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1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
1.1.2. . . . . . . . 20
1.1.3. - . . . . . . . . . 28
1.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
1.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
1.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2. 66
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3.
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
4.
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
4.4. . . . 157
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
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Action
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Direction
Element
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Rule
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Phys.
Chem.
Law
Music
Chem.
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Liter.
Fine Arts
Math.
Bot.
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CONTENTS
I.

INTRODUCTION

1-6
II.

SEMASIOLOGY

Word Meaning
1-4
Types of Meaning
5-12
Word-Meaning and Meaning in Morphemes
13-16
Word Meaning and Motivation
17-20
Change of Meaning
29

21-25
Meaning and Polysemy
26-31
Polysemy and Homonymy
32-39
Word Meaning in Syntagmatics and Paradigmatics
40-44
Meaning Relations in Paradigmatics and Semantic Classification of Words
45-52
III.

WORD-GROUPS AND PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

Some Basic Features of Word-Groups


1-2
Structure of Word-Groups
3
Meaning of Word-Groups
4-6
Interdependence of Structure and Meaning in Word-Groups
7-10
Phraseological Units
11-22
IV.

WORD-STRUCTURE

1-14
V.

WORD-FORMATION

Various Ways of Forming Words


1-5
Affixation
6-15
30

Conversion
16-23
Word-Composition
24-37
VI.

ETYMOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE ENGLISH WORD-STOCK

1
Words of Native Origin
2-4
Borrowings
5-10
Interrelation between Native and Borrowed Elements
VII. VARIOUS

ASPECTS

OF

VOCABULARY

UNITS

AND

REPLENISHMENT OF MODERN ENGLISH WORD-STOCK


Interdependence of Various Aspects of the Word
1-5
Replenishment of Modern English Vocabulary
6-7
Ways and Means of Enriching the Vocabulary
8-11
Number of Vocabulary Units in Modern English
12-15
VIII. VARIANTS AND DIALECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
The Main Variants of the English Language
1-3
Local Varieties in the British Isles and the USA
4-7

31

IX.

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGLISH LEXICOGRAPHY

Main Types of English Dictionaries


1-5
Some Basic Problems of Dictionary-Compiling
6-13
Learners Dictionaries and Some Problems of Their Compilation
14-19
X.

METHODS AND PROCEDURES OF LEXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

1-8
Material for Reference

CONTENTS
Introduction
Chapter 1. Fundamentals
1.1-1.6
Part one
THE ENGLISH WORD AS A STRUCTURE
Chapter 2. Characteristics of the Word as the Basic Unit of Language
2.1-2.3
Chapter 3. Lexical Meaning and Semantic Structure of English Words
3.1-3.6
Chapter 4. Semantic Change
4.1-4.3
Chapter 5. Morphological Structure of English Words. Affixation
5.1-5.10
Chapter 6. Compound Words
6.1-6.9
Chapter 7. Shortened Words and Minor Types of Lexical Oppositions
32

7.1-7.7
Chapter 8. Conversion and Similar Phenomena
8.1-8.7
Chapter 9. Set Expressions
9.1-9.6
Part Two
ENLISH VOCABULARY AS A SYSTEM
Chapter 10. Homonyms. Synonyms. Antonyms
10.1-10.9
Chapter 11. Lexical Systems
11.1-11.6
Chapter 12. The Opposition of Stylistically Marked and Stylistically Neutral
12.1-12.6
Chapter 13. Native Words Versus Loan Words
13.1-13.4
Chapter 14. Regional Varieties of the English Vocabulary
14.1-14.3
Chapter 15. Lexicography
15.1-15.3
Conclusion
Recommended Reading
Subject Index
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The
33

English Word as a Structure English Vocabulary as a System.



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Genitive
Neutral
Gender

Feminine
Masculine

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Attribute
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2. Dimensions ()
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2- :
1.

The Language.

2.

Problems of Writing.

, ,

.
:
1.

Selecting a Topic.

2.

Selecting your points.

3.

The Thesis Sentence.

4.

Outlining and paragraphing.

5.

Definition, classification and generalizations.

6.

The uses and limitations of topic.

7.

