With Two Marks Qu~stions & Answers
With Fully, Solved Anria University ~Question' Papers till May/Jun'e" 2012
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ANNA UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS
Semester  VI Mechanical
DESIGN .OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
.1'
~
1. DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS FOR FLEXIBLE ELEMENTS
9 hrs.
Selection of V belts and pulleys  Selection of Flat belts and pulleys  Wire ropes and pulleys  Selection of Transmission chains and Sprockets. Design of pulleys and sprockets.
2. SPUR GEARS AND PARAllel AXIS HELICAL
Gear Terminology  Speed ratios and number of
Dynamic effects
 Power rating calculations based on strength gears  Pressure angle in the normal and stresses  Estimating the si
:
Fatigue
strength  Factor of safety 
GEARS
is 
9 hrs.
Tooth stresses  and Face width axis Helical
3. BEVEL, WORM
bevel gear: Too the d~ions
9 hrs.
ermino
forces and stresses, equivalent number of teeth.
air of st lght bevel gears.
'ts and dem rits, terminology, thermal capacity, materials, forces and stresses, the size of the worm gear pair.
.
~
lical: Terminology, helix angles, estimati~g the size of the pair of cross helical gears."
_{4}_{.} DES'IGN OF
GEAR BOXES
^{,}
^{"}
_{9} _{h}_{r}_{s}_{,}
Geometric progression  Standard step ratio  Ray diagram, kinematics layout  Design of sliding mesh gear box  Constant mesh gear box  Design of multi speed gear box.
5. DESIGN OF CAM,
CLUTCHES AND BRAKES
_{9} _{h}_{r}_{s}_{.}
Cam design: Types, pressure angle and under cuning  Base circle determination, forces and surface stresses.
Design of plate clutches  Axial clutches  Cone clutches  Internal expanding rim c1l1tches .Internal and external shoe brakes.
TUTORIALS
_{3}_{0} _{h}_{r}_{s}_{.}
TOTAL: 75 hrs.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 : FLAT BELTS AND PULLEYS
_{1}_{.}_{1} _{}_{1}_{.}_{4}_{3}
Introduction  Classification of drives  Types' of belts  Characteristics of belt drives _
drive  Typ~s of flat belt drives  Belt materials  Velocity ratio of
belt drive  Effect of belt thickness on velocity ratio  Effect of slip on velocity ratio _
Phenomenon of creep  Effect of creep  Law of belting  Geometrical relationships _
Power transmitted by a belt  Tensions in a belt drive  Ratio of tensions for flat belt
drive  Losses in transmission and efficiency  Stresses in the belt  Design of flat belt
Selection of a belt
pulleys  Design of flat belt drive based on manufacturer's
data  Design of flat belt
drives using basic equations  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 2: VBEL TS AND PULLEYS
_{2}_{.}_{1} _{} _{2}_{.}_{2}_{4}
Introduction  Construction
disadvantages of V belt drive over flat belt drive  Types of V belts  Specification of
Vbelts  Ratio of driving tensions for Vbelt  Vflat drives  Design of sheaves
(or V grooved pulleys)  Design of V belt drive based on manufacturer's data  Design
of Vbelts  Materials of Vbelts  Advantages
and
of V belt drive using basic equations  Review and summary  Review questions 
Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 3: WIRE ROPES AND PULLEYS
_{3}_{.}_{1} _{} _{3}_{.}_{2}_{0}
Introduction  Advantages of wire ropes  Construction of wire ropes  Classification of
wire ropes  Specification of wire ropes  Guidelines for the selection of wire rope 
Stresses in wire ropes  Design of wire ropes  Failure of ropes  Design of wire rope
sheaves and drums  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 4: CHAIN DRIVES
4.1  4.31
Introduction  Advantages and disadvantages of chain drives  Types of chain drives 
Link chains  Dimensions of a link chain  Classification of link chains  Construction
of link chains  Selection of link chains  Advantages and disadvantages of link chains 
Transmission (or roller) chains  Construction of roller chains  Specification of a chain
 Geometric relationship of a roller chain and sprocket  Chordal (or polygonal) action 
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Design procedure of roller chain  Design of sprocket wheels  Types of sprockets 
Silent (or inverted tooth) chain  Construction  Types of silent chains  Advantages and
disadvantages of silent chains  Dimensions of the various parts of the chain  Review
and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 5: SPUR GEARS
5.1  5.88
Introduction  Advantages and limitations
Definition of gear  Classification of gears  Spur gears  Gear nomenclature  Law of
gearing  Forms of gear tooth profile  Standard systems of gear tooth  Standard
proportions
 Gear tooth failure  Force analysis on spur gears  Tooth stresses
manufacturing
(Lewis beam strength equation)  Gear blank design  Gear design using Lewis and
of gear drive over chain and belt drives 
of gear systems  Gear materials  Selection of gear material  Gear
Buckingham's equations  Beam strength of gear tooth  Dynamic effects  Tangential
load on tooth  Dynamic tooth load (Buckingham's
Estimating gear size  Standard module  Fatigue strength of gear tooth (wear tooth
of teeth  Face width  Factor of safety  Design procedure  Gear
design based on gear life  Dynamic load  Induced bending stress  Design bending
stress  Design contact stress  Surface compressive stress  Design procedure  Check.
for plastic deformation  Gear design for variable loading  Design of gears with
reliability factor  Design of internal gears  Design of nonmetallic gears  Review and
summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
equation for dynamic
load) 
load)  Number
CHAPTER 6 : HELICAL GEARS
6.1  6.65
Introduction  Advantages  Disadvantages  Types of helical gears  Kinematics and
nomenclature
helical gears  Tooth proportions for helical gears  Basic dimensions of helical and
herringbone gears  Force analysis on helical gears  Design of helical gears  Helical
gear design using Lewis and Buckingham's equations  Lewis equation for beam
strength of helical gears  Dynamic load on helical gear tooth  Wear strength of helical
gears  Design procedure  Helical gear design based on gear life  Design formulas for
helical gear design  Design procedure  Herringbone gears  Design of herringbone
gears  Crossed helical or spiral gears  Advantages and limitations of spiral gears 
Shaft angle  Centre distance  Velocity of sliding between gears  Efficiency  Force
analysis on crossedhelical gears  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
of helical gears  Virtual or formative number of teeth  Face width of
CHAPTER 7: BEVEL GEARS
_{7}_{.}_{1} _{}_{7}_{.}_{4}_{7}
Introduction  Types of bevel gears  Bevel gear nomenclature  Virtual or formative number of teeth  Proportions for bevel gears  Basic dimensions of bevel gears  Force analysis on bevel gears  Design of bevel gears  Bevel gear design using Lewis and Buckingham's equations  Beam strength of bevel gears  Dynamic load on bevel gear tooth  Wear strength of bevel gears  Design procedure  Bevel gear design based on gear life  Design formulas for bevel gear design  Design procedure  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 8: WORM GEARS
8.1 8.38
Introduction  Applications  Advantages and disadvantages  Types of worm gear drives  Specification of a pair of worm gears  Nomenclature of worm gears  Tooth proportions of worm gears  Basic dimensions of worm gears  Force analysis on worm gearing  Efficiency' of worm gearing  Power lost in friction  Selflocking and overrunning drives  Design of worm gear drive  Materials for worm and worm wheel
\
 Failure of worm gearing  Selection of number of starts in the worm  Length of worm
 Face width of the wheel  Thermal rating of worm gearing  Worm and worm gear design using Lewisand Buckingham's equation  Beam strength of worm gear tooth  Dynamic load on wo\m gear tooth  Wear strength of worm gears  Design procedure Worm gears design ~sing basic equations  Design formulas for worm gears design  Design procedure  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 9: GEAR BOX
9.1  9.41
Introduction  Requirements of a speed gear boxes  Methods of changing speed in gear boxes  Preferred numbers  Step ratio  $tru9tural formula  Kinematic layout  Ray
diagram  Basic rules for optimum gear box design  Overlapping speed gear box  Design of gear box  Design procedure for gear box  Review and summary  Review
questions  Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 10: CLUTCHES
10.1 10.50
Introduction  Functions of the clutch  Principle of operation of clutch  Classification of clutches  Friction materials for clutches  Single plate clutch  Design of a single plate clutch  Multiplate clutch  Design of a multiplate clutch  Service factors  Cone clutch  Design of a cone clutch  Centrifugal clutch  Design of a centrifugal clutch 
Internal expanding rim clutches  External contracting rim clutches  Energy dissipation during clutching (Energy considerations)  Temperature rise  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 11 : BRAKES
11.1 11.58
Introduction  Clutch Vs Brake  Classification of brakes  Brake lining materials  Block or shoe brake  Single block or shoe brake  Selflocking and selfenergizing brakes  Double block or double shoe brake  Design procedure for block brake  Band brake  Simple band brake  Design procedure for band brakes  Differential band brake  Band and block brake  Internal expanding shoe brake  External contracting shoe brake  Energy considerations  Temperature rise  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
TWO MARKS Q&A
SOLVED ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPERS
SUGGESTED READINGS
INDEX
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Q&A.l  Q&A.21
Q.l  Q.55
1.1. INTRODUCTION
Flat Belts and Pulleys
"Live as if you were to die tomorrow; Learn (U if you were to live forever ."
 Mahatma Gandhi
Whenever power has to be transmitted from one shaft to another shaft, flexible machine elements such as belts, ropes or chains are frequently used. Pulleys are mounted on the shaft and a continuous belt or rope is passed over them. In belts and ropes, power is transmitted due to friction between them and the pulleys. In case of chain sprocket wheels are used. When the distance between the shaft is large, then
upon several arc of contact
smaller distances, gears are used. The amount of power factors such as velocity of the belt, tensions i belt,
between the belt and the smaller pUlle.1iilllllt":
1.2. CLASSIFICA
l
_{B}_{e}_{l}_{t}
.,
l
Flexible drives
1
_{R}_{o}_{p}_{e}
Drives
~
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{i}_{n}
l
Gear drive
~
Direct drives
~
Cam drive
1.2.1. Types of Belts
Four types of belts used for power transmission are :
I. Flat belts.
These four types of belts are shown in Fig.l.l.
2.
V belts,
3.
Ribb e d bel
1
ts,
an
d
4. Toothed or timing belts.
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_{1}_{.}_{2}
_{F}_{l}_{a}_{t} _{b}_{e}_{l}_{t}
Design of Transmission Systems
_{V}_{}_{b}_{e}_{l}_{t}
Multiple Vbelts
Ribbed belts
Toothed or timing belt
Fig. 1.1. Types of belt drives
1.2.2. Characteristics of Belt Drives
The characteristics of different belts are tabulated, as shown in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1. Characteristics 0/ belt drives
^{,}
Toothed or 

