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A Project Report of

Vishwakarma Yojana: An approach towards Rurbanization


(Phase III)

Village: Santej

District: Gandhinagar

Gujarat Technological University,


Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

PROJECT REPORT
ON

Vishwakarma Yojana: Phase-III


An Approach towards Rurbanization
for
Santej Village, Gandhinagar District, Gujarat
Year:2015-16
Prepared by
NAME

ENROLLMENT NO

Pratik B Jogi

120170109026

Nodal Officer:

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Government Engineering


College,
Chandkheda, Ahmedabad 382424
Gujarat
heda, Ahmedabad 382424
Gujarat

Page

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY
Chandkheda, Ahmedabad 382424
Gujarat

Prof. K. B. Rathod,
Electrical Department,
Vishwakarma Government Engineering College
Chandkheda, Ahmedabad-382424

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

CONTENT

List of Content
Cover Page

Page No.
1
4

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Index

List of Figures

List of Tables

Page

Certificate

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project work entitled Vishwakarma Yojana


Phase III (Village Santej) is the work done by
Pratik Bipinbhai Jogi (120170109026)
Under my guidance in partial fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of
Engineeringin Electrical Engineering, of Gujarat Technological University,
Chandkheda, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2015-16.

____________

Prof. S. P. SAPRE
(Head of Department)

Prof. K.B.Rathod
(Project Guide)

Page

_______________

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am highly indented to Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad for providing us such
opportunity to work under Vishwakarma Yojana to get real work experience and applying
our technical knowledge in the development of Villages.
I wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Akshai Agrawal, Honble Vice
Chancellor, Gujarat Technological University-Ahmedabad, for his encouragement and
support during project work. I express our sincere thanks to all the members of Department
of Technical Education for appreciating and acknowledging our work. Especially thanks to
Registrar, Gujarat Technological University and team of Gujarat Technological University
for their unconditional support during the project work.

I express our sincere thanks to DDO, TDO, Sarpanch and staff members of Santej village
for providing us with requisite data whenever I approached them.Especially our thanks are
to all villagers and stake holders for their support during Survey.

An act

of gratitude

is expressed

to our

guide Prof.

K.B.Rathod,

Nodal

Officer,

Vishwakarma Government Engineering College, Chandkheda for their invaluable


guidance, constant inspirationand his actively involvement in my dissertation work. I
therefore, take thisopportunity for expressing our deep gratitude and sincere thanks to them
withoutwhose help and cooperation, it might not been possible for us to produce this project
work in the present form.

Page

Pratik B Jogi

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

ABSTRACT

Today world is growing rapidly and the living standards of society are improving due to
development in each and every field. Due to evolution of new technologies, world
has become small. Gandhinagar is among one of the developed cities of Gujarat.

Santej is one of the villages of Gandginagar district. It is essential that development must
be indicated at village level for growth of the state and nation.The preliminary survey
was carried out and data has been collected to assure the problem of the village. It is
observed that the village is facing the problem and basic amenities like street light, energy
efficient equipment product along with lake of important facility like solid waste disposal and
drainage facility.The efforts are made to suggest the remedies to tackle the problem and
household solution at preliminary level. It is also intended to carry out detailed survey for

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the betterment of the village at large scale.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

INDEX
Sr. No.
1

Chapter
Introduction

Page No.
9

1.1

Introduction of Chapter

1.2

Study justification

1.3

Study Area

1.4

Objectives of the study

1.5

Scope of the Study

1.6

Methodology

Literature Review

12

2.1

Electricity in village

2.2

Government Norms (Rules & Regulations)

2.3

Issues identification

2.4

Approach So Far

Study Area Profile

17

3.1

Study Area Location

3.2

Physical & Demographical Growth

3.3

Brief history

3.4

Economic profile

3.5

Social scenario

3.6

Electricity infrastructure network


3.6.1. Available sources in village
(For house, irrigation, industry or other)

Planning Proposal
4.1

Design Selections

4.2

Design Proposals

21

4.2.1 Primary Energy Audit


4.2.2 Sustainable/ Renewable Energy source

Recommendation & Suggestions

31

Conclusion

32

Annexure

33

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Page

Planning

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

7.1 Survey Form


7.2 Base map of Village with respect to electricity
distribution
7.3 Photographs

List of Figures
Sr. No.