Paragraph Development.
71


. ,

-. The
Thesis Sentence Outlining and paragraphing
Thesis: If you write a paper involving any
thought, your thesis is the main idea that you develop and your should be able to
express it in a thesis sentence.
.
.



.

. Outlining and paragraphing
,
,
. Paragraph Development

, ,
: The sentence which gives the gist of a whole
paragraph may be called topic sentence [m., (c) 233]. ,
,

.

.

, .
72

, ,
. The uses and limitations of topic
,

,
.


,
.
The research paper,
:
C h a r t e r 24 T h e R e s e a r c h P a p e r
Step One: Finding a Good Question, 282. Limiting the Question, 283. Step
Two: Gathering the Evidence, 284. The Card Catalog, 285. Indexes to Periodical
Literature, 286. General Reference Works, 287. Bibliography Cards, 288/ Step
Three: Considering the Evidence, 291. Making a Tentative Outline, 292. Using
Note Cards, 292. Why All the Notes? 294. Several Kinds of Notes, 295.
Quotations, 297. Paraphrases and Summaries, 297. Step Four: Organizing Your
Findings, 298. Step Five: Putting Your Paper in Final Form, 299. Footnote Form,
300. Mechanics of Final Copy, 301. Possible Variations, 302.
, ,

. ,

Finding a good question.

.
:
There are at least three requirements for a good question:

73

1. It should interest you. It will take you a good many hours to write a respectable
term paper, and there is no use being bored when you might be finding out
something that you want to know.
2. It should lead to a fairly definite answer. If you ask Is jazz better than classical
music? you can wander around indefinitely, and you may develop an
interesting essay; but youll never have a satisfactory term paper. You would do
much better to ask (a) What are the technical contributions of jazz? or (b)
What proportion of music critics now consider jazz a serious and important
form of music?
3. It should be limited enough to be handled adequately within the assigned
length.
Research Paper ,
Research Paper ()
, .

Researched paper)
, ,

.
, ,

. -
:

74

..
(
).
, ..

, essays, letters, articles, reports, narratives,


reviews, brochures, instructions and directions, announcements.
,
.

: ,

. ,
, , Felicity
ODell Writing Skills,
:
Map of the Book
Unit
Text type
1.
Overview

Sub-skill
Getting to know

Language focus
Being accurate

Vocabulary work
Vocabulary relating to

Writing based on a

the exam
Planning and

Being polite and

writing exams
Using your own

2.
3.

reading task
Letters

organizing
Who are you

tactful
Varying the style

words
Phrasal verbs and

writing to?

formal and informal

their formal

4.

Articles

Openings

Emphasizing

equivalents
Avoiding dull words

5.

Narratives

Content

Telling stories

Vivid verbs

6.

Reports

Paragraphs

Presenting ideas

Linking words and

Endings
Punctuation and

effectively
Making connections
Being brief, clear and

expressions
Vocabulary of work
Commonly confused

7.
8.

Writing about work


Notes, notices and

75

9.

announcements
Instructions and

spelling
Clarifying

precise
Varying sentence

words
Choosing the best

directions
Reviews

Writing with

structure
Giving opinions

word
Positive and negative

10.
11.

Brochures

style
Correcting your

Promoting and

words
Idioms

12.

Competition entries

work
Performing well

publicizing
Showing a range

Using words

on the day of the

accurately and

exam

appropriately


- ,
.

(, ,
).

,
: ,
, .
1.

( ).

2.

( -).

3.

).

, .

, .
New Proficiency: Writing by Mary Stephens (2002 )
- (Contents map)
, Letters, Articles, Essays, Proposals, Reports, Review,
76

:
CONTENTS MAP
UNIT

Writing skills

Background iformation,
Vocabulary,
Language
area

Writing in the appropriate register


Identifying the key points in the
question
Making a plan
Style:
being
tentative
and
diplomatic
Analyzing a model letter
2. Supporting
an
Identifying the key points in the
issue
question
p.12
Thinking about format
(PART 1)
Style and register: degrees of
formality
3. Complaining
Writing in an appropriate register
p.20
and tone
(PART 2)
Paragraphing a letter of complaint
Analysing two model letters
Punctuation rules: editing a text
4. Writing a
Writing in an appropriate style
personal
Identifying the key points in the
recommendation question
p.26
Making a plan
(PART 1)
Analysing a model letter
5. Giving an
Register: degrees of formality
opinion
Organising notes into paragraphs:
p.32
avoiding irrelevancies
(PART 2)
Analysing a model letter