_{S}_{.}_{N}_{o}_{.} 
Characteristics 
Flat belts 
Vbelts 

timing belts 
_{l}_{.} 
Maximum 
velocity ratio 
16 
12 
_{1}_{1} 

_{2}_{.} 
Maximum 
belt speed 
(m/s) 
35 to 110 
25 
80 
I 

_{3}_{.} 
_{S}_{l}_{i}_{p} 
1 to 5% 
1 to 5% 
_{N}_{i}_{l} 

4. Tension 
High 
Less 
Very less 

_{5}_{.} Shock resistance 
Good 
Good 
Fair 

_{6}_{.} Resistance to wear 
Good 
Fair 
Good 

_{7}_{.} 
_{D}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 

8. 
Initial cost 
Less 
Less 
Moderate 
1.2.3. Selection of a Belt Drive
Selection of a belt drive depends upon :
I
./ ./ Power to be transmitted 
./ 
Speed reduction ratio 
Speed of driver and driven shafts 
./ 
Centre distance 
./ Shaft relationship 
./ 
Positive drive requirement 
./ Service conditions 
./ 
Space available 
Flat Belts and Pulleys

1.2.4. Types of Flat Belt Drives
1.3
Depending on the requirement, flat belts can be arranged in different ways. The different
types of arrangement and their applications are tabulated, as shown in Table 1.2.
Table 1.2. Types o/flat belt drives alld tl,eir appiicatiolls
Types of drives
1. Open belt drive:
Sladl side
~
Tight side