Details

Page No.

Methodology

11

Village Map 1

17

Village Map 2

17

Population

18

Energy Consumption Graph

25

Electricity Bill Graph

25

Solar Roof Top System

31

List of Tables
Sr. No.

Details

Page No.

Population

18

Billing Details

25

End User Profile

26

ENCON

26

Power Consumption Detail in Panchayat

28

Page

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction of Chapter

Around 70% of the State's population is living in rural areas. People inrural areas
should have the same quality of life as is enjoyed by people living insub urban and
urban areas. On account of poverty, unemployment, poor andinadequate
infrastructural facility has caused migration of the rural people to urban.Hence,
created slum in these region consequently social and economic tensionhas resulted
in urban areas. Hence, rural Development which is concerned with economic growth
and social justice, improvement in the living standard of the rural people by providing
adequate and quality social services and minimum basic needs becomes essential.

The present strategy of rural development mainly focuses on provision of basic


amenities and infrastructure facilities through innovative program of wageand selfemployment. For economic improvement of local people the above goals will be
achieved by various program being implemented creating partnership with
communities, non-governmental organizations, community based organizations,
institutions.

The Government's policy and program have laid emphasis on poverty,generation of


employment and income opportunities and provision of infrastructureand basic
facilities to meet the needs of rural poor.

As a measure to strengthen the grass root level democracy, the

Government

is

constantly endeavouring to employ Panchayat Raj Institutions interms of functions,

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powers and finance.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

1.2 Study justification

The basic need of rural development program is to alleviate poverty and unemployment through
Creation of basic social and economic infrastructure
Provision of training to rural unemployed youth
Providing employment to marginal Farmers/Labourers.

By this Vishwakarma Yojana project, government want technical solution of the problem of
villages at the engineering point of view. In this project, the common problem of village are solved
by the engineering students.

1.3 Study Area


Renewable Energy Source Planning
Primary Energy Audit
Energy Efficient Technology
Design of small solar power plant

1.4 Objectives of the study


Rural development aims at improving rural peoples livelihoods in an equitable and sustainable
manner, both socially and environmentally, through better access to assets (natural, physical,
human, technological and social capital), and services, and control over productive capital (in its
financial or economic and political forms) that enable them to improve their livelihoods on a
sustainable and equitable basis.

Main objectives are,


To suggest the suitable technical solution of problem.
To suggest improvement of basic facility like solid waste management, drainage

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facility etc. and amenities like street light, solar roof top plant.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

1.5

Scope of the Study


The study may lead to improvise the scope of region in various front.
Improve living standard of rural people by helping them develop their skill and subsequently by
assisting them in implementing income generating activities in close coordination and
cooperation with national and international organizations.
Improve the physical infrastructural facilities, social infrastructural facilities such
as public latrine blocks and garden.
There is also no availability of non-conventional sources. The village is not so
developed at now and it is the main village of this Taluka, so it requires
development as soon as possible.

Methodology

Village
Data
Collection

Literature
Review

Data
Presentation
Available
Emenities

Gap Analysis
Design
Proposal

Recommendation

Conclusion

11

Figure 1
Page

1.6

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

2 Literature Survey
2.1 Electricity in village

Rural electrification is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and remote
areas. Electricity is used not only for lighting and household purposes, but it also
allows for mechanization of many farming operations, such as threshing, milking,
and hoisting grain for storage. In areas facing labour shortages, this allows for
greater productivity at reduced cost

In December 2011, over 300 million Indian citizens had no access to frequent
electricity. Over one third of India's rural population lacked electricity, as did 6% of
the urban population. Of those who did have access to electricity in India, the supply
was intermittent and unreliable. States such as Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, etc.
provide continuous power supply.