Factfile:
Environmental problems
Collocations
(verbnoun)
Linking words and
phrases: addition and
contrast
Passive structures
Factfile: The town
council

LETTERS
1. Writing to the
Editor
p. 4
(PART 1)

ARTICLES
6. Describing an
experience
p.38
(PART 2)
7. Describing
event
p.44
(PART 2)
8. Discussing

Adjectives
that
describe personal qualities

Factfile: The Internet


Collocation
(verbnoun)
Linking words and
phrases: contrast

Writing in an appropriate style and


Gerund or infinitive
register
Narrative tenses
Thinking about a title
Thinking about your introduction
Thinking about your conclusion
Analysing a model article
an
Making a plan
Factfile:
The
Making your introduction interesting institution of marriage
Analysing a model article
Vocabulary
Linking your text (reference words)
connected
with
Making an article vivid
marriage
Participle clauses
Register: formality
Factfile:
Tourism
77

benefits
drawback
p.50
(PART 2)

Identifying the key points in the


question
Writing in an appropriate register
Making a plan: possible outlines
Thinking about style: avoiding overgeneralisations
Analysing a model article
Editing a text
9. Giving an opinion
Analysing a model article
p.58
Writing a good conclusion
(PART 1)
Comparing an article and an essay on
the same topic

ESSAYS
10. Giving an
opinion
p.66
(PART 1)

and

and the environment


Collocations
Prepositions
Useful language in
`for and against texts

Factfile:
The
exploitation of animals
Adjective:
opposites
Collocations (verbnoun)
Useful
language:
responding to opinions

Making a plan: topic sentences


Register and style: degrees
formality
Analysing a model essay

Vocabulary
of connected
with
discipline
Connectors:
contrast
11. Presenting both
Writing in an appropriate style and
Factfile:Genetic
sides
of
an register
engineering
argument
Making a plan: possible outlines
Vocabulary
p.72
Thinking about your conclusion
connected with genetics
(PART 1)
Analysing a model essay
and genetic engineering
Connectors:
weighing
up and
stating
arguments;
summarising arguments
12. Outlining
Making a plan
Factfile: Stress
problems
Analysing a model essay
Vocabulary
and offering a
connected with stress
solution
Collocations
p.78
(adjective-noun)
(PART 1)
Relative clauses
Useful
language:
outlining a situation /
problem;
explaining;
suggesting solutions.
PROPOSALS
13. Writing a
Thinking about your target reader
Useful
language:
proposal
and
making
(l)
Writing in an appropriate register
recommendations
p.84
Making a plan: using headings and
(PART 2)
subheadings
Thinking about your introduction
Thinking about your conclusion
Analysing two model proposals
14. Writing a
Making a plan: using headings
Factfile: Charities
proposal
Analysing a model proposal
and humanitarian aid
78

(2)
p.90
(PART 1)

organisations
Vocabulary
connected with disasters
Collocations
(adjective-noun)
Language
of
hypothesis;
recommendation
a
Thinking about format
Collocations (verbMaking a plan: using headings and noun)
subheadings
Analysing two model proposals

15. Writing
proposal
(3)
p.98
(PART 1)
REPORTS
16. Writing a report
Thinking about your target reader
(1)
Thinking about format
p.104
Making a plan: using headings and
(PART 2)
subheadings
Style and register: features of the
text type and degreed of formality
Analysing a model report
17. Writing a report
Style: degrees of formality
(2)
Making a plan
p.112
Thinking about your introduction
(PART 2)
Thinking about your conclusion
Editing a text

REVIEWS
18. Writing a film
review
p.120
(PART 2)
19. Writing a book
review
p.126
(PART 2)
20. Writing a review
of a place
p.132
(PART 2)

Thinking about your target reader


Making a plan
Analysing a model review
Making a plan
Thinking about your target reader
Analysing two model reviews
Thinking about your target reader
Analysing a model review

Adjectives:
opposites
Synonyms
Linking words and
phrases
Vocabulary
connected with food
Vocabulary
connected
with
restaurants
Useful
language:
comparing
and
contrasting
Useful language for
reports
Vocabulary
connected with films
Collocations
Contrasting
and
comparing
Vocabulary
connected with books
Tenses used to talk
about a plot
Adjectives:
opposites
Useful language for
reviews
Participle clauses

Writing Bank p.137

79


,
.

