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This unit will provide some useful skills that help

with your studies without neglecting your other

responsibilities and activities.
We will discuss setting personal goals and
motivational strategies to help you achieve your goals.
To help you learn better, we will provide tips on
creating a conducive study environment, various
learning styles as well as techniques to enhance your
You will also learn how to take notes effectively.

1. Identify and set goals for your U studies.

2. Apply motivational strategies for managing
your learning.
3. Apply techniques to enhance memory skills in
4. Manage your stress level.
5. Allocate time for study, work and other daily
6. Differentiate the various personal learning
7. Take notes effectively.

1.Explain the meaning of a goal.
2. Identify and set effective goals for your U
3. Differentiate between short-term goals
(STG) and long-term goals. (LTG)

1.In football players chasing a football

hoping to score a goal.
2. You are just like them, working very hard
to score a goal too.

1. Goals are wants

2. Many people fail to achieve their goals because they do not
take the necessary effort towards achieving them.
3. In business environment, theres only 1 goal = to
maximise profits - via hard work and effective strategies.
4. As a student your main goal is to secure a degree.
5. To begin, it is important that you have clear and specific
6. You are more likely to succeed academically if you are
aware of the reasons for signing up at WOU.
7. The reasons could be career, personal satisfaction or
social aspirations.


Personal satisfaction Social

To get
promoted to
a higher

To do something
To be equal with
positive with my life. my friends.

Fill in the box below with your reasons for taking up

this degree programme at WOU.




(fill in)

1.Having clear goals and putting in the right

effort will help you achieve them.
2. Hence it is important to have goals!
3. Locke (1968,1990) : individuals make
calculated decisions about their desired
goals. Once they determine the goals they
intend to achieve these goals and
intentions direct and motivate efforts to
attain them.
4. Thus setting goals affects the behaviour of
individuals and their job-related

1. Challenging and realistic

your goal must not be so easy
your goal must not be too difficult or impossible
set a goal which is slightly difficult and challenging
You must know your own ability
Getting a degree at WOU is both realistic and
challenging to you ??????

a. I will get high scores for all my exams.
b. I will get no less than 75 marks for all my
1. (b) is definitely more specific and measureable
because you can judge when you have
completed or reached the goal-75 marks or

1. Success = a series of little victories.

2. Effective goals encourage steady progressDAD,WAW.
3. Make small goals which you can achieve
e.g. From Mon to Fri , I must read thru section
1.3 of Unit 1. I must also complete the 3
activities and the self-test paper.
4. This means you must read the entire unit and
write down all the answers.
5. Whenever you have progress, rejoice, feel
proud of what you have done and you will feel

1. A +ve goal = getting high marks in exam =

positive state of mind = pleasant memories and
2. -ve goals = unpleasant memories.
3. Success = we focus on striving towards +ve
Let us think which is +ve or ve.

a. I do not w ant to fail W UC 131

b. I w ant to get a Grade A in W UC 131.
Which of the above is a +ve goal ?

It is good to set a starting point and a finishing

point for your goal.
Instead of saying : I will get my ODL
assignment done this month,
You may want to say: I will start my oDL
assignment on 10 October and complete it by 21

1. STGs are also called objectives.

2. They are stepping stones to meeting LTGs.
3. LTGs comprises of plans you make for your
future.- family,career and retirement.
4. People set LTGs by imagining where they want
to be 5 to 10 years from now.-They use ST
5. Objectives consist of goals regarding education,
part-time or ST jobs and projects.
6. Each of these = LTGs

Determine your LTGs

In the space below, write your LT education goal.
Bear in mind the 5 charateristics of effective goals
mentioned above, write down your LTG.
My LTG is

Plan to achieve your long term goal

To attain your LTG, you need to make STGs or objectives
which will lead you to that LTG. List the STGs or
objectives that will help you achieve the LTG you have
stated above.
My ST objectives towards getting my degree are:
1. ____________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________

1. Knowing your goals and objectives will help you

maintain your focus on life and guide you along your
academic and career path.
2. It will prevent you from drifting aimlessly in life.
3. Balance your personal goals and your academic
4. Discuss your goals with your family members.
5. Stating your objectives and goals is an important
step towards your academic success.
6. There are challenges and some people view these
as barriers or obstacles.
7. How are you going to view them ?????