India's Ministry of Power launched Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana
(DDUGJY) as one of its flagship programme in July 2015 with the objective of
providing round the clock power to the rural areas. It focuses on reforms in rural
power sector by separation of feeder lines (rural households & agricultural) and
strengthening of transmission and distribution infrastructure. The earlier scheme for
rural electrification viz. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) has
been subsumed in the new scheme as its rural electrification component.

In Gujarat most of the village get 24/7 electricity supply. But, use of renewable

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energy sources is very less.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

2.2 Government Norms (Rules & Regulations)


The activities to be supported should lead to promotion of sustainable infrastructure
development in rural and agriculture & allied sector.
The activities should include a component for documentation of experience during
implementation.
Special thrust to North-East Regions including Sikkim, Eastern Region and Hilly
Himalayan States of Uttarkhand, Himachal Pradesh and J & K, for creation of
experimental/ promotional infrastructure as also for supporting all other activities.
The experimental projects/activities to be supported should be prototypes of
innovative/ experimental/demonstrative nature. Infrastructure assets created should
result in improvement or generate demand for other infrastructures of higher order.
Under Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana, electricity distribution infrastructure
is envisaged to establish Rural Electricity Distribution Backbone (REDB) with at least
a 33/11KV sub-station, Village Electrification Infrastructure (VEI) with at least a
Distribution Transformer in a village or hamlet, and standalone grids with generation
where grid supply is not feasible.
This infrastructure would cater to the requirements of agriculture and other activities
in rural areas including irrigation pump sets, small and medium industries, khadi and
village industries, cold chains, healthcare and education and IT. This would facilitate
overall rural development, employment generation and poverty alleviation.
Subsidy towards capital expenditure to the tune of 90% will be provided, through
Rural Electrification Corporation Limited (REC), which is a nodal agency for
implementation of the scheme. Electrification of un-electrified Below Poverty Line
(BPL) households will be financed with 100% capital subsidy @ Rs.1500/- per
connection in all rural habitations.
The Management of Rural Distribution is mandated through franchisees. The
services of Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSU) are available to the States

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for assisting them in the execution of Rural Electrification projects.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

2.3 Issues identification


Availability of street lightning in village or rural area
Availability of regulated power
Requirement of electricity for farmers for pumping purpose
Unawareness of villagers in saving electricity
Incomplete coverage
Faulty definition/ incomplete data
Less enthusiastic approach by NGOS
Lack of improvement in technology
No use of renewable energy resources

Approach So Far
Kutir Jyoti Program (KJP)
KJP was initiated in 1988-89 to provide single point light connection (60 w) to all
Below Poverty Line (BPL) households in the country. KJP provides 100% grant for
one time cost of internal wiring and service connection charges and builds in a
proviso for 100% metering for release of grants. Nearly 5.1 million households have
been covered under the scheme to date. The scheme was merged into the
Accelerated Electrification of One Lakh Villages and One Crore Households in
May2004 and now into the RGGVY.
Accelerated Rural Electrification Program (AREP)
The AREP operational since 2002, provides an interest subsidy of 4% to states for
rural electrification (RE) programs. The AREP covers electrification of un-electrified
villages and household electrification and has an approved outlay of Rs.560 crore
under the 10 the Plan. The interest subsidy is available to state governments and
electricity utilities on loans availed from approved financial institutions like the REC

Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF).

14

(Rural Electrification Corporation), PFC (Power Finance Corporation) under the

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2.4

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna (PMGY)


The PMGY launched in 2000-2001 provided additional financial assistance for
minimum services by the central government to all states on a 90% loan and 10%
grant basis. These included rural health, education, drinking water and rural
electrification. The PMGY with an outlay of about Rs.1600 crores during the 10th
Plan period was being coordinated and monitored by the Rural Development
Division of the Planning Commission. Under PMGY states had the flexibility to
decide on the interreallocation of funds amongst the 6 basic services. Thus states
could enhance allocations to expedite the pace of rural electrification.
Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana
It is earlier known as Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana. Government of
India, in April 2005, launched the scheme Rajiv Gandhi Grameen

vidyutikaran

Yojana Scheme of Rural Electricity Infrastructure and Household Electrification for


electrification of un-electrified villages and providing access to electricity to all rural
households in the country, including electrification of un-electrified habitat population
of above 100, providing free electricity connections to BPL households.