Fi • 1.2.
2. Open belt drive with one idler pulley:
Fig. 1.3.
3. Open bell drive wuh many idler pulleys:
Fig. 1.4.
Used with
Applications
shafts
arranged
parallel
and
rotating in same direction.
Used with shafts arranged parallel and when
due to
small angle of contact on the smaller pulley. Idler pulleys (also known as Jockey pulleys) are provided to obtain high velocity ratio and when the required belt tension cannot be obtained by other means.
an open belt drive cannot be used
Used when it is desired to transmit motion
from one shaft to several parallel shafts.
)
1,4
Types of drives
4. Crossed or twisted belt drive:
s.
FI . 1.5.
FI • 1.6.
6. Quart~r twist bett drive will, guide
pul/~y :
t
FI • 1.7.
7. St~PfNdor cone pulley driv«:
n« t.s.
;
,
Design a/Transmission Systems
Applications
Used with shafts arranged parallel
rotating in the opposit~ direction.
and
Used with shafts arranged at right angles and
rotating in one definite direction.
Used with shafts arranged
when the reversible motion is desired.
at right angles
Used for changing the speed of the driven shaft while the main or driving shaft runs at constant speed.
[Iat Belts and Pulleys
^{I}^{.}^{S}
~I
Types of drives
_{A}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
8. Fast and loose pulley:
Used when the driven shaft is to be started or stopped whenever desired without interfering
with the driving shaft.
Fi • 1.9.
9. Compound drive:
Fi . 1.10.
1.3. BELT MATERIALS
Used when several units are to be driven
from one central shaft.
The desirable properties of a belt material are high coefficient of friction, flexibility, durability and strength. The main materials used for flat belts are:
1. Leather belts: Leather belts are made of animal hides. The best quality leather is obtained from either sides of the backbone of a steer (bullock). Leathers for belting may be tanned with oak, or chrome salts. Oaktanned leather is fairly stiff, whereas chrometanned leather is soft and pliable.
Belts are specified according to the number of layers. e.g., singleply, doubleply or triple ply belts. Doubleply (or tripleply) belts are made by cementing two strips (or three strips) of leathertogether with hair sides out.
2. Fabric and cotton bells:~ These belts are made by stitching together three or more plies
(or layers) of canvas or cotton duck. The fabric is treated with linseed oil to make it water
proof.These belts are cheap. They are most suitable for farm work, quarry and saw mills.
J. Rubber belts: These belts are made up of plies of fabric impregnated with vulcanised rubber or synthetic rubber. The main advantage of these belts is that they can be easily made endless. Saw mills, creameries, chemical plants and paper mills largely use the rubber belts.
J.6
Design of Transmission Systems
4. Bnlaln ~/ts: Balata is gum similar to rubber. Balata belts are made in the same manner
as the rubber belts except that balata is substituted for rubber. These belts are acid proof and waterproof. The balata belts cannot be used at temperature above 40°C because at this
temperature
it begins to soften and becomes sticky.
5. Nylon core belts
6. Camel's hair belts.
The commonly used belt materials for various belt types are given in Table 1.3.
Tuble /.3. Commonly used bell materials .
Belt types 
Belt materials 
Flat belts 
Leather canvas, cotton and rubber 
Vbelts 
Rubberised fabric and rubber 
Ropes 
Cotton, hemp and manila 
1.4. VELOCITY RATIO OF BELT DRIVE
The ratio between the speeds of the driver and the follower or driven is known as velocity ratio.
/
Let
D and d
= Diameters of the driver and driven respectively,
N) and N2 = Speeds of the driver and driven respectively, and
(01 and (02 = Angular velocities of the driver and driven respectively.
N2
Velocity ratio, N
)
=
(02
(0)
D
^{=} _{d}
(1.1)
1.4.1. Effect of Belt Thickness on Velocity Ratio
When the thickness of belt (I) is considered, then velocity ratio is given by
N2
N)
=
1.4.2. Effect of Slip on Velocity Ratio
D+I
d+1
(1.2)
S~ip is defined as the relative motion between the belt and pulley. The difference between ~he linear sp~ds of the pulley rim and belt is the measure of slip. The reason for slip to occur
IS that the.re IS a ten~e~cy for ~he belt to carry with it on the underside, between the pulley and the belt. I.e., the frictional gnp between belt 'and pulley is, insufficient. The presence of slip red~ces the velocity ratio of the drive.
B
h'
h
. y roug ernng t e belt by dressing or by crowning. avoided.
.
one of the pulleys
'
the slip can be
• For mere details. refer section 1.17.3.
Flal Bells and Pulleys
Let
S, = Percentage
S2 = Percentage slip between the belt and the driven pulley,
slip between the driver and the belt,
^{1}^{.}^{7}
and
S = Total percentage slip = S, + S2
N
2
:. Velocity ratio, 1'1
.
.
I
D [
= d
_ S, + S2 ]
1
100
If thickness of the belt (I) is considered, then
Velocity ratio, ~
=
~:;
[
I

J%o ]
1.5. PHENOMENON OF CREEP IN BELTS
, (1.3)
(1.4)
When the belt passes from the slack side to the tight side, a certain portion of the belt extends. And it contracts again when the belt passes from the tight side to slack side. Due to these changes of length, there is relative motion between the belt and the pulley surfaces. This relative motion is termed as creep.
The net effect of creep is to reduce the speed of the driven pulley and consequently power transmitted. 
the 

1.5.1. 
Effect of Creep of Belt 

Let 
crt and cr2 = 
Stresses in the belt on the tight side and slack side respectively, 
and 
E = Young's modulus of the belt material.
VI'
e ocity ratio,
.
N
N =
2
,
o x E+YC;:
d
E+~
(1.5)
INote lin practice the combined effect of slip and creep is called simply slip and the combined effect should not exceed three percent.
1.6. LAW OF BELTING
Law of belting states that the centre line of the belt, as it approaches the pulley, must lie in
a plan~ perpendicular
otherWise the belt will run off the pulley.
to the axis of that pulley or must lie in the plane of the pulley,
1.7. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONSHIPS
For open belt drive: An open belt drive is shown in Fig.I.1 I.
^{L}^{e}^{t}
^{D} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{d} ^{=} ^{D}^{'} iarneters of the larger and smaller pulleys respectively
^{C}
^{=} Centre distance between the two pulleys in metres,
L = Total length of the belt in metres _{,}
in metres,
l
1.8
2a =
as =
a L =
Design a/Transmission Systems
The angle subtended between the straight portions of the belt in degrees, Wrap angle (or angle of contact / lap) for small pulley in degrees, and
Wrap angle for large pulley in degrees.
. 1
Sin
0  d

I 2C
,~
I
,
I
\C
Fig. 1.11. Open belt drive
As seen from the Fig.I.II,
sma
Od
= 
2C
also
and
as = (1802a)
and
a _{L}
Wrap angle for small 
pulley, 
Wrap angle for large 
pulley, 
= (180+2a) 

as = 180  2 sirr ' 
( Od') 2C 

a _{L} = 180 + 2 sirr 
' 
( Od) 2 C 
Length of the belt, * L = 2 C + (¥) (0 + d) + (04C ^{d} )2
(1.6)
(1.7)
For crossed belt drive: A crossed belt drive is shown in Fig.l.12, the usual meanings.
. 1 D + d
Sin

