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1.

Consider the equilibrium between methanol, CH3OH(l), and methanol vapour, CH3OH(g).
CH3OH(l)

CH3OH(g)

What happens to the position of equilibrium and the value of Kc as the temperature decreases?
Position of equilibrium

Value of Kc

A.

shifts to the left

decreases

B.

shifts to the left

increases

C.

shifts to the right

decreases

D.

shifts to the right

increases
(Total 1 mark)

2.

The reaction below represents the Haber process for the industrial production of ammonia.
N2(g) + 3H2(g)

2NH3(g)

HO = 92 kJ

The optimum conditions of temperature and pressure are chosen as a compromise between those
that favour a high yield of ammonia and those that favour a fast rate of production. Economic
considerations are also important.
Which statement is correct?
A.

A higher temperature would ensure higher yield and a faster rate.

B.

A lower pressure would ensure a higher yield at a lower cost.

C.

A lower temperature would ensure a higher yield and a faster rate.

D.

A higher pressure would ensure a higher yield at a higher cost.


(Total 1 mark)

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3.

The sequence of diagrams represents the system as time passes for a gas phase reaction in which
reactant X is converted to product Y.

Diagram 1
t = 7 seconds

Diagram 2
t = 5 minutes

Diagram
t = 10 minutes

Diagram 4
t = 5 days

Time, t
X=
Y=

Which statement is correct?


A.

At t = 5 days the rate of the forward reaction is greater than the rate of the backward
reaction.

B.

At t = 7 seconds the reaction has reached completion.

C.

At t = 10 minutes the system has reached a state of equilibrium.

D.

At t = 5 days the rate of the forward reaction is less than the rate of the backward
reaction.
(Total 1 mark)

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4.

What is the equilibrium constant expression, Kc, for the following reaction?
N2O4(g)
A.

Kc =

[NO 2 ]
[N 2 O 4 ]

B.

Kc =

[NO 2 ] 2
[N 2 O 4 ]

C.

Kc =

D.

Kc = [NO2][N2O4]2

2NO2(g)

[NO 2 ]
[N 2 O 4 ] 2

(Total 1 mark)

5.

An example of a homogeneous reversible reaction is the reaction between hydrogen and iodine.
H2(g) + I2(g)
(i)

2HI(g)

Outline the characteristics of a homogeneous chemical system that is in a state of


equilibrium.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Deduce the expression for the equilibrium constant, Kc.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

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(iii)

Predict what would happen to the position of equilibrium and the value of Kc if the
pressure is increased from 1 atm to 2 atm.
......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
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(2)

(iv)

The value of Kc at 500 K is 160 and the value of Kc at 700 K is 54. Deduce what this
information tells us about the enthalpy change of the forward reaction.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(v)

The reaction can be catalysed by adding platinum metal. State and explain what effect the
addition of platinum would have on the value of the equilibrium constant.
......................................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

6.

The equation for the main reaction in the Haber process is:
N2(g) + 3H2(g)

(i)

2NH3(g)

H is negative

Determine the equilibrium constant expression for this reaction.


(1)

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(ii)

State and explain the effect on the equilibrium yield of ammonia with increasing the
pressure and the temperature.
(4)

(iii)

In practice, typical conditions used in the Haber process involve a temperature of 500 C
and a pressure of 200 atm. Explain why these conditions are used rather than those that
give the highest yield.
(2)

(iv)

At a certain temperature and pressure, 1.1 dm3 of N2(g) reacts with 3.3 dm3 of H2(g).
Calculate the volume of NH3(g), that will be produced.
(1)

(v)

Suggest why this reaction is important for humanity.


(1)

(vi)

A chemist claims to have developed a new catalyst for the Haber process, which increases
the yield of ammonia. State the catalyst normally used for the Haber process, and
comment on the claim made by this chemist.
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

7.

Consider the equilibrium below.


CH3CH2COOH(aq) + H2O(l)

CH3CH2COO(aq) + H3O+(aq)

Which species represent a conjugate acid-base pair?


A.

CH3CH2COOH and H2O

B.

H2O and CH3CH2COO

C.

H3O+ and H2O

D.