The Remote Village Electrification (RVE) Program


Since 2005, the RVE program of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energies
(MNRE) has been supplementing the efforts of the Ministry of Power (MoP) through
complementary measures for the provision of basic lighting/electricity facilities
through renewable energysources. The Remote Village Electrification program
(RVE) is responsible for electrifying un-electrified remote census villages and remote
un-electrified hamlets of electrified census villages where grid connection is either
not feasible or not economical (because they are located in forests, hills, deserts or
islands) and where DDG projects are not implemented by the RGGVY of the Ministry

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of power.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM)


The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched on 23 November 2009
in a statement to Parliament by the Union Minister for New and Renewable Energies.
This mission is part of the 2008 Indian National Action Plan on Climate Change
(NAPCC) which seeks to reduce Indias future reliance on non-renewable energy
sources. The National Solar Mission is a major initiative of the Government of India
and State Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing
Indias energy security challenge. It will also constitute a major contribution by India
to the global effort to meet the challenges of climate change.
Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
The purpose of Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) is
to (i) ensure that every household has access to a tap with assured supply of water
and a sewerage connection; (ii) increase the amenity value of cities by developing
greenery and well maintained open spaces (parks); and (iii) reduce pollution by
switching to public transport or constructing facilities for non-motorized transport
(e.g. walking and cycling). You can find detailed information about the Missions

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objectives, planning, funding, etc.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

3 Study Area Profile


3.1 Study Area Location
Santej is 30 km away from Ahmedabad city. Kalol is the nearest town which is 18 km far
from village.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

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Figure 3

17

Figure 2

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

3.2 Physical & Demographical Growth


Its population is 7493 according to 2011 census.
Total area of village is 2108.02 hector.
Approximately 800 hector is the residential area.
Village has 2 school and 1 PHC.
Agriculture is the main occupation. Apart from this industries also provides
handsome share in village economy.
Table

1
Sr. No.

Census

Population

Male

Female

House Hold

2011

7493

3974

3519

1683

Population
Male

0%

Female
47%

Female

Male
53%

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18

Figure 4

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

3.3 Brief history


Santej is 30 km away from Ahmedabad city. Kalol is the nearest town which is 18 km
far from village. It is one of the villages of the Kalol Taluka.
Santej is known Santej Tiles. It is main attraction of the village.
Santej has one old God Mahadevas temple.
Near to Santej Village, thre is a Hare Krishna Temple. Feom this temple, Akshya
Patra provides Madhyahan Bhojan to Govt School students.

3.4 Economic profile


Main business of village is agriculture. Santej has a market also. Several people of
village run shops and other basic necessary business for daily life like grocery
shops, garage, saloon electrical repairing etc.
Transportation and food business run successfully and give employment to the many
villages.

3.5 Social Scenario


All the villagers lives with unity. Most of the villagers are from middle class.
It has 2 school. It has only one primary health centre. It has 9 working Aaganwadi.
It has poor drainage system. Cleanliness is required in the village.
Most of the roads are concrete road and some are pucca road.
Enrolment ratio in the school is 100%.
Some industries are also situated in Santej village, near highway.

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Population of women is 11% less than of men. 890 women per 1000 male.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

3.6

Electricity infrastructure network

3.6.1 Available sources in village (For house, irrigation, industry or other)


UGVCL provides electricity in the Santej, Village.
It also provides supply for irrigation and industry.
There are inadequate street light.

Renewable Energy Source

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20

No renewable energy sources in the village.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

4 Planning Proposal
4.1

Design Selections

In this project I am working in a village on solar theme, so while designing I


have to study about solar components and their various characteristics.
Mainly there are four components are used in any solar project.

