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ANNA UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS

Semester - VI Mechanical

DESIGN .OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS

.1'

~

1. DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS FOR FLEXIBLE ELEMENTS

9 hrs.

Selection of V belts and pulleys - Selection of Flat belts and pulleys - Wire ropes and pulleys - Selection of Transmission chains and Sprockets. Design of pulleys and sprockets.

2. SPUR GEARS AND PARAllel AXIS HELICAL

Gear Terminology - Speed ratios and number of

Dynamic effects

- Power rating calculations based on strength gears - Pressure angle in the normal and stresses - Estimating the si

:

Fatigue

strength - Factor of safety -

GEARS

is -

9 hrs.

Tooth stresses - and Face width axis Helical

3. BEVEL, WORM

bevel gear: Too the d~ions

9 hrs.

ermino

forces and stresses, equivalent number of teeth.

air of st lght bevel gears.

'ts and dem rits, terminology, thermal capacity, materials, forces and stresses, the size of the worm gear pair.

.

~

lical: Terminology, helix angles, estimati~g the size of the pair of cross helical gears."

4. DES'IGN OF

GEAR BOXES

,

"

9 hrs,

Geometric progression - Standard step ratio - Ray diagram, kinematics layout - Design of sliding mesh gear box - Constant mesh gear box - Design of multi speed gear box.

5. DESIGN OF CAM,

CLUTCHES AND BRAKES

9 hrs.

Cam design: Types, pressure angle and under cuning - Base circle determination, forces and surface stresses.

Design of plate clutches - Axial clutches - Cone clutches - Internal expanding rim c1l1tches- .Internal and external shoe brakes.

TUTORIALS

30 hrs.

TOTAL: 75 hrs.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 : FLAT BELTS AND PULLEYS

1.1 -1.43

Introduction - Classification of drives - Types' of belts - Characteristics of belt drives _

drive - Typ~s of flat belt drives - Belt materials - Velocity ratio of

belt drive - Effect of belt thickness on velocity ratio - Effect of slip on velocity ratio _

Phenomenon of creep - Effect of creep - Law of belting - Geometrical relationships _

Power transmitted by a belt - Tensions in a belt drive - Ratio of tensions for flat belt

drive - Losses in transmission and efficiency - Stresses in the belt - Design of flat belt

Selection of a belt

pulleys - Design of flat belt drive based on manufacturer's

data - Design of flat belt

drives using basic equations - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

CHAPTER 2: V-BEL TS AND PULLEYS

2.1 - 2.24

Introduction - Construction

disadvantages of V -belt drive over flat belt drive - Types of V -belts - Specification of

V-belts - Ratio of driving tensions for V-belt - V-flat drives - Design of sheaves

(or V -grooved pulleys) - Design of V -belt drive based on manufacturer's data - Design

of V-belts - Materials of V-belts - Advantages

and

of V -belt drive using basic equations - Review and summary - Review questions -

Problems for practice.

CHAPTER 3: WIRE ROPES AND PULLEYS

3.1 - 3.20

Introduction - Advantages of wire ropes - Construction of wire ropes - Classification of

wire ropes - Specification of wire ropes - Guidelines for the selection of wire rope -

Stresses in wire ropes - Design of wire ropes - Failure of ropes - Design of wire rope

sheaves and drums - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

CHAPTER 4: CHAIN DRIVES

4.1 - 4.31

Introduction - Advantages and disadvantages of chain drives - Types of chain drives -

Link chains - Dimensions of a link chain - Classification of link chains - Construction

of link chains - Selection of link chains - Advantages and disadvantages of link chains -

Transmission (or roller) chains - Construction of roller chains - Specification of a chain

- Geometric relationship of a roller chain and sprocket - Chordal (or polygonal) action -

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Design procedure of roller chain - Design of sprocket wheels - Types of sprockets -

Silent (or inverted tooth) chain - Construction - Types of silent chains - Advantages and

disadvantages of silent chains - Dimensions of the various parts of the chain - Review

and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

CHAPTER 5: SPUR GEARS

5.1 - 5.88

Introduction - Advantages and limitations

Definition of gear - Classification of gears - Spur gears - Gear nomenclature - Law of

gearing - Forms of gear tooth profile - Standard systems of gear tooth - Standard

proportions

- Gear tooth failure - Force analysis on spur gears - Tooth stresses

manufacturing

(Lewis beam strength equation) - Gear blank design - Gear design using Lewis and

of gear drive over chain and belt drives -

of gear systems - Gear materials - Selection of gear material - Gear

Buckingham's equations - Beam strength of gear tooth - Dynamic effects - Tangential

load on tooth - Dynamic tooth load (Buckingham's

Estimating gear size - Standard module - Fatigue strength of gear tooth (wear tooth

of teeth - Face width - Factor of safety - Design procedure - Gear

design based on gear life - Dynamic load - Induced bending stress - Design bending

stress - Design contact stress - Surface compressive stress - Design procedure - Check.

for plastic deformation - Gear design for variable loading - Design of gears with

reliability factor - Design of internal gears - Design of non-metallic gears - Review and

summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

equation for dynamic

load) -

load) - Number

CHAPTER 6 : HELICAL GEARS

6.1 - 6.65

Introduction - Advantages - Disadvantages - Types of helical gears - Kinematics and

nomenclature

helical gears - Tooth proportions for helical gears - Basic dimensions of helical and

herringbone gears - Force analysis on helical gears - Design of helical gears - Helical

gear design using Lewis and Buckingham's equations - Lewis equation for beam

strength of helical gears - Dynamic load on helical gear tooth - Wear strength of helical

gears - Design procedure - Helical gear design based on gear life - Design formulas for

helical gear design - Design procedure - Herringbone gears - Design of herringbone

gears - Crossed helical or spiral gears - Advantages and limitations of spiral gears -