CH3CH2COO and H3O+


(Total 1 mark)

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8.

Which 0.10 mol dm3 solution would have the highest conductivity?
A.

HCl

B.

NH3

C.

CH3COOH

D.

H2CO3
(Total 1 mark)

9.

Which species behave as Brnsted-Lowry acids in the following reversible reaction?


H2PO4(aq) + CN(aq)
A.

HCN and CN

B.

HCN and HPO42

C.

H2PO4 and HPO42

D.

HCN and H2PO4

HCN(aq) + HPO42(aq)

(Total 1 mark)

10.

The pH of a solution changes from pH = 2 to pH = 5. What happens to the concentration of the


hydrogen ions during this pH change?
A.

It decreases by a factor of 1000

B.

It increases by a factor of 1000

C.

It decreases by a factor of 100

D.

It increases by a factor of 100


(Total 1 mark)

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11.

An example of a strong acid solution is perchloric acid, HClO4, in water. Which statement is
correct for this solution?
A.

HClO4 is completely dissociated in the solution.

B.

HClO4 exists mainly as molecules in the solution.

C.

The solution reacts only with strong bases.

D.

The solution has a pH value greater than 7.


(Total 1 mark)

12.

Which list contains only strong acids?


A.

CH3COOH,

B.

HCl,

C.

CH3COOH,

D.

HCl,

HNO3,

HNO3,

H2CO3,

H3PO4

H2CO3
HNO3,

H2SO4

H2SO4
(Total 1 mark)

13.

Black coffee has a pH of 5 and toothpaste has a pH of 8. Identify which is more acidic and
deduce how many times the [H+] is greater in the more acidic product.
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(Total 2 marks)

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14.

Explain, using the Brnsted-Lowry theory, how water can act either as an acid or a base. In
each case identify the conjugate acid or base formed.
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................................................................................................................................................
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(Total 2 marks)

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1.

A
[1]

2.

D
[1]

3.

C
[1]

4.

B
[1]

5.

(i)

reactants and products in same phase/state;


rate of forward reaction = rate of reverse reaction;
concentrations of reactants and products remain constant /
macroscopic properties remain constant;
Do not accept concentrations are equal.

[HI 2 ]
;
[H 2 ][I 2 ]

2 max

(ii)

(Kc) =

(iii)

no change to position of equilibrium;


no change to value of Kc;

(iv)

the reaction is exothermic/heat is given out/H is negative;

(v)

no effect (on the value of the equilibrium constant);


as it speeds up forward and reverse reaction / concentrations
of reactants and products do not change / position of equilibrium
does not change / no change in yield;

[8]

6.

(i)

(Kc =)

[NH 3 ] 2
[N 2 ][H 2 ]3

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(ignore units);

(ii)

(iii)

Increasing the pressure:


Yield increases / equilibrium moves to the right / more ammonia;
4 gas molecules 2 / decrease in volume / fewer gas molecules
on right hand side;
Increasing the temperature:
Yield decreases / equilibrium moves to the left / less ammonia;
Exothermic reaction / OWTTE;

Higher temperature increases rate;


Lower pressure is less expensive / lower cost of operating at low
pressure / reinforced pipes not needed;

Do not award a mark just for the word compromise.

(iv)

2.2 (dm3);

1
Penalize incorrect units.

(v)

(vi)

Fertilizers / increasing crop yields;


Production of explosives for mining;

1 max

Fe/iron;
Allow magnetite/iron oxide.
Claim is not valid since catalysts do not alter the yield/position
of equilibrium / only increase the rate of reaction;

2
[11]

7.

C
[1]

8.

A
[1]

9.

D
[1]

10.

A
[1]

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11.

A
[1]

12.

D
[1]

13.

black coffee;
103/1000 times;

2
[2]

14.

water can act as a Brnsted-Lowry acid by donating a proton/H+ to form OH;


water can act as a Brnsted-Lowry base by accepting a proton/H+ to form H3O+;
Accept equations showing the above clearly labelling the acid and basic
behaviour and the conjugate acid or base.
Award [1 max] for correct definition of how water can act as a BrnstedLowry acid or base.

[2]

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