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SAMPLING AND

ITS TYPES

SAMPLING
Target Population or Universe
The population to which the investigator wants to
generalize his results
Sampling Unit:
smallest unit from which sample can be selected
Sampling frame
The sampling frame is the list from which the potential
respondents are drawn

Telephone directory
List of five star Hotel
List of student

Sampling scheme
Method of selecting sampling units from sampling frame
Sample: all selected respondent are sample

SAMPLE
SAMPLE UNIT

SAMPLE

TARGET POPULATION

A population can be defined as including all people or items


with the characteristic one wishes to understand.
Because there is very rarely enough time or money to gather
information from everyone or everything in a population, the
goal becomes finding a representative sample (or subset) of
that population.

All university in India

All university Haryana

List of Haryana university

Three university in haryana

SAMPLING BREAKDOWN

Why Sample?
Get information about large populations

Lower cost
More accuracy of results
High speed of data collection
Availability of Population elements.
Less field time
When its impossible to study the whole population

SAMPLING
To whom

do you want to generalize your results?


All Five Star Hotel
All Travel Agency
All Hotel Customer
Women aged 15-45 years
Other
Sample size : Minimum size is 30 no.

SAMPLING.

3 factors that influence sample representative-ness


Sampling procedure
Sample size
Participation (response)

When might you sample the entire population?


When your population is very small
When you have extensive resources
When you dont expect a very high response

What is Good Sample?


The sample must be:
1. representative of the population;
2. appropriately sized (the larger the better);
3. unbiased;
4. random (selections occur by chance);

Merits of Sampling
Size of population
Fund required for the study
Facilities
Time

TYPES OF SAMPLE BASED ON TWO FACTORS:


THE RESPRESENATION BASIS
PROBABILITY SAMPLING
NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING
ELEMENT SELECTION TECHNIQE
RESTRICTED SAMPLING
UN RESTRICTED SAMPLING

Types of Sampling
Probability sample a method of sampling that
uses of random selection so that all units/ cases in
the population have an equal probability of being
chosen.
Non-probability sample does not involve
random selection and methods are not based on
Sampling
the rationale of probability
theory.

Techniques

Probability

NonProbability

Probability (Random) Samples

Simple random sample

Systematic random sample


Probability
Stratified random sample Probability
Sampling
Sampling
Cluster sample

Simple
Simple
Random
Random
Sampling
Sampling

Systematic
Systematic
Sampling
Sampling

Proportionate
Proportionate

Stratified
Stratified
Random
Random
Sampling
Sampling

Cluster
Cluster
Sampling
Sampling

Dis
Dis Proportionate
Proportionate

OneOneStage
Stage

Two
Two
Stage
Stage

MultiMultiStage
Stage

Non-Probability Samples
Convenience samples (ease of access)
sample is selected from elements of a population that
are easily accessible
Purposive sample (Judgmental Sampling)
You chose who you think should be in the study
Quota Sampling
Snowball Sampling (friend of friend.etc.)
NonProbability
Convenience
Sampling

Quota
Sampling

Judgment
Sampling

Snowball
Sampling

Difference between Probability


sampling and Non Probability

SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING


Applicable when population is small, homogeneous &
readily available
All subsets of the frame are given an equal probability.
Each element of the frame thus has an equal probability of
selection. A table of random number or lottery system is
used to determine which units are to be selected.
Advantage
Easy method to use
No need of prior information of population
Equal and independent chance of selection to every element
Disadvantages
If sampling frame large, this method impracticable.
Does not represent proportionate reprenation

Simple random sampling

Every subset of a specified size n from the population


has an equal chance of being selected

Suitability

This method is suitable for small homogeneous

Randomly selecting units from a sampling frame.


Random means mathematically each unit from the
sampling frame has an equal probability of being
included in the sample.

Stages in random sampling:


Define
population

Develop
sampling
frame

Assign
each unit a
number

Randomly
select the
required
amount of
random
numbers

Systematicall
y select
random
numbers until
it meets the
sample size
requirements

REPLACEMENT OF SELECTED UNITS

Sampling schemes may be without replacement or with


replacement
For example, if we catch fish, measure them, and
immediately return them to the water before continuing
with the sample, this is a with replacement design,
because we might end up catching and measuring the
same fish more than once. However, if we do not return
the fish to the water (e.g. if we eat the fish), this becomes
a without replacement design.