Shaft angle - Centre distance - Velocity of sliding between gears - Efficiency - Force

analysis on crossed-helical gears - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

of helical gears - Virtual or formative number of teeth - Face width of

CHAPTER 7: BEVEL GEARS

7.1 -7.47

Introduction - Types of bevel gears - Bevel gear nomenclature - Virtual or formative number of teeth - Proportions for bevel gears - Basic dimensions of bevel gears - Force analysis on bevel gears - Design of bevel gears - Bevel gear design using Lewis and Buckingham's equations - Beam strength of bevel gears - Dynamic load on bevel gear tooth - Wear strength of bevel gears - Design procedure - Bevel gear design based on gear life - Design formulas for bevel gear design - Design procedure - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

CHAPTER 8: WORM GEARS

8.1- 8.38

Introduction - Applications - Advantages and disadvantages - Types of worm gear drives - Specification of a pair of worm gears - Nomenclature of worm gears - Tooth proportions of worm gears - Basic dimensions of worm gears - Force analysis on worm gearing - Efficiency' of worm gearing - Power lost in friction - Self-locking and overrunning drives - Design of worm gear drive - Materials for worm and worm wheel

\

- Failure of worm gearing - Selection of number of starts in the worm - Length of worm

- Face width of the wheel - Thermal rating of worm gearing - Worm and worm gear design using Lewis-and Buckingham's equation - Beam strength of worm gear tooth - Dynamic load on wo\m gear tooth - Wear strength of worm gears - Design procedure- Worm gears design ~sing basic equations - Design formulas for worm gears design - Design procedure - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

CHAPTER 9: GEAR BOX

9.1 - 9.41

Introduction - Requirements of a speed gear boxes - Methods of changing speed in gear boxes - Preferred numbers - Step ratio - $tru9tural formula - Kinematic layout - Ray

diagram - Basic rules for optimum gear box -design - Overlapping speed gear box - Design of gear box - Design procedure for gear box - Review and summary - Review

questions - Problems for practice.

CHAPTER 10: CLUTCHES

10.1 -10.50

Introduction - Functions of the clutch - Principle of operation of clutch - Classification of clutches - Friction materials for clutches - Single plate clutch - Design of a single plate clutch - Multiplate clutch - Design of a multiplate clutch - Service factors - Cone clutch - Design of a cone clutch - Centrifugal clutch - Design of a centrifugal clutch -

Internal expanding rim clutches - External contracting rim clutches - Energy dissipation during clutching (Energy considerations) - Temperature rise - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

CHAPTER 11 : BRAKES

11.1 -11.58

Introduction - Clutch Vs Brake - Classification of brakes - Brake lining materials - Block or shoe brake - Single block or shoe brake - Self-locking and self-energizing brakes - Double block or double shoe brake - Design procedure for block brake - Band brake - Simple band brake - Design procedure for band brakes - Differential band brake - Band and block brake - Internal expanding shoe brake - External contracting shoe brake - Energy considerations - Temperature rise - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

TWO MARKS Q&A

SOLVED ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPERS

SUGGESTED READINGS

INDEX

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Q&A.l - Q&A.21

Q.l - Q.55

1.1. INTRODUCTION

Flat Belts and Pulleys

"Live as if you were to die tomorrow; Learn (U if you were to live forever ."

- Mahatma Gandhi

Whenever power has to be transmitted from one shaft to another shaft, flexible machine elements such as belts, ropes or chains are frequently used. Pulleys are mounted on the shaft and a continuous belt or rope is passed over them. In belts and ropes, power is transmitted due to friction between them and the pulleys. In case of chain sprocket wheels are used. When the distance between the shaft is large, then

upon several arc of contact

smaller distances, gears are used. The amount of power factors such as velocity of the belt, tensions i belt,

between the belt and the smaller pUlle.1iilllllt":

1.2. CLASSIFICA

l

Belt

.,

l

Flexible drives

1

Rope

Drives

~

Chain

l

Gear drive

~

Direct drives

~

Cam drive

1.2.1. Types of Belts

Four types of belts used for power transmission are :

I. Flat belts.

These four types of belts are shown in Fig.l.l.

2.

V -belts,

3.

Ribb e d bel

1

ts,

an

d

4. Toothed or timing belts.

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1.2

Flat belt

Design of Transmission Systems

V-belt

Multiple V-belts

Ribbed belts

Toothed or timing belt

Fig. 1.1. Types of belt drives

1.2.2. Characteristics of Belt Drives

The characteristics of different belts are tabulated, as shown in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1. Characteristics 0/ belt drives

,

 

Toothed or

S.No.

Characteristics

Flat belts

V-belts

 

timing belts

l.

Maximum

velocity ratio

16

12

11

2.

Maximum

belt speed

(m/s)

35 to 110

25

80

I

3.

Slip

1 to 5%

1 to 5%

Nil

4. Tension

 

High

Less

Very less

5. Shock resistance

 

Good

Good

Fair

6. Resistance to wear

Good

Fair

Good

7.

Dressing

Required

Not required

Not required

8.

Initial cost

Less

Less

Moderate

1.2.3. Selection of a Belt Drive

Selection of a belt drive depends upon :

I

./

./

Power to be transmitted

./

Speed reduction ratio

Speed of driver and driven shafts

./

Centre distance

./ Shaft relationship

./

Positive drive requirement

./

Service conditions

./

Space available

Flat Belts and Pulleys

-

1.2.4. Types of Flat Belt Drives

1.3

Depending on the requirement, flat belts can be arranged in different ways. The different

types of arrangement and their applications are tabulated, as shown in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2. Types o/flat belt drives alld tl,eir appiicatiolls

Types of drives

1. Open belt drive:

Sladl side

~

Tight side

--

Fi • 1.2.

2. Open belt drive with one idler pulley:

Fig. 1.3.

3. Open bell drive wuh many idler pulleys:

Fig. 1.4.

Used with

Applications

shafts

arranged

parallel

and

rotating in same direction.

Used with shafts arranged parallel and when

due to

small angle of contact on the smaller pulley. Idler pulleys (also known as Jockey pulleys) are provided to obtain high velocity ratio and when the required belt tension cannot be obtained by other means.

an open belt drive cannot be used

Used when it is desired to transmit motion

from one shaft to several parallel shafts.

1,4

Types of drives

4. Crossed or twisted belt drive:

s.

FI . 1.5.

FI • 1.6.