2 C
I
, ,
I
,
with notations having
1 C 
Fig. 1.12. Crossed hell drive
1
• For derivations of the formulas used in this chapter, the readers are suggested to refer any 'KinematicS of Machines' book.
Flat Belts and Pulleys
As seen from the Fig.I.12,
Sill U
=
(0 2 +c ^{d} )
and
Therefore, wrap angles for smaller and larger pulleys are same and is given by
Us = u _{L} = (180 + 2 n)
Us = u _{L} = 180 + 2 sirr ' (~ ~d )
Length of the belt, L = 2 C +
(
1t)
2
(D + d) +
(0 + d)2
4 C
1.S. POWER TRANSMITTED BY A BELT
Let
T _{J} and T2 = Tensions in the tight and slack sides respectively in newtons, and
P =
Power transmitted by a belt in watts,
v = Linear velocity of the
I Power transmitted,
belt in m/s.
P =
(T _{J} 
T _{2} ) v I
1.9. TENSIONS IN A BELT DRIVE
_{1}_{.}_{9}
(1.8)
(1.9)
(1.10)
1. Tight and slack side tensions (T] and T~ : When a belt is moving round a pulley and
transmitting power, the tension in belt on two sides of pulley will be different. The side of belt in which tension is higher is the tight side and the other is called slack side.
a
centrifugal force which has a tendency to separate the belt from the pulley surface. To maintain contact between pulley and belt, the centrifugal force produce additional tension in the belt, which is known as the centrifugal tension,
Centrifugal tension is a waste load, because it increases tension without increasing pow.r capacity.
2. Centrifugal tension (T c) : As the belt moves round the pulley it would experience
Let
m =
Mass per unit length of the belt in kg/m, and
v = Linear velocity of the belt in m/s.
.
.
I Centrifugal tension,
Tc = mv ^{2} I
(1.1 I)
3. Initial tension in belt (To) : The tension of the belt when a belt is fitted to a stationary pulleys, is termed as the initial tension of tile belt (To).
pair of
:.
Initial tension, To =
T _{J} +T2
2
[Neglecting centrifugal tension]
(1.12)
T _{J} +T _{2} +2T
_{=}
2
c [Considering centrifugal tension]
(1.13)
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1.10
Design of Transmission Systems
INotes I I. Maximum tension to which the belt can be subjected due to centrifugal tension,
and
where
T =
T
1+
T
C
_{T}
_{o}
_{=} Maximum stress x Crosssectional area of belt
_{=} _{c}_{r}_{·} _{b}_{} _{t}
_{=} Maximum safe stress in N/m2,
(1.14(a))
(1.14(b))
_{b} _{=} Width of belt in metres, and
Thickness of belt in metres.
2. When the centrifugal tension is taken into account, then
Total tension in the tight side, Til = T I + T c
and total tension in the slack side, Ta = T 2 + T c
3. Effect of centrifugal tension 0" power transmitted :
We know that
Power transmitted, P
(Ttl  T/2) V
= [(T I + Tc)  (T 2 + Tc) ] v = (T I  T 2) V
Thus, the centrifugal tension has 110 effect on the power transmitted.
4. For a belt speed of upto 10 mls the centrifugal tension is negligible. But for belt speed more than
10 mis, the centrifugal tension should be considered without
fail.
1.10. RATIO OF DRIVING TENSIONS FOR FLAT BELT DRIVE
Let
and
TI and T2 = Tensions on tight and slack sides of the belt respectively,
a = Angle of wrap (i.e., angle of contact) of belt with the pulley,
and
f.l = Coefficient
of friction between the belt and pulley.
Tension ratio,
11
T2
T _{I} mv2
T2 mv2
= ell a
^{=} ^{e}^{l}^{l}^{a}
[Neglecting centrifugal tension] 
(1.15) 
[ Considering centrifugal tension] 
(1.16) 
INotes I I. It should be borne in mind that 'a' in the tension ratio equations must be in radians.
2. Condition for the transmission of maximum power: The power transmitted shall be maximum when the centrifugal tension (T c) is one third of the maximum belt tension (T).
and
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T == 3 Tc
maximum velocity. v
 \j~ (J
(1.17(a»
(1.17(b))
Flat Belts and Pulleys
1.11. BELT SPEEDS
Most efficient power transmission (Refer PSG data book, page no.7.53).
is obtained f
or
tl
_{1}_{.}_{1}_{1}
at belts at speeds of 17.5 to 22.5 m/s
1.12. SPECIFIC WEIGHTS OF BELT MATERIALS
Leather
= 1 x 10 5 N/mm3
Rubber = 1.4 x 10 5 N/mm3
Balata 
= 1.11 x 10 5 
N/mm3 
Canvas = 1.22 x 10 5 
N/mm 3 
1.13. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION
The coefficient of friction between the belt material and tl
. .
ie pv ey sur f ace d epen d s upon
verage
II
an
the belt material, material of the pulley surface the belt speed
.
.
.
.'
d th
e e t Sip.
b I
I'
A
values of coefficients of friction for design purposes are given in Table 1.4.
Table 1.4. Mean coefficient offrlctlon, J.I
Belt material
_{}
Leather (oaktanned)
Leather (chrometanned)
Cotton or fabric
Rubber
1.14. CENTRE DISTANCE
_{C}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{d}
Pulley material
Wood 
Steel 
Cast iron 

paper 

0.33 
0.30 
0.25 
0.25 
0.45 
0.40 
0.35 
0.35 
0.25 
0.23 
0.20 
0.20 
0.35 
0.30 
0.30 
^{0}^{.}^{3}^{0} 
(A longer belt will last more tlutn a shorter belt. Why?)
The life of a belt is a function of the centre distance between the driver and driven shafts. The shorter the belt, the more often it will be subjected to additional bending stresses while running around the pulleys at a given speed. And also it will be destroyed quickly due 10 fatigue. Hence, a longer belt will last more than a shorter belt.
1.15. LOSSES IN TRANSMISSION AND EFFICIENCY
The losses in a belt
drive are due to :
(i) 
Slip and creep of the belt on the pulleys (about 3%), 
(ii) 
Windage or air resistance to the movement of belt and pulleys (usually negligible), 
(iii) 
Bending of the belt over the pulleys (about I%), and 
(iv] 
Fricti n in the bearings of pulley (about 1%). 
1htrcfore the overall efficiency of the drive is about 95 to 96%.
I.' 2
1.16. STRESSES IN THE BELT The various stresses acting at various portions of the belt are.
ueSIl;" VJ M· 
.
1. Stress due 10 maximum working tension, TI (a; :
at
Tight side tension = Crosssectional area of the belt
b =
Width of the belt, and
where
1 = Thickness of the belt.
2. Stress due 10 bending of the bell over tile pulley (a,,) :
E·, 

ab = 
d 
where
E = Young's modulus of the belt material,
d = Diameter of the smaller pulley.
and
3. Stress due 10 the effect of centrifugal force (uj :
_ 
Centrifugal force 
_ mv ^{2} = 
2 

a 
_{c} 
 
Crosssectional area of the belt 
 
b· I 
P v 
where
P = Density of the belt material in kg/m '.
It. is noted that the stress will be maximum when the belt moves over the smaller 
pulley. 