(104
4) How to write Essays [Lewis R., 1979].
(knowledge),
(the ability to write English) (attitude).
,
: , .

: narrative, explain, describe, tell ..


. , , compare, discuss,
describe,

illustrate,

evaluate.

80

Some Key Words Defined


Compare

Look for similarities and differences between; perhaps reach

Contrast
Criticise

a conclusion about which is preferable.


Set in opposition in order to bring out differences.
Give your judgement about the merit of theories of opinions
or about the truth of facts; back your judgment by a discussion

Define

of evidence or reasoning involved.


Set down the precise meaning of a word or phrase. In some
cases, it may be necessary or desirable to examine different

Discuss

possible, or often used, definitions.


Investigate or examine by argument; sift and debate; give

Describe

reasons for and against. Also examine the implications.


Give a detailed or graphic account of.

Distinguish
between
or

Look for the differences between.

Differentiate
Evaluate

Make an appraisal of the worth of something, in the light of its


truth or usefulness.

Explain
Illustrate
Interpret

Make plain; interpret and account for; give reasons for.


Make clear and explicit.
Often means much the same as illustrate.

Justify

Show adequate grounds for decisions or conclusions; answer the

Outline

main objections likely to be made to them.


Give the main features, or general principles, of a subject,

Relate

omitting minor details and emphasising structure and arrangement.


(a) Narrate more usual in examinations.
(b)

Show how things are connected to each other, and to

what extent they are alike, or affect each other.

State
Summarise

Present in a brief, clear form.


Give a concise account of the chief points of a matter,

Trace

omitting details and examples.


Follow the development or history of a topic from some

point of origin [Lewis R., 1979, 30].


,

81

( analytical assay) .
- (
), .
,
: (mapping,
planning, outlining).
:

spider notes, nuclear notes, essay

map, brain storming .


,
, -
Jean Wyrick Steps to Writing well [Jean Wyrick, 1993].
prewriting
: Listing Freewriting, Looping, the Boomerang, Clustering, Cubing,
Interviewing, the Cross-Examination, Sketching, Dramatizing.
, ,
.
1. Listing
Try jotting down all the ideas that pop into your head about your topic. Free
associate; dont hold back anything. Try to brainstorm for at least ten minutes.
A quick list on jogging might look like this:
fun

races

healthy

both sexes

relieves tension

any age group

no expensive equipment

running with friend or spouse

shoes

too much competition

poor shoes wont last

great expectations

shin splints

good for lungs

fresh air

improves circulation
82

good for heart

firming

jogging paths vs. streets

no weight loss

hard surfaces

warm-ups before run

muscle cramps

cool-downs after

going too far

getting discouraged

going too fast

hitting the wall

sense of accomplishment

marathons

As you read over the list, look for connections between ideas or one large idea
that encompasses several small ones.
2. The Boomerang
Still another variation on freewriting is the technique called the boomerang,
named appropriately because, like the Australian stick, it invites your mind to
travel over a subject from opposite directions to produce new ideas.
Suppose, for example, members of your class have been asked to write about
their major field of study, which in your case is Liberal Arts. Begin by writing a
statement that comes into your mind about majoring in the Liberal Arts and then
freewrite on that statement for five minutes. Then write a second statement that
approaches the subject from an opposing point of view. and freewrite again for five
minutes. Continue this pattern several times. Boomeranging, like looping, can help
writers see their subject in a new way and consequently help them find an idea to
write about.
Heres an abbreviated sample of boomeranging:
1.

Majoring in the Liberal Arts is impractical in todays world.


[Freewrite for five minutes.]

2.

Majoring in the Liberal Arts is practical in todays world.


[Freewrite for five minutes.]

3.

Liberal Arts is a particularly enjoyable major for me.


83

[Freewrite for five minutes.]


4.