6. Quart~r twist bett drive will, guide

pul/~y :

t

FI • 1.7.

7. St~PfNdor cone pulley driv«:

n« t.s.

;

,

Design a/Transmission Systems

Applications

Used with shafts arranged parallel

rotating in the opposit~ direction.

and

Used with shafts arranged at right angles and

rotating in one definite direction.

Used with shafts arranged

when the reversible motion is desired.

at right angles

Used for changing the speed of the driven shaft while the main or driving shaft runs at constant speed.

[Iat Belts and Pulleys

I.S

----------~--------------I

Types of drives

Applications

8. Fast and loose pulley:

Used when the driven shaft is to be started or stopped whenever desired without interfering

with the driving shaft.

Fi • 1.9.

9. Compound drive:

Fi . 1.10.

1.3. BELT MATERIALS

Used when several units are to be driven

from one central shaft.

The desirable properties of a belt material are high coefficient of friction, flexibility, durability and strength. The main materials used for flat belts are:

1. Leather belts: Leather belts are made of animal hides. The best quality leather is obtained from either sides of the backbone of a steer (bullock). Leathers for belting may be tanned with oak, or chrome salts. Oak-tanned leather is fairly stiff, whereas chrome-tanned leather is soft and pliable.

Belts are specified according to the number of layers. e.g., single-ply, double-ply or triple- ply belts. Double-ply (or triple-ply) belts are made by cementing two strips (or three strips) of leathertogether with hair sides out.

2. Fabric and cotton bells:~ These belts are made by stitching together three or more plies

(or layers) of canvas or cotton duck. The fabric is treated with linseed oil to make it water-

proof.These belts are cheap. They are most suitable for farm work, quarry and saw mills.

J. Rubber belts: These belts are made up of plies of fabric impregnated with vulcanised rubber or synthetic rubber. The main advantage of these belts is that they can be easily made endless. Saw mills, creameries, chemical plants and paper mills largely use the rubber belts.

J.6

Design of Transmission Systems

4. Bnlaln ~/ts: Balata is gum similar to rubber. Balata belts are made in the same manner

as the rubber belts except that balata is substituted for rubber. These belts are acid proof and water-proof. The balata belts cannot be used at temperature above 40°C because at this

temperature

it begins to soften and becomes sticky.

5. Nylon core belts

6. Camel's hair belts.

The commonly used belt materials for various belt types are given in Table 1.3.

Tuble /.3. Commonly used bell materials .

Belt types

Belt materials

Flat belts

Leather canvas, cotton and rubber

V-belts

Rubberised fabric and rubber

Ropes

Cotton, hemp and manila

1.4. VELOCITY RATIO OF BELT DRIVE

The ratio between the speeds of the driver and the follower or driven is known as velocity ratio.

/

Let

D and d

= Diameters of the driver and driven respectively,

N) and N2 = Speeds of the driver and driven respectively, and

(01 and (02 = Angular velocities of the driver and driven respectively.

N2

Velocity ratio, -N

)

=

(02

(0)

D

= d

(1.1)

1.4.1. Effect of Belt Thickness on Velocity Ratio

When the thickness of belt (I) is considered, then velocity ratio is given by

N2

N)

=

1.4.2. Effect of Slip on Velocity Ratio

D+I

d+1

(1.2)

S~ip is defined as the relative motion between the belt and pulley. The difference between ~he linear sp~ds of the pulley rim and belt is the measure of slip. The reason for slip to occur

IS that the.re IS a ten~e~cy for ~he belt to carry with it on the underside, between the pulley and the belt. I.e., the frictional gnp between belt 'and pulley is, insufficient. The presence of slip red~ces the velocity ratio of the drive.

B

h'

h

. y roug ernng t e belt by dressing or by crowning. avoided.

.

one of the pulleys

'

the slip can be

Flal Bells and Pulleys

Let

S, = Percentage

S2 = Percentage slip between the belt and the driven pulley,

slip between the driver and the belt,

1.7

and

S = Total percentage slip = S, + S2

N

2

:. Velocity ratio, 1'1

.

.

I

D [

= d

_ S, + S2 ]

1

100

If thickness of the belt (I) is considered, then

Velocity ratio, ~

=

~:;

[

I

-

J%o ]

1.5. PHENOMENON OF CREEP IN BELTS

, (1.3)

(1.4)

When the belt passes from the slack side to the tight side, a certain portion of the belt extends. And it contracts again when the belt passes from the tight side to slack side. Due to these changes of length, there is relative motion between the belt and the pulley surfaces. This relative motion is termed as creep.

The net effect of creep is to reduce the speed of the driven pulley and consequently power transmitted.

the

1.5.1.

Effect of Creep of Belt

Let

crt and cr2 =

Stresses in the belt on the tight side and slack side respectively,

and

E = Young's modulus of the belt material.

VI'

e ocity ratio,

.

N

N =

2

,

o x E+Y-C;:

d

E+~

(1.5)

INote lin practice the combined effect of slip and creep is called simply slip and the combined effect should not exceed three percent.

1.6. LAW OF BELTING

Law of belting states that the centre line of the belt, as it approaches the pulley, must lie in

a plan~ perpendicular

otherWise the belt will run off the pulley.

to the axis of that pulley or must lie in the plane of the pulley,

1.7. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONSHIPS

For open belt drive: An open belt drive is shown in Fig.I.1 I.

Let

D and d = D' iarneters of the larger and smaller pulleys respectively

C

= Centre distance between the two pulleys in metres,

L = Total length of the belt in metres ,

in metres,

l

1.8

2a =

as =

a L =

Design a/Transmission Systems

The angle subtended between the straight portions of the belt in degrees, Wrap angle (or angle of contact / lap) for small pulley in degrees, and

Wrap angle for large pulley in degrees.