Systematic Sampling
Similar to simple random sample. No table of random
numbers select directly from sampling frame. Ratio
between sample size and population size

Define
population

Develop
sampling
frame

Decide the
sample size

Work out
what fraction
of the frame
the sample
size
represents

Select
according to
fraction (100

sample from
1,000 frame then
10% so every
10th unit)

First unit
select by
random
numbers
then every
nth unit
selected
(e.g. every
10th)

Systematic Sampling
ADVANTAGES:
Sample easy to select
Suitable sampling frame can be identified easily
Sample evenly spread over entire reference population
Cost effective
DISADVANTAGES:
Sample may be biased if hidden periodicity in population
coincides with that of selection.
Each element does not get equal chance
Ignorance of all element between two n element

Systematic sampling

Every member ( for example: every 20th person) is


selected from a list of all population members.

Stratified Random Sample

The population is divided into two or more groups


called strata, according to some criterion, such as
geographic location, grade level, age, or income, and
subsamples are randomly selected from each strata.

Stratified Random
Sample
Stratified random sampling can be classified in to
a. Proportionate stratified sampling
It involves drawing a sample from each stratum in
proportion to the letters share in total population
b. Disproportionate stratified sampling
proportionate representation is not given to strata
it necessery involves giving over representation to
some strata and under representation to other.

Define
population

Develop
sampling
frame
according to
characteristics
required

Determine the
proportion of
each
population
variable of
interest

Systematic
sampling
methods can
then be followed
to select sample
unit

STRATIFIED SAMPLING
Advantage :
Enhancement of representativeness to each sample
Higher statistical efficiency
Easy to carry out
Disadvantage:
Classification error
Time consuming and expensive
Prior knowledge of composition and of
distribution of population

CLUSTER SAMPLING

Cluster sampling is an example of 'two-stage sampling' .


First stage a sample of areas is chosen;
Second stage a sample of respondents within those areas is
selected.
Population divided into clusters of homogeneous units, usually
based on geographical contiguity.
Sampling units are groups rather than individuals.
A sample of such clusters is then selected.
All units from the selected clusters are studied.
The population is divided into subgroups (clusters) like
families. A simple random sample is taken of the subgroups
and then all members of the cluster selected are surveyed

Cluster sampling
Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Section 5
Section 4

CLUSTER SAMPLING.
Advantages :
Cuts down on the cost of preparing a sampling
frame. This can reduce travel and other
administrative costs.
Disadvantages: sampling error is higher for a simple
random sample of same size. Often used to evaluate
vaccination coverage in EPI

Cluster/ multi-stage random sample


Cluster sampling: selecting a sample based on specific, naturally occurring
groups (clusters) within a population.
- Example: randomly selecting 20 hospitals from a list of all
hospitals in England.
Multi-stage sampling: cluster sampling repeated at a number of levels.
Example: randomly selecting hospitals by county and then a sample of patients
from each selected hospital.
Complex form of cluster sampling in which two or more levels of units are
embedded one in the other.
First stage, random number of districts chosen in all
states.
Followed by random number of talukas, villages.
Then third stage units will be houses.
All ultimate units (houses, for instance) selected at last step are surveyed.

Difference Between Strata and Clusters

Although strata and clusters are both non-overlapping


subsets of the population, they differ in several ways.
All strata are represented in the sample; but only a
subset of clusters are in the sample.
With stratified sampling, the best survey results occur
when elements within strata are internally
homogeneous. However, with cluster sampling, the
best results occur when elements within clusters are
internally heterogeneous

Non Probability
CONVENIENCE SAMPLING

Sometimes known as grab or opportunity sampling or accidental or haphazard

sampling.
Selection of whichever individuals are easiest to reach
It is done at the convenience of the researcher
For example, if the interviewer was to conduct a survey at a
shopping center early in the morning on a given day, the people
that he/she could interview would be limited to those given there
at that given time, which would not represent the views of other
members of society in such an area, if the survey was to be
conducted at different times of day and several times per week.
This type of sampling is most useful for pilot testing.
In social science research, snowball sampling is a similar
technique, where existing study subjects are used to recruit more subjects
into the sample.