Liberal Arts is not always an enjoyable major for me.


[Freewrite for five minutes.]

And so on.
3. Clustering
Another excellent technique is clustering (sometimes called mapping).
Place your general subject in a circle in the middle of a blank sheet o paper and
begin to draw other lines and circles that radiate from the original subject. Cluster
those ideas that seem to fall together. At the end of ten minutes see if a topic
emerges from any of your groups of ideas.
Ten minutes of clustering on the subject of: A Memorable Holiday might look
like the drawing on page 14.
This student may wish to brainstorm further on the Christmas he spent in the
hospital with a case of appendicitis or perhaps the Halloween he first experienced a
house of horrors. By using clustering, he has recollected some important details
about a number of holidays that may help him focus on an occasion he wants to
describe in his paper.

4. Cubing
Still another way to generate ideas is cubing. Imagine a six-sided cube that
looks something like this:

free
associate
it

argue
for or
against
it

84

Mentally, roll your subject around the cube and freewrite the answers to the
questions that follow. Write whatever comes to mind for ten or fifteen minutes;
dont concern yourself with the correctness of what you write.
a)

Describe it: What does subject look like? What size, colors, and

textures does it have? Any special features worth noting?


b)

Compare or contrast it: What is your subject similar to? What is your

subject different from? In what ways?


c)

Free-associate it: What does this subject remind you of ? What does it

call to mind? What memories does it conjure up?


d)

Analyze it: How does it work? How are the parts connected? What is

its significance?
e)

Argue for or against it: What arguments can you make for or against

your subject? What advantages or disadvantages does it have? What changes or


improvements should be made?
f)

Apply it: What are the uses of your subject? What can you do with it?

Easter
Christma
s

4th of
July

a
memorable
holiday
85

Birthday
Hallowee
n

Essay

3- :
, :
:

1.The essay is planned as a 2. Each paragraph is planned 3. Each sentence is planned


whole: the paragraphs togrther i.e. the sentences within them i.e. satisfying andcomplete in
form one coherent statment form a coherent whole.

itself.

which is the essay.

,
(thesis), .. ,
, . ,

- .
.
Steps to
writing well by Jean Wyrick. ,
.

86


.
WHAT IS A THESIS? WHAT DOES A WORKING THESIS DO?
The thesis statement declares the main point or controlling idea of your entire
essay, Frequently located near the beginning of a short assay, the thesis answers the
questions What is the subject of this essay?; What is the writers opinion on this
subject?; What is the writers purpose in this essay? (for example; to explain
something? to argue a position? to move people to action? to entertain?).
GUIDELINES FOR WRITING A GOOD THESIS
A good thesis states the writers clearly defined opinion on some subject.
Poor

Many people have different opinions on whether people under


twenty-one should be able to drink alcohol, and I agree with some
of them. [The writers opinion on the issue is not clear to the

Poor

reader.]
The question of whether we need a national law governing the
minimum age to drink alcohol is a controversial issue in many
states. [This statement might introduce the thesis, but the writer

Poor

has still avoided stating a clear opinion on the issue.]


I want to give my opinion on the national law that sets twentyone as the legal age to drink alcohol and the reasons I feel this way.

[What is the writers opinion? The reader still doesnt know.]


Better
To reduce the number of highway fatalities, our country needs
to enforce the national law that designates twenty-one as the legal
minimum age to purchase and consume alcohol. [The writer clearly
states an opinion that will be supported in the essay.]
Better
The legal minimum age for purchasing alcohol should be
eighteen rather than twenty-one. [Again, the writer has asserted a
clear position on the issue that will be argued in the essay.]

87

A good thesis asserts one main idea. Many assays drift into confusion because
the writer is trying to explain or argue two different, large issues in and explain or
argue it in convincing detail.
Poor

The proposed no-smoking ordinance in our town will


violate a number of our citizens civil rights, and no one has
proved secondary smoke is dangerous anyway. [This thesis
contains two main assertions the ordinances violation of
rights and secondary smokes lack of danger that require two

different kinds of supporting evidence.]