. -1

Sin

0 - d

-

I 2C

,~

I

,

I

--\----C-----

Fig. 1.11. Open belt drive

As seen from the Fig.I.II,

sma

O-d

= --

2C

also

and

as = (180-2a)

and

a L

Wrap angle for small

pulley,

Wrap angle for large

pulley,

= (180+2a)

as = 180 - 2

sirr '

(

O-d')

2C

a L

= 180 + 2 sirr

'

(

O-d)

2 C

Length of the belt, * L = 2 C + (¥) (0 + d) + (04-C d )2

(1.6)

(1.7)

For crossed belt drive: A crossed belt drive is shown in Fig.l.12, the usual meanings.

. -1 D + d

Sin

--

2 C

I

, --,

I

,

with notations having

1------ C ----

Fig. 1.12. Crossed hell drive

1

• For derivations of the formulas used in this chapter, the readers are suggested to refer any 'KinematicS of Machines' book.

Flat Belts and Pulleys

As seen from the Fig.I.12,

Sill U

=

(0 2 +c d )

and

Therefore, wrap angles for smaller and larger pulleys are same and is given by

Us = u L = (180 + 2 n)

Us = u L = 180 + 2 sirr ' (~ ~d )

Length of the belt, L = 2 C +

(

1t)

2

(D + d) +

(0 + d)2

4 C

1.S. POWER TRANSMITTED BY A BELT

Let

T J and T2 = Tensions in the tight and slack sides respectively in newtons, and

P =

Power transmitted by a belt in watts,

v = Linear velocity of the

I Power transmitted,

belt in m/s.

P =

(T J -

T 2 ) v I

1.9. TENSIONS IN A BELT DRIVE

1.9

(1.8)

(1.9)

(1.10)

1. Tight and slack side tensions (T] and T~ : When a belt is moving round a pulley and

transmitting power, the tension in belt on two sides of pulley will be different. The side of belt in which tension is higher is the tight side and the other is called slack side.

a

centrifugal force which has a tendency to separate the belt from the pulley surface. To maintain contact between pulley and belt, the centrifugal force produce additional tension in the belt, which is known as the centrifugal tension,

Centrifugal tension is a waste load, because it increases tension without increasing pow.r capacity.

2. Centrifugal tension (T c) : As the belt moves round the pulley it would experience

Let

m =

Mass per unit length of the belt in kg/m, and

v = Linear velocity of the belt in m/s.

.

.

I Centrifugal tension,

Tc = mv 2 I

(1.1 I)

3. Initial tension in belt (To) : The tension of the belt when a belt is fitted to a stationary pulleys, is termed as the initial tension of tile belt (To).

pair of

:.

Initial tension, To =

T J +T2

2

[Neglecting centrifugal tension]

(1.12)

T J +T 2 +2T

=

2

c [Considering centrifugal tension]

(1.13)

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1.10

Design of Transmission Systems

INotes I I. Maximum tension to which the belt can be subjected due to centrifugal tension,

and

where

T =

T

1+

T

C

T

o

= Maximum stress x Cross-sectional area of belt

= cr· b- t

= Maximum safe stress in N/m2,

(1.14(a))

(1.14(b))

b = Width of belt in metres, and

Thickness of belt in metres.

2. When the centrifugal tension is taken into account, then

Total tension in the tight side, Til = T I + T c

and total tension in the slack side, Ta = T 2 + T c

3. Effect of centrifugal tension 0" power transmitted :

We know that

Power transmitted, P

(Ttl - T/2) V

= [(T I + Tc) - (T 2 + Tc) ] v = (T I - T 2) V

Thus, the centrifugal tension has 110 effect on the power transmitted.

4. For a belt speed of upto 10 mls the centrifugal tension is negligible. But for belt speed more than

10 mis, the centrifugal tension should be considered without

fail.

1.10. RATIO OF DRIVING TENSIONS FOR FLAT BELT DRIVE

Let

and

TI and T2 = Tensions on tight and slack sides of the belt respectively,

a = Angle of wrap (i.e., angle of contact) of belt with the pulley,

and

f.l = Coefficient

of friction between the belt and pulley.

Tension ratio,

11

T2

T I -mv2

T2 -mv2

= ell a

= ella

[Neglecting centrifugal tension]

(1.15)

[ Considering centrifugal tension]

(1.16)

INotes I I. It should be borne in mind that 'a' in the tension ratio equations must be in radians.

2. Condition for the transmission of maximum power: The power transmitted shall be maximum when the centrifugal tension (T c) is one third of the maximum belt tension (T).

and

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T == 3 Tc

maximum velocity. v

- \j~ (J

(1.17(a»

(1.17(b))

Flat Belts and Pulleys

1.11. BELT SPEEDS

Most efficient power transmission (Refer PSG data book, page no.7.53).

is obtained f

or

tl

1.11

at belts at speeds of 17.5 to 22.5 m/s

1.12. SPECIFIC WEIGHTS OF BELT MATERIALS

Leather

= 1 x 10- 5 N/mm3

Rubber = 1.4 x 10- 5 N/mm3

Balata

= 1.11 x 10- 5

N/mm3

Canvas = 1.22 x 10- 5

N/mm 3

1.13. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION

The coefficient of friction between the belt material and tl

. .

ie pv ey sur f ace d epen d s upon

verage

II

an

the belt material, material of the pulley surface the belt speed

.

.

.

.'

d th

e e t Sip.

b I

I'

A

values of coefficients of friction for design purposes are given in Table 1.4.

Table 1.4. Mean coefficient offrlctlon, J.I

Belt material

-

Leather (oak-tanned)

Leather (chrome-tanned)

Cotton or fabric

Rubber

1.14. CENTRE DISTANCE

Compressed

Pulley material

 

Wood

Steel

Cast iron

paper

0.33

0.30

0.25

0.25

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.35

0.25

0.23

0.20

0.20

0.35

0.30

0.30

0.30

(A longer belt will last more tlutn a shorter belt. Why?)

The life of a belt is a function of the centre distance between the driver and driven shafts. The shorter the belt, the more often it will be subjected to additional bending stresses while running around the pulleys at a given speed. And also it will be destroyed quickly due 10 fatigue. Hence, a longer belt will last more than a shorter belt.