Have you faced any barriers in achieving any of your

goals during your school days or in your career ?
Now that you are a student again, can you think of
any potential obstacles which you feel are likely to
prevent you from achieving your academic goal ?

You need to identify your potential obstacles so that you can begin
to prepare to overcome them. You may do this by learning useful
strategies, which we shall discuss in other sections in this course.
When you have set your goals, you must always review them to
determine how you can achieve them. To help you focus on your
goals, ask yourself the following questions:
What goal related skills or knowledge do I have?
How do I get additional skills or knowledge?
What resources do I need and where can I get them?
What help or assistance do I need?
What obstacles will I face in achieving my goals?
What can I do to reduce or overcome these obstacles?
Remember you do not need to achieve success all the time.
Bill Lim, Success is not the goal, but the journey towards the goal.

Find out how being positive can bring you

Bili Lim Dare to Fail- His positive attitude
has led him to success.
Web Reference:
i. http://www.daretofail.com/theauthor2.ht
ii. www.moresales.com.my/catalog/entry/lkjj

In this section, you learnt about

goals and the characteristics of
effective goals such as challenging,
realistic, measurable, positive, etc.
We also discussed the differences
between STGs and LTGs. STGs,
which are referred to as objectives,
lead you to your LTGs.

Please answer the following questions and compare

your responses to the suggested answers at the
end of this unit.
1. Why are goals important ?
2. Discuss the characteristics of an effective goal.
3. According to Bili Lim, The willingness to fail
breeds success. What do you think this statement
means in relation to achieving the goals you set?

1. Explain the meaning of motivation.
2. Apply motivaional strategies in your learning.
3. Apply techniques to enhance your memory skills
in learning.
4. Evaluate your stress level and allocate your time
for study, work and other daily tasks.

1. Success in your studies does not happen by itself

or by chance.
2. To succeed, you need to make effort.
3. You need to organise yourself so that your
efforts are focused towards earning your degree.
4. Rearrange your daily schedule
5. Make certain sacrifices.
6. Making new arrangements for family,work or
even social life. e.g. pick up children from school,
cut down overtime etc.

1. Tools or ways to motivate yourself to

understand, learn and integrate new material or
2. Learn how to learn

1. an encouragement.
2. Extrinsic motivation = encouragement from
outside or external force.
3. Is the driving power behind all our actions.
4. Intrinsic motivation = motivation from within
5. If you are intrinsically motivated you do not
need external encouragement or rewards to
study hard.
6. Motivation is a goal-directed behaviour.
7. Our motivation depends on our own individual
values and beliefs.

What is your motivation ?

Take a look at the reasons you listed in Activity 3.1 on
why you signed up for this degree course at WOU.
Among all the reasons you gave, write down your most
important reason. This could be the motivation for you
to work towards your degree!

1. how you do your work

2. when you do your work
3. how long you concentrate on your work
4. what study strategies you use

1. Have a conducive environment to study

e.g. library
Activity 3.5
Identifying a conducive study environment
1. By now you should have a better idea of a conducive study
environment. In column A of the table below, list down the
conditions in an environment which will make it ideal for you to
study. Write them down in order of importance, from the most
important to the least important.
2. Look around your environment. How many of the conditions you
listed are present in your environment. In Column B, put a tick (/)
for those that are present and a cross (X) for those that are not.

Column A
My ideal condition

Column B
Put a / in this column if the
condition is present in your
study environment

3. List down the changes that you think you have to make
to your study environment.

2. Break down the bigger tasks

break down the big tasks into smaller tasks so that they are
more manageable-e.g. for working person, break down task
into revising one section of the unit at a time.

3. Set a realistic learning goal

setting effective and realistic goals will enhance your

4. Have incentives
give yourself a reward when you have achieved an objective
and this will motivate you greatly.

5. Be positive
Be positive when faced with unpleasant incidents and
When faced with problems seek solutions by taking
advantage of the support of your friends, colleagues, family
members and tutors.

6. Learn actively
take initiative to look for additonal references in the library or


Ask your tutor or friends for assistance

Form discussion groups with your course mates to discuss topics you
do not understand or problems you cannot solve.

7. Relax and exercise regularly

Relaxation is important
There are many forms of exercises, choose one you enjoy doing.

