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Przemystaw Skulski Macchi C.202 OLGORE o5 rego inal rzysztof, Wolowski MACCHI C.202 FOLGORE Published in Poland in 2005 by STRATUS Artur Juszczak, Po. Box 123, 27-600 Sandomierz 1, Poland e-mail: arturj@mmpbooks.biz for Mushroom Model Publications, 36 Ver Road, Redbourn, AL3 7PE, UK. e-mail: rogerw@mmpbooks.biz © 2005 Mushroom Model Publications. http://www.mmpbooks.biz All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Design and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission. All enquiries should be addressed to the publisher. ISBN 83-89450-06-2 Editor in chief Roger Wallsgrove Editorial Team Bartlomiej Belearz Robert Peczkowski Artur Juszczak Translation Wojtek Matusiak Colour Drawings Krzysztof Wolowski Scale plans Mariusz Kubryn Get in the picture! Do you have photographs of historical aircraft, airfields in action, or original and unusual stories to tell? MMP would like to hear from you! We welcome previously unpublished material that will help to make MMP books the best of their kind. We will return original photos to you and provide full credit for your images. Contact us before sending us any valuable material: rogerw@mmpbooks.biz Acknowledgements: The author would like to thank George Papadimitriou, Tauro Model, Aer. Macchi, Gruppo Amici Velivoli Storici, Zbigniew Lalak, Wojciech Euczak, Mikael Orlog. Giorgio Apostolo. Printed by: Drukarnia Diecezjalna, ul. Zeromskiego 4, 27-600 Sandomierz tel. (15) 832 31 92; fax (15) 832 77 87 www.wds.pl marketing @wds.pl PRINTED IN POLAND el ts Introduction. Ofscontents: Development Combat Use... Technical Data nad Performance .... Detail Photos. General View .. Fuselage.. Engine... Canopy & Cockpi Win: Tail Undercarriage. Colour profiles. C. 202 captured and tested by the Americans (324 Fighter Group), summer- ‘autumn 1943. J. Sterling coll On the title page: Prototype C.202D (M.M.7768) with the radia- tor located at the front of the fuselage. Aer. Macchi Macchi C.202 3 Development MC. 202, serial M.M 9667, serie XT at Museo Storico Dell’ Aeronautica Militare Italiana, Roma. George Papadimitriou 4 Macchi C.202 the Macchi C.202 Folgore (Lightning) was one of the best Italian aircraft ‘of WWIL. This fighter, designed by Mario Castoldi, was used in combat from the autumn of 1941 until the end of the war, and achieved much success. Leading pilots of the Regia Aeronautica, including Lucchini, Gorrini, Ferrulli, and Martinoli, fought in them over Malta and North Africa, andrin defence of Italy. The Macchi C.202 was a dangerous opponent for Allied aircraft, especially in 1941-42, when it boasted superiority over the Hurricane and ‘Tomahawk. Later on, when engaging the Spitfire and Kittyhawk, successes were more difficult to achieve. The Folgore suffered from two main problems: the armament was inad- equate, and not enough of the aircraft were built. Engines and spares were in short supply, too. One could say that the failure to use in full the potential of, this promising design was mainly due to the weakness of the Italian aircraft industry. Development [ 1939 the Italian Ministerio dell’Aeronautica defined the specifications for a new fighter, to replace the machines then in use: Fiat CR.42 Falco, Fiat G.50 Freccia, and Macchi C.200 Saetta. The Aeronautica Macchi company prepared a prototype designated C.201, based on the C.200 Saetta fighter. It was designed by Mario Castoldi, Compared to its predecessor, the aircraft had a modified fuselage, and it was planned to be powered by the 1,000 hp Fiat A.76 R.C.40 radial engine. However, work on the engine was terminated, and a different engine, the 870 hp A.74 R.C.38, was fitted in the prototype. Consequently, the new aircraft's performance was only slightly better than the C.200, resulting in the failure of the project. Previous experience proved that the new fighter would need a reliable and powerful engine. The Italians placed high expectations on the new Fiat A.38 in-line engine. However, this proved tosuffer from many shortcomings, and its entry into production would take a long time. In early 1940 Gen. Francesco Pricolo became the head of the Air Staff, and one of his initial decisions was to stop A.38 development and purchase the Daimler-Benz DB 601-1 (1,175 hp) in Germany, together with a licence for production." These were going to be used in the new fighters, including the Reggiane Re 2001 Falco II and Caproni-Vizzola F4. It was also planned to use them in the next prototype developed from the C.200 fighter. This was the C.202, which introduced a number of changes compared to the Saetta: smaller fuselage cross section, enclosed cockpit, and retractable tail wheel. The most important modifica- Initial appearance of the tion, however, was to redesign the forward fuselage, adapting it for an in-line prototype C.202. Note the engine. The aircraft retained an aerodynamically clean form, a characteristic short air intake for the feature of the machines developed by Castoldi, the designer of pre-war Sch- supercharger, cockpit glac- neider Trophy floatplanes. The armament was unchanged, and consisted of ing, and the retractable tail two 0.5 in, Breda-SAFAT machine guns mounted in the fuselage, above the wheel Each gun had 400 rounds of ammunition. The aircraft also retained Aer. Macchi engin Macchi C.202 5 The sole prototype C.202 with military serial no. M.M.445, €.202 prototype. 1/72 scale 6 Macchi C.202 Aer. Macchi the C.200’s asymmetry, the port wing being 200mm longer (to compensate for propeller torque). Oddly, according to some publications, work on the aireraft was carried out by Macchi without an order from the military, so the company had to bear all costs of developing the new design. The prototype was first flown on 10 August 1940 by the factory test pilot, Guido Carestiato, The aircraft proved very promising, attaining a top speed of almost 600kmv/h, had a good rate of climb, and responded well to the controls. Apparently, Carestiato stated that the new fighter had no flaws atall. No wonder, then, that the new Macchi fighter aroused immediate inter- est from the Ministerio dell’Aeronautica. The prototype, with the military serial M.M.4452, was subjected to a series of tests at Centro Sperimentale at Guidonia and Furbara (armament testing). These confirmed the merits of the new design: a top speed of 599km/h was attained at an altitude of 5,600m, and it took 6 minutes 13 seconds to climb to 6,000 m. Therefore the fighter, named Folgore, was quickly put into series production. Only minor changes were introduced during testing of the prototype, which tends to prove that the design was a success from the beginning. fX Due to the large demands of the Regia Aeronautica, production of the C.202 was prepared not only in the parent Macchi factory at Varese. During 1941-43 the aircraft were also manufactured under licence by Breda at Sesto San Giovanni (near Milano), and by SAI-Ambrosini at Passignano (Perugia). ‘The fighters were built in 13 production series, with three more planned but never completed. The identification of individual production series allows one to differentiate between machines that featured various modifications, but it does not solve all problems in this respect. It has to be stressed that modi- fications were often introduced depending on the capabilities of a particular factory that built the aircraft, In practice this meant that a modification intro- duced, for example, in Series III, did not have to appear in later series, nor even in series produced at the same time by other factories. One should also add that publications quote varying dates as to the period when individual design changes were introduced.’ This applies, for example, to the fitting of machine guns in wings, modification of the tail wheel design, introduction of the cockpit air intake, or repositioning of the venturi from the side to the bottom of the fuselage. All in all, however, modifications applied to the Macchi C.202 during production were small. Series I ‘These machines were manufactured at the Breda factory during July 1941 - March 1942. A total of 100 aircraft were built (serial nos, M.M. 7859-7958). They differed from the prototype only in details. A long air intake for the supercharger was fitted, but it did not feature a dust filter. In the rear part of the cockpit canopy, glazing was replaced by suitably shaped metal sheet. Retractable tail whee! was replaced with a fixed one, with small fairings forward and aft of it. Early aircraft had a short, flexible aerial mast. The most important internal change was to replaced the welded engine mount with a forged one Series II ‘These were the first ten production machines built by Macchi during May 1941-April 1942 (M.M.7709-7718). Although they were identical with the Series I machines, they are known as the Series II. According to some publications the initial C.202s had C.200 Saetta wings. ‘ Series III This included 140 C.202 (M.M.7719-7858) built by Macchi from May 1941 until April 1942. Late Series III aircraft introduced changes necessary toadapt them for tropical operations: dust filter on the supercharger air intake (some earlier machines were also fitted with it, but most flew without it), larger oil cooler, cooling vents in the machine gun covers, additional cockpit air intake (port side forward of the windscreen) to provide better ventila- tion. Aircraft so modified were designated C.202 A.S. (Africa Settentrionale Macchi C.202 7 Development Macchi C.202 (Series Ill, —North Africa). The aircraft also featured a single-piece fairing forward of ‘M.M.7806) at a factory the tail wheel (under combat conditions the fairings were often removed), airfield. Note interesting details: small cockpit air Series IV intake in front of the wind- This covered 50 aircraft (M.M.7409-7458) built by SAI-Ambrosini from screen (many photos show November 1941 until April 1942. Aircraft of this series had similar changes these larger and located to the late Series III Folgores. slightly higher), and fair- ings forward and aft of the Series V tail wheel. The photo also 50 machines (M.M.7959-8008) manufactured by SAI-Ambrosini during shows the AS designation May-July 1942. The early machines were similar to the C.202 Series IV, under the military serial while the late ones featured modifications typical for the Series VII. More and on the tail wheel. Aer. Macchi Above: C.202 early aircraft of series I-III Below: C.202 late series III 8 Macchi C.202 Above: C.202 - early series V from Series V on. It seems, however, that these did not become standard until Bottom: the last production series of the Folgore. Early C.202s of the 9° Gruppo, 4 Stormo, photo- Series VI graphed on 25 September ‘These were 50 aircraft (M.M.8081-8130) manufactured by Breda in the 1947 at Campino airfield spring of 1942 near Rome. Aer.Macchi Early C.202 Folgore (no aerial mast or dust proof filter on the supercharger air intake). Wartime censor has removed all markings. Stato Maggiore Aeronautica Macchi C.2029 Development >ppnN SND»: AA BB CC DD EE FF GG HH WW |A|B jc (DB) FG |H 1 Ww |AIB s El FIIG |E ie ly lc |D This and opposite page: C.202 series IX 10 Macchi C.202 Development Macchi C.202 11 Development This page: €.202 series IX 12 Macchi C.202 Series VII Covered 100 machines (M.M.9023-9122) manufactured between April and July 1942 by Macchi. Aircraft of this series started to be fitted as standard with two additional 0.303 in. Breda-SAFAT machine guns in the wings’ (with 500 rounds per gun). This increased the fire power of the fighter and this solution was sporadically used in machines manufactured earlier. It proved, however, that the additional guns were insufficient, and that they affected the flying characteristics of the Folgore (take-off weight rose from 2,930kg to 3,069 kg). Therefore the wing-mounted machine guns were usually removed in combat units. In theory, from Series VII on it was standard to fit the air- craft with bomb carriers under the wings. These could carry two 50-150kg bombs or additional 100-150 I fuel tanks. In practice this option was seldom used. Itis sometimes said that the aircraft with the bomb carriers fitted were designated C.202CB ~ Caccia Bombardiere (Fighter Bomber). Other important changes included: central armoured glass panel in the windscreen, armour plate aft of the pilot's seat, and rear-view mirror above the windscreen, From mid-1942 new type “D” tail wheel was fitted and its forward fairing was reshaped. At about the same time the Folgore started to be fitted with the Italian Alfa Romeo R.A. 1000 R.C. 41-I Monsone (monsoon) engine. The machines with this power plant featured two small additional bulges in the upper engine cowling (one on each side of the cowling). ‘Similar modifications to those in Series VI machines could be seen in late Series V, Series VX, and early Series XI aircraft. Series VIII Covered 50 aircraft (M.M.8339-8388) manufactured by Breda between March and July 1942. Series IX is counted 100 aircraft (M.M.9389-9490) built by Macchi from Sep- tember 1941 until February 1942. Series X 100 aircraft manufactured during July-September 1942 by Breda (M.M.9500-9601). Development Take-off of I Stormo C.202 {from a North African air- field. The Macchi is an early series machine, as proved by the absence of the aerial ‘mast, but it is fitted with a dust filter on the super- charger air intake. German Messerschmitt Bf 109Fs are in the background. Stato Maggiore Aeronautica Macchi C.202 13 Development C.202 Folgore, series XI - Series XI late production aircraft. Series of 150 aircraft (M.M.9602-9753) bi 1942 until April 1943. Late Series XI aircraft featured the following modi- fications: = new horizontal tail, - hot air outlet on the starboard side of the engine cowling, - two additional circular inspection hatches in the fuselage armament bay covers, to facilitate re-arming, - changed shape of the oil cooler outlet, = some aircraft were fitted with the Bg.42 radio direction finder aerials on the bottom of the fuselage, q - the venturi was relocated from the bottom to the starboard side of the fuselage, below the cockpit.’ Series XII The machines built by Breda between May and August 1943. This Series Macchi C,202 (Series XI) of comprised 150 aircraft (M.M.91803-91952). Last machines were assembled in September 1943, under German control. The fighters were similar to the Aer.Macchi C.202 Series XI (late). 14 Macchi C.202 Series XIII Aircraft of this series were built at the parent Macchi factory from April until August 1943, 50 machines were manufactured (M.M.91953-92002). This was the last completed production series. The aircraft had the same scope of modifications as in the Series XI (late) machines Series XIV Series XIV covered 50 fighters (M.M.92003-92052) to be manufactured by SAI-Ambrosini. It was not built due to the fall of Mussolini. Series XV Covered 100 aircraft (M.M.92053-92152) to be built by Breda. Not accomplished. Series XVI ‘This was the last planned production series, of 150 aircraft (M.M.95950- 96099), to be built in the factory at Sesto San Giovanni (Breda). It was not manufactured, similar to the two previous series. A total of just 1,150 Macchi C.202s were built (some publications quote the number of 1,500 machines, but this includes the cancelled orders).’ The largest number of aircraft was built by Breda: 650. Macchi production lines tured out 400 Folgores, and SAI-Ambrosini made 100 machines. All this was much less than the Regia Aeronautica needed, even though the Folgore was the Italian fighter built in the largest numbers. The main obstacle was an insufficient supply of engines. As already mentioned, initial C.202 aircraft were powered with original German DB 601-1 engines, later ones were fitted with engines built under licence by Alfa Romeo at the Macchi C.202 in southern aly. G. Apostolo Macchi C.202 15 Development * German built gun camera. €.202 in Russia. G, Apostollo Pomigliano d’ Arco plant, designated RA 1000 R.C.41-I Monsone. Production of these posed serious technical problems to the Italians, resulting in smaller number of engines manufactured. A total of 1,500-2,000 licence DB 601A-1 engines were built. Reconnaissance Folgore A small number of Folgore were built in reconnaissance version. These aircraft were fitted with vertical cameras in the fuselage, in place of the radio set. The Folgore flown by Carlo Maurizio Ruspoli (M.M.7848, code 91-3) featured a Robot* camera in the starboard wing leading edge. Experimental versions Several interesting experimental versions were developed by Macchi. One of the aircraft (M.M.7768), designated C.202D, featured a radiator under the forward fuselage (rather than under the wing centre section as inthe standard Folgore). Its larger frontal area ensured better airflow and improved engine cooling. However, the aircraft's performance was inferior and the idea was abandoned. Another Macchi (M.M.91974) had 20mm Mauser MG 151/20 cannon pods fitted under wings, This was connected with the plans to use these in 208 aircraft and to use the C.202 for ground attack duties. The aircraft was designated C.202EC (EC ~ Esperimento Cannone, Cannon Experimental), 16 Macchi C.202 Development but was not series produced as it was found out that the cannon seriously affected the performance and flying characteristics, Curiously, there were plans to use Folgores to control SAl-Ambrosini AR pilotless flying bombs. The latter was a simple aircraft of wooden con- struction, powered by a 1,000 hp Fiat A.80 R.C.4I radial engine, fitted with a jettisoned undercarriage for take-off. Its armament consisted of a 1,000kg bomb fitted in the fuselage. Initially it was assumed that the aircraft would have a pilot who was going to bail out as soon as he set the bomber on a target course. Later on, inspired by the German Mistel, it was planned to combine the A.R. with a C.202 Folgore mounted on a special pylon above the fuselage of the bomb. The combination would be controlled by the pilot of the Macchi via a remote control system. The plans were never put into practice. In the spring of 1942 a Series IX aircraft (M.M.9487) was fitted with the 1.475 hp DB 605 engine, thus becoming the prototype of the best Italian fighter of WWII, the C.205 Veltro (greyhound). The first series of these machines was assembled by matching Folgore airframes (that awaited RA. 1000 R.C.41-1 engines) with DB 605 engines. These aircraft were known unofficially as the C.202bis. A similar method was used during 1944-45, when the Aeronautica Sannita plant converted about a dozen Folgores to Veltro standard, Another similar transformation took place during 1948-1950 when over 40 Folgores were converted to C.205s. These aircraft were earmarked for the Egyptian air force. C.202 Folgore survivors Only two Macchi C.202 Folgore aircraft survive today. One of these is held by the Museo Storico Dell’Aeronautica Militare laliana in Bracciano, Italy, and the other by the National Air & Space Museum in Washington, DC, USA, The Macchi at Bracciano is a late series machine, built in early 1943 by Breda. This is proved by certain details, such as armament bay covers and the horizontal tail. In March 1943 the aircraft was allocated to 54° Stormo, and then it served in 5° Stormo Aeronautica Cobellingerante. After the war the Macchi was a training machine at the Accademia Navale in Livorno, Becom- MC. 202 (serial unknown) at Rome, Italy A.W. Euczak Macchi C.202 17 Development Folgore at NASM, 18 Macchi C.202 usa. M. Olrog inga museum exhibit, the aircraft was carefully restored. Unfortunately not all parts of the aircraft are original, for example the propeller spinner and engine cowling (one panel comes from a C.205V Veltro). Oddly, the aircraft does not have the cockpit air intake under the windscreen, typical for early produc- tion series Folgore (this might suggest that this aeroplane is a combination of elements from various series aircraft). Many cockpit instruments are missing. Currently the aircraft is exhibited in the markings of Giulio Reiner, an ace of the Regia Aeronautica. The history of the aircraft held at the NASM is more difficult to ascertain. The aircraft found its way to the USA together with other machines as a war trophy, and was stored for many years. Restoration of the aircraft was com- pleted in mid-1970. Most probably itis a Serie VI to IX machine. The aircraft had been fitted with machine guns in the wings, but these were removed. Itis displayed in the markings of 90° Squadriglia of the 4° Stormo C.T8. (Footnotes) A total of 419 engines were purchased. Alberto Longhi from Reggiane took an important part in importing these engines 2. MM. -Matricola Militare (military serial no.) 3. Ithas to be stressed that varying production dates are quoted for individual series, 4. According 10 some older publications, production of this series was com- pleted by July 1941. This seems reasonable, considering that it counted only 10 aircraft. However, recent Italian publications say that it was not completed until the spring of 1942 Wing-mounted machine guns were fitted for the first time in a Series IIL aircraft no. M.M.7731. 6. Although itis sometimes claimed that the venturi was repositioned earlier, already in Series VII aircraft. 7. G.Apostolo quotes an even smaller number of C.202 aircraft: 1,070. This results, among others, from the fact that after 8 September 1943 some machines then in production were not completed. 8 CT. ~Caccia Terrestre (Land-based Fighter’ Gombatause 1 QGruppo, 1° Stormo C.T. (17th Group, Ist Fighter Wing), based at ‘Campoformido near Udine, was the first unit of the Regia Aeronau- tica to receive C.202 aircraft. Folgores were delivered there in May 1941, but combat capability was not attained until the autumn, by which time the Folgore had already been used successfully by the 9° Gruppo over Malta. Malta debut In July 1941 Macchi C.202s were delivered to the 9° Gruppo (4° Stormo). Two months later the group was transferred to Sicily, and in late September Jacopo Figero, a 97° Squadriglia (97 Squadron) pilot shot down at Comiso a Hurricane IIB of 185 Squadron RAF flown by P/O Lintern, Several hours later the Italians downed a Fairey Fulmar Il, From early October the Italian unit commenced extensive operations over Malta, which provided numerous opportunities for encounters with British aireraft. The Folgore displayed marked superiority over the Hurricane Ils, but its main shorteoming, the weak armament, was a problem. The C.202 was not only used for fighter operations, but also for ground attack and reconnaissance missions. Among the pilots who flew reconnaissance Folgores over Malta was Adriano Visconti who later became one of the leading Italian aces (credited with a total of 10 aerial victories'). Inthe spring of 1942 operations against the island were intensified. Apart from the squadrons of the 4° Stormo C.T. (9° and 10° Gruppo), subsequent Macchi C.202 of the 