Better
The proposed no-smoking ordinance in our town will
violate our civil rights. [This essay will show the various ways
the ordinance will infringe on personal liberties.]
Better
The most recent U.S. Health Department studies claiming
that secondary smoke is dangerous to nonsmokers are based on
faulty research. [This essay will also focus on one issue: the
validity of the studies on secondary smoke danger.]
A good thesis has something worthwhile to say. Although its true that almost
any subject can be made interesting with the right treatment, some subjects are
more predicable and therefore more boring than others. Before you write your
thesis, think hard about your subject: does your position lend itself to trite, shallow,
or overly obvious ideas? For example, most readers would find the following
theses tiresome unless the writers had some original method of developing their
essays:
Poor

Dogs have always been mans best friends. [This essay might

Poor

be full of ho-hum clichs about dogs faithfulness to their masters.]


The four children in my family have completely different
personalities. [This statement may be true, but would anyone but

the childrens parents really be fascinated with this topic?]


Better
Birth order can influence childrens personalities in starting
ways. [The writer is wiser to offer this controversial statement,
which is of more interest to readers than the preceding one because
88

most readers have brothers and sisters of their own. The writer can
then illustrate her claims with examples from her own family, and
from other families, if she wishes.]
A good thesis is limited to fit the assignment. Your thesis should show that
you have narrowed your subject matter to an appropriate size for your essay. Do
not allow your thesis to promise more of a discussion than you can adequately
deliver in a short essay. You want an in-depth treatment of your subject, not a
superficial one. Certainly you my take on important issues in your essays; do not
fell you must limit your topics to local or personal subjects. But one simply cannot
refight Vietnam or effectively defend U.S. foreign policy in Central America in
five to eight paragraphs. Focus your essay on an important part of a broader
subject that interest you (For a review of ways to narrow and focus your subject,
see pp. 6-18).
Poor

Nuclear power should be banned as an energy source in this


country.[Can the writer give the broad subject of nuclear power a

fair treatment three to five pages?]


Better
Because of its poor safety record during the past years, the
COllon Country nuclear power plant should be closed. [This writer
could probably argue this focused thesis in a short essay.]
A good thesis is clearly stated in specific terms. More than anything, a vague
thesis reflects lack of clarity in the writers mind and almost inevitably leads to an
essay that talks around the subject but never makes a coherent point. Try to avoid
words whose meanings are imprecise or those that depend largely on personal
interpretation, such as interesting, good, and bad.
Poor

The womens movement is good for our country. [What group

does the writer refer to? How is it good? For whom?]


Better
The Colorado Womens Party is working to ensure the benefits
of equal pay for equal work for both males and females in our
state. [This tells who will benefit and how clearly defining the
thesis.]
89

A good thesis is clearly located, often in the first or second paragraph.


Remember:
Many times writers discover a better thesis near the end of their first draft.
Thats fine consider that draft a prewriting or focusing exercise and begin
another draft, using the newly discovered thesis as a starting point.
PRACTICING WHAT YOUVE LEARNED
A. Identify each of the following thesis statement as adequate or inadequate. If
the thesis is weak or insufficient in some way, explain the problem.

,
,
.
How to write essays

(point) 3-4
: (Introduction), (main
body) (conclusion).
:
125 .
600-700 , .. 150 .
250 .
,
, ,

.
? .
,
creative essay ( ).
90

analytical or
research essays

. ,

Writing a college Handbook [Heffernan, 1990]


Paper, :
The Research Paper
Preparing the Research Paper
Choosing a Topic
Using the Library The Reference Section
Learning What Your Topic is Called
A Book-and-Article Bibliography
A Computerized Index
General Encyclopedias
Specialized Reference Works
Compilations of facts and Statistics
Biographical Guides
Guides to Books
Guides to Articles in Books
General Indexes to Periodicals
Government Publications
Finding Books The On-Line Catalog and the Card Catalog
Using the On-Line Catalog
Using the Card Catalog
Getting Books Your Library Doesnt Have
Finding Articles
Keeping Track of Your Sources
Source Card for a Book
Source Card for an Article
Using Microtexts
Conducting an Interview
91