1. Solar Panel
2. Battery
3. Inverter
4. Load

1. Solar Panel
Solar Panel refers to a panel designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source of
energy for generating electricity or heating.
A photovoltaic (in short PV) module is a packaged, connected assembly of typically
610 solar cells. Solar Photovoltaic panels constitute the solar array of a photovoltaic
system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential
applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test
conditions, and typically ranges from 100 to 365 watts. The efficiency of a module
determines the area of a module given the same rated output an 8% efficient 230
watt module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt module. There are a
few

solar

panels

available

that

are

exceeding

19%

efficiency.

A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations

and interconnection wiring.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Page

array of solar modules, a solar inverter, and sometimes a battery and/or solar tracker

21

contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes a panel or an

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

There are three types of solar modules:


1. Monocrystalline
2. Polycrystalline
3. Thin film

Monocrystalline modules have efficiency about 16-20% whereas Polycrystalline


modules have 12-17% and thin film has 6-12%.
Polycrystalline modules occupy more space than Monocrystalline modules.

2. Battery
Deep-cycle, lead-acid batteries are widely used in renewable energy and gridbackup system, and are ideally suited for these applications because of their long,
reliable life and low cost of ownership.
Deep cycle refers to the fact that in a solar power system, it is likely that the battery
will become charged during a sunny day, then they may become almost fully
discharged with use, before they are again fully charged.
In stand-alone systems, the power generated by the solar panels is usually used to
charge a lead-acid battery. Other types of battery such as nickel-cadmium batteries
may be used, but the advantages of the lead-acid battery ensure that it is still the
most popular choice. A battery is composed of individual cells; each cell in a leadacid battery produces a voltage of about 2 Volts DC, so a 12 Volt battery needs 6
cells. The capacity of a battery is measured in Ampere-hours or Amp-hours (Ah).
Days of autonomy is another important aspect while selecting battery. This term
refers to the maximum days for which battery can supply power without being

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charged. In India, 3 days are considered as standard days of autonomy.

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Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

3. Inverter
A solar inverter, or PV inverter, or Solar converter, converts the variable direct
current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency
alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a
local, off-grid electrical network. It is a critical BOScomponent in a photovoltaic
system, allowing the use of ordinary AC-powered equipment. Solar inverters have
special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power
point tracking and anti-islanding protection.
Solar inverters may be classified into three broad types:
Stand-alone inverters, used in isolated systems where the inverter draws its DC
energy from batteries charged by photovoltaic arrays. Many stand-alone inverters
also incorporate integral battery chargers to replenish the battery from an AC source,
when available. Normally these do not interface in any way with the utility grid, and
as such, are not required to have anti-islanding protection.
Grid-tie inverters, which match phase with a utility-supplied sine wave. Grid-tie
inverters are designed to shut down automatically upon loss of utility supply, for
safety reasons. They do not provide backup power during utility outages.
Battery backup inverters, are special inverters which are designed to draw energy
from a battery, manage the battery charge via an onboard charger, and export
excess energy to the utility grid. These inverters are capable of supplying AC energy
to selected loads during a utility outage, and are required to have anti-islanding
protection
Solar inverters use maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to get the maximum
possible power from the PV array.
There is another important part in inverter known as charge controller.
A charge controller may be used to power DC equipment with solar panels. The
charge controller provides a regulated DC output and stores excess energy in a

can be connected to the output of a charge controller to drive AC loads.

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More expensive units will also perform maximum power point tracking. An inverter

23

battery as well as monitoring the battery voltage to prevent under/overcharging.

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

4. Load
This type of solar system is by far the most simply. The solar modules are connected
directly to a load which is often a motor. Whenever the sun is up and shining the
motor will work. Unlike electronics a motor can take a variable voltage and current
input without being damaged. A solar powered attic fan is a great example of this
system type.
Another good example is a water pump. With a water pumping system, instead of
storing energy water is stored. For example, if a rancher is pumping water for cows,
the water is stored in a tank and that tank is used when needed to fill troughs for the
animals. With most modern water pumping systems there is another component
typically in the system between the solar array and the pump that controls the output
of the solar array to better optimize the pumps operation.
DC Loads connected to panels may be lamp in solar street light.