4° Stormo at Campino airfield, autumn 1941. Aer-Macchi Macchi C.202 19 Combat Use a Macchi C.202 of the 97" Squadriglia at an lral- ian airfield. Other types of fighters can be seen in the background: C.200 Saetta and CR.A2 Falco. Zbigniew Lalak coll. Macchi C.202 of the 734 Squadriglia in flight over the desert, September 1942. Aircraft no. 73-4 was flown by the Regia Aeronautica’s top scorer, Teresio Marti- noli Gruppo Amici Velivoli Storici 20 Macchi C.202 units arrived over Malta: the 20° and 155° Gruppo (of the 51° Stormo) and 23° Gruppo (3° Stormo). Besides typical fighter missions (sweeps, bomber escorts), the Macchis also attacked supply convoys to Malta. In the air the Italians now encountered mainly the Spitfire V. a more difficult opponent than the Hurricane, Nevertheless, numerous successes were scored, and the top scoring Italian pilots included Cap. Furio Nicolot-Doglio (7 aerial victories; he was killed on 27 July 1942 in combat with the RAF ace “Screwball” Beurling) and segg. Ennio Tarantola (10 kills). Both these pilots flew with the 51° Stormo C.T,, the top scoring Italian unit over Malta, its pilots claim- ing 97 aircraft destroyed for the loss of 17 of its own machines, Also the pilots of 4° Stormo distinguished themselves in these combats. Between 4 and 16 May 1942 Teresio Martinoli shot down three Spitfires (plus another categorised as probably destroyed), becoming one of the leading aces of the Regia Aeronautica (he had earlier shot down 5 British aircraft over Malta in 1941), Another pilot of the wing, Cap. Franco Lucchini, was close to that result, downing two enemy machines (for a total of 6 victories over Malta during 1941-42), For the C.202 pilots extensive fighting over Malta ended in May 1942, when the Germans and Italians concentrated all their forces on operations in North Africa. Consequently, many C.202s moved from Sicily to that continent. Only some reconnaissance Folgores were left behind. North Africa, Pantelleria, Sicily In October 1941 the first C.202 units arrived in North Africa: the 6° and 17°Gruppo (1° Stormo). In the spring of 1942 they were joined by squadrons of the 4° withdrawn from Malta operations. The machines of these units par- ticipated in the counter-offensive commenced by the Germans and Italians Combat Use Line of Folgore C.202, Series Ill at Lonate Po in summer 1941, just before delivery to the operational units. The first in the line is serial M.M, 7825. G. Apostolo “lo in January 1942, aimed at capturing Alexandria, Encounters with Desert Air Folgore of the 3514 Squad- Force fighters, mainly Hurricanes and Tomahawks, proved again that the riglia (51° Stormo), prob- Folgore was a successful design, able to achieve air superiority, The C.202 ably in North Africa. combat tactics were similar to those of the Bf 109: attack from higher altitude, Zbigniew Lalak coll. Macchi C.202 21 Combat Use Luigi Gorrini, the second top scoring Italian ace, scored most of his victories in the C.202 Folgore. Stato Maggiore Aeronautica €.202 Folgore of 90a Sq. 4 Stormo. G. Apostolo hit and run, Speed (also diving speed) was the Folgore’s advantage, while its horizontal manoeuvrability was not great. In the summer of 1942 the 1° and 4° Stormo were particularly active, performing sweeps, escorts (including cover to bombers attacking Tobruk) and operations against Allied airfields (much su attack against Gambut), Franco Lucchini was one of the most successful pilots during that period, achieving 10 victories between May and August 1942. He was one of the overall top scoring Italian fighters, credited with a total of 21 victories. Also Teresio Martinoli excelled above the North African skies, downing 4 P-40s and 3 Spitfires (he scored a total of 22 victories, becoming the top scoring Italian ace of WWID). Leonardo Ferrulli was another C.202 pilot who scored many victories over Allied aircraft during that period, In spite of the success of the German-Italian offensive, which captured Tobruk among others, the situation of Italian fighter units was becoming more and more difficult: new aircraft and spare parts (especially e1 ress Was nes) were in short supply. In the summer the Italians had only a hundred serviceable C.202s in North Africa. Both pilots and ground crew were fatigued, both by the combat and the difficult climate. over to the 4° Stormo, and the personnel returned to Italy. It was replaced by another C.202 unit: the 23° Gruppo (of the 3° Stormo). The 75* Squadriglia under Magg. Luigi Filippi was the first to arrive in Africa, being based at Fuka. In late AugusVearly September pilots of the group flew 175 sorties, claiming 18 enemy machines shot down. In one of the combats the Italians supported the Messerschmitt Bf 109F flown by the Luftwaffe ace Han: and received a case of champagne as a ‘thank-you’ from L/JG 27. In early October aerial support for the Battle of Alamein commenced. On 9 October 1942 RAF squadrons fiercely attacked German and Italian airfields, During air combats Regia Aeronautica fighters shot down 10 enemy aircraft, but suffered painful losses. During subsequent days more bitter encounters took place, On 20 October, for example, during an attack against the airfields oon the 1° Stormo passed its machines Joachim Marseille, 22 Macchi C.202 of the 3° and 4° Stormo the Allies destroyed some 10 aircraft in the air and 20 on the ground. At the end of the month the long awaited reinforcements reached North Africa in form of 30 new C.202s, improving the situation in terms of equipment for a short while. In November 1942, ater the invasion in North Africa (Operation “Torch”), air combats became more intense. Two Folgore units were transferred to Sardinia: 53° Gruppo Autonomo and 17°Gruppo (1° Stormo), immediately joining in the fighting. Now the Italians fought not only the Commonwealth air forces, but also the United States Army Air Force. The superiority, both in ‘numbers and the quality, was now with the Allies, and successes were much more difficult to achieve, especially when encountering the Spitfires and P-40 Warhawks, In early 1943 the Italians had only 54 serviceable C.202s in twelve squadrons, clearly indicating shortage of equipment. During the same period Regia Aeronautica fighters still scored numerous successes, for example on 6-7 March 1943 when they claimed 19 RAF and 2 USAAF aircraft shot down, losing only 2 Folgores. No less than 10 machines were downed by pilots of the 16°Gruppo Assalto - an attack unit flying Macchis. At the end of the month another C.202 unit, the 7°Gruppo, moved to Tunisia. During the Tunisian operation (April-May 1943) Macchi C.202s were encountered by pilots of the Spitfire IX-equipped Polish Fighting Team, Most of these were successful for the Poles, including victories against C.202s credited to Krél, Horbaczewski and Skalski. C.202 374° Sq. Asso di Bas- toni. G. Apostolo Macchi C.202 23 Combat Use ae Teresio Martinoli, the top scoring ace of the Regia Aeronautica, Stato Maggiore Aeronautica aaa During fighting in Tunisia the Italians lost a total of 22 Macchi C.202s in the air, plus 47 more destroyed or damaged on the ground. The last Mac- chis were evacuated from North Africa on 10 May 1943 (aircraft of the 54° Stormo that flew to Sicily). In the following month the Folgores fought in defence of Pantelleria, which failed to become the “Italian Malta” and quickly surrendered. More success was achieved during the defence of Sicily. On the invasion day alone, 10 July 1943, Macchi pilots claimed 14 Allied aircraft shot down, Apart from that they flew many attack and bombing missions. Defence of Italy The defence of Italy against Allied attacks was the last