1.15. LOSSES IN TRANSMISSION AND EFFICIENCY

The losses in a belt

drive are due to :

(i)

Slip and creep of the belt on the pulleys (about 3%),

(ii)

Windage or air resistance to the movement of belt and pulleys (usually negligible),

(iii)

Bending of the belt over the pulleys (about I%), and

(iv]

Fricti n in the bearings of pulley (about 1%).

I.' 2

1.16. STRESSES IN THE BELT The various stresses acting at various portions of the belt are.

ueSIl;" VJ M· -

.

1. Stress due 10 maximum working tension, TI (a; :

at

Tight side tension = Cross-sectional area of the belt

b =

Width of the belt, and

where

1 = Thickness of the belt.

2. Stress due 10 bending of the bell over tile pulley (a,,) :

 

E·,

ab =

d

where

E = Young's modulus of the belt material,

d = Diameter of the smaller pulley.

and

3. Stress due 10 the effect of centrifugal force (uj :

 

_

Centrifugal force

_ mv 2 =

 

2

a

c

-

Cross-sectional area of the belt

-

I

P v

where

P = Density of the belt material in kg/m '.

It. is noted that the stress will be maximum when the belt moves over the smaller

pulley.

Therefore the maximum stress in the tight side of the smaller pulley is given by

 

a max = at + ab + a c

 

1.16.1. Permissible Stresses

 

Leather

belts

= 2 to 3.45 MPa

 

Rubber belts

=

I to

].7 MPa

Fabric

belts = Less than ].5 MPa

 
 

DESIGN OF FLAT BELT PULLEYS

1.17. INTRODUCTION

 

In order t~ design a

flat belt. drive, we need the diameters

of driving and driven

ulie s.

Thus the design of belt pulleys IS to be done first Since the velocitv rati

p

Y

pulley diameters, therefore the pulleys should be s~lected caref:I~~lty ratio depends upon the

1.17.1. Materials Used for Pulleys

The commonly used pulley materials are:

./

Cast iron

./

Wood or fibre

./

.

Fabricated . steel

Compressed paper

Cast Iron pulleys are most widely used i

III actual practice. .

Flat_Be/ts and Pulleys _

1.17.2. Types of Pulleys for Flat Belts

1.13

Based on the construction methods, the pulleys are classified as solid pulleys and split

pulleys.

Small pulleys can be made in single casting which is known as solid pulleys. But medium and larger pulleys are cast in halves, which can be joined at the rim and the hub. This type of pulleys are known as split pulleys, In the following article, the design of cast iron split pulley will be discussed.

1.17.3. Design Procedure for Cast Iron Pulleys

The cross-section of a cast iron pulley is shown in Fig.1.13. (Refer PSG data book, page no. 7.56).

Rim

Fig. 1.13. Cross-section of putley

where

D =

b =

=

I =

d l

Diameter of the pulley,

Thickness of the arm,

Diameter of the hub,

Length of the hub.

a = Width of the pulley,

t = Thickness of the rim, d 2 = Diameter of the shaft, and

1. Dimensions of pulley:

.'

. .

lie (D): Obtain the diameter of the pulley either from velocity

(i) DIameter of the pu .:v

id

ratio consideration or centrifugal stress cons: era

induced in the rim of the pulley,

tion We know that the centrifugal stress .

where

0c

p

P y2

=

= Density of the rim material,

= 7200 k m 3 for cast iron, and 7t D N

v = Velocity of he rim =

60

'

D being the diameter of pulley and N the

speed of the pulley.

1.14

Design of Transmission Systems

Now, select the diameter of the pulley (D) referring to Table 1.5.

Table 1.5. Recommended pulley diameters ill mm (from data book, page 110. 7.54)

40,45,50,56,63,71. 80, 90.100,112,125,140,160,180,200.224,250,280.315, 355, 400, 450,500,560,630, 710,860.900, 1000, 1120, 1250, 1400, 1600, 1800 and 2000.

(ii) Width of tile pulley (a) : If the width of the belt is known, then select the width of the pulley referring to Tables 1.6(a) and (b).

Table 1.6(0). Pulley width (from data book, page no. 7.54)

 

Belt width

Pulleys to be wider than the belt width by

Upto 125 mm

13 mm

125

to 250 mm

25mm

250 to 375 mm

38mm

375

to 500 mm

50mm

Table 1.6(b). Recommended series of width of flat pulleys, mm (from data book, page 110. 7.55)

20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224, 250, 280, 315, 355, 400, 450, 500, 560 and 630.

(iii) Thickness of the pulley rim (t): For C.l. pulleys,

 

D

t

= + 3 mm, for single belt

200

D

= 200 + 6 mm,

for double belt

where

D = Diameter of the pulley in 'mm'.

2. Dimensions of arms:

(i) Number of arms (n) :

[From data book, page no. 7.57]

Number of arms {

4

for diameters upto 450 mm

6

for diameters over 450 mm

[From data book, page no.7.56]

(ii) Cross-section of arms {b and bI2): The cross-section of the arms is elliptical, with major axis (b) is equal to twice the minor axis (bt2).

Major.axis of elliPtical} b = 2.94 _3 fiQ4Dn for single belt, and

secnon near the boss

-\j ~

~ 2.941"¥f

for double belt .

[From data book, page no. 7.56]

Minor axis of elliptical section near the boss = ~

Flat Belts and Pulleys

1.15

(iii) Arms taper: The arms are tapered from hub to rim.

Taper = 4 mm per 100 mm

(iv)

3

Radius of the cross-section of arms: r = 4' b

[From data book, page no.7.56]

3. Dimensions of hub:

(i) Diameter of the hub (d 1) :

Diameter of the hub (d 1 )

=

(1.7 to 2.0) x Diameter of the shaft (d 2 )

or

(ii) Length of the hub (/) :

d, = (1.7 to 2.0) d 2

Minimum length of bore (i.e., length of the hub), I = ~ a

where a = Width of pulley.

[From data book, page no. 7.56]

4. Crowning of pulley rim: The face of the pulley rim is crowned, as shown in Fig.l.13, to keep the belt on the pulley. Otherwise the inaccurate alignment of the pulleys causes the belt to run off side ways. Thus the crown will force the belt to return to the centre of pulley.