4.2

Design Proposals

4.2.1 Primary Energy Audit


(Gram Panchayat, Santej)
Gram Panchayat of Santej village is situated at the center of village. It is one
storeyed building. Its hall has lack of sunlight during day time. Timing of office is 10
AM to 7 PM. In one month it works for 24 days

Billing Detail
TABLE 2
Particular

Average Value
510 units
Rs.2220/-

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24

Sr.
No.
1 Units
2 Amount

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

Energy Consumption
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
JAN - FEB

MAR - APR
Units

MAY - JUN

JUL -AUG

Figure 7

Electricty Bill
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
JAN - FEB

MAR - APR
Bill

MAY - JUN

JUL - AUG

Figure 8

End User
TABLE 3
kW

Usage in hour

1 AC

1.500

2 FAN

0.060

10

2 CFL

0.03

10

3 TUBE LIGHT

0.055

10

1 COMPUTER

0.2

2
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25

Equipment

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Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

Total kWh consumption of one day (when all equipment are in operation i.e.
summer) = 10.85 units (approx. 10 units)

Recommendation
TABLE 4
Sr. No.

ENCON

SAVING PER
YEAR

Replace 55 W Tube lights with 20 W LED lights

Rs. 480/-

Replace 1.5 ton AC with 0.5 ton AC in manager cabin


and ATM

Rs.7780/-

Optimum use of day light can further reduce electricity bill of the bank. Make
arrangements of proper window for sun light during day time.

Approximate Total Saving is Rs.7500/-

During winter and monsoon season bill would reduce more.

4.2.2 Sustainable/ Renewable Energy source Planning

Design Steps for Solar Power PV Module

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In present scenario, generation of power is quite less than demand. And the difference
between them is increasing rapidly. So, its advantageous if a provision is there for the
building to generate electricity for its own demand. Also, excessive power generated can be
transferred to the grid which would help in bridging the gap between generation and
demand. Solar rooftop plan is the best option for economic power generation.

26

Requirement

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Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

Benefits of Roof top PV


At national level,

It reduces requirement of land for solar Power.


It reduces need for additional transmission infrastructure

For consumers, it reduces

The dependency on grid power.


Mitigates diesel generator dependency.
Long term reliable power source.

Most suitable for commercial establishments

Max generation during peak usage time.


Solar power cost is close to the commercial power cost.
Solar power cost is fixed for 25 years

As per the requirement of electricity in my village I propose a solar roof top plan for the
Panchayat building in my village.

Figure 10

PV module Calculations
A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations

As per our system requirement we select Monocrystalline PV module For Panchayat


building.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Page

array of solar modules, a solar inverter, and sometimes a battery.

27

contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes a panel or an

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

Determine power consumption demands


The first step in designing a solar PV system is to find out the total power and energy
consumption of all loads that need to be supplied by the solar PV system as follows:
Table 5
Component

Number of
component

rating

Working hour

Ceiling fan

60W

T-12 fluorescent
tube light with
electromagnetic
ballast

55W

Calculate total Watt-hours per day needed from the PV modules


Multiply the total appliances Watt-hours per day times 1.3 (the energy lost in the
system) to get the total Watt-hours per day which must be provided by the panels.
Total power = {(60*7*3) + (55*7*3)} *1.3
= 3.139 KWh
Size of PV modules
Different size of PV modules will produce different amount of power. To find
out the sizing of PV module, the total peak watt produced needs. The peak
watt (Wp) produced depends on size of the PV module and climate of site
location.
We have to consider panel generation factor which is different in each site
location. The panel generation factor is 4.2 To determine the sizing of PV
modules, calculation is as follows:

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= 747.38 Watt-peak

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= 3139/4.2

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

Calculate the number of PV panels for the system


Divide the answer obtained in item 2.1 by the rated output Watt-peak of the PV
modules available to you. Increase any fractional part of result to the next highest full
number and that will be the number of PV modules required.
= 747.38/110
= 7 Modules
Inverter Calculation
An inverter is used in the system where AC power output is needed. The input
rating of the inverter should never be lower than the total watt of appliances.
The inverter must have the same nominal voltage as your battery.