chapter of C.202 history in Regia Aeronautica colours. It was difficult to down heavy bombers with just four machine guns (and more often only two). Even more so when the bombers were escorted by Mustangs, Thunderbolts, and Spitfire [Xs, superior to the Folgore in all respects. Individual victories were scored by the best of the fighters, such as Adriano Mantelli (test pilot, veteran from the Spanish Civil War, scored the last victory for the Regia Aeronautica, downing a B-24 bomber on 8 September 1943 over Frascati) and Luigi Gorrini®. The latter had a reputation for fighting heavy bombers and had at least six such aircraft to his credit (later on, fighting for the Social Republic of Italy, he downed two more four-engined USAAF bombers, but he achieved that on the Folgore’s successor, the C.205V Veltro). Stormo, 1941. G. Apostolo 24 Macchi C.202 Combat Use The Ost Front episode In the summer of 1942 it was decided to increase the Italian participation in fighting against the USSR. In September 1942 Folgores first appeared over the Eastern Front. These were the machines delivered to the 21°Gruppo, which previously used the C.200 Saetta. The unit, based at Voroshilovgrad, received twelve C.202s, supplemented by two reconnaissance machines the following month. The aircraft were allocated to 356", 361', 382" and 386* Squadriglia. The machines took part in the Stalingrad battle, among others, performing fighter and attack missions. The last Folgore mission was flown on 17 January 1943 at Millerovo. A few days later, the Soviet counter-offensive forced the Italians to withdraw from Stalino, leaving about a dozen aircraft (Saettas and Folgores) at Voroshilovgrad airfield. During September 1942-January 1943 C.202 Folgores flew a mere 17 combat missions, achieving no successes, and suffering no losses (5 aircraft were left in Russia for engineering reasons), On the side of the Allies On 8 September 1943, when Mussolini surrendered, there were about 200 C.202 Folgores in Italy (including damaged aircraft, and the late series machines still in production). Of this number only a small number of Mac- chis found themselves in the Aeronautica Cobelligerante (Co-Belligerent Air Force) of the so-called Southern Kingdom. Additionally a few machines flew over to the south from the German-controlled zone. In October the Folgore in Russia. newly formed Raggruppamento Caccia had 27 Folgores. Aircraft of the G. Apopstolo Macchi C.202 25 Combat Use Right: Luigi Gorrini and his C.202 Folgore. Gorrini shot down 19 enemy aircraft and was considered one of the experts in destruction of heavy bombers. Aer.Macchi Below: Ennio Tarantoli (left) and Pietro Bianchi in front of a C.202 (MM.9066), The aircraft, named “Dai Banana” was the personal mount of Tarantoli. The pilot ended the war with 10 kills 10 his credit. Gruppo Amici Velivoli Storici Macchi C.202 of the 3864 Squadriglia (21° Gruppo) on the Eastern Front, win ter 1942/43, Stato Maggiore Aeronautica 26 Macchi C.202 Combat Use Above Folgores of 95° Sq. 3 Stormo. Left: €.202 of 153° Gruppo (red stripe on white band). Below. €.202 with individual number on white band. Alll photos G. Apostolo Macchi C.202 27 C.202 Folgore of the 5° Stormo with Aeronautica Cobelligerante markings. The photo was taken at Lecce-Leverano airfield September 1944. in Stato Maggiore Aeronautica Macchi C.202 of 8 Gruppo, Regia Aeronautica Cobelligerante, late 1943 south Italy Stato Maggiore Aeronau- tica type equipped, among others, the 4° Stormo, 21° Gruppo and 155° Gruppo* that participated in actions against the Germans not only in Ttaly, but also in Yugoslavia and Albania. The Folgores were used mainly for ground attack duties, for example at Scutari (Albania) and Podgorica (Yugoslavia) airfields. The attack of six 4° Stormo Folgores against Podgorica airfield on | November 1944, which destroyed 17 enemy aircraft, was an example of a successful mission. Ten C.202s had been lost by the end of hostilities. After Italian units were re-equipped with US and British aircraft, including the Spitfire V and P-39Q Airacobra, Folgores were phased out to training units After the war Regiane Aeronautica had over 30 Macchi C.202 Folgores. The majority of these were the machines rebuilt from wrecks, so that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to identify production series of individual machines. The aircraft were mostly used for training. In early 1947 the flying training school at Lecce still had 12 Folgores (including 6 undergoing repair). ‘The C.202s soldiered on in Italian training establishments until the 1950s. 28 Macchi C.202 Combat Use National Socialist Republic In September 1943 some 50 Macchi C.202s found themselves in the north. These aircraft were captured by the Germans and allocated to units of the Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana (National Republican Aviation) of the National Socialist Republic of Italy which used at least 24 aircraft of the type’. They were mostly used for training (in 3°Gruppo Caccia) and defence of industry and aerodromes. Combat missions were flown in Macchi C.205V_ Veltros and Fiat G. ‘entauros and German Bf 109s. Macchis outside Italy In the spring 1943 the Swiss air force (Flugwaffe) expressed interest in the C.202. A preliminary contract allowed for delivery of two Series XIII aircraft and a single engine. Later on the Swiss intended to buy 18 C.202s. Due to bureaucratic obstacles the contract was never fulfilled. After 8 Sep- tember 1943 the “Swiss” Folgores were impressed by the Germans, and then they were allocated to the units of the Social Republic of Italy. According to some sources Flugwaffe pilots made acquaintance flights in the C.202s, but information about the circumstances of these, or even positive confirmation, is lacking. In mid-1944 C.202s were delivered to Croatia. The machines were ferried in from the Breda factory at Sesto San Giovanni near Milano. The Folgores were delivered to the | I" Squadron based at Kurilovec near Velka Gorica that formed part of the 4th Group. The exact number of C.202s used in Croatia, or Macchi C.202, serial MM. 8344 (Serie VI) of 23 Squadrigilia, 8 Gruppo Regia Aeronautica Cobel- ligerante. Stato Maggiore Aeronautica Macchi C.202 29 Combat Use the course of their service is not known, The small number of photos seem to suggest that there were few aircraft of the type (probably about a dozen) (Footnotes) 1 Victories of ltalian fighters are subject to varying interpretations. This work relied on the information given in “Italian Aces of World War 2”, Osprey Aircraft of the Aces No. 34, by Giovanni Massimello and Giorgio Apostolo. 2 In 1942 Italian fighter pilots flew 23,555 combat sorties in North Africa, of which some 30% were in Macchi C.202 Folgores. 3 Fifth ranking alian ace with 19 victories to his credit Windscreen of a C.202 with armoured glass panel. Details of the gun sight and the cockpit air intake are visible Gruppo Amici Velivoli Storici 30 Macchi C.202 4 A little later the C.202 was also in the inventory of the 5° Stormo. These were machines handed over by the 4° Stormo after it converted to P-39 Airacobras. 