Convenience Sampling
Advantage: A sample selected for ease of
access, immediately known population group and
good response rate.
Disadvantage: cannot generalise findings (do
not know what population group the sample is
representative of) so cannot move beyond
describing the sample.
Problems of reliability
Do respondents represent the
target population
Results are not generalizable
Sunil Kumar

Use results that are easy to get

Judgmental sampling or Purposive sampling

- The researcher chooses the sample based on who


they think would be appropriate for the study. This is
used primarily when there is a limited number of
people that have expertise in the area being
researched
Selected based on an experienced individuals belief
Advantages
Based on the experienced persons judgment
Disadvantages
Cannot measure the respresentativeness of the
sample

QUOTA SAMPLING

The population is first segmented into mutually exclusive subgroups, just as in stratified sampling.
Then judgment used to select subjects or units from each segment
based on a specified proportion.
For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females
and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60.
It is this second step which makes the technique one of nonprobability sampling.
In quota sampling the selection of the sample is non-random.
For example interviewers might be tempted to interview those
who look most helpful. The problem is that these samples may be
biased because not everyone gets a chance of selection. This
random element is its greatest weakness and quota versus
probability has been a matter of controversy for many years

Types of Non probability Sampling Designs

Quota sampling
Based on prespecified quotas regarding demographics, attitudes,
behaviors, etc
Advantages
Contains specific subgroups in the proportions desired
May reduce bias
easy to manage, quick
Disadvantages
Dependent on subjective decisions
Not possible to generalize
only reflects population in terms of the quota, possibility of bias in
selection, no standard error

Snowball Sampling
Useful when a population is hidden or difficult to gain access to. The
contact with an initial group is used to make contact with others.
Respondents identify additional people to included in the study
The defined target market is small and unique
Compiling a list of sampling units is very difficult
Advantages
Identifying small, hard-to reach uniquely defined target population
Useful in qualitative research
access to difficult to reach populations (other methods may not
yield any results).
Disadvantages
Bias can be present
Limited generalizability
not representative of the population and will result in a biased
sample as it is self-selecting.

Potential Sources of Error in Research Designs


Total Error

Random
Sampling
Error

Non-sampling
Error

Response
Error

Researcher
Error
Surrogate Information
Error
Measurement Error
Population Definition
Error
Sampling Frame Error

Interviewer
Error
Respondent Selection
Error
Questioning Error
Recording Error
Cheating Error

Non-response
Error

Respondent
Error
Inability Error
Unwillingness
Error

Errors in Hospitality
Research
The total error is the variation between the true mean value in

the population of the variable of interest and the observed mean


value obtained in the marketing research project.
Random sampling error is the variation between the true mean
value for the population and the true mean value for the original
sample.
Non-sampling errors can be attributed to sources other than
sampling, and they may be random or nonrandom: including
errors in problem definition, approach, scales, questionnaire
design, interviewing methods, and data preparation and analysis.
Non-sampling errors consist of non-response errors and response
errors.

Non-response error arises when some of the respondents


included in the sample do not respond.

Response error arises when respondents give inaccurate


answers or their answers are misrecorded or misanalyzed

Sampling Error
and Confidence
The larger the sample size the more likely error
in the sample will decrease.
But, beyond a certain point increasing sample
size does not provide large reductions in sampling
error.
Accuracy is a reflection of the sampling error and
confidence level of the data.

Errors in Sampling

Non-Observation Errors

Sampling error: naturally occurs


Coverage error: people sampled do not
match the population of interest
Underrepresentation
Non-response: wont or cant participate

Errors of Observation

Interview error- interaction between


interviewer and person being surveyed
Respondent error: respondents have
difficult time answering the question
Measurement error: inaccurate
responses when person doesnt
understand question or poorly worded
question
Errors in data collection
Sunil Kumar

Thank

You