Therefore the maximum stress in the tight side of the smaller pulley is given by 

a _{m}_{a}_{x} = at + ab + a _{c} 

1.16.1. Permissible Stresses 

Leather 
belts 
= 2 to 3.45 MPa 

Rubber belts 
= 
I to 
].7 MPa 

Fabric 
belts = Less than ].5 MPa 

DESIGN OF FLAT BELT PULLEYS 

1.17. INTRODUCTION 

In order t~ design a 
flat belt. drive, we need the diameters 
of driving and driven 
ulie s. 
Thus the design of belt pulleys IS to be done first Since the velocitv rati
p
Y
pulley diameters, therefore the pulleys should be s~lected caref:I~~lty ratio depends upon the
1.17.1. Materials Used for Pulleys
The commonly used pulley materials are:
./ 
Cast iron 

./ 
Wood or fibre 
./ 
. 
Fabricated . steel
Compressed paper
Cast Iron pulleys are most widely used i
III actual practice. .
Flat_Be/ts and Pulleys _
1.17.2. Types of Pulleys for Flat Belts
_{1}_{.}_{1}_{3}
Based on the construction methods, the pulleys are classified as solid pulleys and split
pulleys.
Small pulleys can be made in single casting which is known as solid pulleys. But medium and larger pulleys are cast in halves, which can be joined at the rim and the hub. This type of pulleys are known as split pulleys, In the following article, the design of cast iron split pulley will be discussed.
1.17.3. Design Procedure for Cast Iron Pulleys
The crosssection of a cast iron pulley is shown in Fig.1.13. (Refer PSG data book, page no. 7.56).
Rim
Fig. 1.13. Crosssection of putley
where
D _{=}
b =
=
I =
d l
Diameter of the pulley,
Thickness of the arm,
Diameter of the hub,
Length of the hub.
a = Width of the pulley,
t = Thickness of the rim, d _{2} = Diameter of the shaft, and
1. Dimensions of pulley:
.'
. .
lie (D): Obtain the diameter of the pulley either from velocity
(i) DIameter of the pu .:v
id
ratio consideration or centrifugal stress cons: era
induced in the rim of the pulley,
tion We know that the centrifugal stress .
where
0c
p
P y2
=
= Density of the rim material,
= 7200 k m 3 for cast iron, and 7t D N
v = Velocity of he rim =
60
'
D being the diameter of pulley and N the
speed of the pulley.
_{1}_{.}_{1}_{4}
Design of Transmission Systems
Now, select the diameter of the pulley (D) referring to Table 1.5.
Table 1.5. Recommended pulley diameters ill mm (from data book, page 110. 7.54)
40,45,50,56,63,71. 80, 90.100,112,125,140,160,180,200.224,250,280.315, 355, 400, 450,500,560,630, 710,860.900, 1000, 1120, 1250, 1400, 1600, 1800 and 2000.
(ii) Width of tile pulley (a) : If the width of the belt is known, then select the width of the pulley referring to Tables 1.6(a) and (b).
Table 1.6(0). Pulley width (from data book, page no. 7.54)
Belt width 
Pulleys to be wider than the belt width by 

Upto 125 mm 
_{1}_{3} _{m}_{m} 

125 
to 250 mm 
_{2}_{5}_{m}_{m} 
250 to 375 mm 
_{3}_{8}_{m}_{m} 

375 
to 500 mm 
_{5}_{0}_{m}_{m} 
Table 1.6(b). Recommended series of width of flat pulleys, mm (from data book, page 110. 7.55)
20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224, 250, 280, 315, 355, 400, 450, 500, 560 and 630.
(iii) Thickness of the pulley rim (t): For C.l. pulleys,
D 

t 
= + 3 mm, for single belt 200 
D 
= 200 + 6 mm,
for double belt
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}
D = Diameter of the pulley in 'mm'.
2. Dimensions of arms:
(i) Number of arms (n) :
[From data book, page no. 7.57]
Number of arms { 
4 
for diameters upto 450 mm 

6 
for diameters over 450 mm 
[From data book, page no.7.56] 
(ii) Crosssection of arms {b and bI2): The crosssection of the arms is elliptical, with major axis (b) is equal to twice the minor axis (bt2).
Major.axis of elliPtical} b = 2.94 _3 fiQ4Dn for single belt, and
secnon near the boss
\j ~
~ 2.941"¥f
for double belt .
[From data book, page no. 7.56]
Minor axis of elliptical section near the boss = ~
Flat Belts and Pulleys
_{1}_{.}_{1}_{5}
(iii) Arms taper: The arms are tapered from hub to rim.
Taper = 4 mm per 100 mm
(iv)
3
Radius of the crosssection of arms: r = 4' b
[From data book, page no.7.56]
3. Dimensions of hub:
(i) Diameter of the hub (d 1) :
Diameter of the hub (d _{1} )
=
(1.7 to 2.0) x Diameter of the shaft (d _{2} )
or
(ii) Length of the hub (/) :
d, = (1.7 to 2.0) d _{2}
Minimum length of bore (i.e., length of the hub), I = ~ a
where a = Width of pulley.
[From data book, page no. 7.56]
4. Crowning of pulley rim: The face of the pulley rim is crowned, as shown in Fig.l.13, to keep the belt on the pulley. Otherwise the inaccurate alignment of the pulleys causes the belt to run off side ways. Thus the crown will force the belt to return to the centre of pulley.
Selection of crown height (II) : Knowing diameter (0) and width (a) of the pulley, select the crown height (h) referring to Tables 1.7(a) and (b).
Table 1.7(a). Crow" of flat pulleys (40 to 355 mm diameter) (from
data book, page no. 7.55)
(crow" is unrelated to the width ill this diameter range)
Diameter D, mm
Crown h, mm
40 to 112 
0.3 

125 
and 140 
0.4 
160 
and 180 
0.5 
200 
and 224 
0.6 
250 
and 280 
0.8 
315 
and 355 
1 
Table 1.7(b). Crow" offlat pulleys (40 to 2000 mm diameter) (from data book, page no. 7.55)
(crown varies with tire width in this diameter range)
_{D}_{i}_{a}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}
_{D}_{,}_{m}_{m}
_{1}_{2}_{5} _{a}_{n}_{d} 
_{1}_{4}_{0} _{a}_{n}_{d} 
smaller 
160 
Crown" (in mm) of pulleys of width (in mm)
224 and
250
180 and
200
280 and
315
400 
_{1} 
450 
_{I} 
500 
1 
630 
_{1} 
800 
1 
1000 
_{1} 
1250 
1.2 
2000 
2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
_{1}_{.}_{2} 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
2 
2 
_{2} 
1.5 
2 
2.5 
_{2}_{.}_{5} 
_{1}_{.}_{5} 
_{2} 
_{2}_{.}_{5} 
_{3} 
1.5 
2 
_{2}_{.}_{5} 
_{3} 
2.5 
3 
3.5 
4 
Scanned by CamScanner
_{3}_{5}_{5}
_{4}_{0}_{0} _{a}_{n}_{d}
larger
_{1}_{.}_{2} 
1.2 
_{1}_{.}_{2} 
1.2 
1.5 
1.5 
2 
2 
2.5 
2.5 
_{3} 
3 
3.5 
^{4} 
5 
^{6} 
"'" I
_{1}_{.}_{1}_{6}
Design of Transmission Systems
I Example 1.1 I Design a cast iron pulley to transmit 20 kW at 300 r.p.m: The diameter
of the pulley is 500 mm and the angle of lap is 180 ~ The pulley has four arms of elliptical crosssection with major axis twice the minor axis. The coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley surface is 0.3. The allowable belt tension is not to exceed 250 N in 10 mm width. The allowable shear stress for the shaft material may be taken as 50 Nlmml.
Given Data:
P = 20 kW = 20 x 10 ^{3} W;
a = 180 ^{0} = 1t rad;
as = 50 N/mm 2 .
n
= 4' ,
J.1 = 0.3;
N = 300 r.p.m.;
TI = 2.5 N in 10 mm width of the belt;
D = 500 mm = 0.5 m ;
To flnd : Design a cast iron pulley.
© Solution: Velocity
of the pulley or belt, v =
7t·D·N
60
=
7t x 0.5 x 300
60
= 7.854 m/s
1. Dimensions of pulley :
(i) Diameter 0/ the pulley (D) is given as 500 mm. Now
recommended
diameter
of the pulley is also 500 mm. Ans. "
referring
Table
1.5, the
(ii) Width of the pulley (a) : In order to find the width of the pulley
of the belt first.
let us find the width
Let TI and T2 = Tensions
on the tight and slack side
of the belt respectively.
We know that the power transmitted
P = (TI  T _{2} ) v
20 x 10 ^{3} = (T,  T _{2} ) 7.854
or
T,  T_ = 2546.47
and ratio of tensions,
TI
T2
,
T2
=
=
e~Q
e O . 3 )( 1t
or
T, = 2.566
T2
_{(}_{i}_{)}
(ii)
From equations
(i) and (ii), we get
TI
= 4171.68 N
and
T2 = 1625.75 N
INou I Since the velocity of the belt (or pulley) is less .han )0 mIs, therefore the centrifugal
tension need not to be considered.
_{L}_{e}_{t}
b = Width of belt
Since the allowable
tension (i.e., maximum
tension)
width, therefore width of the belt
is 250 N in 10 mm width or 25 N/mm
b =
T,

25
4171.68
=
25
= 166.86mm
flot Belts and
Pulleys
1.17
Referring to Table t.t3, the standard width of 4 ply belt is 200 mm.
l1lerefore width of the pulley (a), referring the Table 1.6(a), is given by
= Belt width + 25
mm = 200 + 25 = 225 mm
Then, referring to Table 1.6(b), the standard pulley width is 250 mm. Ans."
(iii) Thickness of the pulley rim (t) :
For single belt,
D
t = 200 + 3 mm
500
_{[}_{F}_{r}_{o}_{m}
= 200 + 3 = 5.5 mm Ans."
2.Dimensions of arms:
data book, page no. 7.57]
(i) 
Number of arms, n = 4 
_{[}_{G}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n}_{]} 
(ii) 
Crosssection of arms: Major axis of elliptical section near the boss is given by 
b 
~ 2.94 Wn for single belt [From 
data book, page no. 7.56] 

where 
a 
= 
Width of the pulley = 250 mm, 

D 
= 
Diameter of the pulley = 500 mm, and 

n 
= 
Numberofarms = 4 

3 
250 x 500 

:. Major axis 
 
2.94 
4 x 4 
= 58.34 mm say 60 mm Ans." 
and Minor axis =
Major axis
 2
60
= 2 =
30
mm
A
ns. ~
(iii) Radius of the crosssections of arms = 4 x ajor axis
.
3
M'
3
= 4 x 60 = 45 mm Ans. ~
3. Dimensions of the hub:
(i) Diameter of the /tub : In order to find the diameter of the hub, let us find the diameter of the shaft first.
Let
d = Diameter of the shaft
We know that the torque transmitted by the shaft,
T
p
x 60
= 2 1t N
=
20 x 10 3 x 60
2 1t x 300
= 636.62 Nm = 636620 Nmm
We also know that the torque transmitted by the shaft (T),
T = ~
16
x o x d 3 s
,u r
"
,
1.18
Design of Transmission Systems
636620 = r6 x 50 x d 3 or d = 40.17 mm say 45 mm
Therefore,
Diameter of the hub = 2 x Diameter of the shaft
= 2 x 45 = 90 mm
ADs.'"
(ii) Length of the hub =
2
2
3" x Width of the pulley (a) = 3" x 250
= 166.67 mm
ADs.'"
4. Crown height of tire pulley (lr) : For 500 mm
pulley diameter and 250 mm pulley
ADs. y
width, from Table 1.7(b), the crown height is selected as h = 1.5 mm
.
I Example 1.2 I Design' an overhanging pulley'for the following specifications,' Power
= 18 kW; Speed = 200 r.p.m.; Angle of contact = 165"; Coefficient of friction = 0.25; Overhanging length (i.e., the distance of the pulley centre line from tire nearest bearing) = 0.30 m; Belt thickness = 10 mm; Safe sirear stress for shafts = 40 MPa; Safe stress for belt = 2.5 MPa; Safe stress for rim = 4 MPa; Density of the leather = 1000 kg/m'.
Given Data: P = 18 kW = 18 x 10 3 W;
rt
N = 200 r.p.m.; a = 165 ^{0} = 165 x 180
= 2.88 rad;
~ = 0.25;
L = OJ 111; 1 = 10 rnrn; (0) h n = 40 MPa = 40 x 10 6 N/m 2
= 40 N/mm ^{2} ; 0belt = 2.5 MPa = 2.5 x 10 ^{6} N/m ^{2} ; 2.5 N/mm : (Jllm = 4 MPa = 4 x 10 6 Nzmrn';
Pleather = 1000 kg/m ',
Tofind: Design an overhanging pulley.
©Solution:
I. Dimensions of pulley: (i) Diameter of the pulley (D) :
Let D = Diameter of the pulley.
0c = Centrifugal stress or tensile stress in the pulley rim' = 0·
rim'
and
p = Density of the pulley material = 7200 kg/rn ' for cast iron.
We know that centrifugal stress,
_{0}_{c} _{=} _{p} _{v}_{2}
4 x 10 ^{6}
= 7200 x v2 or v = 23.57 m/s
Velocity of the pulley is also given by
_{v} _{=} ^{7}^{t}^{D}^{N}
60
_{2}_{3}_{.}_{5}_{7} = 7txDx200
60
or D = 2.25 m ADS. ~
(i;) Width of tirepulley (a): In order to find the width of the pulley, let us find the width of the belt first.
Let
T, and T2 = Tensions on the tight and slack sides of the belt re pectively,
b
;; Width of the belt.
and
FJal Bells and
Pulleys
_{1}_{.}_{1}_{9}
We know that the power transmitted (P),
P = (T,  T _{2} ) v
18 x 10 3 = (T,  T _{2} ) 23.57
or T,  T2 = 763.68
and tension ratio of the belt,
T,
T =
2
ella
\
= eO. 25 x 2.88 = 2.054 or T, = 2.054 T 2
From equations (i) and (ii), we get
T) =
1487.62 Nand
T2 = 725.25 N
(i)
(ii)
Since the velocity of the belt (or pulley) is more than 10 mis, therefore centrifugal tension
must be taken into consideration.
1000kg/m'.
Assuming a leather belt for which the density is given as
We know that centrifugal tension,
Tc = In' v 2
where
We know that
But Area of crosssection of the belt
m =
Mass of the belt per metre length
In = Density x Volume = Density x Area x Length
=
b x t = b x 10 =
10 b mm = 10 b x 106 m 2
In
=
1000 x (10 b x 106) x 1 = 0.01 b kg/m
Then centrifugal tension, Tc = m v 2
and maximum tension in the belt,
= 0.01 b (23.57)2 = 5.55 b N
T = abe)t x Area of crosssection
of belt = abe)t x (b x t)
= 2.5 x 10 6
We know that tension on the tight side of the belt (T),
x (lOb x 1O{) = 2 5 b N
T)
= T  Tc
or
1487.62 = 256  5.55 b = 19.45 b
Width of the belt, b = 76.48 mm
Referring to Ta.ble 1. 13, the standard width of the belt = 90 mm
Therefore, width of the pulley (a), referring the Table 1.6(a), is given by
= Belt width + 13 mm = 90 + 13 = 103 mm
Then, referring to Table 1.6(b), the standard pulley width is 112 mm. ADS."
(iii) Thickness of tile pulley rim (t) :
For single belt,
t = 
2~0 + 3 mm 