5 Publications quote varying numbers of aircraft that were in the north cand the south after 8 September 1943 and were used in combat or train- ing. This is, among others, due to the fact that initially a number of ralian pilots would u se their aircraft to change sides. The situation is further complicated by the fact that Folgores were re-built from wrecks ‘and requisitioned from factories. For example, the ANR was apparently reinforced with 30 C.202s from the Breda factory Wing Area Propeller diameter Empty Weight Take-off weight Useful load Max Speed at 5,600m Climb to 2,000m Climb to 3,000m Climb to 4,000m Climb to 5,000m Climb to 6,000m Service ceiling Range at 430km/h Engine Alfa Romeo RA 1000 RC 41-1 Take-off power Power at 3,600m Technical description Technical Data and Performan According to Manuale CA 670/L (Serie TV-VII) m m km hp hp Fuselage was a semi-monocoque shell consisting of four U-section dura- luminium beams with stringers and 19 ovoidal bulkheads. The first bulkhead was also a fire wall and the engine mounts were attached to it, 1° 28” 228” Byaet 4 40" 555% 11,500 765 1075 1,040 Macchi C.202 31 Development 32 Macchi C.202 ‘The wing was a biconvex airfoil, two spar, three section structure, The centre section was built integrally with fuselage. This also carried the under- carriage and main fuel tanks. The cantilever tail surfaces were elliptical in plan, all metal structure with fabric-covered movable surfaces. The stabiliser was adjustable inflight. The fin was also all-metal, and the rudder was metal framework with fabric covering. The rudder was aerodynamically balanced. Ailerons, elevator and rudder controls were actuated by push-pull rods, with adustable stabiliser via cables. Landing flaps were hydraulically operated. The main landing gear folded inwards and was hydraulically operated. Equipped with oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. Tailwheel was fixed, with a fairing. Fuel system included the main tank in the central fuselage of 270 liters, and two tanks in the wing roots of 40 litres. There was also was an 80 litres tank just behind the cockpit. All tanks were self-sealing. Oil radiator was placed under the nose, and the coolant radiator under the fuselage.The latter was equipped with variable position, hydraulically powered flap. Armament for aircraft produced in series I to V — two synchronised 12.7mm Breda SAFAT machine guns located in engine cowling with 400 rounds per gun. Starting with Serie VI two 7.7 mm machine guns were added, located in the wings, with 500 rpg. Powerplant: 12 cylinder, direct fuel injection Daimler-Benz DB 601 A-1 (bulit in Italy under licence as Alfa Romeo R.A 1000 RC 41 1) ‘Communication and navigation equipment: HF radio Allocchio-Bacchini transceiver, direction finder, San Giorgio reflector type gun sight, (introduced in late production series). Bibliography ‘Aer Macchi C.202, Ali d’Ialy 2, La Bancarella Aeronautica, Turin, 1995. Aer: Macchi C.202 1941-42, Alie colori 4, La Bancarella Aeronautica, Turin, 2002. ‘Aer:Macchi MC 202, Monografie Aeronautiche Italiane n. 47-78, Rome, 1983. D'Amico F., Valentini G., Regia Aeronautica Vol.2, Squadron/Signal Publications, Carollion, 1986. Di Napoli C, Mancini R., Macchi C.200/202/205, Aero Detail 15, Dai Nippon Kaiga, 1995, Di Terlizei M,, Macchi MC 202 Folgore pt., IBN Editore, Rome, 1999. Di Terlizei M,, Macchi MC 202 Folgore pill, IBN Editore, Rome, 2000. Duma ., Quelli del cavalino rapmpante, Edizione dell’Ateneo, Rome, 1981. GentlliR, Gorena L., Macchi C.202 in action, Squadron/Signal Publications, Carollion, 1980. Ledwoch J., Macchi C.202, Aero - Technika Loticza, 2/1991. Massimello G, Apostolo G., Italian Aces of World War 2, Osprey Aircraft ofthe Aces 34, Oxford 2000. Ry M,, Macchi M.C. 202 Folgore, Lotnictwo Wojskowe, 3/2002. Shores Ch, Regia Aeronautica, Squadron/Signal Publications, Warren, 1976. Skulski P., Macchi C202 Folgore, “Pod Lupq” series n.7, ACE Publication, Wroctaw, 1997. Detail photos Above: Original wartime colour photo of Macchi C Reggio Calabria airfield, May 1943. Stato Maggiore Aeronautica Below: Side view of preserved C.202 M.M. 9667, Serie XI at Museo Storico Dell’ Aeronautica Militare Htaliana, Roma, Italy. George Papadimitriou of the 1644 Squadriglia, 161° Gruppo Autonomo, Macchi C.202 33 Detail photos 3/4 Head-on view of the C202. G. Papadimitriou Portside view of the some aircraft as above. Note that different colours are because of the different negatives and devoloping process, W.£uczak Another C.202, serial unknown, preserved at National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC, USA W.Euczak 34 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Above. Aircraft from the rear, Portside, forward fuselage. Both photos G. Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 35 Starboard, forward part of the fuselage. Papadimitriou Two photos of the Folgore ‘from the rear Wekuczak - right Papadimitriou - below 36 Macchi Detail photos Above Fuselage of the C.202 from = just below. ¥ ¥ W.Euczak f Left: Rear fuselage starboard view. Note the number M.M.9476 and AS designa- tion. Military Model Distributor via Tauro Model Central section of the fuselage. Note the radio hatch and the aerial wire. The Macchi C.202 was fitted with the Allocchio Bacchini B.35 radio. G. Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 37 Detail photos Above and left: Three photos of aerial mast and wire. All photos - George Papadimitriou Right: The characteristic shape of the fuselage spine aft of the cockpit. The openings pro- vided ventilation and better visibility. 38 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Details of the fuselage near the radiator Fuselage spine aft of the cockpit - port view | | Central section of the fuselage, Note the ground supply socket and the fuel system drain pipe. All photos - George Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 39 Detail photos Above. Port, forward part of the fuselage. W.Euczak Fuselage spine aft of the cockpit, Note the first aid kit cover George Papadimitriou Right and opposite page: Photos of the fuselage structure Aer. Macchi 40 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Above: Radiator, from below, rear view W.Euczak Macchi C.202 41 Detail photos Details of the radiator. Right - Venturi tube forward of the radiator. All photos George Papadimitriou 42 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Two photos of the radiator sides W. Luczak Macchi C.202 43 Detail photos Engine cowling ~ port view. George Papadimitriou 44 Macchi C.202 Left: Port side exhaust pipes. All photos G. Papadimitriou Left: Starboard side exhaust pipes Below: Starboard engine cowling Macchi C.202 45 Detail photos Top of the page: Details of a Macchi C.202 fuselage (early series aircraft). Aer. Macchi Above: Details of the fuselage forward of the cock- pit. Note the armament bay covers, Right: Central section of the engine cowling with cooling vents and the hot air outlet G. Papadimitriou 46 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Above: Starboard side exhaust tube fairing — head-on view. Above left: Supercharger air intake with the dust filter Leff: Exhaust tube fairing - head- ‘on view and (inset) super- charger air intake ~ head- oon view Port side exhaust tubes. All photos G. Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 47 Detail photos Bottom engine cowling and the oil cooler air intake. Right: Two photos of the starboard side exhaust pipes Below. Piaggio P.1001 propeller blade. G. Papadimitriou 48 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Above. Propeller spinner. The Piaggio P.1001 propeller had a diameter of 3.050m G. Papadimitriou Above C.202, port side of the cowling. W. Euczak Below: Forward fuselage and Piaggio P.1001 propeller G. Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 49 Detail photos Folgore’s nose from below. W. Euccak 50 Macchi C.202 Detail photos This page. Photos of the oil cooler. All photos G. Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 51 omer ee aaa Detail photos Above: Windscreen — port view. Left Windscreen with armoured glass G. Papadimitriou Left and below Details of the canopy: W. Euczak Left: Open cockpit canopy. The windscreen without armoured glass panel, absence of the cockpit air intake in front of the windscreen and absence of cooling vents in the armament bay covers sugest this is an early series aircraft. Aer.Macchi Macchi C.202 53 Detail photos Portside of the Folgore’s canopy W. Euczak €.202 Folgore instrument panel, This is a medium series aircraft (between series, VII and XI), The aircraft is fitted with the old style gunsight, the San Giorgio type B. Aer. Macchi 54 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Starboard side of the cockpit. Aer.Macchi rede Ca eere Detail photos Pilot’s seat. Aer.Macchi. 56 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Starboard aileron. Aer.Macchi (lefi) and G, Papadimitriou Port aileron in deflected position. G. Papadimitriou Detail photos Structure of the port wing (early version without machine guns). Aer.Macchi Wing fille G. Papadimitriou National marking on the port wing. G. Papadimitriou 58 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Landing flap. Aer.Macchi Pitot tube in the port wing. G. Papadimitriou Port wing — bottom view Military Model Distributor via Tauro Model Port wing — upper surface. W. Euczak Macchi C.202 59 Detail photos Details of the port wing W. Euczak (3) and G. Papadimitriou (1) 60 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Left: Tail of the Folgore as seen from the left Below, right: Port side of the fin. Below: Port tailplane. Late style tail. All photos G. Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 61 Detail photos Port horizontal tailplane fillet. G. Papadimitriou Horizontal stabiliser struc- ture, drawing from Techni- cal Manual. Undersurfaces of the hori- zontal stabiliser W.uczak 62 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Rudder structure, drawing from the Technical Manual, Portside of the fin. G. Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 63 Detail photos Starboard view of the fin, showing the stencils. G. Papadimitriou Below: Two photos of the tail W. Euczak 64 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Tail navigation light. G. Papadimitriou Horizontal elevator struc- ture. Aer. Macchi Starboard side of the tail. W. Euczak Macchi C.202 65 Detail photos General view of the main undercarriage. All photos G. Papadimitriou Right, below: Details of the starboard main wheel leg Below. Port main wheel leg 66 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Above, left: Starboard main wheel leg. Above: Port main wheel leg. Left. Inner part of the port main wheel leg and cover. Below: Main wheel wells. All photos George Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 67 Detail photos Two photos of the main undercarriage doors in the retracted position. George Papadimitriou W.uczak The main undercarriage leg and wheel wells Drawings from the Techni- cal Manual BREE BREE BEE 68 Macchi C.202 Port main wheel well. Left Starboard main wheel well. Below, left: Starboard main wheel well Below. Details of the port main wheel well All photos George Papadimitriou Macchi C.202 69 Detail photos Main wheel inner doors in open position ~ starboard view All photos George Papadimitriou Starboard wheel well. 70 Macchi C.202 Detail photos Four photos of tail wheel George Papadimitriou (2) W.Euccak (2) Macchi C.202 71 Detail photos Details of the machine guns ‘mounted in the fuselage. Drawing showing the machine gun mounted in the wing, All drawings from Techni- cal Manual. 72 Macchi C.202 ££ 2079 NP2OW \ €.202 prototype, MM 445, produced by Macchi. Natural metal overall with Verde Anticorrosione in some areas. €.202, Serie I, MM. unknown, produced by Breda. Aircraft of 97* Squadriglia, 9° Gruppo, 4° Stormo. Verde Oliva Scuro 2 with patches in Giallo Mimetico 4 and Bruno Mimetico - uppersurfaces and Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Spinner and front of the fuselage in Giallo Cromo 7. saqyoid mojop Colour profiles €.202, Serie Il, MM. 7711, Macchi. Air- craft of 378* Squadriglia, 155° Gruppo, 51° Stormo, Gela, August 1942. Verde Oliva Scuro 2 with patches in Gialo Mimetico 4 and Bruno Mimetico, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces, Engine cover from different aircraft painted in Nocciola Chiaro 4 with Verde Oliva Scuro 4 stripes. 74 Macchi C.202 SZ 707'D Mp7MH €.202, Serie I, M.M. 7913, produced by Breda. Aircraft of 74* Squadriglia, January 1943, Tunis. Personal aircraft of Ten. Giorgio Solari, Sq. commander. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with patches Verde Oliva Scuro 2 - uppersurfaces and Grigio Azauro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Typical Breda camouflage colours. €.202, Serie I, M.M. 7919, Breda, Aircraft of 84° Squadriglia, 10° Gruppo, 4° Stormo. Personal aircraft of Capt. Lucchini. Force-landed on 24.10.1942 after the battle with RAF over El Alamein, Aircraft formerly painted in Verde Mimetico, but later repainted in Nocciola Chiaro 4, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces, white wingtips. €.202, Serie III, M.M. 772, Macchi. Aircraft of 81 Squadriglia, 6° Gruppo, 1° Stormo. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small patches in Verde Oliva Scuro, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces, typical Macchi camouflage. C.202, Serie III, M.M. 7742, Macchi. Aircraft of 96* Squadriglia, 9° Gruppo, 4° Stormo. Personal aircraft of Ten, Emanuele Annoni. On 14.10.1941 aircraft was hit by P/O David Barnwell of 185 ‘Sqn. RAF (Hurricane) and Ten. E. Annoni force-landed in Comiso. Verde Oliva Scuro 2 with patches in Giallo Mimetico 4 and Bruno Mimetico, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro ~ undersurfaces. Wing-fuselage fairings in natural metal. Sajyoid mojop Colour profiles C.202, Serie III, M.M. 7720, Macchi Aircraft of 84* Squadriglia, 10° Gruppo, 4° Stormo. Personal aircraft of the unit commander Capt. Franco Lucchinii, Fuka, October 1942. Aircraft originally painted in Verde Mimetico 2, but later with mottles in Nocciola Chiaro 4. Aft engine cover from different machine. Macchi C: Colour profiles C.202, Serie III, M.M. 7763 (?), Macchi. Aircraft of 71° Squadriglia, 17° Gruppo, I° Stormo. Aircraft in fresh factory camouflage, Verde Mimetico 4 upper surfaces and Azzuro Chiaro — under- surfaces. 78 Macchi C.202 €.202, Serie III, M.M. 7764, Macchi. Aircraft of 73* Squadriglia, 9° Gruppo, 4° Stormo, Personal aircraft of Sgt. Magg. Terenzo Martinolo, Gela, June 1942, Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro ~ undersurfaces. Common camouflage for Serie III built by Macchi. C.202, Serie III, M.M. 7768, Macchi. Prototype of C.202D. Aircraft Verde Mimetico 2 uppersurfaces with Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. ‘sajyoid mojo9 a iS 8 8 70z'D M2OKW OS €.202, Serie III, MM. 7778, Macchi. Aircraft of 79" Squadriglia, 6° Gruppo, 1° Stormo. Camouflage typical for Serie III. €.202, Serie III, M.M.7795, Macchi. Aircraft of 90* Squadriglia, 10° Gruppo, 4° Stormo. Personal aircraft of Sgt. Amieto Monterumici, Gela, May 1942. Camouflage not typical for Serie III, and aft engine cover from different machine. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Sayyoid mojop C.202, Serie III, M.M. 7801, Macchi. Aircraft of 378* Squadriglia, 155° Gruppo, 51° Stormo, Sicily, summer 1942. Verde Oliva Scuro 2 with blotches in Nocciola Chiaro 4, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro - undersurfaces. C.202, Serie II, M.M. 7821, Macchi. Aircraft of 91* Squadriglia, 10° Gruppo, 4° Stormo. Personal aircraft of Ten, Emanuel Annoni, Fuka, 19.09.1942. In this machine ObLtn Marseille crashed, on landing, during his test flight, when he visited 4° Stormo. Verde Oliva Scuro 2 with blotches in Nocciola Chiaro 4, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. 