For stand-alone systems, the inverter must be large enough to handle the total
amount of Watts you will be using at one time.
Connected Load = 3(55) + 3(60)
= 345 watt
The inverter size should be 25-30% bigger than total Watts of appliances.
Hence inverter size should be 440watt or greater.

Battery Size
The battery type recommended for using in solar PV system is deep cycle battery.
Deep cycle battery is specifically designed for to be discharged to low energy level
and rapid recharged or cycle charged and discharged day after day for years. The

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night and cloudy days. To find out the size of battery, calculate as follows:

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battery should be large enough to store sufficient energy to operate the appliances at

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

Battery Capacity (Ah) = Watt-hours per day used by appliances x Days of autonomy
(0.85 x 0.6 x nominal battery voltage)
= 2415 X 3
0.85X0.6X12
=1183.82 Ah

Hence Battery should be rated 12 V,1200 Ah per 3 day autonomy.

Solar charge controller sizing


The solar charge controller is typically rated against Amperage and Voltage
capacities. Select the solar charge controller to match the voltage of PV array and
batteries and then identify which type of solar charge controller is right for your
application. Make sure that solar charge controller has enough capacity to handle
the current from PV array.
PV module specification
Pm = 110Wp
Vm = 12 v DC
Im = 6.6 A
Voc = 20.7 A
Isc = 7.5 A
Solar charge controller rating = (7 strings x 7.5 A) x 1.3 = 68.25 A

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So the solar charge controller should be rated 80 A at 12 V or greater.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

5 Recommendation & Suggestions

Implement the design of solar street light for streets of village.


Use LED Street Lights in solar power based design.
Use energy efficient equipment in public building i.e. LED lights, energy efficient
fans, electronic ballast tube lights, lighting voltage regulator etc.
Try to utilise day light in Panchayat Bhavan, school and bank.
Use small solar roof top plant in panchayat Bhavan.
Keep maintenance of electrical equipment i.e. water pump and motor, AC, fan etc.
Do regular energy audit of public building regularly. It will maintain the bill and
implementation of report may reduce bill.
Redesign the Panchayat Bhavan and Bank if possible, so they can use daylight and
save energy during day time.
Use solar power based irrigation system.
Aware public about energy conservation and let them know about difference
between
Less use of energy and energy conservation
Aware about renewable energy sources and its importance in terms of environment.
Though, such kind of plant are costly initially, they are economic in long run and give

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pollution free energy.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

6. Conclusion
As per problem observed in rural area preventive and renewable measures
aresuggested. Implementation of improvement will reduce problem in areaand
improve standard of living of village people. This can be resulted inimproving social
and economic effect of rural area on economy of thecountry and it may result
in more efficient use of infrastructure. By caringout the Vishwakarma Yojana project
work,I came to know that if proper planning and guidance is provided youth can
change thecomplete scenario of village.

More use of solar based energy resources in home and small public utility building
can reduce carbon footprint of village as well as reduce electricity cost in long run.
Maximum use of day light in Panchayat Bhavan and bank can reduce electricity bill.
Awareness about energy efficient equipment is important thing in conservation of
energy. Aware village dwellers about solar based power though they are getting 24*7
electricity supply. Because, solar power is the future of electricity and in long time we
will have free energy with one time capital investment and proper maintenance.

Thus, use of renewable energy, energy efficient equipment and proper use of energy

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can push Santej village towards Rurbanization.

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat

Vishwakarma Yojana: Santej, Gandhinagar

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7. Annexure

Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat