before

before

inserted)

the

measuring
steel

preload

torque

preload
when

(as

applied,

together.

Also,

between

the

plates

hole

drilled

into

the

used

may

be

troubles.

angular
could

section

depends

has

Therefore,

could

not

often?

variable

The

be

rust

an

straightforward

compresses
It

critical

could

dirt,

1/2

tension

frame

is

etc.

the

do

or

more

com-

(which

the

turned

simple

used

into

position.

be

compression.

of

would

to

previous

quantity.
under

calculated

The

the

applied.

plates

to

bolted.

plates

.48

not

washers,

turn

is

would

be

applied

material

have

amount

Another

the

will

like

amount

of

being

to

the

none

initial

method

fixed

frame

of

and

bolt

.24

back

of

and

use

bolt

sounds

is

A.30

all

plate

its

times

This
Why

the

have

theboltedmaterialccmpressesthesamedistancethat

extends,

Q-30

will

only,
or

beyond

it
that

bolt
frame

possible),
.24

assume

the

pressing

psi,

also

perpendicularity
be

off.

of
The

2-14

washers

not

flat

(and it would not take much rotation


to throw them off .010
inches). Since there are so many variables
in bolt torquing,
it would be dangerous to suppose that this "turn-of-the-nut"
method could
be
an
accurate
one.
Q.

31

When

A.

31

Around
are

should
heavy

assembled

centage

the
steel

only

over-torqued,

the

nut)

because

The

to

provide

they

would

the

method

construction

once.

elongation

are

"turn-of-the-nut"

only,

bolts

not

steel

used?

where

also

have

forgiveness.
break

used

and

must

some

be

the

generally

be

bolts

high

If

(neither

would

the

per-

such

bolts

bolt

nor

low

carbon

steel.
Only
the

length

and

where

out

his

of

all,

has

used

the

In

traced

light

to
be

There

method.

Helpful

the

of

include
Hints,

Russell,

Facts

15.

Bulletin,

Fastener

Turn-of-the-Nut
Assembly

*Punched
dig

washers
in

strength

when

its

are

is
the

for

alloy

job
which

torque-up

reviewed

method

questionable

particular

be

no

failures

every

have

job

should

parameters.
using

this

before

"turn

using

of

the

and

Ward

Bolt

and

Nut

(19)
No.

35A,

Sales,

March,

Method,

M.

not

flat
Lock

Bethlehem
1967.

D.

Engineering,

torqued.

it

building

Burdsall

Fastener

or

higher

this

following:

p.

Joining",

of

references

1971,

The

advent

for

check

should
than

should
the

to

better

on

specific
which

etc.,

wrench

calculations,

problems,

based

some

torque

enough

knows

materials,

is

good

joint

foreman

method

recent

Company,

Industrial

nut

the

industry,

now
the

evaluated

all

These

of

bolted

are

method,

the

construction
is

of

calibrated

this
with

steel

condition

of

Although

accuracy

required.

construction

good

turn

steel

the

the
the

unfortunately

whether

nut"

where
bolts,

used.

in

been

case
the

he

be

bolts

approximate

method
at

in

and
washers

Steel

Hoza,

"Fastening

January,

1967.(21)

they

sometimes
are

Corporation,

(20)

particularly

and

flatten

out
bad.

2-15

3&,

the

Reader

Feedback:

"Fastening

The

and

Turn-of-the-Nut

Joining",

Turn-of-the-Nut

Method,

Assembly

Method...

Jack

Wilheld,

Engineering,

Seven

Simple

April

Steps,

E.

19_ 2)'_.

F.

Ball,

(23)
Assembly

Engineering,

Reader

Feedback:

"Fastening
Bolt

A.

32

other

torqued

Twist

Slip
is

Sure

March,

for

It's

A.

Right?,

1975.

limiting

or

Hansenl)_,

April,

1967.

S.

(25)

controlling

the

preloads

nuts

heads

which

and

nut

fail

when

bolts

collars

which

applies

are

slip

over-torqued.

when

required

torque

reached.

Bolt

heating

which

installed

in

Hydraulic

tensioning

are

run

preload

the

which

controls

the

load

until

gages

mounted

on

the

bolt

(usually

head).
measurement

of

bolt

lengths

to

determine

elongations.
o

Built-in

Load

indicating

Most

of

strain

these

when

structure.

strain

Micrometer

predetermined

up.

Monitoring
within

be

Roger

Engineering,

bolt.
off

nuts
o

You

Design,

methods

Method,

Assembly

Can

Machine

1967.

Turn-of-the-Nut

Joining",

Preload--How

List
in

The

and

Cornford,

Q.32

August,

measurement.
washers
are

used

special

2-16

to

indicate

devices

(see

total
Table

load.
2-1).

the

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2-17

98

SECTION
The

Effects

of
on

Q.33

Now

that

load/torque
most

A.33

It
bolt

is

and

Bolted

Bolt

Tightening

Structure

method

has
for

Methods

Stresses

been

established

bolt-nut

for

calculating

combinations,

what

the

is

the

next

consideration?
necessary

to

clamped

Various

relation

important

III

the

to

understand

structure

assembly

as

deflections

exactly
or

what

the

nut

bolt

and

stresses

the

step-by-step

happens

is

must

to

the

tightened.
be

The

thoroughly

understood.
Q.34

From
an

figure

understanding

A.34

To
bolt

and

nut

bolt

the

frame

the

two

parts

nut

had

been

(14e)

and

the

bolt

itself

to

to

observe

its

its

tighten

is
the

shown

in

position
their

up

the

to

the

figure

(14c)
final

14a;

next,

(14b);

compress

reassemble

then

positions

combination.

the

variations

separate

position

in

applied

of

process,

final

final

(14d)

to

load

as

development

process?

tightening

assembly

used

tightening

bolt

together

pull

is

the

together

external

the
the

from

the

what

of

understand

stretch

frame

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and

in

deflections

shown

split

as

bolt

if

the

assume

an

assembly

and

stresses

in

parts.

the

In

step

bolt

is

which
Two

it

(14a)
turned

would

end

horizontal

locate

the

would
value

up

if

its

final

up

if

the

nut

marked
point

had

represents

the

i14c)

compress

would

have

deflected

from

the

of

two

been

if

the

horizontal

3-1

on

extension
to

a
up

elongation
frame

turned

shown

bolt

to
bolt

had

beginning

the

14

which

where

at

frame).

it

frame.

each

of

2A 2

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its
(the

compressed
lines

point

on

reference.

the

length

nut

on

figure

position
on

the

to
up

for

at
a

and

(i.e.,

been

tightened

bolt
the

are

bolt

the

apart

position
had

"A"

stretch
it

is

to

In

Notice

frame

up

lines

visually

end
A1

the

starting

Next

it

14,

ends.
amount

the
marked

which

frame).
C

that

the

frame
B.

has

compressed

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to

recall

these

ended

lines

up

at

frame;

and

that

Later

it

at

an

to

pull

each

of

must

in

bolt.

Notice

the

large

frame

bolt

is

holding

that

of

frame

its

is

ends.

the

elongated

and

bolt

and

the

placed

the

is

keeping

in

general,

bolt

to

have

frame

back

frame

in

the

In

region

into
compression,

bolt

in

d I

will

not

of

the

frame

as

the

for

with

grip

tension
be

(14e),

frame

amount

elongate,
additional

extension

increase
that

picking

and

an

to

this

additional
load

deflections.

extend

Thus

stretches,

not

two

frame

will

this

tensile

are

the

it.
an

frame

these

frame

cause

and

to

the

order

will

that

between

applied

along

frame

bolt

the

apart,

stretch

the

if

enough
will
of

A.35

the

the

members
flection

is

known

what

in

zero.

and

the
the

added
that

to

each
the
by

happens

to

up

more

frame

is

in
the

the

frame

load,

but

3-2

the
will

will

be

increased

central

part

appear

between

supporting

to

of

the
the

all

two

of

the

bolt

and

the

frame

after

an

frame.

the

force
frame,

It
how

review
a

in
gap

tensile
in

the

section.
of

and

brief

load

gap

other.

bolt

on

bolt

the

the

force

opposing

the

deflection

compression

determined

evaluate

is

load

to

across
the

is

then

frame

load

load
It

external

reduced

Determine
external

the

value,

be

tensile

Q.35

be

marked

it.

sections

to

is

shown

load

further

between

frame

the

the

bolt

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a

the

differences

external

to

strain

losing

lines
been

elongated

compression)

actual

also

applied

parts

the

bolt

bolt

be

the

positions.

that

stiffness
the

if

bolt

load

will

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previously

both

the

the

(in

relative

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(4 3 )

had

or

4 2 .

determine

the

bolt

horizontal

now

frame

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it

the

envision

the

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point

holding

assume

to

bolt

therefore

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simply

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and

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(14d).

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member

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strength
in

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since
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much

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strain

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Length
Young's

example,

Kb

an

under

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F
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the

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example,
a

The
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stiffness

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be

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Young's

modulus

from

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Kb

(5)

L.__[F
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Area

stiffness

is,

EA
-_

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(6)

15

shows

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the

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stiffness

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figure

16

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shows

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the

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deflection
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figure

tensile

deflection

x Force
modulus

F
L.F/E.A

force-deflection

also

stiffness

find:

AL=

As

the

_L

Modulus:

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we

(4)

"E"
to

and

the

bolt

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shown
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in

frame

the

is

Kf
in

then

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3-4

the

slope

of

of

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this

16.

is

the

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force

compression.

equations

increased

steel),

be

figure

frame

from

will

(5)
by
the

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stiffness

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(6)

above

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not
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stiffer

than

the

joint

parts

lower

will

be

less

as

the

frame

aluminum,

the

frame,

provided

the

bolt

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they

both

of

frame.

the

bolt

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springs,

is
in

the

same

special

washers,

as

cases,

etc.

which

17b,

the
its
figure

apar_

than

(14c).
their
a

is

load

to

to
was

frame

generally

deflection

14.

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the

slope

bolt

if

they

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stiffnesses,

the

proportional

deflection

onto

(14b)

comDresslon

Further,

released

in

is

the

bolt

not

and

pulled
frame

position

frame.

Figure

18

fact.
that
bolt

it

becomes

the

bolt

as
to

the

with

there
and

exponents

of

written,
rather

to

of

that

development
these

frame

seen

large

aluminum),

the

further

this

analysis

bolt

usually

to

length

again

load

be

is

of

(because

themselves

can

frame

usually

(E)

and

and

bolt

proportion

illustrates

is

Elasticity

grip

17a

the

bolt

frame

the

the

to

of

stiff

of

refer

of

increased,

information
the

Thus

is

length.

pulled

deflection

of

area

developed

the
Now

the

stiffness

areas.
the

figures

than

this

steel
as

effective

stiffer

part

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steel

length

in

of

the

materials.

were

been

increased,

mmreandconse_ueht_Ivabsorbener_vbetter.

three

have

is

length

Modulus

deflect
bolt

bolt.

from

engagement

vary

part

same

be

methods

of

the

the

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in

of

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the

the

find

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changing

had

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the

(i.e.,

would

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we

area

bolt

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assembly,

than

of

the

balance

nut

a great

as

problem

to

and

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some

3-6

all

These
psi

read

maintain

precise
of

variables

30,000,000

impossible

the

many

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well.

explain

are

parts
magnitude

of

these

variables
for

the

lengthy

an
of

employed

modulus

report

understanding

this
of

variables

report
these

of
are

variables,
with

sketches

so thatthedesignengineercanm_ntallyvisualizeandcalculatstheent/re
problem

at

one

fictitious

values

In

this

to

illustrate

of

the

then
on

Kb

do

Young's

has

modulus

be

every
to

to

ibs

inch

used

the

stiffness

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Thus

extension

only

bolt

applied.

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the

use

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are

19,

ibs/in.

ibs.

to

deflection,

figure

i000

4000

necessary

numbers

i000

be

been

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to

for

assumed

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hypothetical

assumed

inch

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this,

principles.

ks

bolt

bolt

of

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deflect

the

To

calculation,

bolt

the

time.

will
total

load

deflection

relative

to

of

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free

length.
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2000

the

ibs/in.

total

force

force

on

deflects

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on

the
1

the

frame
inch

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however

than

this

in

been

exaggerated
that

the

frame

an

exterior

is

to

see

flects

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and
to

frame
a

frame

as
also

have

2000

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each

free

to

load
far
this

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and

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see

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load

available
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now

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that

already

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deflected.

3-7

this
a

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move

4000

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equal

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the

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each

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the

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picture

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they

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frame

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bolt

up

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by

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and

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is

rate

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how

much

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up

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some

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the

frame

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taken

additional

3-12

at

take

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of

rate

known

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always

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nut

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take.

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compression.

frame

observations
curve

its

frame

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thing

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other

head

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the

of

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after

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some

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by

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this

stiffness.

rate

at

the

loses
In

external

point

points
and

while

is

loses

compressed.

the

rate

load

frame

physical

that

top

supported

bolt
the

the

21.)

compressed
the

the

length),

(Figure

from

Between

case
and

free

are

B.
by

this

loads

20)

and

preload,
its

the

originally

figure
A

for

inches.

As

in

applied

supported

that

4000

same

A
points

load

(relative

_)

the

2000

the

externally

between

under

on

of

of

not

the

Recall

the

in

were

of

frame

itself

of

much

load

frame

load

load.
All

of

external

load

amount
up

of

of
by

2000

the
ibs

in

constant

contact

are

shown

quantitatively

figure

22.

is
with

2000 1_

A
2000 11)1;

IPLeure 20 - ixternai

LoaclB

Addztzonal
bolt

4000

lbS

Or_,gJ.na,],

Preload

load
d

_'_

"

2
2000

___
Note
muse

that
take

tensile

I
r_gure

21

_N

Load/deflection

Diagram

o,
-2

for

Pie-stressed

load
bolt

the
bolt
additional
load

_f

_s
taken
frame

com_nat_on.

Lr_

Bolt

and

Prame

3-13

51

by

any
the

Figures
original

22

compressive

gained

by

up

by

is

developed

the

the

of

lost

"Loadf"

so

the
in

proportions
the

along

with

the

frame

by

Appendix

the

show
lost

(c-f),

and
in

24
load

bolt

bolt

expression
load

through

A-4

which

additional

frame
the

(f-d)

(b-f).

load

the
and

that

deflections
An

provides

bolt

of

picked
expression

convenient

"LOadb"

and

frame

that
1

Load

bolt

added

load

Fe
(7)
1

Loadf

frame

load

added

added

load

Fe

i+---_
stiffness

=
where

and

given

and

the

the

ratio

the

spring

external

Kb/K

of

constant

of
load

.5,

and

of

bolt

the

from

as

frame

on

bolt

=
stiffness

constant

spring

additional

of

Kb
as

frame

1000

Kf

is

equation

frame

force
(5),

lbs/in,

2000
F

s
-Kf

ibs/in.,
(2000

the

bolt

ibs),
load

is

Ladb

frame

l---l-I+I/R

=
e

load

bolt

and

frame

final

lbs

each,

the

The

frame

final

bolt

load

2000
3

can

i___
I+R

the

Figure

internal

Loadf

Since

'

the

addition

is

lbs

be

2000

are
load
4000

found

1.5

Ibs

667

ibs

by

the

1333

originally
is
Ibs

lbs

pre-stressed

4000
-

formula:

ibs

1333

+
ibs

667
=

to
ibs

2667

=
ibs.

4000

4667

ibs.

(See

24).
The

load

and

F e

Given

The

total

change
is

added

in

the
(beyond

deflection
the

3-14

of
original

the

frame

deflection)

after

the
is:

external

Additional

4000

1be

Preload

line

1000

I external
I
load-

I
I

I
I
I

I
I

lbe

in
I

in

-_-

(original

riqure

in
extension)

22

Deflection
(original

Load/deflection
System

With

Oiaqram
Added

for

Tensile

to

Assembly

up
lb

Preload

Pre-stressed
Load

This

4000

compression)

load
by

_s

the

picked

bolt.

This
total

This

load

is
the

lost
by
frame,

is
F e,
the
2000
ibs

external
applied.

L
This

is

=esting
the
bolt

Deflection
4 in

Fiqure

23

Deflection

--

Diagram

3-15

for

Pre-stressed

in

System

the
place
and

final
of
frame.

_dJ

With

Added

Tensile

Load

load

4000

4667

ibs

2667

ibsi

ib

Part

of

2000
taken

ibs

by
frame
1333
ibs

O
O
O

in

JJ

{-

Figure

Deflection
Ab

24

Af

Load

increase
.667

in

Distribution

3-16

in bolt

and

loss

frame

in

Diagram

Loadf
Kf

df
-

_f

Since
The

both
load

frame

the
in

bolt

the

load
The

is

the

.667

Loads

2a,

to
2b

this

does

Q.37

Then
loads

A.37

are

For
of

While

the

averaqe

the

the

same.

Ibs,

the

ibs-in

on

deflections

both

the
the

on

are

related

and

mean

Figures

bolt

and

bolt.

the

bolt

added

to

the

these

loads

24

and

the

Further,
and

frame
relate

the

frame

can

be

to

the

to

The

stress

under

the

I).

that

stresses

the

some

distribution

bolt

Even

as

head,

though

locations

or

our

will

as
the

of

shown
total

exact

original

vary
in

figures

load

values

from

is
of

known,
critical

known.

exact

of

is
4667

calculated:

preloading

determining

_as

so n_/ch

t//ne spent

it

is

conditions,
value

comparative
stress,

studying

the

bolt

necessary

to

compare

to

the

best

loads,

frame

necessary?

purposes,

bolt-frame

the

be

Ibs/1000

does

deflections

known,

db
to

(see

and

out.

design

types

667

while

(Section

why

and

contact,

can

deflections

always

not

stresses

loads

thread

and

in

increased

bolt

tensile

pointed

thread

are

stresses?

are

questions

the

and

loads

internal

inches

(8)

therefore

calculated

How

.667

inches

loads

determined.

Kb_ b

_b

additional

A.36

of

Ladb/Kb

be

ibs.

additional

bolt's

frame

has

db

the

can

when

and

deflection

Now
frame

i_33
-2000

bolt
2667

Load

Q.36

Loadsf/Kf

and

select

distribution

values
which

of
is

these

of

bolt

stresses

different
design.

stresses
are

are

not

function

known.

3-17

25)

3-18

Therefore

it

washers,
or

the

action

to

by

the

it

exact

to
design,

may

start

This

to

38

allow

the

plate

frcm

threeexuellent

is

its

to

cause

the

washers

in

on

high

return

to

stresses.

best

course

is

not

permitted
relatively

other

hand,

during

preload.

permanent

its

elongation

original

back

of

bolt

at

the

stress
a

to

nut

bolt

fracture

produce

increase

brittle

this

far,

of

would

If

they

selected.

example,

too

points

the

be

brittle

moves

bolt

will
26

compressive

be

used

design

how

the

force

to

off

affect

tends

references,

draw

bolt

it

is

two

position.

and

permit

the

bolt

plates

compresses
to

extend

possible

"Untersuchungen
Von
Schrauben

Uber
Die
Bindungen

"Bolted

Joints

Machine

Design,

"Simple
Joints",

Diagrams
Gerhard

figure

27,

effective
proposed

obtained

the
areas

to
28

be

shows
by

the

How

the

nut

the
the

to

together.
plates

bolt.

determine

and
To

how

quote

whatan

areas

compressive

methods.

the
the

most

axisymmetric

3-19

Robert

E.

''(26)

Little,

(27)

Analyzing
Assembly
in

Forces
in
Engineering,

each

stress
The

widely

stress

Give?",

1967

Aid
in
Meyer,

of

Sicherungseigenschaeften
Bei
Dynamisher
Belastung

Much

Nov.

shaded

reference

considered
Figure

area

known,

conditions.
suffer

average

can

For

if

of

frameareaAemightbe:

In

above

designs

bolt

of

figure

the

propose

not

see

use

deflections?
bolt

from

effective

at
this

even

use

their

typical

Observe

these

bolt

the

may

do

and

38

on

the

are

may

yield

to

the

"gap".

How

loads
A.

not

condition

frame
Q.

bolt
ductile

investigate

design

values

shock

loads

would

requirements.
under

to

in

to

consequently

of

the
If

Additional

and

each

move

loads.

and

in

example,

etc.

stress

different

need

low

loads,

take

have

for

springs,

the

Although

may

possible,

gaskets,

decrease

will

is

cross
obtained

shape

shown

Bolted
Jan.

section
from
in

each

of

figure

accepted.

distribution
finite

over
element

1972

the
method.

effective

the
27c

(28)

Kb

Figure

2E

Compressive

Force

in

Plates

_qe

Bolted

of

bolt

stiffr_ss

EA/L

-stiffness

Together

_
hole/

Constant

radius

(A)

of

R =

circle

(B)

Fiqure

27a

Proposed

Theoretical

Areas

Plate

of

Under

Stress

edqe

of

hole

line

j
This
area
A_
as
item
(B)ein

I
l

Fiqure

l
Figure

Proposed

5_

27b

Fiqure

Theoretical
Under

Areas
Stress

of

3-20

Plate

27c

27a

is

above.

the

same

.m_
/

,//

20
40

6O

i00

i00

Lines of equal axial stresses


in a bolted joint obtained by
the axisymmetric
finite element
method are shown for a 9/16-18
bolt preloaded to i00 ksi.
Positive numbers are tensile
_._es_
in ksi; negative
_s
are compressive
stresses in ksi.

Figure

28

Stress

3-21

Distribution

in

Bolt

and

Nut

While

there

compression,

an

sufficient
how

area

by

contact

the

ratio

in

so

that

contact

under

this

frame

it

the

29a

and

the

not

b).

its

if

is

is
a

can

to

It

must

also

evenly

seen

increase

over

square

washer

thick

be

proportion-

the

the

sufficiently

be

will
to

under
will

changed

washer

hole

load

area
that

It

proportion

bend.

distributes

frame

determined

of

bolt

be

does

be

(in

must

it

can

effect

of

for

compression

The

washer

of

outside

and

strong

be

extremely

the

entire

area.
Therefore,

the

figure

diameter

that

value

area

frame

of

the

so

exact

washer.

This

flexure

flat

of

an

(see

the

area

diameter).
in

study

adding

the

not

approximate

for

the

ally

is

previous

effect

(see

deflection

figures

30,

are

AS

the

and

from

frame

or

plates
A e

under

to

an

lbs

In
to

washer

can

washer

as
greater

its

deflection

in

As

frame

the

figure

of

preload

load

is

more

1333

ibs

loss

of

for
1584

ibs/in

washer's

increasing

the

to
in

to
31

of

the

amount

of

load)
load

to

.416in

the
3800

and

total

increase

reduces

from

stiffness
ib/in

for

of
a

typical

32).

the

frame,

preload.

stiffened
with

by

the

the

Notice
with

that

the

design
ibs

using

For
without

when

3--22

application

pronounced.
a

the

less
the

addition

will

be

deflection
of

32.

is

loss

re-evaluate

design

external

increase

stiffness

.667

by

increased

figures

due

from

to

lbs.

in

the

washer

this

2000

shown

The

reduces

from

see

following

stiffened

substantially

(i.e.,

The

to

compression,

32

416

possible

curves

additional

figure

only

is

figures:

are

(due

less.

it

32).

these

area

load

frame

31

bolt

667

made

used,

example

effective

is

washer

load

observations
o

washer

washer,
of

example,
a

washer
is

added

an
the

is

the

frame

increased
loss

of

compared
(see

figure

only
to

a
32).

Fibre

29

2000

Effect

of

addition

of

Washer

on

Size

of

Plate

Area

Under

Compression

lbs

Z
I

[
4000

lbs

]000

lbs

2000

ibs

\,
2000

Bol_
tension

lbs

bolt

1333! ibs
--_
_raml load

_
/

667

1000

l_n

Deflection
(+)
667

in

lbs

Figure

30 - Load
Under

Distribution
in Bolted
2000 ib Additional

Frames
Load

3-23

(,l

2000

lbs

bolt

r
2000

lbs

_i__.

_K

2000

lb/in

_cU_n
BoZt

rA_s_on

--'_2

(+]

_
(.o_7

2000

31

Load
Dist:ibution
_qe_.her
Unde:

2000

An Two Plates
lb Load

bolt
load

Bolt_l

added
- 416

lbs

lbs
bolt

tension

,000,

NN

'3000

frame
reduced

t_--f
}\ j
[\J

/
load

a2:>/

..2o0o _ /

_N

F,l

] b_,,,,,-

1.416 in)
lba

Fiqu:e

t/_,

32

Load
Oist:ibution
Added
to Plates

Assuminq
a Washe:
is
Unde:
2000
lb
Load.

3-24

2000
.

l \__2

--,_6
2000

c:mp:ess_on
F_ra_e
(-)

lbs

Fiqu:e

2000

Bolt

in)

ibs
"

re

An

aluminum

frame

frame

stiffness

Elasticity
would

of

same

would

be

With

high

its

brittle

such

be

the
a

washers

effective
absorb

more

load

some

length

example)

This

energy

be

and

strain
under

increased

bolt

for

than

two

grip.

grip

therefore

low

bolt

bolt's

bolt

any

short

the

more

longer

and

is

of

be

low

with

bolt

volume

the

with

motion

must

of

The

bolts

Since

the

of

frames.

will

that

increase

length.

cases

designers

to

reduce

bolt

to

elongate

fore

it

can

31

and

in

figure

32,

energy
with

shank

likely.

to

the

bolt

more,

down

can

it

This

and

grip

the
can

absorb

bolt

the

be

an

shock

the
wall

figure

washers

made

for
to

applied

Combine

deflect

absorbs
this

30,

more

fact

length,

energy.

an

of
further

bolt

absorbing

there-

diagrams

and

increase

the

and

deflects

frame)

allows
load

the

bolt

32.
to

down"

practice

From

that

capacity

"necking

This

thin

in

more

may

for

energy.

seen

would

double

call

under

more
be
to

of

"necking

between

further

(due

use

will

stiffness.*

absorb

than

is

its

it
30

the

there

*Necking

nut

strain

more

Modulus
stiffness

plastic

brittle

elongation

small

better.

In

by

the

frame

washer.

some

its

(for

frame

good

have

capability

putting

low

(i.e.,

within

by

increases

a
or

If

shock-load

under

design

to

absorbed

system

of

bolts

be

produce

This

magnesium

then
will

would

relatively

use

necessary

length,

must

strain,

the

brittle

fracture

energy

the

application.

grip

bolt

frame.

with

is

load

of

with

true

it

steel

aluminum

strength

external

the

improved

ductility)

because

be

in

with

and

Further-

additional

amount

down".
requires
the

head

machining
and

3-25

the

down
threaded

the

diameter
portion

of
of

the

the

bolt
bolt.

&_

However,
of

the

bolt

yielding

or

Q.39

How

A.39

To
of

both

undergo

gasketed

increases
large

joints

the

bolt

the

grip

deflections

both

torqued

problem,

and

effective

determined

that

the

the

Young's
be
the

can

washers

length

without

the
the

up?

first

frame.

we
The

gasket

must

find

frame

material

the

stiffnesses

stiffness

and

is

steel

gasket

material.

The

for

of

failure.

of

retainer

could

it

examine
the

use

and

are

combination

be

the

stiffness

by

frame

simple

is

steel

modulus

of

calculated.
configuration

of

the

gasket/steel

calculation.
and
the

Assume
shown

3-26

the
steel,
the
in

frame

Assuming,

gasket
the

is

33:

for

material

stiffness

following
figure

moduli

can

of

example,
with

each
and

1/10
part

lengths

,--4

-,-I

4-J

G}
1-.I
-,'-I

,aN-

3-27

"411'

(Assume,

for

and

of

that

Estee

convenience,
its

gasket

(E s)

30

(L s)

1/2

Egaske

(Eg_

Lengthgaske

from

is

Lengt%tee

Recall

that

or

*Note:

I/K.

is

Compliance

1/2

It

is

30

known
106

psi

deliberately
should

be

we

defined

defined

"stiffness"

AL
F

the

the

modulus

and

the

one

ignored.

3-28

as:

AL

that

by

as

divided

30*

in

force

is

psi

compliance

steel

3*.)

Elongation

The

of

in

(4)

Stiffness

modulus

psi

(Lg)

equation

the

of

resulting
million.

of

steel

million
Our

one

reciprocal

is

factor

the

stiffness,

actually
has

deflections

been

The

total

compliance

Next,

i/k

i/k

substitute

assume

the

of

in

preload

the

steel

its

gasket

is:

i/kg

actual
P

and

on

numbers
the

from

assembly

figure

to

be

33,

i0

and

ibs,

then:

PL
s
As

steel

retainer

deflection

A 1

A E

PL
Ag

gasket

deflection

A 2

(lO)
E

g
The

total

Ag

Similar

deflection

of

both

As

in

should

gasket

deflection

final

1.0

The

1.834

calculations

reader

The

Ib

can

show

that
would

parts

are

parts

Afram

found

if

the

steel

deflection

be

Ag

compressed

a 1.0

.167
to

in,

the

(. 5)

(i)

(30)

1.667

.167

in

(3)

be:

is

ib

for

a i0

preload

were

used.

.0167

wDuld

or

(i0)

(This

be

(.5)

(i)

would

_
s

be

total

thicknesses

of

ib

Afrar

shown

in

load.)

The
and

the

.184.

figure

35

for

preload.

stiffness

of
A

Ks

each

part

is:

E
s
L

(i)(30)
.5

60

(i)(3)
.5

is

much

ib/in

A
K

E
g
L

Obviously

K
g

the

gasket
The

is

found

from

the

Kf

Kf

1
_

softer

effective

K s

Kg

5.45

ib/in

1
60

3-29

than

its

stiffness

reciprocal

ib/in

of

1
6

the

of

compliance:

in

5.45

ib

steel
the

retainer.

combined

parts

in

Therefore, the combined stiffness


of the flange including
its
steel holder plates and gasket is Kf = 5.45 ib/in.
Since
this stiffness
is known, a loading diagram similar to the
previous examples can be drawn (see figure 34).

Pounds

(F)

Frame
Bolt

preloaded

to

ib

o
5.45

Bolt

ib

1
6.00

(+)
J--

ib

in

Deflection
in
Bolt
Deflection
1.67
in.

Figure

in

34

Bolt

inches
Frame

Compression
In.

.184

and

Frame

Stiffness,

3-30

Load

and

Deflection

F e

ib

additional

load

The bolt stiffness


was calculated
as Kb = 6 ib/in,
and
the frame stiffness
Kf = 5.45 has been found.
The deflection
of the bolt and the plate for a 1 ib load is found from:
deflection

_ =

1
6

_bolt

_frame
See

Figures

This

35a

each

part

and

Using
the

is

the

frame

and

The

for

in

.184

occurs

reference

during

procedures

of

bolt

Kb

ib/in

5.45

ib/in

the

now

discussion.

unloaded

position

previously,

to

determined.
frame

stiffness

(R)

load

A4

for

bolt

increase

ib

load

gives:

F
e
Ladb

1.0

I+I/R

ib

i+i/i.i01

.524

.476

ibs

ibs

F
Loadf

The

e
I+R

deflection

equation

of

1.0
ib
1+1.101

the

bolt

or

the

frame

can

be

found

K b

from

(4).

_b

_b

Fb/Kb'

or

Fb
6

for

bolt

stiffness

.524
-

.087

3-31

is:

I.i01

Appendix

frame

following

original

be

stiffness

from

the

preload.

can

additional

in

illustrated

loads

expression

in

from

the

.167

for

ratio

an

measured

bolt

Kf

Using

lb/in

and

deflection

of

ib
ib/in

1 ib
5.45

Force
Stiffness

inches

of

ib/in

--

--

V///////_27;.5_
....
t,,\\\\\'_
r/////////,.4
U/////////A

--

Steel

._s V////._I
I

V///////A

Original

Final

steel

Final

gasket

thickness

V/////7//A

.5

.00835

.24

.333

.167

Figure

35

Frame

thicknesses

V////////,_

Preloaded

Frame

.25

thickness

Final

.24

Frame

Deflections

/
/
K b
=

Iblin

load

(.524
/

load

increase
in
bolt

Ib)

fin

/
/
/
/
/

Total

F e

/
/
/
/
Loadf
(.476

_--

Figure

Deflection
and
gained

36

Load

lost
by
in
bolt

Distribution

3-32

frame

Between

Frame

and

Bolt

=
ib)

load
=

.0

ib

Similarly,

for

the

Ff
Af

Both

the

been

found.

the

The
parts

of

ib

deflection
.087

5.45

and

deflection

load

of

or

figure

the

(i.e.,

Kf

5.45

ib/in)

frame

of

the

gasket

applied

to

deflections

the

gasket

still

be

steel

plates

be

known

.087

of

and

found.

found.
and

that

the

and

after

the
the

was

found

total

steel

Therefore,

Recall

gasket

have

extra

total
to

deflection

added
be
was:

inches

force

on

23)

and

steel

also

loads

must

are

combined
is

inches

deflections

the

It

the

the

Kf

Also,

found

additional

of

total

.087

bolt

the

inches.

separate

is

The

stiffness

.476

5.45
frame

retainer

frame

and

gasket,

stiffness/deflection

Af

values

steel

of

Ff

the

.476

relation

A
_

stiffness

factors

E
s
L

A
K

=
gasket

60

ib
x"--n-

_9____
L

3-33

equation
were

4
found:

ibs

i.e.

Ks t

(from

ib/in

were

found

previously,

_',

-r

"u

b-x

c_

u_

-tl
\NI

.1_
_J

_J
u_

(1)

(n
_J

(J
.,_
.C
E_
0

\L/_**,

_J

f/
.,.-4
/,-/

-,-.t
m

= -

'_,,_.
%.'%1/

fA
/A
f
I.,4

Jl
%_

3-34

\N,""

Recall

from

(4)

that

the

stiffness

is

related

to

deflection

by:

Force

Since

it

is

known

must

be

equal

each

part

AL

that

AL
Force
K

the

(i.e.

forces

, F s

.476

total

each

.33

plate

.079

there
to
the

for

It

to

other

the

seen

deflection

is

of

.087

be

.24

in

this
all

and

frame

.079

in

Ib/in

inches.
-

The

.004

thickness

and

in

would

has

component

.236

inches

be

problem

loads

problems

these

been

deflections.

and

which

problems

seal

leakage

problem

previous

its

not

permanently

will

deflections,
are
be

of

interest

outlined

in

examples

steel

retainer.

sufficiently
This

only

it

may

de-

load

if

bend

deflection

one

gasket

Therefore,

thick,

yield.
after

that

and

could

in

create

application.

(See

38.)
In

of

ib

.079

forces

bolting

than

cases,

some

bolts

introduces
by

gasket

bolt

in

many

of

Therefore,

all

gasket

more

retainer

figure

in

would

final

Some

been

much

steel

the

paragraphs.
has

flects

find

materials

37.)

designer.

next

.008

.008

inches.

solved

are

the

.251

addition

the

gasket

to

thickness

and

figure
In

possible

ib/in

plate

completely
(See

is

and

.476
-

60

deflection

steel

for

steel

ib

final

, it

Fg)

the

The

on

preloads

to

designs
keep
the

it
a

danger

supplied

may

be

gasket
of
by

necessary

retainer
overloading
all

of

3-35

these

to

flat.
and
bolts.

use

However,
destroying

large
this
the

number
always
gasket

,,4

-,"-I
.._

.P

4-1

I
O0

m
.,..f

3-36
........

rg-,"

In
ively

some

torque

subjected
as

design
bolts

to

shown

in

and

top

and

is

possible

figure

moment,

it

around

both

bending
the

situations,

in

static
39.

the

bottom

may

be

possible

gasket

flange

if

bending

moment

and

Assume,

tension.
to

it

of
If

for
the

flange

each

determine

the

example,

bolt

is
is

additional

the

to
flange

to

bolt

that

due

in

selectis
preloads
to

the

compression

examined

independently,

loads

due

to

preload

moment.

Danger
Bending
Bending

Moment

lower
tribution

Load
Figure

39

3-37

Non-uniform

Loaded

Gaskets

of

over-yielding

gasket,
is

as
not

load
disuniform.

In this selective torquing process, no particular


bolt
will be heavily overloaded.
Care must be taken to assure that
any of the bolts which end up with very little
preload do not
rotate loose under any vibratory
loads.
Locking devices may
be the answer to this problem.
(0)

(0)

(-1

(0)

t*)

I-)
Pre-Torque

Rema ini

(-)

(-)

Cc_m_In_

Bending

Figure

Q.40

How
(a)

are

preloads

A.40

and

Cycling
a

joint

will

load

will

increase.
(a)

(c)

the
The

starts
goes

out
back

to

bolted

phase

of

added

loads
load.

reduce

the

frame

reduce

and

the

time

dependent
of

cyclic
the

frame

to
As
load

application
static

load,

cyclic

on

assembly?

tensile

addition

of

superimposed

then

load.

load,
(d)
Figure

then
the
42e

sequence.

vibration

with

the

the

phase

load

and
will

shows
(b)

tensile

entire
bolt

42

first

load

bad

loads

in

load

bolt

Bending

cyclic

loads

bolt

preload,

compressive

Ga|ket

introduce

the
the

positive

reversed
shows

to

Figure
bolt

or

static

which

reverses

the

the

add

- Believing

loads

(b)

loads

this

of

vibration

41

Load

the

preload,

varies
preload,
then

as
then

reduces

3-39

function

increases
below

of
with

preload.

the
more

load,
load

which
and

In this selective
torquing process, no particular
bolt
will be heavily overloaded.
Care must be taken to assure that
any of the bolts which end up with very little
preload do not
rotate loose under any vibratory
loads.
Locking devices may
be the answer to this problem.
(0}

(0)

I-)

(01

(-)

()

Pre-Torque

Rema i n s

(-]

l'P :
figure

Q.40

How
(a)

are

vibration

preloads

A.40

and

Cycling
a

joint

will

add

this

load

will

increase.

of

(a)

(c)

the

The
starts
goes

entire
bolt

out
back

to

42

load

tensile

loads
load.

the

frame

will

reduce

and

the

dependent

addition
of

phase

added

reduce

time

of

of

cyclic
the

frame

to
As
load

application
static

load,

cyclic

on

assembly?

and

the

the

superimposed

bolted

first

shows

phase

Load

_ad

loads

in

load

(b)

Bending

cyclic

load

bolt

tensile

then

load.

load,
(d)
Figure

then
the
42e

sequence.
vibration

with

or

Gasket

loads

bolt

preload,

compressive
the

Reliev4ng

introduce

the
the

positive

reversed
shows

to

Figure
bolt

static

which

reverses

the

41

loads

(b)

loads

Combined

Bending

the

preload,

varies
preload,
then

as
then

reduces

3-39

function

increases
below

of
with

preload.

the
more

load,
load

which
and

_olt

neutral

position

__

nNutral

ti_n

(a) bolt

and nut preload

(b)

static
on
bolt

constant
load
and
frame

Neutral

s_position

(c)

vibration

starts

and

load
increases
neutral
positions

beyond

Neutral
for

(d)

vibration
back

reverses

to

preload

loads
values

Position

Bolt

--

bolt

load

i,
i

--___

///nne--_tral--_

_ion

for

/-

_-/

preload

Figure

42

Steady
First

State
and

Load

Subsequent

3-40

Vibration

---sine

Loads

curves

frame

load

Q. 4 1
How do these vibration
loads cause frame gapping?
A. 41
Vibration
load-induced gapping is caused when the dynamic
inertial
forces in the frame exceed the preload force in the
frame.
Recall that a tension load on a preloaded frame reduces
the frame load and increases the bolt load.
This is true only
up to a point at which the entire frame preload has been removed,
after which gapping occurs.
As shown in figure 43, the applied
load cannot e_ceeda given preload in the frame, or gapping will occur.
This gapping further induces a non-linear load onto the bolt. The
overall joint stiffness constant K also jumps since the effective joint
area is reduced to only the bolt area whenthe frame is unloaded.
The bolt
will

then

be

bolt

head

h_ng

load

reverses,

impact

load

proper

preload

Q. 4 2

4 2
load

on

the

it

drives

is

are

bolted

well

in

so

reducing

is

carried

(See
the

assume

that

the

chance

Alternately,
This

increases

its

unless

the

So

of

bolt

far,

only

on

bolted

joint

analysis.

the

load

design.
It may

be

the

sudden

why

nut

and

bolt
strong

selecting

the

conditicns.

minimize

frame,

more

approach

not

the

will
the

vibration

of

the

effects

vibration

decrease

cyclic

critical.

frame,

magnitude

is
in

be

the

load

This

on

inertial

magnitude
the

design

the

(See

on

the

_t

a full
analysis

thought

of

3-41

the

chances

of

on

as

is

the
less.

prevent
have

figure

frame

load

loads

to

loads

cyclic

fatigue

bolt

required

the

of

applied

tensile

The

the

However,

preload

frame,

When

is

is

the

of

bolt.

method

generally

gapping.

life.

load

there

load

increase

is

analyzed?

A oDmpression
loading

and

load

frame

loads

of

the

therefore

load.

This

to

gapping,

44. )

stiffening

fatigue

and

used

This

frame

oscil/atory

canpression
A.4 3

bolt

decreases

will
Q-4 3

Figure

frame

entire

dynamic

techniques

stiffness

by

a larger

since

ass_nbly.

frame

(We

reduced.

whole

the

on

the

the

under

In

the

together

bolt.

load

support

frame

the

cyclic

preload.

the

by

the

reduces

and

design

joints?

its

important

scme

By

beyond

frame

developed

What
in

A.

loaded

is

been

the

the

holt

extra

is

bolt

is

and

gapping

Gapping

The

bolt

increase
possible

preload

gapping.

considered.

How

are

critical

as

frame

45.)
obviously

understanding
procedure
simply

frame

bolt.

this

on

on

is
is

not

as

important

similar

reversal

of

to
the

to
the
role

tension

frame

and

previous

load

of

bolt

the

NA

Bolt/

_N

.A.

!-

I
I

I
I
I

II
Load
not

____

in
frame
be
reduced

because

frame

canany

preload

!
v

further

is

gone

U
Figure

43

Vibration

3-42

Load

With

Gapping

./_---- Doi t load

Jl
I///2"////,

!
i////i

_|

_I

Ir _ui_alons-_--/_

/ \ _K___

/_

__\

1,

vibttaoln

I \

_load

T
Deflection

Hollow

(a)

make

(b)

Add

washer

bolt

//////(

and

out
it

frame

more

under
nut

///1
//il

Deflection

vibration

i,.

_
/2"/U
i

load

Figure

44-

Two

Solutions

to

the

3-43

Vibration

Problem

to

compliant

_- i

Decrease

Extra
frame

bolt

load

Deflection

Frame
to

The

frame

is

compressed
the
bolt

and
tension

operates

during
An

preload.

Figure

45

Compression

prior
preload

Loads

3-44

on

Frame

additional

external

com-

pression
on
the

load
frame

decreases
bolt
load

the
and

increases

the

frame

load.

and

frameinthoseanalysisequat/ons
9_%atadditional

Q.44
A.44

Design

By
grip

reduced

Kf

and

K b

the

avoid

can

further

is

The

effect

of

materials

was

seen

applying

exterior

tensile

loads

the

on

that

bolt

load

on

the

bolt

has

load

specific

compressive
If
subsequent
bolt

to

new
is

yield

permanent
not

rupture
a

low

(see
carbon

permanently
position.

or

and

the

Therefore

to

to

K b

by

and
The

adding

be

aware

of,

which

and

would

resonance

return
high

yield

carbon

could

load

is

this

capacities

steel.
first.

normally

Fr_mfiuure

preloaded

Subsequent
bolted

by

additional

frame

simultaneously

on

With

will
a

will

decrease

some

high

increase
the

of

not
the

lost.

3-45

yield

will

carbon

cause

steel
it

increased

original

bolt,
is

to
bolt

to

the

bolt
to

However,

bolts
their

steel

likely

loads.
These

return

point,

stretch

Instead

yield.

will

its

plastically

slightly

will

to

system

yield.

at

and

up

the

bolt

not

47)

Kf

boltedtc_ether,

bolt.

preloaded

the

bolt

and

frame.

loads

steel
elongated

the

will

been

figure

decreased

taken

the

joint
to

and

may

are

energy.

metallurgymustbediscussed

bolted

length).

ductile

Kf

values,

strain

dynamic

and

applied

(i.e.,

and
K b

conditions

This

torque

additional

the

loading.

carbon

that

be

frequency

steel

low

it

further

must

between

of

Kb

stiffnesses

more

frame

46.)

comparison

made

14,

care

vibration

the

the

generally

loads.

bolts

A.45

be

and

lengthening

stiffness

absorb

figure

resonant

increase
What

also

mass)

vibration

length,

reduced
to

bolt

thereby

the

twostructuresare

given

under

able

(See

unwanted

result

of

since

with

Q.45

Kf

frame

these

thus

springs.

However,

to

are

and

determines

With

stresses?

critical

washers

length

EA/L).

compression

minimize

effective

this

stiffness

(each

extra

the

bolts

frame's

to

adding

since

(i.e.,

ccnsiderationcanassurem/n/malbolt

consideration

stresses.
bolt's

(i.e.,_andKfinterchanged).

design

will

be

initial

preload

must

be

(a)
Bolt
to

,/////
,1111.
too
absorb

short
,jj
r/,

energy
w(ab)h e r
7_
i

_-_

bolt

reduces

adds

1////,

length

and

Kb

////_

N
_///2
I_11.

# I///_
i /i/J
s J,

z///A
//
i

JJ

//_
i

//

II//_

L
|

Deflection
Deflection

Figure

3-46

46

Relieving

Critical

Loads

Short
elasto
plastic
elongation
before
break

Break

150,000
psi

Low

Carbon

Yield
High

Steel

.2%

..2%offset

60,000)

Yield

/_

]bolt
"_elasto

Carbon

offset

Break

elongation.
plasticity

bolt

elongation

elasticity

bolt

elongation

elasticity

Deflection

Low

carbon

steel

stress-strain

Figure

bolts

High
carbon
stress-strain

diagram

47-

Low

and

Deflection

High

Carbon

Steel

3-47

Stress-strain

steel
bolts
diagram

diagram

Steel

After
unbolted,
will
to

not
the

bolt

has

will

be

return

break
bolt's

bolt

certain

are

generally

ing

is

low

carbon

load

bolts)

by

the

use

assembly

and

is

therefore

condition.

This

is

due

used,

additional

yielding
used

type
joint

could

once
In

is

possible

load

beyond

catastrophic

construction
in

it

and

failure
occur,

to

have

of

high

strength

but

little

it

bolts

(with

than
with

occurs.

these

amount

better

yielding

yielding

overload

since
this

is

There-

bolt
when

discarded,

general,

the

results).
bolts,

to

to

have

bolts
of

yield-

one

use,

gapping

insufficient

pre-

torque.

life

this

are

usually

tolerated.

However,

It

of

the

deformed

loaded

little

result

only

often

caused

with

carbon

amount

and

have

previous

(with

generally

to

set.

joint

low

plastically

fasteners

point

using
not

its

strength

yield

fore,

yielded
observed

permanent

high

the

will

to

bolt's
If

a
it

and
is

may

designing
also

generally

useless

additional

application

cause

for

bolt

gapping
to

applied

during

over-stress

pre-stress
of

yield

is

reduces

the

loading

(see

always

lost

_Yield

point

bolt

during

during

bolt's
figure
preload

fatigue
48).
as

subsequent

loads.

Permanent
set
Extra
preload

|c/
_

lost_

m.,,

Deflection
Figure

48

- Bolt

3-48

After

Yield

Q.46

What
in

A.46

problems

encountered

with

bolts

which

are

loaded

shear?
Bolts

loads

designed

at

If

bolt

the

will

not
bolt

shear

to

loads

plates

the

for

transverse

Shear

Law)

are

are

that

preload

by

is

pulled

joint

is

to

intended

to

joint

when

bolted

in

plane

in

preloaded

each

to

reaction

(in

other.

sufficient

friction

in

are

relative

are

support

axis.

introduced

this

slip

loading

their

joint

at

shear

opposite

force

is

the

provided

against

to

plates
that

this

(according

two

directions.

tension),

This

react

the

external
Coulomb's

(A)

_)

t
V

Figure

49

Bolts

in

Shear

3-49

tensile

shear

load

compressive
in
frame

friction

eccentric
ment-

load

applied
force
force
displace-

If,
a

however,

plates

bent

deflected

shape

was

preloaded

in

bolt
figure

49)

to

added

the

will

There
bolt

is

bolt

could

of

the

its

even

is

to

yield

bolt

figure
tension

flexural

danger

high

will

take

49.

Since

(marked

"T"

stress

also

the

vibration

bolt

in

the

fracture

of

stress

is
of

of

percentage

flexural

yielding

axial

this

There

further

in

the

the
in

bolt

due

in

slip,

shown

further

always

preloaded

If

a
Te

then

preload.

as

tension,

cause

moment

should

and

its

if

yield

of

shear

load.

consequently

danger

The

lose

frame

some

gapping

with

frame.

loads

accompany

shear

load

V,

there

will

be

danger

that

these

preload

and

thereby

sulting

in

continuous

Q.47

Why

is

A.4

For

7
defined

at

(see

figure

gage

is

1.0

from

Bolt
along
A

is

certain

the

to

point

then

entire

bolt

within

yielded
torquing
the

or

.2%

offset

on

the

in

bolts?

of

the

.002

true

bolt's

forces,

re-

frame

yield

gage

structure.

is

generally

curve

length).

If

the

inches.
referred

to

the

yield

stress

will

their

yield

points

vary

bolt.

in

reach

figure

point

entire

of

stress-deflection

curves

therefore

or

the

(usually

the

as

bolt

compression,
of

while

all

restraining

the

calculation

length

along

the

remove

yielding

portion

offset

could

locally

of

define

linear

will

friction

tension

previous

of

during

to

the

long,

theentirebolt

measured

in

the

the

under

stresses

small

noticed

in

of

point

at

loads

impacting

difficult

break

50)

load

reduce

specimen

the

All
yield

it

further

in

during
length

3-50

51,

the

or

only

bolt

use.
and

locally

could
Overall
not

about

set,

then

go

bolt

yielding

examined

un-

locally.

point.

I/

i l
I

offset

//

H_

Figure

///

Stress

Curve

for

Def_lection_

,_J

Bolt

Compression

51

I 1

Deflection

Figure

50

Entire

Bolt

Definition

in

of

Yield

Point

Yield

3-51

_4

in

SECTION
Verification

Over
various

the

Q.

48

A.

48

Flight
A

by

are

bolt

series

With

plate

the

NASA

low

When

(4)

(5)

the

GSFC

full

causes

the

procedures

at

NASA

Goddard

Space

loading

methods?

up

load

With

an

increase

in

gapping

appear,

to

were

fixed

performed.

size

yield

over

bolt

set

to

in

KB/K

bolt

F)

yield

50%

changes

the

structure.

almost

immediately

load.

This

yield

preload.

ratio

times

at

assumed).

occurs

the

1.0

(R

is

external

when

even

constant

load

loss

more

yield

spring

extreme

"R"

but

to

joint

occurs

external

impact

an

an

and

tests

using

began

corresponding

generally

less

of

Results:

torque

with

is

conducted

areas.

severe

of

by

the

preload

then

have

clamping

preload

stress

much

application

and

gapping

upon

previous

Test

causing
too

Used

personnel

performed

conducted

occurs,

With

Failure

tests

bearing

(if

gapping

GSFC

reliability

torque

preloads

preload

NASA

the

the

were

the

suddenly
(3)

of
verify

of
(2)

some

of

of

years

Procedures

manual.

to

Summary
(i)

this

series

varyinq

Preload

evaluate

Center

test

Axial

ten

to
by

What

These

past

tests

recommended

of

IV

yield
from
and

KB/K

1/2

load.
1/4

to

auicker

1/2,

there

bolt

failure.

(6)

(7)

Pre-torquing

up

to

pre-torque.

design

just

to

lose

it

failure.

Figures

relations

for

full

should

with

some

yield

52
of

causes
not

go

the

corresponding

and

53

the

4-1

show

tests

the

an
that

eventual
high

loss
in

increased
load-deflection

conducted.

of

torque
danger

of

and

Yield

(86%

ult)

/_

1.0

__.
1.0

83%

of

yield

loa/!

83% /

exuerna_

yield/

"

_\

CJ
2/3%
0

(83%)

yield

//_
/

_
_

,-4

'\

w
_J

\\

\ ,\

Deflection

Occurrence
Bolt

Load Cycle
5

______

1.0

cases

No

83%

Characteristics

prelcad

yield

loO"

.m

///

//I----;.i#/I/':5",//1_
I////r'-;>////F'-'.

z,'/,

>/////../_91///./'_>>/d///_

_/I,

h,///,,.

///4

/#///.-;>>//]

"///,//_/. ;,////_./,;./,2//4
o

'///
"ill
,///

.i//I.t_///i...C_,///4
----/If"'-----/lw'"
"/.''--.._#_'J"

,,..._>
_

o
.m

/i#,'>//_

/// ....
= ,,'/,
,/,_,_:I',_
4

/i/,>>//I
,///>M/I,///_

_//i

/.'//

_//.

_"

.//#4
,///

,-a

Case

2:

Preload

.5

41.5%

yield

preload

to

O
Note:

Insufficient

prevent

gapping.

/#/

#--_////14_///#/_

///,

/#

(/{(

_////////////_>x//I.;,_

Case

_/////

3 :

/#/,1

----/#/#///_-

Preload

_Bolt

1.0

yield

Yield

1.2

_Elas_ic

87%

A
1.0

67
4_

.-4

"'_

,/fr.

//_

.z'.5>>/l

,.-4

///I_

,//_'._)F>/<_<1
Case

4:

Preload

Figure

52

Case

= .67 = 56% yield

Gapping

and

Yielding

4-2

of

5:

Bolted

Preload

Systems

= 1.2 = 100% yield

for

cases

Fracture
Yield

(ult)

(86% ult)

- 7_
//
\\.

i. 0
83% Yield

1.0

1.0

Maxi, un

83% yield

"'-y_"

._t_
_.

\\

\\

\\

213 83%_-- 7_

\\

1,,=
c83_ /

\ \ \

\\

,//
//

.-4

I/f4
///4

\\\

_///I
.///%

'\

_,',,\\
',\ \ x

,/I/_

'\'\

_
_

\\

\_.

Deflection

Occurrence

Bolt Characteristics
Load Cycle
5 cases

,-4

No preload

1.0 = 83% yield

A
;A

1.0

Loss of
preload

_n

_.5
,-4
4U

)))4<"
,>z//-

Case

2:

Note:

K.
F

Preload

</.._;_')i
//__ ; ;.S9,]

.5 = 41.5% yield

Insufficient
preload
prevent gapping

to
Case

3:

Preload

= 1.0 = 87_ yield


Failure

Bolt yie_.

Elastic_

Preload
__/_'_
1.2 _z/i "__
//,'/_'/>////<S_//f// _._
_//4

/i///_55//////--

IOSS of
_.

preload

,//_q
'///I

//'.2//////_._////_

///I
_,>>1
///I

,/////<t_.////_'t.
//',///////'t.//////"

Preload
67

/fS_5)///////_5)/////'
"/'.>///_d_)////ddg
/i/Ill
_ --1////_'-//>>//////_5//////_
//>>//////_.//////

'// ....
//////
///I//

//////"
W/////'_
_i////_

_....wlw_////1,
_-.
ill/l/"
-_
1
//////_
_
=

_//////_
"//////2

"///////'
"/// /_/
///z/z/.
//////'_55_>>>///////_

///////_55/i/////////

Case 4:

Preload
Figure

= .67 = 56% yield


53 - _g,
Yield_g
4-3

,i/ll

.>//I
.;,
;,/I
>>/I
//<H
/}_/. _- /,,, ///" 2//._
////////_5_//////_
/Iji_/////ddg//////<< .//r
,<.-';!
. / /_///_

_ . _ I/

Case 5:
Preload
and Fail_e
of BOlt_

//'--

= 1.2 = 100% yield


Sy_

Q.

49

How

are

Section
A.

49

III
The

in

the

results

analysis

results

of

used

of

this

to

Recall

stiffness,

preload
have

54)

for

ratio

function

previous

KB

bolt

KF

frame

been

easier
was

of

method?
presented

use,
the

the

which

ratio

part

will
of

area,

b_

bolt
i.e.,

stiffness

AfEf

Referring
load

the

joint

methods

the

is

and

(-_--b)

KF

bolt

(figure

that

which

AbE
KB

select

form

below.

frame

to

tests

manual's

aconvenientandgraphical

described

these

to

due

to

figure
an

54

and

external

equation

load

is

stiffness

AS,

found

the

additional

from:

R
FBI

=(bolt

additional

Therefore

the

load)

total

bolt

R-_

(external

load

is

FExternal

force

F e)

:
R

FB(final)

FB(preload)

(R--_)

Yet
R

1
=

Therefore,

the

final

I+I/R

bolt

load

is:

1
FB(final)

The
provided
philosophy

test
in

FB(preload)

series
Section

indicates

conducted
III.
that:

4-4

Then

F(External)

proved
for

(i+-_)

the
the

general

bolted

joint,

design
this

philosophy
design

(1)

One should design a joint to yield under its full expected


yield load.
Preload the bolt only up to a limited percentage of its
yield load (figure 54).
Use the graph's ordinate
(on the left of figure 54) to

(2)
(3)

determine that additional


load capacity of FE which is
available after the bolt is preloaded and for which either
the bolt reaches its yield or for which the joint gapping
would occur.
Examples

of

how

Select

to

stiffness

4/1

for

soft

i/8

for

stiff

Assume,

for

to

is

used

of
in

for
To

find

experienced
right
top

point
This

In

the

the

is

the

In

the

preloaded
the

point

maximum

select

gasketed

that

it

which

100%

of

load,

and

would

then

enter

is

joint,

desired

the

bolt

the

bolt's

at

or

to

that

be

yield

same

an

find

should

the

be

joint's

where

Then

to

toraued

capacity

time

optimum

to
design

required

extreme

of

1/4

external

4-5

across

preload

assume
then

along

the

yield
this

line

vertically

the
load

line

to

the

intersects

downward
required

to
is

the

80%.

joint.

load

of

diagonal

the

suppose

yield,

Move

the
for

gasket,
its

ordinate

100%

read

where

example,

80%

54

to

use).

the

line.

this

figure

corresponds

abscissa

of

that

load

value

(which

second

to

yield

torque,

torque

case

54

joints.

horizontal

on

example,

and

external

during

to

R = 1/4,

This

this

line

For

Fi@ure

frame.

assure

given

bolted

heavy

the

to

in

representing

solid
that

gapping.

torque

top

nomograph

ratio.

bolt's

order

for

prevent

the

frame

example,

percentage
up

use

gasket
R

4/1.

using
that

one

seal

is
If

beinq

the

bolt

figure

54,

find

could

use

for

torque/.
is

this

system.

KB
The

stiffness

ratio

is:

(_)

K B

bolt

K F

frame

stiffness

where

=
KF

AE
C-L)

Gapping

Occurs

--_

"3

O
.3
,-4

8O

1/16

,-4

1/8
R

4/1

2/1

i/i

1/2

6O
Bolt
_

Stiff

"3
o
,=4

4O
m
FB(Final)

FB(preload)
I

FE

20
_- >.

Kt

X
II

_..t_

.
I
20

Preload

Figure

t
60

40
(%

of

54

Elastic

Bolt

Limit

Capacity

4-6

8O

Yield)

vs

Preload

Compliant
(Weak)
Bolt

This

is

approximately

entering

the

figure

yield.

Go

up

tO

find

F E

in

terms

of

If
of

be

graph

23%.
the

it

will

at

Is

this

the

R
show

with

gap

before

an

this

20%.

Go
above

4-7

4/1

is

found

torque

diagonal

of
line

by
80%

of

then

across

thesesaneresultsobtained
previously

an

This

with
=

diagrams

joint

value

yield.

bottom

55-61

load

of

bolt

the
to

Observe

torque

of

at

Figures
bolt

applied.

found?

54

vertically

gasket

yield,

can

is

23%

(2/1)

external

from

figure

vertically
the

gapping

used.

is

preloaded

to

20%

of

of

yield

load
54
to

by
R

line?

100%
entering
2/1.

the
What

F E

% preload
FE

% preload
Figure

F B

yield

55

----r---/

i = 1O0 _

8 0-__

._ld

-_

1/4

_-:4,

_=4)i!

100%

yield

De_iectxon

Figure

F E

56

100%
yield

e
II

1/4

0%

Figure

Examples

of

Using

4-8

of

yield

preload

57

Nomograph

in

Figure

54

Total

__.

external

load

I
Figure
F e

58

23%

Bolt
100%

yield

4/1

bolt

fra_
Deflection

Figure

59

/
cJ
--

Gapping
beyond
this
point

Bolt
100%
yield

R
o
.I

2/1

d
Deflection

Figure

i00

Ultimate
/

80

I
Yield

design

stress
Break

f
limit

x--

/T

6o

o 40
20

a_

60

Kb/

l,f

_b

I!

External

IOad

Deflection
Examples

of

Using

Nomograph

in

Figure

54

4-9

86

Frame
External
Load
R

4/1

Design

!
e

20%
/

/
/
/
/
/

I
I

yield

/
/

Gapping

I
I

1/4

yiel____d

/,
I

limit

24%

-Design

limit

yie___

yield
/

/
/
/

I
i

75% yield
applied
to
bolt

40%
yield

48%

yield_

Design

Gapping

limit

yield

72%
/
/

/i

60%
yield.

yield

] 50%

yield

/
Gapping

Des_%__qn limit

yield

100%
//I

---

/ I

23%

_i_id__

yield

80%
yield
il
yield

Figure

61

Summary

of

4-10

Various

Preloads

and

Gapping

SECTION
Practical

In
how
in

the

bolted

joints

of

shear

shear

tension.
in

The

frames

this

would

Shear

manual,

yield

of

the

Loaded

it

both

in

Joints

was

described

axial

tension

and

or

plates
average

four

upon

What
a

50

shear
A

shear

rely

as

are

modes

is

referred

it

is

results

of

com-

of

the

in
to

shear

methods.

In

to

assume

determine
are

or
the

function

Figure
failure

failure

advanced

fastener

material.
joint

shear
to

customary

stresses
the

of

analysis

distribution

stress
of

and

and

62

bolted

allowable
of

the

depicts

with

equations.
stress

combinations

we

should

examine

connection?

desiqner
stress

cases

as

modes

some

element

allowable

well

average

tearout,

tension

all

designer

test

These

dominant

corresponding
50

load

to

geometry

the

for

finite

stress

stress.

joint
the

or

average

and

joint

four

sections.

and

shear

for

bearing,

only

distribution

complex

investigated

shear,

examined

previous

elasticity

be

fastener

have

stress

these

uniform

generally

failure:

true

on

each

must

We

extremely

texts

A.

or

of

for

compression.

types

in

sections

joints

pression

Q.

Considerations

previous

Bolted

is

Design

must
induced

examine
in

these

5-1

the

shear

bolts.

load

in

bolts

and

the

combined

(a)

I
Fastener

Shear

v--I

I_
L_
(b)

Bearing

(c)

Tension

fbr

_-v_=_v____
t

(d)

k t (w

/
D) t

e
-

Types

of
5-2

Shear

62

D-_

_T_/

Tearout

Figure

Failure

The
k

shear
ks

solid

stress

shear

under

factor

diameter

or

of

load

4/3

that

for

part

in

shear

bolts,

of

the

and
bolt

(V/A)
A

in

k,

is

the

shear.

where
area

of

the

(See

figure

63.)

<
D
wD 2

Figure

This

shear

predicted
addition
and

as

stress

shown

or

through
in

must

tensile
is

63

Shear

be

stress

under

added

by

compressive
Mohr's

figures

64

load

vector

addition

stress.

Circle,
and

as

One

to

method

discussed

in

of

65.

(prestress)

1
0 S

o T

Figure

5-3

64

An

Element

under

Shear

and

vector

Appendix

o T

a T

the

Tension

A3,

_ud.u.

-F_m

aS

'i
__ximum

Shear

Stress

Figure

65

- Mohr's
Circle
for Calculating
Maximum
Shear

(V-2)

I
OBR
Failed

bol_

OpR

I
oT

Figure

66

- Bearing

5-4

Stress

in

Bolt

Stress

This

type

of

thick

plate

and

where

steel

plates

where

high

of

their

to

applied

shear

magnitude

of

the

the

are

used.

carbon

steel

bolts

to

shear

always

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may

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it

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added

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to

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plates

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68

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design

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designs.

bolt).

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since

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5-9

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Joint

SECTIONVI
Locking Features in Bolts
Q.

51

Why

A.

51

It

are
has

serious

or

resulting
shock

can
Q.

of

that

nut

even

First,
damage
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It

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locking
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torques

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5 3

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53

used

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first

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to

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looking

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removal

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is

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list
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is

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some

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the

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devices

stud

be

currently

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nuts?
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filled
into

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on

gapping

stresses}.
nut

most
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together

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followed

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remove

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or

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gapping

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be

device

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said

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devices

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device

once

of

nut

nut

locking

the

plates

shock

of

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low

and

one

consequences.

should

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is

or

or

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together.

frames

catastrophic

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to

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damage

loss

out
design

loosening

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for

nut

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What

52

the

withstand

prevent

52

are

easily

with

technique
A.

impact

and

Nuts

important?

pointed

bolt

which

can

so

previously
in

materials

the

features

frames

loads

gapping
of

been

problems

plates

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locking

and

standard
with

the

thread

bolt

nylon
area.

or

plug

or
The

6-1

can

similar
plug

bears

drilled

through

material
into

plug
the

nut

and

which
thread

then
extends
areas

and

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plug

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bolt,

able

never

and

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turned

of

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springs

outward

threads

are
Some

that

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54
on

A.54

placed

nut

or

in

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bearing.

as

have
the

it

turned

be

one

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of

molded

is

deformed

as

the

ring.

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where

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top

shape.

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thread

to
the

nut

plastic

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up

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last

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in

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up.

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other

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nut

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in

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the

nut

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it

made

nut

must

at

consequently
be

threads

in

emphasized
the

nut

or

of

the

current

technical

literature

available

devices.
Locknuts
Robert

October

Should

Remove
B.

12,

"Prevailing

July

nut

80)

some

"How
by

nylon

place.

bolt

than

(Figure

locking

the

The

stresses

plastic

plastic

the

nuts

penetrate

in

into

on

cannot

List

of

critical

have

This

nut

deformed

the

which

fabricate

angle
as

off.

threads

the

threads

the

locking

different

backing

several

nut.

bolt

companies
are

from

affect

nuts
the

holds

threads

nut

first

not

also

thread

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locks

the

the

78)

are

deformation

keep

does

(Figure
There

Q-

near

thus

areas.

bolt.

to

Aronson,
1978,

Torque
be

1979,

the

Used,"
p.

Staff

p.

164.

Robert

and

6-2

June

in

Editor,

Joint

Design,"

Machine

Design,

(29)

Locknuts--What
by

28,

'Unknowns'

they

A.

Degen,

1970,

p.

are

and

Assembly
30.(30)

Where

they

Engineering,

IVAN

P'_i_Lt

hqvfe

le

_l,_

Ore, LCB

6-3

PXV*4

Manufacturing

Q.5

What

are

A.5

Bolts

are

heading,
Q-5

What

we

of

of

poor

testing

the

with

manufacturing
list

quality

several

of

cold

with

these

the

problems

Handbook

Committee,

all

of

and

nuts.

the

of

the

this

steel

include

batch

controls,

methods,

usually

used

etc.
for

threads

connections?

Metals

This

Handbook,

is

explained

by

Machining,

American

Society

paragraph

prepared

of

Metals,

by

ASM

Metals

Park,

(31)

"THREAD
ROLLING
(also
cold
forming
process
helical

or

hardened
conical
thread

by

into
In

rolling

the

surface

contrast
to
thread
rolling

threading)
threads
or
the
of

is
a
other

impression
a

thread
does

of

cylindrical
cutting
not
remove

the

work
blank.
Rather,
thread
rolling
the
surface
metal
of
the
blank
roots
and
crests
of
a thread.

thread
operate

cylindrical

tangential
Each
method
article..."

known
as
roll
for
producing

forms

dies

blank.
grinding,

metal
from
dies
displace
to
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for
dies

annular

steel

brief

and

problems

fabrication
is

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difficulties

improper

thread

process.

from

or

bolts

manufacturing

bolted

rolling

one

Some

poor
of

selected

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rolling,

associated

of

control,

methods,

44073:

on

references.

method

The

written

simply

critical

Dies
Flat

manufacturing

machining,

problems

been

proper

What

or
and

for

etc.

have

further

lack

Ohio

casting,

grinding,

some

can

recommend

A.57

by

methods

methods?

Books

report,

with

made

are

associated

Q.57

typical

forging,

fabrication
A.5

some

Problems

rolling
by
a
dies

may
be
traversing

are

feel,
through
is
discussed

classified
feed,
in
a

6-4

either
flat
motion.
as

planetary,
separate

or
cylindrical.
Methods
that

radial

infeed,

and
section

internal.
of
this

What

are

Any

Q.

58
the

A.

58
to

is

The
is

critical

relieved
the

What

other

change

past

decade

to

tion.
forming

been

materials

A.

59

Many

steels

method

large

with

higher

Q.

60

What

A.

60

Hydrogen

or

the

of

The

the

principle

root

the

of

metal

end

the
up

occurred

stress

with

has

been

increased

stress

been

changed

and

the

help

the

designer.

used

and

how

8630,

has

828,

Essential
the

machining.
of

58%

with

an

in

region?

the

is

up

has

decrease

bolts.

are

to

concentramethods

this
303,

17-4

the

metallurgy

of

having

Thus

of

these

some

after

machining

elongation
to

problem

comes

P h,

12%.

eliminate

e_.,

a
materials

and

of

of

helped?

necessity

necessary

critical

bolt

Volume

Cleveland

Ohio.)(3_

"...This
atomic

to

and

Dohn

21,

No.

J.

heat
The

problems

of

acid

i,

plating.

fully

understood,

absorbed

by
to

and
In

it
and

collect

Hydrogen

Reprinted

from
during

the

alkaline

is

thought

under

Fasteners
article

process

Institute,
indicates

cleaning
that

in

from

that:

absorption
electroplating--but

which

through
load

cleaning

Embrittle_ent,

this

diffused

6-5

coating,

Industrial
from

pic.kling

to

manufacturing?

Laurilliard,

phenomenon
results
hydrogen-principally

in

from

improper

(See

excerpt

prior

tendency

due

surfaces.

Spriat,

Fasteners,

is

with
the

thread

4340,

embrittlement
of

also

to

elongation

other

L.

forms

structure.

up
at

threads?

yielding.

plating

Robert

grain

grain

and

been

after

Others

bolt

operation

line

the

has

4130,

elongations

local

of

critical

of

manufacturing

an

treatment.

the

have

elongation
up

rolled

threads

life

strength

of

the

rolled

changed

from

high

region

root

geometry

What

and

the

the

59

for

stress

in

fatigue

Q.

used

to

lining

the

have

the

rolled

affect

at

Thus

type

of

stress.

radius

increase

end

by

of

forged
through

thus

flow

The

or

cutting

structure

thread

advantages

formed

without

stresses.

the

principle

rolled,

material
grain

the

is

of

operations
still

not

the

atomic

hydrogen

the

metal,

with

areas

of

highest

are

stress concentration.
failure,
which in most
which

there

With

modern

methods
a

of

to

Q.61

It

degrade

How

of

aware

of

that

guard,

older

seldom

though,
could

bolts

begin

manufactured

are

to

Products
PA
19046.
Mechanical

the

Users

Cracks

Frontiers
Engineering,

and

Handbook,
Edition,

Thomas

of

Assembled

Kverek,

Assembly

Ernest

G.

reference).
Best
1967.(35)

Friend,

Really

Better?,

C.

Socket

Edward

F.

Robert

Engineering,

Baumgartner,

Screws,

Machine

Precision

Pressed

Editorial,

Steel

What

to

do

August,
Design,
1969.

Machining,
3,
Metals

6-6

Co.,

Materials

Mid-October,

Fastener
January,

Vol.

elementary

out

R.

Assembly

Standard

Engineering,
in

they

of

Division,
(38)

Engineering,

Assembly

an

problem,

1969.(37)

Fasteners,

Materials

above

Walker,

Made,
9,

get

David

a Flyer's
January,

A.

are

to

complex

Louis
Raymond
and
January,
1968.(34)

Threads--Are

January

Fasteners

and
(33)

(see

L.
Spriat,
Richard
April,
1965.(36)
Fasteners

used

Embrittled
Salser
1972.

Bolts
Failed,
Metal
Progress,

Radiused-Root

Warning

be

such

problem.

Embrittlement

Design,

is

can

Hydrogen
Floyd
S.
Sept.

The
Right
Fasteners
Gowen,
Sr.,
Approach,

4_

the

better
is

manufacturing

manufacturing

Keep

Hydrogen

Metals
8th

up

of

with

embrittlement

embrittlement

the

Why
Titan's
Kendall,

Fatigue

keep

methods

references

to

to

along

eras.

Products,
Engineering,

How

techniques,
hydrogen

Be

hydrogen

knowledge

A_

it

problem

some

means

good

again.

Since
list

is

can induce brittle

cases
is delayed
and
for
of
advanced
detection..."

inspection

without

during

no

manufacturing,

problem.

because

is

There it

Industrial
Jenkintown,

Selector,

1967.(39)

about

Them,

Clarence

R.

Smith,

1972.(40)
Clarence
(41)
American
Park,

R.

Smith,

Society
for
Ohio
44073.(31)

Assembly,

Metals,

SECTIONVII
Failure

Q.6

Why

A.6

There

All

is

inspection
needed

if

is

one

the

bolt

quality

are
would

not

control
that

A.6

used

hold

suspend

is

most

failures

then

to

not

as

important.

man

the

design.
feet
If

What

bolt

be

in

the

air,

thousand

the

machine

bolts

failure
quality

important

routine

the

example,

of
most

that

For

bolt

in

sure
to

one

is

found

be

and

operation

fasteners.

comparable

i00

together

in
and

are
job

analysis?

a _

important.

machine

fractured

be

control

to

deter

one

failure

particular

or

What

are

prevent

is

inspection

Some

This

some

companies

done

prevent

their
from

in

quality

control

the

independent

of

critical

their

fasteners

to

special

chemical

good

steel

tensile

them

bolt

used

corrosion
treatments

test

from

bolt

time

to

manufacturers

to

specimen

Some

prevent

pull

inspect

bolts.

laboratories.

manufacturers
and

of

electromagnetic

use

Most

vat

patented

testing

their

lots

quality.

vat

make
tests

to

remove

bolt

and

time

lot

chemical

and
analysis

batch.

What
bolts

many

Other

vendor

on
Q.64

all

manufacturers

perform
that

used

(a

x-ray

coat

fatigue.
from

samples

methods

at

also
Some

samples

or

routinely

manufacturers
fatigue.

the

magnaflux

method)

is

insure

of

failure?

inspection

A.64

quality
a

with

will

keep

Control

replaced.

to

tm

stop
is

the

and

to

to

is

for

control

used

always

do

and

Quality

covered

and

can

reliability

and

control

been

a designer

design

Q.6

quality
have

that

Analysis

are

before

some

of

the

non-destructive

methods

used

sale?-

(a)

Visual

observation

(b)

Liquid

dye

(c)

Dry

Magnaflux

of

penetrant

discontinuities
inspection

inspection

7-1

(Magnetic

particle)

to

test

(d)
(e)
(f)

Electromagnetic
testing
Ultrasonic
Inspection
Lasar and other
less
used

techniques

Reference:
Nondestructive
Schleer,

A.

for

What
control

65

design,

to

be

bolted

of

bolt

as

method

the

user

for

in

of
is

not

as

he

to

What

of

find

the

mechanics

(B)

measuring

upon

(i)

who

and

the

(5)

method

shock,

by

the

the

load

vibration

(6)

the

or

experience

assemble
control

field

the
of

inspections

maintenance

loads

are

control

where

will

of

the

control),

quality

level

quality

which

orders,

where

preventive

inspection,

stresses

during

problems.

problem
the

his

and

the

about

quality

structure,

inspection

(42)

(3)

assemblies

the

fatigue

difficult

from

American

materials

and

E.

mind

quality

testing

bolted

II,

material,

testing

including

considerinq

control

the

methods

for

its

affect
of

service

services

of

in

depend

fastener

John

44073.

keep

will

receives

defined_

understanding

(9)

the

testing

loads

after

design

inspecting,

well

Ohio,

always

(including

bolts

full

Park,

specifications

well

of

unknown

during

above

does
nine

the
steps

designer
for

face

quality

assurance?
A

desiqnerwillnotbeable_ocootrolallofthew_rk

the

design.

out

the

have

when

the

assembly,

to

Metals

nuts?

parts

Vol.

and

(7)

in

Edition

designer

structures,

Q. 66

8th

manufacturing

the

and

Handbook,

the

(2)

(4)

and

Control,

control

basic

amount

A.6

bolt

Quality

other

Quality

Metals,

should
of

path

and

Metals

Society
Q. 65

Inspection

is
put

Further,
job,

through
the

he

knows

and

he
in

has

many

to

cases,

specifications.

assemblies
that

together.
quality

control

7-2

during

rely
the

on

others

only

He

must

He

has
will

to

control
rely
to

make

suffer.

on

carry
he

will

good
allowances

mechanics

The

designer

prd:lems.

He

is

has

to

specifications,
under
in

only

for

critical,

two

The

In

the

is

be

Q.67

weakest
What

The

the

clue

to

balanced

off,

weight

less-

cr

are

size

is

cheaper

not

than

the

the

all

process

is
part

of

and

more

has

to

the

stringent
keep

must

be

quality

control

to

have

methods

for

is

only

one

be

quality

of

the

of

new

bolts

and

problems

testing

use.

In

final

test

before

final

nuts.
arising,

the

its

manufacturing,

to

aware

for

must

user

abreast

many

to

manufacturer

techniques

prior

abilities

insufficient.

He

manufactured

has

manufacturer's

so

automotive

designer

the

inspection
A. 67

with

in

and

drop

the

control

assembly,
there

of

of

control

important

case

one

expensive

account

bolts

designer

with

spacecraft

The

If

aware

on

quality

after

must

into

technology.

Today,

of

Take

specification_

metallurgy

structure

reliability

review.

used.

be

The

and

may

quite

necessary

ask

quality

methods.

inspection

it

be

inexpensive

control
in

in

may

his

requirements

be

three

his

reflected

latest

to

must

quality

control

justify

engineering

bolt.

when

reduced
be

is

could

value

engineering

control

designer

note

to

necessary.

or

expensive

facing

which

value

quality
bolts

and

is

expensive

able

of

design

what

design--as

one

be

some

challenged
success

constantly

final

joint

part

flight.

inspection

parts.
aware

of

chain.

Remember

references

to

the

limitations

that

"a

chain

of

every-

always

fails

at

link."
are

some

these

quality

control

and

problems?
Failures
Metals
Society

of

Mechanical

Handbook,
for

8th

Metals,

Fasteners,
Edition
Metals

Vol.
Park,

Walter
i0,
Ohio

L.

Jenson,

American
44073.

(43)

7-3

/0a

_t_ctive

___n

In-Service
Editor,

and O_lity

Co.trol.

Fastener
Corrosion
Assembly
Engineering,

Satellite
Associated

Tests,
Robert
T. Kelly,
October,
1968.(44)

Part
Failure
Laid
to
Press,
January
20,

Preventing
Engineering,
Fasteners
February

(See above)

Complacency
1979 (45)

Fatigue
Failures,
Clarence
April
1968.
(46)
that
Fight
Fatigue,
20, 1975.(47)

in

R.

Ronald

Khol,

What's
Wrong
with
Fastener
Specifications,
Assembly
Engineering,
April
1969.(48)
Fastener
Design,
Factors
A.M.I.
March

Failures
December

are
14,

Expensive,
1972. (49)

Fundamentals
gartner,

Machine

Harry

A.

Design,

S.

Trilling,

Grenner,

Machine

and Smith-Kaboba,
Clarence
May
1969.
(also Jan.
1970)

Charles

Lipson,

Machine

Design,
Carl
C. Osgood,
and
Sons,
Inc.,
New York,

Preventing
Engineering,

Fatigue
March

Design
Considerations
Assembly
Engineering,

Threaded
Machine

Assembly

of High
Strength
Fasteners,
Thomas
Standard
Pressed
Steel
Co.,
Jenkintown,

Failure
Modes,
p. 222.
(5_

Fastening
Assembly

Smith,

in Fastener
Reliability,
G. N. Hall,
C. Eng.
Mech.
E., and Oliver
Breward,
Aircraft
Engineering
1967.
(50)

Reflections,
Technicalities
Smith,
Assembly
Engineering,

Fatigue
Wiley

J.

Testing,

Philosophy
Engineering,

Failure_,
1968. _;

at

Design,

R.

Joints,
1968. (5_

GE...the
Balanced
Nov.
1970.
(57)

Fasteners,
Fasteninqand
Design,
Nov.
1975. (58)

7-4

Joining

Smith,

John

BaumpA(52)

Nov.

Wiley-Interscience,
London
and Toronto.

Clarence

for Bolted
Decmeber

C.

(51)

13,

1969,

John
(54)

Assembly

V.

Design

Reference

Liggett,

Concept,

Issue,

High

Grade

Threaded

Joints:

New
Developments,
H.
by
Naval
Ships
Systems
October
1966.
(59)
Some

Problems

Aircraft
Bureau

of

Ch.

Fatigue

Applications,
of
Naval
Weapons,

Some

Klein,
Command,

of

Bolts

Design

and

BUWEPS
Report
Washington,

7-5

Principles

translated
Department

Bolted
No.
D.C.

and

from
German
of
the
Navy,

Joints
RAAE-343-62-1
(60)

in

Standard Specification
Q-69
A'69

What is a standard specification


alloy steel
bolts,
nuts,
threaded
Material:

Alloy

Tensile

for good commercial highstrength


rod

and

Strenqth:

160,000

psi

up

screws
150,000
Elonqation:

11%
Rockwell

Threads:

All

threads

for

improved

Testinq
One

and

bolt

gage.

order.

If

above,

three
an

The

chemical
be

reserves

hardness,

be

the

for

rejection

and

bolt

of

All

dia.

root

threads

heads

for

radii

rolled.

improved

and

shall

be

to

of

FF-S-86c.

an

same

the

or
with

listed

random

and

order,

check

to

any

re-

thing

of

the

the

constitutes
90
the
they

the
govern-

dimensions,
in

the

order.

requirement
a

within

and

The

bolt

meet

specification

tested

specification.

results.

of

the

necessary

this

test

10%

7-6

or

certification

bolts)

interchangeably.

3,

requirements
at

as

strength

this

tested

extensometer

the

to

tensile

submitted

randomly

entire

the

148

chosen

the

within

mean

Figure

official

(or

In

or

taken

with

the

4,

meet

may

and

order.

be

be

according

screws

of

not

right

shall

with

three

elongation

specification

receipt

all

included

of

page

does

testing

the

Figure

shall

bolts

of

of

or

results

bolt

Failure
this

in.

dia.,

increased

life.

wire

measured

analysis

ment

in.

strength.

4.4.3,

more

for

shall

to

under

of

5,

Test

average

coil

up

fatigue

coil

Figure

the

quirement

5/16

incorporate

fatigue

every

shall

strain

and

should

paragraph

Elongation

of

including

Certification:

to
2,

and

C-34-40

fillets,

and

from

according
Figure

hardness

Increased
head

psi,

to

minimum

Hardness:

Fillets:

washers?

Steel

reason

days

of

words
can

be

screw
used

Finished

Hexagon

Nuts

Specifications:
Tensile

Strength:

Maximum

130,000

Hardness:

RB

Threads:

Class

2.

All

radii

for

improved

root
Nut

Length:

the

area

minimum

of

the

bolt.

(Thus

in

1/4

shall

be

under
bolt

nut

the

and
by

1/4

be

based
based

bolt

by

in

shall

screw,

screw,

of

psi.

life.
be

cap

cap

ii0,000

increased

shall

The

the

incorporate

length

nut

the

threads

nut

Performance:
of

Minimum

The

diameter
of

psi.

88-102

by

on

150,000

psi

to

160,000

psi
the

for

cap

colt,

meet

multiplying

the

the

the

the

multiplying

multiplying

in

to

length

(min.)
required

on

equal

for

full

the

nominal

cap

screws

nominal

minimum

screws

above

full

strength

strength

of

minimum
5/16
area

5/16

and
of

inches

the
in

diameter.
Testing:

The

government

dimensions,

10%

order,
Threaded

the

right

to

hardness

and

strength

of

any

within

10%.

Failure

to

meet

requirements
within

reserves

constitutes

within

90

days

a
of

reason
receipt

for
of

r_-_domly
nut

to

these

rejection

check
meet

the

the

requirements
of

the

entire

order.

Rod

Specification:
Material:
Tensile

Alloy

Steel

Strength:

Hardness:

Rc

Elon_ation:
Threads:
Finish:

135,000

of

within

15%

32-38
12_

Class

Depending

Testing:

psi

See
135,000

on

testing
psi

use
under
tensile

Cap

Screws

strength

7-7

except
and

RC

for
32-38,

the

requirements
elongation

12_

Washers
Tensile

Strength:

Hardness:

Rockwell

Thickness:
.160

Diameter:
a

Many
designs

to

220,000

psi

45

thickness/Cap

outside

minimum

of

Screw

diameter

of

the

have

examination

Diameter

is

minimum

of

the

washer/Cap

Screw

diameter

1.65

designer

and

structural
summary

major

been
of

the

list.

40

to

Summary

the

psi

ratio
The

is

at

Washer

of

160,000

can

problems

explored

these

in

problems

produce

the

of

This

should

list

this

posed
report
be

With

design
to

in

this

each

re-

solutions,
high

performance

recommendations,

report
and

joint

careful

of

these

review
for

bolted

recommended

aid

for

reviewed

7-8

their
joint

an

in

report.

and

As

questions

beginning

this

bolted

integrity.

of

encountered

are
a

quick

project

provided
check
design.

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77.

DESCRIPTION

Figure

7.

Description

i0

of

Nut

Threads

OF

NUT

THREADS

THE USE AND MISUSE

OF SIX BILLION

James
Environmental

Engineering

Official

identified

the cause

identify
yield

published
of many

the precise
bolts

root

reports

of major

of these

failures

cause

due to repeated

Services

ing of nuts due to low-frequency


using

high-strength/low-yield

lead

to many

engineering
analysis,
hopes

types
problem

that

bolt problems
to explain

lead to a more

Key words:

increase

Bolts;

in the number

consider

re#on,

transients,

trends

(5) not testing

design.

failures

describing
gestions

the deflection
models,

design,

design

and application

and nuts.

of the friction

(4) inadequate

structures

and hints

be prevented
marily

Some

factor

of torquing

torque

is applied,

combination.
the

not after

as

could

are strictly

methods.

Design

such

practices

has a clear concept

of bolted

an

of bolt

This paper

concepts

presented

will

of a time-related

could

are:

lead to an

(1) torquing

into

(3) neglecting

of loads caused

to

by shock

and, in some cases, performing

the

proper engineering
judgment...Because
will: (1) present several design n_odels

in mathematical

them graphically;

structures

of these trends

of the types

to analyze

these models

the trouble

(Figure

1) that

the compressed
flections.

the undeformed

visualizing

will illustrate
extended
frame.

thereof

the nut that anchors

and the frame

nut while

bolt is then

and the effects

In practice,

bolt extends

and the
The

(2) describe
the possibility

board,

trends

failures

and the use thereof,

knowledge

that are difficult

tools and illustrate

for minimizing

on the drafting

design

terms; (3) from

and (4) provide


bolt

is discovered.

failure.

these mathe-

a number

of design

Time-related

Therefore,

failures

this paper

sugcan best

is written

pri-

for the designer.

A discussion
which

of bolts;

form design

and (3) loosen-

lubrication

and testing

to

of high-strength/low-

time-related

bolt analysis.

wrong tests, and (6) relying too much on computer


analysis without
space does not permit adequate
coverage of this material,
this paper
matical

difficult

overloads,

Modern

If the designer

have

vibration.

of bolts

knowledge

bolted

that

analytical

plagued

lubrication;

in engineering

of time-related
in early

( 1) fracture

Arena)

of the bolt problem.

torquing;

(2) inadequate

the bolt problem

with good

It is often

due to many

and improper

believes

City Kemper

of bolts.

may be low).

region,

writer

ideas have persistently

washers;

current

The

failure
such as:

loads

by the use of existing

understanding

nuts;

Some

the plastic

be avoided

why erroneous
thorough

Introduction:

could

though

as the Kansas

by yielding

into the yield

failures.

can be avoided

Center

(such

failures

caused

(even

torquing

of time-related

failures

structural

Branch

Division
Flight

to be the time-related

(2) bending

vibration
bolts,

Space

structural

of time-related

high loads,

PER YEAR

J. Kerley

Test and Integration

NASA/Goddard

Abstract:

BOLTS

the bolt,

It is difficult

By mentally

the frame.
separating

by turning
The frame
these

in terms of the deflections


structure

in an undeformed
to visualize

of the nut turning

these deflections
outside

and the frame

bolt is installed

compresses.

the deflection

can best be visualized

up.

that
frame

the types

is secured

the nut up to its final position

actions,

before

one can more

of both
a model

outside

the extended

readily

by the

visualize

bolt

the

t at/

up;

the bolt
is made
frame.

is slid into

the resulting

, ],
, .

bolt/nut

and the nut is turned

of deflections

To aid this visualization,

is compressed

of a bolt to

de-

Figure 2 illustrates
torqued

up.

this same model.

Second,

the bolt is extended

frame is compressed
into the compressed
Figure
thin

to the final position


frame.

3 shows the same extensions

depicted

for a stiff frame

frame

whereas

shows larger

the frame

and normal
modulus

take

and compressions
Through

from thin to stiff.

The deflection

of elasticity

to the f'mal position


it would

and a thin (or less stiff)


deflections.

varies

frame.

First, the nut is turned up to the position

as those

frame.

take

if it were torqued

up.

it is more

examples,

Figure 4 is a graph

be in if it were

Then

flexible

than

the bolt stiffness

of the loads

Third,

the

bolt is slid

of torque

are

a stiff frame,
is kept

and deflections

of the force (P), the length

up.

the extended

in Figure 2, but the effects

Because

the following

(A) is a function

it would

if it were torqued

it would

the

constant,

for the bolt

(L), the area (A), and the

(E).
AFTER
COMPRESSION

TENmON
BEFORE

TENSION
AFTER

BEFORE
COMPRESSION

,_

Figure 1. Bolt and Frame

Figure 2. Deflection of Bolt and Frame Due to Torquing


(._)

TENSION

(LBS)

_(-)

COMPRESSION

__

(LBS)

ME

_e

(.es'=
[.l')

BEFORE
TEN_ON

AFTER
TENSION

BEFORE

AFTER
COMPRESSION

BEFORE
COMPRESSION

/_,

AFTER
tr COMPRESSION

D|FL|CT|OU
(T|RBBOR)

COMPRESSION

Figure 3. Deflection of a Thin and a Stiff Frame Due to Torquing

(3

OIEF I.| CTIOR


(COMPRI

OBION)

Figure4. Loadsand Deflections on Bolt and Frame

For example,
Under

assume

for the bolt that PB = 50,000

such conditions,

a bold

elongation

lb, L B = I 0 in., A a = 0.1 in2, and E B = l 0,000

of 0.5 in. will result

PL
2AB

2A B is plotted
as the curve
of bolts and nuts and other

(50,000)

AE

(0.1)

PL

shows

compression

a frame

before

(1 O)

(10,000,000)

= 0.5 in.

for the frame that PF = 50,000 lb, L F = 10 in., A F = 0.2 in 2, E r = 10,000,000


will result in a frame compression
of 0.25 in. as shown by:

2Z_F

50,000-1b

by:

on the left in Figure 4. The only difference


between
the curves used in the study
load deflection
curves is that the frame deflection
curve is reversed as shown in

Figure 4. For example,


assume
lb/in 2. Such frame parameters

The

as shown

(50,000)
(0.2)

load in the frame

torque,

after

torque,

is equal

(10)

(I0,000,000)

= 0.25

to the 50,000-1b

tension

and with an external

tension

in.

load in the bolt.

load after

pretorque.

Figure
Note

deflection
of the frame (A F) is caused by the torquing,
followed by a reversal in deflection
(A_)
external
tension load is applied.
Part of the bulge in the frame is lost; the frame load goes down.
external
The

tension

belief

load is added,

the bolt continues

that the bolt load remains

The external

tension

bolt to move

with it, even though

LOADING

load lowers

AFTER

lb/in 2.

to neck

the same until

the frame

preload

down

even more

is overcome

is a common

load and raises the bolt load.

the stress is relieved

in the frame

and

as the bolt tension

that

the

when the
When the

load increases.

error.

Any motion
increased

in the frame

in the bolt.

Figure

causes

the

6 shows

PRETORQUING

-K>
(D)

30.000@

;__!-

-30.O00e

<>
AFTER
TORQUE

BEFORE
TORQUE

Figure
and

5.

Deflections

Externat

Load

TORQUE &
EXTERNAL
TENSION
After

of 30,000

Torquing
Pounds

(A',
(o)
DEFLECTION

Figure
Added

6.

IN

30,000-Pound
to 50,000-Pound

INCHES

Tensile

Load

Pretorque

the graphical
tension
torquing

must

external

for representing

axis.

lb.

follow

tension

vertical
The

method

load is 30,000
load

The

deflection

was

Thus,

to D.

after

is applied.

the

previously

the

bolt

and

was already

external

frame

load,

compression
compression)

load

is simply

(to

along

CB, and backs

bolt load is GD, which

SUMMARY

after

pre-

off to E when

the

FINAL

BOLT

while

deflection

(in

case of an external
later),

the
I

Figure

7.

IN

Summary

INCHES

of

Loads

and

the load deflection

of varying

stiffness

the

bolt

stiffness

a presentation

can be used

the change

in bolt and frame


of the

described,

there

force,

modulus

and

The method
then

CALCULATIONS

10.000_

Figure
constant,

four

along

lus of the

constant.

loads

tool to

by chang-

20,000_

40.000_

24,000_

As previously
area, length,

one variable

variables
variables

The

frame

at a time

to that

change.

of the bolt

with the length,

frame.

,I

60,000_

30,000_

of the bolt and of the frame.

the other

8, the

frame.

of

normal,

as a design

are eight variables:

is to change

relate

curves

(i.e., stiff,

show

stiffness

Deflections

20,000_

Such

ing the

LOAD

of that

reversed.

holding

LOAD

By the

of some

60.000_

thin)

BOLT

TORQUE

is reduced.

frames

LOAD

compres-

is CO.

a final

total

The change in bolt and frame deflection


shows that
the bolt is extended
farther
but that the frame

three

the
lb.

a loss of

The

be discussed

8 superimposes

along

load of 30,000

XTRA

Figure 7 summarizes
all previous terms.
The extra
bolt load and the loss of frame load are obvious.

Figure

loads

is measured

add up to the external

DEFLECTION

compression

lb and the external

tension

extension
after the

The

is relieved

In the

The additional

is 50,000

AB, additional

is compressed

GD and EG must

frame

is simply

torquing

with

of CF.

compression
process

after

the frame
(OF),

the

there.

of the bolt is AO + OF.

sion of the

The frame

The preload

along

in compression.

in the frame

that

and deflections.
in pretorque

is EG.

the additional
of the frame,

pretorqued

extension

extension

pretorque

load lost to the frame

of both

compression

forces

the same slope

(2A E ), or GB, represents


of the bolt and extension
frame

these

As the bolt is extended

force,
area

and

I
/
20.000_

In

are held
and modu-

is the

KF (Tkm)
I0,000_

only

variable.
For example,

assume

the preload

to be 50,000

lb

as previously
plotted.
The deflection
of the bolt is
0.5 in. and the deflection
of the normal frame is
0.25
tension

in. due
load

to the

preload.

of 30,000

When

lb is added,

an external
the

bolt load is

KI

50,0004'
.SO
IN.

50
F1$1")'.125

, 100o000

000.
IN.

Figure

_'IIN.

.
,400.u00

8.

(normal

K_rilu"mel)'

_
r_f(T_)"

_IIN.

Loads
thin

and
and

$0,000
.25
IN.

S0 000
1.0 IN.

Deflections
stiff

frame)

4,

200.000

.....
,Ou,uurJ

_IIN.

_IIN.

increased
10,000 lb and the normal frame load is decreased 20,000 lb because
is twice the bolt stiffness (KB): K F = 200,000
lb/in, and K B = 100,000 lb/in.

the normal

The design

(or normal

frame)

and

frame

thin

tool can now be used

and stiff

frame

at random.

For the thin frame,


50,000

Ib/in.

as follows.

This is achieved

cut the area of the frame

This is plotted

load due

to external

raises KF(sUfO to 400,000

load go from

to 6,000 lb. Simply changing


frame from steel to aluminum
I/l 5th of the original

l 0,000

torquing

cause

this practice
the proper

stiffness

always

solve

be dangerous

10 graphically

compression

down

The frame previously

and thus the frame load goes up.

Because

it was previously
in tension,
and the new external
for time-related
failures are:

frame, the loading

within

2. Excessive

compressive

will relieve

load

off, or the frame

could

lose its clamping

will bend,

could

lead

which

to early

force.

fatigue.

The

point

lowers

and then

tension

OF

,NELO,D
/

of view,

a weaker

force

and allows

to an external
must

would

compres-

lose its resistance

load of gapping

could

the

nut

LOAD

FRAM_

/\

Figure 9. Bolt PlasticTension

LOAD

LO.T

FRAME

to back
and the bolt

serious.

GOMPREIIIION
LOAD

load since

load.

to shear,

be quite

more

considerations

with external

in the bolt and cause

the bolt

take

design

not

bolt with

with the frame, it loses

rapidly

or

to select

of the bolt does

due to pretorque

can increase

larger

failures,

it is important

Selecting

subjected

the

can also

In time-related

EXTERNAL

EXTERNAL

by

load goes down

1
L088

in bolt

loads after pre-

The compression

the preload

The impact

Kr .

the area of the frame

the strength

the bolt must move

frame

Ib/in and K F =

the change

or it can be made

the clamping

in compression

the frame

change

The bolt parameters

external

it brittle.

load is compression.

I. In the case of a stiff

increase

fast.

Increasing

makes

yielding

makes

as illustrated.

From a design

to ensure long life.


constant

that

K B = 100,000

the frame

the stiffness,

some of its pretorque

which

areas

by selecting

(K F )

the loads on the bolt and frame.


Changing
Plastic frames can lower the stiffness to

Subsequent

a bolt that has been pretorqued


load.

Then

design

in bolt load due to external

to decrease

point.

as the load is repeated.

represents

additional

change

longer

up to the yield

because

bolt.

softening

bolt load goes up very

The stiff bolt has less yield,

of a tension

that

higher

For the stiff frame,

The

or made

The bolt loses

low yield may not solve the problem


to bend and fatigue.

Figure

that ofthe

lb.

8).

The

for the bolt and the frame

the problem.

sion load instead

to 20,000

or even lower.

the bolt to yield.

could

to one-half

lower

the area of the frame can control


lowers the stiffness by one third.

a bolt pretorqued

stiffness

by selecting

Ib/in (Figure

be changed.
The bolt can be necked
with a higher modulus.

9 represents

the proposed

on Figure 8 as KF(thln ). Note

4, which

Figure

Bracket

frame stiffness

(-)

Figure 10. External Compression

tab

3. With a plastic or thin frame, KF(thin ), the load


in the bolt will drop off very fast, and, in
some

designs,

consistent

it is difficult

clamping

to maintain

force

through

o,0

i,,

l\r

the years.

_I

pIIIELOAD

11 graphically

a bolt/frame
upper

combination.

right

tion.

represents

The bolt/frame

half

cycle

acting

the

fin'st cycle

combination

of external

of external

represents

the

tension

and

/ kJ

/to

_'(

Ill

rz

<

--*

and then

compression

.(
O

,l

_" -Lk--

m
LOAO

L...i.%

/I

,L,

is fin-st subjected

exactly

_oo

on the

The central

on the bolt and frame

/ _J

of vibra-

compression

tension.

/\

',," 5]

load on

The small figure

demonstrates

to a half cycle

a vibration

\/

--

Figure

,',

DFFL|CTION
CM,LNGE

IN

FItAME

sketch
Figure

forces

11.