Choosing Which Sources to Consult


Examing Your Sources
Taking Notes
Taking Notes with a Word Processor
Taking Notes on Index Cards
Summarizing and Paraphrasing
Quoting from Sources
Formulating Your Thesis
Filling Gaps in Your Research
Writing the Research Paper
Making an Outline
Managing Your Sources
Citing Sources as You Write
Introducing Your Sources
Plagiarism
Composing the Paper as a Whole
Documenting the Research Paper
Styles of Documentation
Citing with Parentheses The MLA Style
Citing and Listing Basic Procedures
Citing and Listing Various Sources
Listing Various Sources Further Examples
Preparing the Final Copy of the Research Paper
Sample Argumentative Research with MLA Parenthetical Style
Writing and Research across the Curriculum
Three Disciplines Illustrated Specialists Writing for Specialists
92

Asking the Question That Fits Your Discipline


Humanictic Writing Focus on the Individual Work
Social Sciences Focus on Social Groups
Natural Sciences Focus on Physical Properties
Writing on Specialized Topics for Non-Specialistic
Organizing a Research Paper in the Humanities
Documenting Sources in the Humanities
Organizing Research Paper in the Social Sciences
Docymenting Sources in the Social Sciences The APA Parenthetical Style
Writing APA Parenthetical Citations
Writing the Research List APA Style
Organizing Researcsh Papers in the Natural Sciences
Documenting Sources in the Sciences
Citing Sources in the Natural Sciences CBE Style
Writing the Reference List CBE Style
Tables and Figures in Research Papers
Presening Tables
Presenting Figures
, :

.

. 33.1 Choosing a Topic, . 33.13 Formulating Your Thesis
. 34.1 Making an Outline.
Choosing a topic
.
:
1. Do you really want to know more about this topic? You will make the most
of it only if you expect to learn something interesting or important in the process.

93

2. Are you likely to find many sources of information on this topic? You cannot
write a research paper without consulting a variety of sources. If only one source
or none at all, is readily available, you should rethink your topic or choose another.
If you pick a topic that is currently in the news, be sure it has been around long
enough to generate substantial articles and books.
3. Can you cut the topic down to manageable size? Be reasonable and realistic
about what you can do in a period of two to four weeks. If your topic is The
Causes of the American Revolution, you will scarcely have time to make a list of
books on your subject, let alone tread and analyze them. Find something specific,
such as The Harassment of Loyalists after Watertown or The Role of Patrick
Henry in the American Revolution. After you have done your research on a
specific topic such as this, you could explain in your paper how it helps to
illuminate the general topic you stated with.
,

.
, ,

Research paper .

.
(, , )

.

essay

.
,
:
THE CLASSICAL ARGUMENTATIVE STRUCTURE
94

A classical argument usually contains the following sections:


1.

Introduction. In this section, which may consist of only one or two

paragraphs, you introduce your topic, indicate why it is important, and present
your position.
2.

Background information and definition. It this section, you place

your position within a cultural context, perhaps by showing that it has aroused
current interest, that it generally stimulates controversy, or that is has not been
understood adequately. This section might include personal experience that is
relevant to the topic and might define important key terms.
3.

Acknowledgement of opposing points of view. In this section, you

summarize positions that are opposed to your own. Such a summary indicates
that you understand other positions; in fact, you may concede that certain
aspects of the opposing argument have merit and also point out weaknesses. A
discussion of opposing arguments. It also establishes you as someone who has
researched the topic thoroughly and shows that you realize that the issue is
complex.
4.

Presenting your main position. This is usually the longest and most

substantial section of your essay. In this section you present your position or
claim, either with evidence (examples, facts, statistics, data) or with other
reasons, and illustrative examples.
5.

Anticipation and refutation of possible objections to your position.

If you think of your argument as a kind of dialogue, you will be able to envision
possible objections to your position. By doing this, you will appear to your
reader to be in total control of your subject matter.
6.

Conclusion. This section will summarize your main argument and

perhaps suggests what action, if any, the readers ought to take. Perhaps it
indicates why the issue is important or postulates possible implications of a
policy or situation. In general, it provides readers with a sense of closure on the
topic.

95


, .
,
. ,
Strategies of Exposition
Methods of Development. :
Examples
Definitions
Analogy
Comparison and Contrast
Explaining by Analyzing
Division and classification
Process analysis
Caused analysis
Effect analysis
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96

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36. ..
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