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ITS TYPES

SAMPLING

Target Population or Universe

The population to which the investigator wants to

generalize his results

Sampling Unit:

smallest unit from which sample can be selected

Sampling frame

The sampling frame is the list from which the potential

respondents are drawn

Telephone directory

List of five star Hotel

List of student

Sampling scheme

Method of selecting sampling units from sampling frame

Sample: all selected respondent are sample

SAMPLE

SAMPLE UNIT

SAMPLE

TARGET POPULATION

with the characteristic one wishes to understand.

Because there is very rarely enough time or money to gather

information from everyone or everything in a population, the

goal becomes finding a representative sample (or subset) of

that population.

SAMPLING BREAKDOWN

Why Sample?

Get information about large populations

Lower cost

More accuracy of results

High speed of data collection

Availability of Population elements.

Less field time

When its impossible to study the whole population

SAMPLING

To whom

All Five Star Hotel

All Travel Agency

All Hotel Customer

Women aged 15-45 years

Other

Sample size : Minimum size is 30 no.

SAMPLING.

Sampling procedure

Sample size

Participation (response)

When your population is very small

When you have extensive resources

When you dont expect a very high response

The sample must be:

1. representative of the population;

2. appropriately sized (the larger the better);

3. unbiased;

4. random (selections occur by chance);

Merits of Sampling

Size of population

Fund required for the study

Facilities

Time

THE RESPRESENATION BASIS

PROBABILITY SAMPLING

NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING

ELEMENT SELECTION TECHNIQE

RESTRICTED SAMPLING

UN RESTRICTED SAMPLING

Types of Sampling

Probability sample a method of sampling that

uses of random selection so that all units/ cases in

the population have an equal probability of being

chosen.

Non-probability sample does not involve

random selection and methods are not based on

Sampling

the rationale of probability

theory.

Techniques

Probability

NonProbability

Probability

Stratified random sample Probability

Sampling

Sampling

Cluster sample

Simple

Simple

Random

Random

Sampling

Sampling

Systematic

Systematic

Sampling

Sampling

Proportionate

Proportionate

Stratified

Stratified

Random

Random

Sampling

Sampling

Cluster

Cluster

Sampling

Sampling

Dis

Dis Proportionate

Proportionate

OneOneStage

Stage

Two

Two

Stage

Stage

MultiMultiStage

Stage

Non-Probability Samples

Convenience samples (ease of access)

sample is selected from elements of a population that

are easily accessible

Purposive sample (Judgmental Sampling)

You chose who you think should be in the study

Quota Sampling

Snowball Sampling (friend of friend.etc.)

NonProbability

Convenience

Sampling

Quota

Sampling

Judgment

Sampling

Snowball

Sampling

sampling and Non Probability

Applicable when population is small, homogeneous &

readily available

All subsets of the frame are given an equal probability.

Each element of the frame thus has an equal probability of

selection. A table of random number or lottery system is

used to determine which units are to be selected.

Advantage

Easy method to use

No need of prior information of population

Equal and independent chance of selection to every element

Disadvantages

If sampling frame large, this method impracticable.

Does not represent proportionate reprenation

has an equal chance of being selected

Suitability

Random means mathematically each unit from the

sampling frame has an equal probability of being

included in the sample.

Define

population

Develop

sampling

frame

Assign

each unit a

number

Randomly

select the

required

amount of

random

numbers

Systematicall

y select

random

numbers until

it meets the

sample size

requirements

replacement

For example, if we catch fish, measure them, and

immediately return them to the water before continuing

with the sample, this is a with replacement design,

because we might end up catching and measuring the

same fish more than once. However, if we do not return

the fish to the water (e.g. if we eat the fish), this becomes

a without replacement design.

Systematic Sampling

Similar to simple random sample. No table of random

numbers select directly from sampling frame. Ratio

between sample size and population size

Define

population

Develop

sampling

frame

Decide the

sample size

Work out

what fraction

of the frame

the sample

size

represents

Select

according to

fraction (100

sample from

1,000 frame then

10% so every

10th unit)

First unit

select by

random

numbers

then every

nth unit

selected

(e.g. every

10th)

Systematic Sampling

ADVANTAGES:

Sample easy to select

Suitable sampling frame can be identified easily

Sample evenly spread over entire reference population

Cost effective

DISADVANTAGES:

Sample may be biased if hidden periodicity in population

coincides with that of selection.

Each element does not get equal chance

Ignorance of all element between two n element

Systematic sampling

selected from a list of all population members.

called strata, according to some criterion, such as

geographic location, grade level, age, or income, and

subsamples are randomly selected from each strata.

Stratified Random

Sample

Stratified random sampling can be classified in to

a. Proportionate stratified sampling

It involves drawing a sample from each stratum in

proportion to the letters share in total population

b. Disproportionate stratified sampling

proportionate representation is not given to strata

it necessery involves giving over representation to

some strata and under representation to other.

Define

population

Develop

sampling

frame

according to

characteristics

required

Determine the

proportion of

each

population

variable of

interest

Systematic

sampling

methods can

then be followed

to select sample

unit

STRATIFIED SAMPLING

Advantage :

Enhancement of representativeness to each sample

Higher statistical efficiency

Easy to carry out

Disadvantage:

Classification error

Time consuming and expensive

Prior knowledge of composition and of

distribution of population

CLUSTER SAMPLING

First stage a sample of areas is chosen;

Second stage a sample of respondents within those areas is

selected.