Sine Vibration

Load and Deflection

as the tension

(a)

and compression
on the bolt and frame previously
discussed.
The small sine curve in the lower center
represents
from

the deflection,

compression

torque,

they

left sketch,
vibration
The

load are plotted

and is more
than

the bolt,

frame
infmite
reversal

as a sine function

later.

force

Other
Note

change

the bolt.

as a plastic

will have a severe fatigue


obvious that loads such

problem.
as those

severe

frame.

fatigue

If the frame

better

to make

crease
due

frame
the

bolt

is stiffer

to move

the

By approaching

frame),

an

problems

in both

is more

susceptible

it softer

than

the size of the bolt.


of these

problems

(c)

the bolt

It is immediately
illustrated
here can

the

the bolt and the


to fatigue,

bolt

Again,

or simply

the torque

to bolt load loss can be a difficult

Many

(b)

frame stiffness, it is possible to keep the load


of the bolt to a minimum.
If the frame is not

as stiff as the bolt (such

cause

the

than

If the frame

is required

to move

to

vibration

that

in load

to fatigue.

more

1 in. than

time.

motion.

a greater
subject

preOn the

load and the frame

is represented

through

goes

together.

against

harmonic

will be discussed

goes

the motion

With proper

as glued

the bolt vibration

simple

loads

to tension.

are as good

vibration

show

in which

design

can be controlled

it is
in-

reduction
problem.

=.tT _,[.....
OM

TMA[_D|
FOnCl%__

selecting

the pretorque.

Too much

the

into

region

bolt

the

plastic

and

torquing
bring

will throw
about

(d)

NOmMAL

by carefully
alCllO_

PAAT
AIII_

FORCE

OF

tUT

n&DIAL

UOTION

COMIIN[O

AN_I-_mCT)O_

an

_O_U_L
O_SOLT

early

fatigue

failure.

Too

little

torquing

WIT_

UO_lO_

_oncls
_l_o

can cause

gapping.
Figure

12 is a step-by-step

theory*

of bolt loosening

*"A Logical Approach


Loctite Corporation,

illustration

of the Haviland

due to a reversal

of loads.

In

to Secure Bolting and Locking," Girard S. Haviland,


Newington,
Connecticut,
06111.

Figure

12.

Loss of Torque

(inverted

bolt

section)

Figure

12a, two thin plates

from

shearing,

forces

holding

one against
the plates

As the two thin plates


shown
the

in Figure

radial

loads

from

failures

a transverse

Space

shock

14 depicts
Flight

program.

Figure

frequency

of the structure.

frequency

is driving

of the panels,

frequency

Figure

17 shows

mental

frequency

the

friction,

motion

a shock

transient

is always

present

fundamental

with a second
causes

3/_

-16

pretorquing

of nut"

in Figure

is simultaneously
12d.

from a report
the friction

it in place,
The

results

by Haviland

loss of the pretorque.

Figure

lost.
13).

the side motion

13 shows

time-related

rocket

figures,

frequency

higher

harmonic.
Note,

harmonics.

Even

harmonics.

the nut to one side and loosens

that

the

In similar

Figure

The higher

though

response

however,

third harmonic.

the test

the fundamental

by the resonant

input.

with the other

and

during

up the

funda-

fashion,

18 shows

harmonics

one
of many

tend

the fundato break

assembly.

The

pretorque.
l-octite

& Oil

along

moves

(caused

the original

at the NASA/Goddard

were recorded

harmonic

with a light fourth

with a strong

and other

and bolts

by a high-frequency

than

along

with a 2-g sine input


struts,

Corp.

Coated

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Figure 13. Transverse Shock


and Vibration
Machine

Figure

15.

Vibration

Shock

Transient

Response

The

of vibration
(Figure

of the nut while

12d,
being

5OO_

_.

as

friction

the friction

the response

higher

in all four

Gra(h_ 5

1I/2" Lo_ - Phor,_ate

rocket,

frequency

a loss of initial

TV$ Machine
5000
Ib "l'ensio_

to slide to the left

holding

of the panels,
followed

much

harmonic

but the fundamental

actively

force.

against

16 is the sine response

can cause motions

the

torquing

In Figure

breaks

for a sounding

responses

Figure

The

the clamping

of least resistance.

are reprinted

causing

bending.
causing

12a), the bolt tends

is sideways,

impact

before

the plates

lockers.

the base of the sounding

etc.)

mental

Many

existing

on the threads

to keep

it takes the course

of "part

machine

the initial

test setup

15 shows

downhill

the nut downhill,

(GSFC).

(Figure

When the motion

of thread

a vibration

Center

together

by the motion

because

pushes
types

the forces

slides sideways,

and vibration

This bolt is tightened

as well as the forces

by a motion

is violent

steadily

12b shows

and forth

the pretorque.

with different

Figure

Figure

demonstrated

of loading

with a single bolt.

are shown,

is accompanied

holding

of the threads

the other.
together

As the nut thread

is graphically

This type

together

are bent back

12c.

motion

the only thing


motion

are bolted

Figure

Figure 16.
and 4th

Fundamental
Harmonic

14.

Vibration

Figure

17.

and Strong

Test

Fundamental
3rd

Harmonic

The

Haviland

theory

on bolts and

frames.

going vibration
motion.

is important
Figures

tests.

Not

It is almost

cross-talk
means

causing

that:

15 through

realized

impossible
secondary

to obtain

where

is present

18 typify

and vibration

structures

is the presence

motions

(1) no matter

tion if vibration

in the study of shock

under-

of three-dimensional

the high frequencies

in the

other

two

the bolts are, they

on the structure;

without

planes.

This

will receive

vibra-

and (2) if low frequency

causes the bolts to break away and back


subharmonics
that may be low in nature
cause the bolts to back off.

off, high frequencies


can cause
but nevertheless
sufficient
to

Tests

the Haviland

were performed

frequency,
I000

at GSFC

high-amplitude

Hz, the

loads

that can occur,

in seconds.

At

theory

that

theory.

(5 g), the nuts backed

bolts had not moved

of vibration
the

to verify
after

random

10 minutes.

vibration

10 grins from

200 to 2000

low-frequency

excitations

was applied.

the structure

Fundamental

When

to simulate

At 10 grms from

2nd

Harmonics

was vibrated

of'seconds.

fashion,

did not move

18.

and Higher

off in a matter
In similar

Hz, the bolts


cause

When

Figure

at the low-

20 g was applied

20 to 400 Hz, the nut

in 10 minutes.

a bolt to back off (Haviland,

at

the multifrequencies
These

separated

tests substantiate

ibid).

The significant
motion in the bolt that involved the KF(thin ) frame was previously
discussed.
Plastic reinforced
with fiber is a good example.
This significant
bolt fluctuation
of load could literally tear the frame apart if
the

clamping

force

were diminished.

14 and letting

it vibrate

plastic

before

surface

permits
wear

the frame

Figure

frame

loose

bolt could

good

thread-locker

are subject

surface

must

21 shows

the plastic

yield,

the bolts

immediately.

the pretorque

backed

the result

it.

illustrated

transverse

shock

by Figure

and vibration

of vibration

Figure

19.

Allows
Back Off

Frame

bolts

20 shows

in the frame

frame.

that

the frame

gapping

of the loosening

caused

of Figure

damage

of the bolts,

Even if the nut does not back

is too high,

will result

acting

of failures

threadlocker

the additional

which
off, this

the surface.

as a lever and stress

concentration

With

plastics,

can occur

vibration.

High

even though
Furthermore,

frequently

will help to maintain


torques

are torqued

in thin frames.
the pretorque.

will immediately

a particular

cause

as the shock

type

Further,

the plastic
transients

of tread-locker

even

Plastic

work

Yield

and Gap

Figure
Gapping

20.

Frame

Cause Wear

Yield

and

in Frame

Figure 21. Loose Bolts


Bend and Break Frame

/5!

to

do not act

produced

may not

frames

surface

All thread-lockers

open

the

However,

too high or too low.

the nut does not back off.


are not as violent

to wedge

and shock.

Bolts to

to the

load will cause

and damage

wear if the bolts

13, but all vibrations


machine.

Note

the result

If the pretorque

types

gapping

19).

by taking

and controlled.

excessive

during

will cause

off (Figure

is too low, gapping

A good

prevent

to large deflections

like those

damage.

These

bend and break.


cannot

Figure

calculated

of loose

and destroy

off.

back

were illustrated

and wear into the plastic

can cause

be carefully

of these problems

of the bolts

If the torque

and low torques

all types

some

and bolt to bend

on the contact

it to yield

until

Some

by the
under

There

are many

types

types

of reactions

of shocks

in bolts

and vibrations

and nuts and, in some

est clue to date as to the cause


strated

that

a good

Figure

22 is another

rather

than

model

simulation

of much

example
of a structural

or no control

thread-locker

with bolts

is used

attachment

point

payload

lubricated

under

there

be none

may

that

left 2 years

Many

are on the market

critical,

a technique

can be used.
assembly
equal

First,

24 illustrates
this torque

was applied,

ft-lb would

yield

illustrate

yield

the torque

not

each
that

necessary

as the torquing

in-lb were

applied,

necessary

however,

to back

time.

follow

and then
these

the

After
of 325
25).
back

caused

it is desirable

to use materials

with generous
the bolt.
with
further

by a sharp

Yield

subsequent
damage

When

yielded.

80

It was

is no reason

be used to torque
careful

to

under

the head

bolt bending
the

frame

,/.............

gages
24.

Socket

radius

the severe
under

the

In time-related
and under

can cause
and failure

in a time-related

Torque
Head

of

head
failures,
and

the head

of

a loss in torque,
in time,

and can

condition.

Figure

25.

3/4-10

Capscrew

stress

with large elongations

radii in the threads

<

Figure

showing

due to loss of torque.

( _;.

_.

to +-10% accuracy.

concentrations
and bending

26).

GSFC has been

model

Figure 23. Lubrication

off

this percent-

and has used strain-measuring

28 is a photostress

of the yield value.

There
cannot

off.

27

(Figure

same,

something

wrench

be backed

processes

to hold torques
Figure

torque

Frame

Figure

a torque

(Figure

off to 65 percent.

why an automatic
to yield

was applied

Thin

is

age is a safe torque.


Figures 26 and 27 show the torquing
of a 1/4-20 bolt.
Torques
of 10 through
70 in-lb were
marked

22.

t:

but is used here to

65 percent
are the

Figure

up in five or ten

As soon as yield is noticed,

all materials

an

for bringing

of the assembly

to approximately

Although

torqued

is never

the process.

If a
be

be used.

of 300 ft-lb of torque.

part

demon-

of

24 through

and marked

it was found

some

has clearly

If an application

in Figures

the marking

This significant

today.
is calculated

It is then

experience

gives the strong-

is

must

should

illustrated

of torque

Haviland

different

on the

When possible,

wrench

the torque

to yield.

increments

torque

occurs,

off.

many

thin oil can be used,

later.

controlled

of these

the bolt

Although

automatically

to back

can cause

mounting-bolt

are not lubricated.

on the threads,

the head.

When trouble

This frame,

Design Suggestions:
Figure 23 shows the lubrication
the threads
and under the head of the bold.
There
little

them

loads

thin frame

together.

was used to evaluate

cases, can cause

These

is essential.

of a fabricated
bolted

in structures.

of this trouble.

test of the assembly

two solid plates

space shuttle,
loads.

acting

Yield

B LA(
! _

:'3

'I ,.-.,_._

'.i

Figure 26. Torque of 1/4-20


Socket Head Capscrew

Figure
frame

29 pictures
contributes

Figure
forces
make

the difference

of stiffness

to the stiffness

in K v . K F on the right is higher

30 demonstrates
are acting

the

necessity

on the frame

the bolt bend

(left

as illustrated

in a frame

of having

and right).
and force

with and without

a strong

an early

32, strong

stiff washers

washers than in the bolt.


bolt load low, particularly
Figure

33 illustrates

and thereby
it, which

are added

Because lowering
in low modulus

the desirability
a good

clamping

position.

action

for the next

washers
use.

34 shows

results

in a higher

deflections

that

it is possible

resonant

frequency

at a low frequency

Figure 29.

to keep

loosen

deflections

and lower
bolts.

With and Without Washer

High

which

prevent

Thread

when

shearing

force

a nut from

is more

backing

will

the bolt from


to dig into

Clamping

the

effect.

the assembly
theory,

the

sideways

the surface

problem.

to the Haviland

Less

to keep

moving

have the same

maintenance

off.

area under

KF, it is necessary

despoilers

According

frequencies

area of the

the shearing

There

have a tendency

low in vibration.

deflections.

and bottom)

use in preventing

the K B of the bolt.

lockers,

Lock

conical

failure.

are too strong, they can cause the bolt to jam and lead to a considerable
also result in loose pieces of hard steel in the mechanism.
Figure

(top

is inadequate,

K B has the same effect as raising


materials
such as plastics.

of using thread

lock the bolt or nut into

prevents

to decrease

The

K F on the left.

force

force

time-related

washers.

than

clamping

If the clamping

Figure 31 shows that a cotter pin or lock wire will be of little


than half a turn usually loosens a nut.

In Figure

Figure 28. Stress Concentration


Due to Bending

Figure 27. Yield

and nick
If they

They

can

on both
large

ends

shearing

have low amplitudes.

Figure 30. Clamping Force


Prevents Shearing and
Bolt Bending

Figure 31. Cotter Pin and


Lock Wire Do Not
Prevent Loss of Torque

133

v
_:::

Figure 32. Long Bolt DecreasesK b and


AbsorbsShock Transients

Figure

35 illustrates

to fatigue
angle.

life.

In the upper

In the lower

under

the nut.

Figure
have

far greater

pick

up the load.

because

there

surfaces

is embedded

than

The

is nothing
of considering

and

threads.
breaks

total

design

the

In the upper

the bolt,

and in the lower

The
thread

triangle

tension
on the

during

than selecting

breaks

be designed
This problem

a bolt after

which

is detrimental

a hole was drilled

right,

there

load reversals.
represents

(lower

right),

as illustrated
with

the design

thread

the next

example

i i i i i i!i !i i i iiiiiiiiiiiiii

thread

of the

DEGREE
LOSS
IN

ANGLE
FATIGUE

IS
LIFE

Figure35. Misalignments
CausingBolt Bending

FAILURE

CATASTROPHIC

Figure36. Bolt and Nut Thread Failure

will

right

it can take

is t-mished.

BOLT

load

of the nut

in the upper

a large yield,

is another

the

i!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!ii
if!ilii!

50%

at an

is a protrusion

and the first or second

near the first thread


bolt.

right,

in the left illustration

of the bolt

If the nut should

stress

rather

if the bolt is bent

If the first nut thread

from

up the load.
relieve

the bolt and the frame,

are uneven.

tension.

first or second

the other

to take

loads

under

of both

shortened

bolt and nut under

The bolt usually

of the shock

importance

left, the frame

the threads).
loads

alignment

life is considerably

a typical

(through

of nonparallel

left, material

Fatigue

36 shows

or stress

brunt

the effect

Figure34. Keep Natural


Frequency High

Figure 33. UseThreadlocker

the