Selection of crown height (II) : Knowing diameter (0) and width (a) of the pulley, select the crown height (h) referring to Tables 1.7(a) and (b).

Table 1.7(a). Crow" of flat pulleys (40 to 355 mm diameter) (from

data book, page no. 7.55)

(crow" is unrelated to the width ill this diameter range)

Diameter D, mm

Crown h, mm

40 to 112

0.3

125

and 140

0.4

160

and 180

0.5

200

and 224

0.6

250

and 280

0.8

315

and 355

1

Table 1.7(b). Crow" offlat pulleys (40 to 2000 mm diameter) (from data book, page no. 7.55)

(crown varies with tire width in this diameter range)

Diameter

D,mm

125 and

140 and

smaller

160

Crown" (in mm) of pulleys of width (in mm)

224 and

250

180 and

200

280 and

315

400

1

450

I

500

1

630

1

800

1

1000

1

1250

1.2

2000

2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

2

2

2

1.5

2

2.5

2.5

1.5

2

2.5

3

1.5

2

2.5

3

2.5

3

3.5

4

Scanned by CamScanner

355

400 and

larger

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.5

1.5

2

2

2.5

2.5

3

3

3.5

4

5

6

"'" I

1.16

Design of Transmission Systems

I Example 1.1 I Design a cast iron pulley to transmit 20 kW at 300 r.p.m: The diameter

of the pulley is 500 mm and the angle of lap is 180 ~ The pulley has four arms of elliptical cross-section with major axis twice the minor axis. The coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley surface is 0.3. The allowable belt tension is not to exceed 250 N in 10 mm width. The allowable shear stress for the shaft material may be taken as 50 Nlmml.

Given Data:

P = 20 kW = 20 x 10 3 W;

a = 180 0 = 1t rad;

as = 50 N/mm 2 .

n

= 4' ,

J.1 = 0.3;

N = 300 r.p.m.;

TI = 2.5 N in 10 mm width of the belt;

D = 500 mm = 0.5 m ;

To flnd : Design a cast iron pulley.

© Solution: Velocity

of the pulley or belt, v =

7t·D·N

60

=

7t x 0.5 x 300

60

= 7.854 m/s

1. Dimensions of pulley :

(i) Diameter 0/ the pulley (D) is given as 500 mm. Now

recommended

diameter

of the pulley is also 500 mm. Ans. "

referring

Table

1.5, the

(ii) Width of the pulley (a) : In order to find the width of the pulley

of the belt first.

let us find the width

Let TI and T2 = Tensions

on the tight and slack side

of the belt respectively.

We know that the power transmitted

P = (TI - T 2 ) v

20 x 10 3 = (T, - T 2 ) 7.854

or

T, - T_ = 2546.47

and ratio of tensions,

TI

T2

,

T2

=

=

e~Q

e O . 3 )( 1t

or

T, = 2.566

T2

(i)

(ii)

From equations

(i) and (ii), we get

TI

= 4171.68 N

and

T2 = 1625.75 N

INou I Since the velocity of the belt (or pulley) is less .han )0 mIs, therefore the centrifugal

tension need not to be considered.

Let

b = Width of belt

Since the allowable

tension (i.e., maximum

tension)

width, therefore width of the belt

is 250 N in 10 mm width or 25 N/mm

b =

T,

-

25

4171.68

=

25

= 166.86mm

flot Belts and

Pulleys

1.17

Referring to Table t.t3, the standard width of 4 ply belt is 200 mm.

l1lerefore width of the pulley (a), referring the Table 1.6(a), is given by

= Belt width + 25

mm = 200 + 25 = 225 mm

Then, referring to Table 1.6(b), the standard pulley width is 250 mm. Ans."

(iii) Thickness of the pulley rim (t) :

For single belt,

D

t = 200 + 3 mm

500

[From

= 200 + 3 = 5.5 mm Ans."

2.Dimensions of arms:

data book, page no. 7.57]

(i)

Number of arms, n = 4

[Given]

(ii)

Cross-section of arms: Major axis of elliptical section near the boss is given by

 

b

~ 2.94 Wn for single belt

[From

data book, page no. 7.56]

where

a

=

Width of the pulley = 250 mm,

D

=

Diameter of the pulley = 500 mm, and

n

=

Numberofarms = 4

 
 

3

250 x 500

:. Major axis

--

2.94

4 x 4

= 58.34 mm say 60 mm Ans."

and Minor axis =

Major axis

- 2

60

= 2 =

30

mm

A

ns. ~

(iii) Radius of the cross-sections of arms = 4 x ajor axis

.

3

M'

3

= 4 x 60 = 45 mm Ans. ~

3. Dimensions of the hub:

(i) Diameter of the /tub : In order to find the diameter of the hub, let us find the diameter of the shaft first.

Let

d = Diameter of the shaft

We know that the torque transmitted by the shaft,

T

p

x 60

= 2 1t N

=

20 x 10 3 x 60

2 1t x 300

= 636.62 N-m = 636620 N-mm

We also know that the torque transmitted by the shaft (T),

T = ~

16

x o x d 3 s

,u r

"

,

1.18

Design of Transmission Systems

636620 = r6 x 50 x d 3 or d = 40.17 mm say 45 mm

Therefore,

Diameter of the hub = 2 x Diameter of the shaft

= 2 x 45 = 90 mm

ADs.'"

(ii) Length of the hub =

2

2

3" x Width of the pulley (a) = 3" x 250

= 166.67 mm

ADs.'"

4. Crown height of tire pulley (lr) : For 500 mm

pulley diameter and 250 mm pulley

ADs. y

width, from Table 1.7(b), the crown height is selected as h = 1.5 mm

.

I Example 1.2 I Design' an overhanging pulley'for the following specifications,' Power

= 18 kW; Speed = 200 r.p.m.; Angle of contact = 165"; Coefficient of friction = 0.25; Overhanging length (i.e., the distance of the pulley centre line from tire nearest bearing) = 0.30 m; Belt thickness = 10 mm; Safe sirear stress for shafts = 40 MPa; Safe stress for belt = 2.5 MPa; Safe stress for rim = 4 MPa; Density of the leather = 1000 kg/m'.