Population divided into clusters of homogeneous units, usually

based on geographical contiguity.

Sampling units are groups rather than individuals.

A sample of such clusters is then selected.

All units from the selected clusters are studied.

The population is divided into subgroups (clusters) like

families. A simple random sample is taken of the subgroups

and then all members of the cluster selected are surveyed

Cluster sampling

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Section 5

Section 4

CLUSTER SAMPLING.

Advantages :

Cuts down on the cost of preparing a sampling

frame. This can reduce travel and other

administrative costs.

Disadvantages: sampling error is higher for a simple

random sample of same size. Often used to evaluate

vaccination coverage in EPI

Cluster sampling: selecting a sample based on specific, naturally occurring

groups (clusters) within a population.

- Example: randomly selecting 20 hospitals from a list of all

hospitals in England.

Multi-stage sampling: cluster sampling repeated at a number of levels.

Example: randomly selecting hospitals by county and then a sample of patients

from each selected hospital.

Complex form of cluster sampling in which two or more levels of units are

embedded one in the other.

First stage, random number of districts chosen in all

states.

Followed by random number of talukas, villages.

Then third stage units will be houses.

All ultimate units (houses, for instance) selected at last step are surveyed.

subsets of the population, they differ in several ways.

All strata are represented in the sample; but only a

subset of clusters are in the sample.

With stratified sampling, the best survey results occur

when elements within strata are internally

homogeneous. However, with cluster sampling, the

best results occur when elements within clusters are

internally heterogeneous

Non Probability

CONVENIENCE SAMPLING

sampling.

Selection of whichever individuals are easiest to reach

It is done at the convenience of the researcher

For example, if the interviewer was to conduct a survey at a

shopping center early in the morning on a given day, the people

that he/she could interview would be limited to those given there

at that given time, which would not represent the views of other

members of society in such an area, if the survey was to be

conducted at different times of day and several times per week.

This type of sampling is most useful for pilot testing.

In social science research, snowball sampling is a similar

technique, where existing study subjects are used to recruit more subjects

into the sample.

Convenience Sampling

Advantage: A sample selected for ease of

access, immediately known population group and

good response rate.

Disadvantage: cannot generalise findings (do

not know what population group the sample is

representative of) so cannot move beyond

describing the sample.

Problems of reliability

Do respondents represent the

target population

Results are not generalizable

Sunil Kumar

they think would be appropriate for the study. This is

used primarily when there is a limited number of

people that have expertise in the area being

researched

Selected based on an experienced individuals belief

Advantages

Based on the experienced persons judgment

Disadvantages

Cannot measure the respresentativeness of the

sample

QUOTA SAMPLING

The population is first segmented into mutually exclusive subgroups, just as in stratified sampling.

Then judgment used to select subjects or units from each segment

based on a specified proportion.

For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females

and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60.

It is this second step which makes the technique one of nonprobability sampling.

In quota sampling the selection of the sample is non-random.

For example interviewers might be tempted to interview those

who look most helpful. The problem is that these samples may be

biased because not everyone gets a chance of selection. This

random element is its greatest weakness and quota versus

probability has been a matter of controversy for many years

Quota sampling

Based on prespecified quotas regarding demographics, attitudes,

behaviors, etc

Advantages

Contains specific subgroups in the proportions desired

May reduce bias

easy to manage, quick

Disadvantages

Dependent on subjective decisions

Not possible to generalize

only reflects population in terms of the quota, possibility of bias in

selection, no standard error

Snowball Sampling

Useful when a population is hidden or difficult to gain access to. The

contact with an initial group is used to make contact with others.

Respondents identify additional people to included in the study

The defined target market is small and unique

Compiling a list of sampling units is very difficult

Advantages

Identifying small, hard-to reach uniquely defined target population

Useful in qualitative research

access to difficult to reach populations (other methods may not

yield any results).

Disadvantages

Bias can be present

Limited generalizability

not representative of the population and will result in a biased

sample as it is self-selecting.

Total Error

Random

Sampling

Error

Non-sampling

Error

Response

Error

Researcher

Error

Surrogate Information

Error

Measurement Error

Population Definition

Error

Sampling Frame Error

Interviewer

Error

Respondent Selection

Error

Questioning Error

Recording Error

Cheating Error

Non-response

Error

Respondent

Error

Inability Error

Unwillingness

Error

Errors in Hospitality

Research

The total error is the variation between the true mean value in

value obtained in the marketing research project.

Random sampling error is the variation between the true mean

value for the population and the true mean value for the original

sample.

Non-sampling errors can be attributed to sources other than

sampling, and they may be random or nonrandom: including

errors in problem definition, approach, scales, questionnaire

design, interviewing methods, and data preparation and analysis.

Non-sampling errors consist of non-response errors and response

errors.

included in the sample do not respond.

answers or their answers are misrecorded or misanalyzed

Sampling Error

and Confidence

The larger the sample size the more likely error

in the sample will decrease.

But, beyond a certain point increasing sample

size does not provide large reductions in sampling

error.

Accuracy is a reflection of the sampling error and

confidence level of the data.

Errors in Sampling

Non-Observation Errors

Coverage error: people sampled do not

match the population of interest

Underrepresentation

Non-response: wont or cant participate

Errors of Observation

interviewer and person being surveyed

Respondent error: respondents have

difficult time answering the question

Measurement error: inaccurate

responses when person doesnt

understand question or poorly worded

question

Errors in data collection

Sunil Kumar

Thank

You

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