2250 

= 
200 
+ 3 = 14.25 mm 
[From data book, page no. 7.57]
Design a/Transmission Systems
1.20
2. Dimensions 0/ arms :
(i) Number of arms (n) :
_{N}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{a}_{r}_{m}_{s}_{,} _{n} _{=} 6 (for diameters over 450 rnm) [From data book, page no.
7 56]
.
(ii) Crosssection of arms:
.
.
Major axis of elliptical section near the boss IS given by
b
= 2.94 Wn for single belt
where
a = Width of the pulley =
I 12 mm,
D = Diameter of the pulley = 2250 mm, ^{a}^{n}^{d}
n =
Number of arms = 6
Major axis = 2.94
^{3} ^{1}^{1}^{2} ^{x} ^{2}^{2}^{5}^{0}
4x6
= 64.38 mm say 65 mm Ans
_{a}_{n}_{d}
Minor axis =
Major axis
2
_{(}_{i}_{i}_{i}_{)} Radius of crosssections of arms =
=
65
 = 32.5 mm
2
ADS. ~
3
Major axis
4
3 '4 x 65 = 48.75 mm

x
ADS. ~
3. Dimensions of tile II ub :
,
(i) Diameter of the hub : In order to find the diameter of the hub, let us find the diameter
of the shaft first.
_{L}_{e}_{t}
We know that the torque transmitted by the shaft,
d = Diameter of the shaft
p 
x 60 
18 x 10 3 x 60 