Given Data: P = 18 kW = 18 x 10 3 W;

rt

N = 200 r.p.m.; a = 165 0 = 165 x 180

= 2.88 rad;

~ = 0.25;

L = OJ 111; 1 = 10 rnrn; (0) h n = 40 MPa = 40 x 10 6 N/m 2

= 40 N/mm 2 ; 0belt = 2.5 MPa = 2.5 x 10 6 N/m 2 ; 2.5 N/mm : (Jllm = 4 MPa = 4 x 10 6 Nzmrn-';

Pleather = 1000 kg/m ',

Tofind: Design an overhanging pulley.

©Solution:

I. Dimensions of pulley: (i) Diameter of the pulley (D) :

Let D = Diameter of the pulley.

0c = Centrifugal stress or tensile stress in the pulley rim' =

rim'

and

p = Density of the pulley material = 7200 kg/rn ' for cast iron.

We know that centrifugal stress,

0c = p v2

4 x 10 6

= 7200 x v2 or v = 23.57 m/s

Velocity of the pulley is also given by

v = 7tDN

60

23.57 = 7txDx200

60

or D = 2.25 m ADS. ~

(i;) Width of tirepulley (a): In order to find the width of the pulley, let us find the width of the belt first.

Let

T, and T2 = Tensions on the tight and slack sides of the belt re pectively,

b

;; Width of the belt.

and

FJal Bells and

Pulleys

1.19

We know that the power transmitted (P),

P = (T, - T 2 ) v

18 x 10 3 = (T, - T 2 ) 23.57

or T, - T2 = 763.68

and tension ratio of the belt,

T,

T =

2

ella

\

= eO. 25 x 2.88 = 2.054 or T, = 2.054 T 2

From equations (i) and (ii), we get

T) =

1487.62 Nand

T2 = 725.25 N

(i)

(ii)

Since the velocity of the belt (or pulley) is more than 10 mis, therefore centrifugal tension

must be taken into consideration.

1000kg/m-'.

Assuming a leather belt for which the density is given as

We know that centrifugal tension,

Tc = In' v 2

where

We know that

But Area of cross-section of the belt

m =

Mass of the belt per metre length

In = Density x Volume = Density x Area x Length

=

b x t = b x 10 =

10 b mm- = 10 b x 10-6 m 2

In

=

1000 x (10 b x 10-6) x 1 = 0.01 b kg/m

Then centrifugal tension, Tc = m- v 2

and maximum tension in the belt,

= 0.01 b (23.57)2 = 5.55 b N

T = abe)t x Area of cross-section

of belt = abe)t x (b x t)

= 2.5 x 10 6

We know that tension on the tight side of the belt (T),

x (lOb x 1O--{) = 2 5 b N

T)

= T - Tc

or

1487.62 =- 256 - 5.55 b = 19.45 b

Width of the belt, b = 76.48 mm

Referring to Ta.ble 1. 13, the standard width of the belt = 90 mm

Therefore, width of the pulley (a), referring the Table 1.6(a), is given by

= Belt width + 13 mm = 90 + 13 = 103 mm

Then, referring to Table 1.6(b), the standard pulley width is 112 mm. ADS."

(iii) Thickness of tile pulley rim (t) :

For single belt,

t =

2~0 + 3 mm

2250

=

200

+ 3 = 14.25 mm

[From data book, page no. 7.57]

Design a/Transmission Systems

1.20

2. Dimensions 0/ arms :

(i) Number of arms (n) :

Number of arms, n = 6 (for diameters over 450 rnm) [From data book, page no.

7 56]

.

(ii) Cross-section of arms:

.

.

Major axis of elliptical section near the boss IS given by

b

= 2.94 Wn for single belt

where

a = Width of the pulley =

I 12 mm,

D = Diameter of the pulley = 2250 mm, and

n =

Number of arms = 6

Major axis = 2.94

3 112 x 2250

4x6

= 64.38 mm say 65 mm Ans

and

Minor axis =

Major axis

2

(iii) Radius of cross-sections of arms =

=

65

- = 32.5 mm

2

ADS. ~

3

Major axis

4

3 '4 x 65 = 48.75 mm

-

x

ADS. ~

3. Dimensions of tile II ub :

,

(i) Diameter of the hub : In order to find the diameter of the hub, let us find the diameter

of the shaft first.

Let

We know that the torque transmitted by the shaft,

d = Diameter of the shaft

 

p

x 60

18 x 10 3 x 60

T

=

2

1t N

=

21t X 200

= 859.44 N-m

and bending moment on the shaft due to the tensions of the belt ,

M

= (T) + T2 + 2 Tc)

L = (1487.62 + 724.25 + 2 x 5.5 x 90) 0.3

= 960.56 N-m We know that equivalent twisting moment (T e ),

'" (.,' Tc = 5.55 b N)

T, = ~ T2 + M2

= ~ (859.44)2 + (960.56)2

1288.92 N-m = 1288.92 x 10 3 N-mm We also know that equivalent twisting moment (T

=

),

e

or

1288.92 x 10 3 ==

1 7t 6 x as x d3 - ~ 16 x 40 x d 3

Diameter of the shaft.

. d = 54 . 75

mm

say 55 mm,

Flat Belts and Pulleys

1.21

Diameter of the hub = 2 x Diameter of the shaft

(ii) Length of the hub

2

=

2 x 5S = 110 mm ADS •

= 3 x Width of the pulley (a)

= 3" 2 x 112 = 74.66 mm

ADS •

,

,

4. Crown height of tire pulley (II) : For 2250 mm pulley diameter and 112 mm pulley width, from Table 1.7(b), the crown height is selected as h = 2 mm ADS •

,

DESIGN OF FLAT BELT DRIVE

The two different design procedures used are:

(i) Using the manufacturer's data, and

(ii) Using the basic equations.

1.18. DESIGN OF FLAT BELT DRIVE BASED ON MANUFACTURER'S DATA

In actual practice, the designer has to select a belt from the manufacturer's catalogue (which were obtained by their long experience). The required information for the selection /

design of a flat belt are:

(i)

Power to be transmitted,

(ii)

The input and the output speeds, and

(iii)

The centre distance depending upon the availability of space.

The step by step procedure is as follows:

1. Selection of pulley diameters:

Select the pulley diameters and angle of contact (i.e., wrap angie). By using the given belt speed and assuming number of plies, minimum pulley diameter is chosen. Use Table 1.8 to choose the diameter of the smaller pulley

Table 1.8. Minimum pulley diameter for the given speed and the number of belting plies, mm

==

No. of plies

3

4

5

6

8

(from data book, page 110. 7.52)

10

90

140

200

250

450

Maximum belt speed mls

IS

100

160

224

315

500

20

112

180

250

355

560

25

140

200

315

400

630

30

180

250

355

450

710

J ~I.~n

Design a/Transmission Systems

--------------------~~~~==~~--

2. Calculation 0/ design power in kW:

Calculate the design kW by using the relationship given below. Rated kW x Load correction factor (Kj)

, (1.18)

Design kW = Arc of contact factor (Ka) x Small pulley factor (K d )

(i) Load correction/actor (KJ : This factor is used to account for the nature of application

and type ofload. The value of Kscan be selected from Table 1.9.

Table 1.9. Load correction/actor, Ks (from data book, page no. 7.53)

Ks

Nonnalload Stead load-screens, centrifugal pumps, agitators, belt conveyors,

light machine tools, etc. Intermittent loads - Reciprocating pumps and compressors, heavy 1.3 machine tools, heavy duty fans and blowers, etc. Shock loads - Crushing machinery, hammers, presses, grinders, 1.5 rolling mills, etc.

1.2

1.0

Load classification

(ii) Arc 0/ contact factor (KaJ': The load rating (i.e., rated power capacity) is given for

180 0 of contact. So, it has to be corrected for actual arc of contact. A decrease in arc of

contact implies additional load.

.

.

Arc of contact = 180 0 _ (D ~ d) x 600

[From data book, page no. 7.54]

where

D and d

= Diameters of larger and smaller puIJeys, and

C = Centre distance.

For the calculated value of arc of contact, the arc of contact factor (K(l) is selected from

the Table 1.10.

Table 1.10. Arc 0/ contact factor, Ka (from data book, page 110. 7.54)

Arc of

contact

90 0

Correction 1.68

factor

120 0

1.33

130 0

1.26

140 0

1.19

150 0

1.13

160 0

1.08

170 0

1.04

180 0

1.00

190 0

0.97

200 0

0.94

210 0

0.91

220 0

0.88

230 0

240 0

250 0

0.86

0.84

0.82

(iii) Small pulley factor (K~ : This factor is used to account for the amount of bending or

flexing of the belt and how this affects the life of the belt. Use Table 1.11 for small pulley factor.

Table 1.11. Small pulley factor, Kd (from data hook, page no. 7.62)

Small pulley diameter

Upto 100 mm

100-200 mm

200-300 mm

300-400 mm

400-750 mm

Over 750 mm

K"

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Flat Belts and Pulleys

1.23

3. Selection of a belting :

Select a belt referring to Table 1.12.

Table 1.12. Load

rating of fabric belts per mm width per ply at 180 0 are of contact at lQ m/s belt speed (from data book, page no. 7.54)

Type

Load rating

HI-SPEED duck belting (light duty)

0.023 kW/mmlply

FORT duck belting (heavy duty)

0.0289 kW/llImlply

4. Load rating correction :

Correct the load rating to the actual speed of the belt by using the relation given below

V

Load rating at V m/s = Load rating at 10 m/s x TO

5. Determination of belt width:

[From data book, page no. 7.54]

Determine the belt width by using the following relation:

Width of belt =

Design power

Load ratmg x No.

.

of plies

.

". (1.19)

Knowing the smaller pulley diameter and velocity of the belt, and consulting Table 1.8,

the number of plies can be found.

The calculated belt width should be rounded off to the standard belt width by consulting

Table 1.13.

Table 1.13. Standard widths of transmisslon belting (from data book, page IlO. 7.52)

I

3

--

3 ply

mm

25

32

40

44

50

63

76

90

100

4 ply

5 ply

mm

mm

25

76

32

90

40

100

44

112

50

125

63

152

76

180

90

200

100

22-l

112

250

125

140

152

200

6. Determilltltioll of pulley width:

Detcrlllll1e (he pulle

\ idih, b) referring rh Table

6 ply

R ply

mm

mm

100

200

112

250

125

305

152

355

180

400

200

250

1.6(a) and (b).

·

:' \

.:/

1.24

7. Calculation of belt length (L) :

Design a/Transmission Systems

Calculate the length of the belt by using the equation given below.

For open belt drive:

For crossed belt drive:

L

= 2

C

+

(

L

= 2

C +

(

7t)

2

(0 + d)

+

7t)

"2 (0 + d) +

(0 - dY:

4 C

(0 + d)2

4 C

[From data book, page no. 7.53]

I Example 1.3 lIt is required to select aflat-belt drive/or a/an running at 360 r.p.m:

which is driven by a 10 kW, 1440 r.p.m: motor. Tile belt drive is open-type and space available for a centre distance 0/ 2 m approximately. The diameter 0/ a driven pulley is

1000mm.

Given Data: N) = 1440 r.p.m.; N2 = 360 r.p.m;

C = 2 m ; D = 1000 mm.

P = 10 kW = 10 x 10 3 W ;

Tofind : Select (or design) a open flat belt drive.

© Solution: The given arrangement is shown in Fig.l.14.

1. Calculation of pulley diameters:

Driven pulley diameter, D = 1000 mm

D

d

1440

We know that

velocity ratio =

N)

_ Driver pulley speed

- Driven pulley speed - N2 = 360

o

= 4

d

Driver pulley diameter, d = 4

1000

= -4- = 250mm

Fig. 1.14.

360 r.p.m.

--;--

o

Fan

Consulting Table 1.5, the recommended driver pulley diameter = 250 mm Ans. ~

) a

2. Calculation of design power in k W :

Design kW =

Rated kW x Load correction factor

(Ks)

Arc of contact factor