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(Kevin Larson)
Advanced Reading Technology, Microsoft Corporation
microsoft.com/typography/ctfonts/wordrecognition.aspx
2004

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Adams, M.J. (1979). Models of word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 11, 133-176.
Bouma, H. (1973). Visual Interference in the Parafoveal Recognition of Initial and Final Letters of
Words, Vision Research, 13, 762-782.
Bouwhuis, D. & Bouma, H. (1979). Visual word recognition of three letter words as derived from the
recognition of the constituent letters, Perception and Psychophysics, 25, 12-22.
Cattell, J. (1886). The time taken up by cerebral operations. Mind, 11, 277-282, 524-538.

18

Fisher, D.F. (1975). Reading and visual search. Memory and Cognition, 3, 188-196.
Glushko, R.J. (1979). The organization and activation of orthographic knowledge in reading aloud.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 5, 674-691.
Gough, P.B. (1972). One second of reading. In Kavanagh & Mattinglys Language by ear and by eye.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Haber, R.N. & Schindler, R.M. (1981). Errors in proofreading: Evidence of syntactic control of letter
processing? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 573-579.
Hebb, D.O. (1949). The organization of behavior. New York: Wiley.
Mason, M. (1978). From print to sound in mature readers as a function of reader ability and two forms
of orthographic regularity, Memory and Cognition, 6, 568-581.
Kolers, P.A. & Perkins, D.N. (1975). Spatial and ordinal components of form perception and literacy.
Cognitive Psychology, 7, 228-267.
McClelland, J.L. & Johnson, J.C. (1977). The role of familiar units in perception of words and
nonwords. Perception and Psychophysics, 22, 249-261.
McClelland, J.L. & Rumelhart, D.E. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter
perception: Part 1. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375407.
McCulloch, W.S. & Pitts, W. (1943). A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity.
Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 5, 115-133.
McConkie, G.W. & Rayner, K. (1975). The span of the effective stimulus during a fixation in reading.
Perception and Psychophysics, 17, 578-586.
Meyer, D.E. & Gutschera, K.D. (1975). Orthographic versus phonemic processing of printed words.
Psychonomic Society Presentation.
Monk, A.F. & Hulme, C. (1983). Errors in proofreading: Evidence for the use of word shape in word
recognition. Memory and Cognition, 11, 16-23.
Paap, K.R., Newsome, S.L., & Noel, R.W. (1984). Word shapes in poor shape for the race to the
lexicon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 413-428.
Pitts, W. & McCulloch, W.S. (1947). How we know universals: the perception of auditory and visual
form. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 9: 127-147.
Plaut, D.C., McClelland, J.L., Seidenberg, M.S., & Patterson, K. (1996). Understanding normal and
impaired word reading: Computational principles in quasi-regular domains. Psychological Review,
103, 56115.
Pollatsek, A. & Rayner, K. (1982). Eye movement control in reading: The role of word boundaries.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 817-833.
Pollatsek, A., Well, A.D., & Schindler, R.M. (1975). Effects of segmentation and expectancy on
matching time for words and nonwords. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and
Performance, 1, 328-338.

19

Rayner, K. (1975). The perceptual span and peripheral cues in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 6581.
Rayner, K., McConkie, G.W., & Zola, D. (1980). Integrating information across eye movements.
Cognitive Psychology, 12, 206-226.
Reicher, G.M. (1969). Perceptual recognition as a function of meaningfulness of stimulus material.
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280.
Seidenberg, M.S., & McClelland, J.L. (1989). A distributed, developmental model of word recognition
and naming. Psychological Review, 96, 523568.
Smith, F. (1969). Familiarity of configuration vs. discriminability of features in the visual
identification of words. Psychonomic Science, 14, 261-262.
Sperling, G. (1963). A model for visual memory tasks. Human Factors, 5, 19-31.
Woodworth, R.S. (1938). Experimental psychology. New York; Holt.

1. Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research.
Psychological Review, 124 (3), 372-422.
This paper is an account of the eye movement field from the premier eye tracking researcher.
2. Plaut, D.C., McClelland, J.L., Seidenberg, M.S., & Patterson, K. (1996). Understanding normal and
impaired word reading: Computational principles in quasi-regular domains. Psychological Review,
103, 56115.
This is the most recent of the major neural network papers, and is available on David Plauts website.
http://www.cnbc.cmu.edu/~plaut/
3. Stanovich, K.E (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in
the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-407.
This is one of the most cited reading papers of all time. If you are interested in reading acquisition this
is the place to start.
4. Hoover, W.A. & Gough, P.B. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading & Writing, 2(2), 127160.
This paper demonstrates that word recognition and context are two separate skills that are both
necessary for reading.
(Kevin Larson)
Advanced Reading Technology, Microsoft Corporation
microsoft.com/typography/ctfonts/wordrecognition.aspx

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