T 
= 
2 
1t N 
= 
21t X 200 
= 859.44 Nm 
and bending moment on the shaft due to the tensions of the belt _{,}
M
= (T) + T2 + 2 Tc)
L = (1487.62 + 724.25 + 2 x 5.5 x 90) 0.3
= 960.56 Nm We know that equivalent twisting moment (T _{e} ),
'" (.,' Tc = 5.55 b N)
T, = ~ T2 + M2
= ~ (859.44)2 + (960.56)2
1288.92 Nm = 1288.92 x 10 3 Nmm We also know that equivalent twisting moment (T
=
),
e
or
1288.92 x 10 ^{3} ==
1 ^{7}^{t} 6 x as x d3  ~ 16 x 40 x d 3
Diameter of the shaft.
. d = 54 . 75
mm
say 55 mm,
Flat Belts and Pulleys
1.21
Diameter of the hub = 2 x Diameter of the shaft
(ii) Length of the hub
2
=
2 x 5S = 110 mm ADS •
= 3 x Width of the pulley (a)
= 3" 2 x 112 = 74.66 mm
ADS •
,
,
4. Crown height of tire pulley (II) : For 2250 mm pulley diameter and 112 mm pulley width, from Table 1.7(b), the crown height is selected as h = 2 mm ADS •
,
DESIGN OF FLAT BELT DRIVE
The two different design procedures used are:
(i) Using the manufacturer's data, and
(ii) Using the basic equations.
1.18. DESIGN OF FLAT BELT DRIVE BASED ON MANUFACTURER'S DATA
In actual practice, the designer has to select a belt from the manufacturer's catalogue (which were obtained by their long experience). The required information for the selection /
design of a flat belt are:
(i) 
Power to be transmitted, 
(ii) 
The input and the output speeds, and 
(iii) 
The centre distance depending upon the availability of space. 
The step by step procedure is as follows:
1. Selection of pulley diameters:
Select the pulley diameters and angle of contact (i.e., wrap angie). By using the given belt speed and assuming number of plies, minimum pulley diameter is chosen. Use Table 1.8 to choose the diameter of the smaller pulley
Table 1.8. Minimum pulley diameter for the given speed and the number of belting plies, mm
==
No. of plies
3
4
5
6
8
(from data book, page 110. 7.52)
10
90
140
200
250
450
Maximum belt speed mls
IS
100
_{1}_{6}_{0}
224
315
500
20
_{1}_{1}_{2}
_{1}_{8}_{0}
250
355
560
_{2}_{5}
_{1}_{4}_{0}
_{2}_{0}_{0}
315
400
630
30
180
250
355
^{4}^{5}^{0}
^{7}^{1}^{0}
J ~I.~n
Design a/Transmission Systems
~~~~==~~
2. Calculation 0/ design power in kW:
Calculate the design kW by using the relationship given below. Rated kW x Load correction factor (Kj)
_{,} _{(}_{1}_{.}_{1}_{8}_{)}
Design kW = Arc of contact factor (Ka) x Small pulley factor (K _{d} )
(i) Load correction/actor (KJ : This factor is used to account for the nature of application
and type ofload. The value of Kscan be selected from Table 1.9.
Table 1.9. Load correction/actor, Ks (from data book, page no. 7.53)
Ks
Nonnalload Stead loadscreens, centrifugal pumps, agitators, belt conveyors,
light machine tools, etc. Intermittent loads  Reciprocating pumps and compressors, heavy 1.3 machine tools, heavy duty fans and blowers, etc. Shock loads  Crushing machinery, hammers, presses, grinders, 1.5 rolling mills, etc.
1.2
1.0
Load classification
(ii) Arc 0/ contact factor (KaJ': The load rating (i.e., rated power capacity) is given for
180 ^{0} of contact. So, it has to be corrected for actual arc of contact. A decrease in arc of
contact implies additional load.
.
.
Arc of contact = 180 ^{0} _ (D ~ d) x 600
[From data book, page no. 7.54]
where
D and d
= Diameters of larger and smaller puIJeys, and
C = Centre distance.
For the calculated value of arc of contact, the arc of contact factor (K(l) is selected from
the Table 1.10.
Table 1.10. Arc 0/ contact factor, Ka (from data book, page 110. 7.54)
Arc ^{o}^{f}
contact
90 ^{0}
^{C}^{o}^{r}^{r}^{e}^{c}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} 1.68
factor
120 ^{0}
1.33
_{1}_{3}_{0} ^{0}
1.26
140 ^{0}
1.19
_{1}_{5}_{0} ^{0}
1.13
_{1}_{6}_{0} 0
1.08
_{1}_{7}_{0} 0
_{1}_{.}_{0}_{4}
_{1}_{8}_{0} 0
_{1}_{.}_{0}_{0}
_{1}_{9}_{0} 0
_{0}_{.}_{9}_{7}
_{2}_{0}_{0} 0
_{0}_{.}_{9}_{4}
_{2}_{1}_{0} 0
_{0}_{.}_{9}_{1}
_{2}_{2}_{0} 0
_{0}_{.}_{8}_{8}
_{2}_{3}_{0} _{0} 
_{2}_{4}_{0} _{0} 
_{2}_{5}_{0} _{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{8}_{6} 
_{0}_{.}_{8}_{4} 
_{0}_{.}_{8}_{2} 
(iii) Small pulley factor (K~ : This factor is used to account for the amount of bending or
flexing of the belt and how this affects the life of the belt. Use Table 1.11 for small pulley factor.
Table 1.11. Small pulley factor, Kd (from data hook, page no. 7.62)
Small pulley diameter
Upto 100 mm
100200 mm
200300 mm
300400 mm
400750 mm
Over 750 mm
_{K}_{"}
_{0}_{.}_{5}
_{0}_{.}_{6}
_{0}_{.}_{7}
_{0}_{.}_{8}
_{0}_{.}_{9}
_{1}_{.}_{0}
Flat Belts and Pulleys
1.23
3. Selection of a belting :
Select a belt referring to Table 1.12.
Table 1.12. Load
rating of fabric belts per mm width per ply at 180 ^{0} are of contact at lQ m/s belt speed (from data book, page no. 7.54)
_{T}_{y}_{p}_{e}
Load rating
HISPEED duck belting (light duty) 
0.023 kW/mmlply 
FORT duck belting (heavy duty) 
0.0289 kW/llImlply 
4. Load rating correction :
Correct the load rating to the actual speed of the belt by using the relation given below
V
Load rating at V m/s = Load rating at 10 m/s x TO
5. Determination of belt width:
[From data book, page no. 7.54]
Determine the belt width by using the following relation:
Width of belt =
Design power
Load ratmg x No.
.
of plies
.
". (1.19)
Knowing the smaller pulley diameter and velocity of the belt, and consulting Table 1.8,
the number of plies can be found.
The calculated belt width should be rounded off to the standard belt width by consulting
Table 1.13.
Table 1.13. Standard widths of transmisslon belting (from data book, page IlO. 7.52)
I
3

3 ply
mm
_{2}_{5}
_{3}_{2}
_{4}_{0}
_{4}_{4}
_{5}_{0}
_{6}_{3}
_{7}_{6}
_{9}_{0}
_{1}_{0}_{0}
4 ply
5 ply
mm 
mm 
_{2}_{5} 
_{7}_{6} 
_{3}_{2} 
_{9}_{0} 
_{4}_{0} 
100 
_{4}_{4} 
112 
_{5}_{0} 
125 
_{6}_{3} 
152 
_{7}_{6} 
180 
_{9}_{0} 
200 
_{1}_{0}_{0} 
22l 
112 
250 
125 

140 

152 

200 
6. Determilltltioll of pulley width:
Detcrlllll1e (he pulle
\ idih, b) referring rh Table
^{6} ^{p}^{l}^{y} 
^{R} ^{p}^{l}^{y} 
mm 
^{m}^{m} 
100 
200 
112 
250 
125 
305 
152 
355 
180 
400 
200 

250 
1.6(a) and (b).
·
:' \
.:/
1.24
7. Calculation of belt length (L) :
Design a/Transmission Systems
Calculate the length of the belt by using the equation given below.
For open belt drive:
For crossed belt drive:
L 
= 2 
C 
+ 
( 
L 
= 2 
C + 
( 
7t)
2
(0 + d)
+
7t)
"2 (0 + d) +
(0  dY:
4 C
(0 + d)2
4 C
[From data book, page no. 7.53]
I Example 1.3 lIt is required to select aflatbelt drive/or a/an running at 360 r.p.m:
which is driven by a 10 kW, 1440 r.p.m: motor. Tile belt drive is opentype and space available for a centre distance 0/ 2 m approximately. The diameter 0/ a driven pulley is
1000mm.
Given Data: N) = 1440 r.p.m.; N2 = 360 r.p.m;
C = 2 m ; D = 1000 mm.
P = 10 kW = 10 x 10 ^{3} W ;
Tofind : Select (or design) a open flat belt drive.
© Solution: The given arrangement is shown in Fig.l.14.
1. Calculation of pulley diameters:
Driven pulley diameter, D = 1000 mm
D
d
1440
We know that
velocity ratio =
N)
_ Driver pulley speed
 Driven pulley speed  N2 = 360
o
= 4
d
Driver pulley diameter, d = 4
1000
= 4 = 250mm
Fig. 1.14.
360 r.p.m.
;
o
Fan
Consulting Table 1.5, the recommended driver pulley diameter = 250 mm Ans. ~
) a
2. Calculation of design power in k W :
_{D}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} _{k}_{W} _{=}
Rated kW x Load correction factor
(Ks)
Arc of contact factor
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