18 cc Saqyord mojo C.202, Serie III, M.M. 7842, Macchi. Aircraft of 378* Squadriglia, 155° Gruppo, 51° Stormo. Personal aircraft of Sgt. Magg. Faliero Gelli, Gelam spring 1942. This machine was force-landed on Gozo Island (close to Malta) after a dogfight over Malta. Uppersurfaces in Verde Mimetico 2 with blotches in Nocciola Chiaro 4. Engine covers from different aircraft painted in Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. €.202, Serie III, M.M. 7844, Macchi. Aircraft of 73* Squadriglia, 9° Gruppo, 5° Stormo. Personal aircraft of Capt. Carlo Maurizio Ruspoli, Fuka, September 1942. Verde Oliva Scuro 2 with blotches in Nocciola Chiaro 4, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces, white wingtips. ‘Sayyoid mojop £8 2079 MPOPW C.202, Serie [V, M.M. 7987 (?), SAL. Aircraft of 396* Squadriglia, 154° Aut. Gruppo. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. C.202, Serie V, M.M. 7412 (?), Breda. Aircraft of 84° Squadriglia, 10° Gruppo, 4° Stormo. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Saqyoid mojop 07D OOKW FR €.202, Serie V, M.M. 7457, Breda. Aircraft of 90" Squadriglia, 10° Gruppo, 4° Stormo. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro - undersurfaces. €.202, Serie V, MM. 7426, Breda. Aircraft of 366* Squadriglia, 151° Gruppo, 53° Stormo. Note that rudder or complete tail was taken from a Folgore built by SAI. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. ‘sayyoid mojo9 €.202, Serie VI, M.M. 8344, Breda. Aircraft of 238* Squadriglia. Aircraft Dark Green or Verde Oliva Scuro 2 with Grigio Azzuro Chiaro ~ undersurfaces. ® Gruppo, 52" Stormo, Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Azzuro Chiaro ~ undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Serie VII. Sajyoid mojo9 a iy C.202, Serie VII, M.M. 9042, Macchi. Aircraft of 151" Squadriglia, 20° Gruppo, 51° Stormo. Personal aircraft of Capt. Furio Nicolo Doglio, commander of 151* Squadriglia, Gela, June 1942. Capt. Doglio was shot down in this machine by George Burling over Malta on 27.07.1942. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear-view mirror . Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro ~undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Serie VI. C.202, Serie VII, M.M. 9050, Macchi. Aircraft of 70° Squadriglia, 23° Gruppo, 3° Stormo. Personal aircraft of Ten. Giorgio Santamaria Nic- colini, Abu Haggag, June 1942. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear-view mirror . Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Serie VII. ‘Sayqyord mojo9 .202, Serie VII, MM. 9083, Macchi. Aircraft of 153° Gruppo, 54° Stormo, Personal aircraft of the 153° Gruppo commander. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro —undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Serie VIL Macchi C.202 87 €.202, Serie VII, MM. 9066, Macchi. Aircraft of 151* Squadriglia, 20° Gruppo, 51° Stormo. The second aircraft of Mar. Ennio Tarantoli with individual no 151- 2, the first was M.M. 9032. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear-view mirror . Tarantoli scored: 1 P-40, 3 Spitfires, two shared with Doglio, and 1 I-15 in Spain, C.202, Serie VII, M.M. 9101, Macchi. Aircraft of 356" Squadriglia. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear-view mirror . Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Serie VII. 68 OTD HO2OW €.202, Serie V (2), Breda. Aircraft of 164* Squadriglia, 161° Gruppo. Camouflage colours very faded. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro ~ undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Breda built aircraft C.202, Serie V, MM. (?), Breda, Aircraft of 374* Squadriglia, 153° Gruppo, 54° Stormo. Engine cover from different aircraft (Macchi built). Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Breda built aircraft. 70z'D "20W 06 C.202, Serie VIII, M.M. 8081, Breda. Aircraft of 75* Squadriglia, 23° Gruppo, 3° Stormo. Personal aircraft of the Squadriglia commander Capt. Mario Pinna, Abu Haggag, September 1942. The first machine built in VIII serie, Nocciola Chiaro 4 with rather small blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro ~ undersurfaces. Camouflage not typical for Breda built aircraft. C.202, Serie I, MM. (?), Breda. Aircraft of 81* Squadriglia, 6° Gruppo, 1° Stormo. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Breda built aircraft, but very faded. 16 2079 "P2PW €.202, Serie IX, M.M. 9454, Macchi. Aircraft of 396* Squadriglia, 154° Gruppo Autonomo. Personal aircraft of Sgt. Gualtiero Benzi. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear-view mirror . Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro ~undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Macchi built aircraft, since Serie VILL C.202, Serie XI, M.M. 9691, Breda. Aircraft of 353* Squadriglia, 20° Gruppo, 51° Stormo. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear- view mirror . Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Breda built aircraft. Sayyoid mojop 07D MOON 76 C.202, Serie I, M.M 7916, Breda. Aircraft of I./JG 108-214. RLM 02 with RLM 75 undersurfaces, spinner — RLM 70 with 1/4 in White. . tem C.202, Serie XI, M.M. 9691, Breda. Aircraft of 2JG/108 (2). Fhr Emil Poidinger escaped on 05.10.1944 in this machine stripes uppersurfaces with RLM 04 £6 20D HO20W C.202, Serie XII, M.M. 91???, Breda. Aircraft captured by RAF. Cross on the rudder and fuselage band was overpainted with RAF Dark Green. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear-view mirror . Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small, very dense blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Breda built aircraft, since Serie XTL 202, Serie XII, MM. 91222, Breda, Formerly aircraft of 151° Squadriglia, 20° Gruppo, 51° Stormo. Aircraft captured by personnel of 417 RCAF Squadron, Aireraft with armoured windscreen and rear- view mirror . Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small, very dense blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro — undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Breda built aircraft, since Serie XIL OTD OOM £6 C.202, Serie XI, MM. 9122, Breda, Aircraft of 70* Squadriglia, 23° Gruppo, 3° Stormo. Nocciola Chiaro 4 with small, very dense blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro ~ undersurfaces. Cam- ouflage typical for Breda built aircraft, since Serie XI. C.202, Serie XII, M.M. 91831, Breda, Aircraft of 8° Gruppo. Machine with DB605A engine and different exhaust pipes. Aircraft silver overall. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear-view mirror $6 cOz'D HoDDW €.202, Serie XII, M.M. 91???, Breda. Croatian Air Force. Personal aircraft of the commander of 2,/Kro. JGr 1, Hptm (Mjr) Josip Helebrant. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear-view mirror . €.202, Serie XII, M.M. 91974, Breda, Testbed for underwing MG 151/20 cannons. Aircraft with armoured windscreen and rear-view mirror . Nocciola Chiaro 4 with blotches in Verde Oliva Scuro 2, Grigio Azzuro Chiaro - undersurfaces. Camouflage typical for Macchi built aircraft since Serie VII. .202 of unknown series and M.M. Interesting camouflage — probably American Sand 49. Aircraft captured by American troop and repainted All insignias were also repainted. C.202, probably Serie XII, Breda. Aircraft of 2./Jg.Lehr.tb. Gr. (“13”). Aircraft flown by Konrad Augner of 2.Jagd Lehrer Uberpriifungsgruppe. Aircraft in Breda camouflage but not original engine cover. ‘sayyjoid mojop ISBN 83-89450-06-2 9'79 838911450066