8. Have group discussions

Speaking to someone in the same situation is a great motivator
Sometimes listening to someone elses problem can also give you
ideas and solutions.

Refer to the telephone numbers you have compiled from your

course mates during the first tutorial . Identify names of a few
people whom you think may be included in your buddy group. The
purpose of this group is to help each other through discussions.
Write down their names and contact numbers in the spaces below.
Ask them their convenient or preferred time for having discussions.
Contact Numbers

Preferred Time

1. Go through the checklist below on motivational strategies to see

how many of the strategies you have used so far. Put a tick (/) in
the boxes concerned.
____ Do I have a conducive environment to study?
____ Do I normally break down the big tasks into smaller pieces ?
____ Do I have realistic goals ?
____ Do I give incentives to myself from time to time when I have
achieved something ?
____ Do I have positive attitudes most of the time ?
____ Do I learn actively ?
____ Do I discuss my difficulties or problems with my friends?
2. What are the strategies I have not tried so far. How can I use them
in future ?
Web Reference: To read up about the principles of motivation, refer to this website:

Memory is the retention of, and ability to recall

information, personal experiences, and procedures
(skills and habits) .

Memory may be divided into :-

i. short-term memory or recent memory (STM)

ii. long-term memory (LTM)

1. STM or working memory = last for a few seconds to

a minute. e.g recall a telephone no.
2. LTM = lasts from a minute or so to weeks or even
years. e.g memory of past experiences etc

ix. Mnemonic devices

4. Techniques to improve your memory:i. Make the material meaningful

ii. Organise info
iii. Use pictures
iv. Use mnemonics
v. Elaborate rehearsal
vi. Study actively
vii. Study regularly
viii. Space out studies

Make an effort to understand the info before you try to

remember it.
To make meanings of what you read, you should:i. Understand as much as possible the meaning of the content.
ii. Put the info into your own words as your words are likely to
be more meaningful than the authors.
iii. Think of your own examples and relate it to other info you
ve learnt and/or your own life experiences.
Motivation is something which makes us want to do
Your own e.g of motivation = getting a higher salary when
you have earned your degree at WOU.
Remember, examiners like answers that are not memorised.

1. Organise the materials into meaningful categories.

e.g. if you have numerous vocab terms to learn, group them into
categories according to textbook heading.
See table 3.2
Types of Families

Types of Residences

Types of Marriages

Marriage Customs














1. A picture is worth a thousand words

2. graphic memory
3. If you remember pictures better, create mental pictures to
enhance memory especially learning abstract words.
4. Include a mental picture with the definition = encoding the
info into your memory systems in two ways.
e.g. rejoice = be happy to help you remember better,
you might relate to your friends cheering and jumping.

1. Take the first letter of each word in the info to help you
e.g. The characteristics of effective goals can be
remembered by using the mnemonic SMART.
S Specific
M Measurable
A Attainable
R Relevant
T - Time

Now, take some time off your studies and

play some games to test your memory.
There are many interesting games available
at the following site. Try them to see
whether your memory fails you:

1. Rehearsal = the repetition of information

2. 2 types :
i. rote rehearsal- repeating the same words over and
over again not effective cos not meaningful
ii. elaborative rehearsal expanding on info by
analysing it further and relating to info already stored in
memory. much more effective for LTM.
e.g. the term norm to help you remember better,
elaborate by relating its meaning to something you
already know: Norms are sets of desirable behaviour
that people are supposed to follow in their interactions
with others.
# The more you elaborate , the more likely you are to remember
them and get high grades too.

1. Explain the info out loud to yourself using your

own words.
2. Explain the info several times,but try to recite
the info a little differently each time by rewording
it or thinking of different examples.
3. Think critically about what you study. Note the
relationships among ideas, ask yourself how
and why, compare and contrast info,
determining the significance of events, etc.

1. You have to study regularly.

2. To achieve high marks you need to:
i. Read through your notes and highlight key points and / or use the left
margin of your paper to indicate important info such as major concepts
vocab, etc. Each time you read it is good to write out the dates by the side
of each section.
ii. Reread the headings and subheadings, portions of the text that you have
highlighted or marked and finally , read the summary.
3. You need to repeatedly go over the materials
4. Frequent revision helps to keep the info fresh in your mind.
5. Know what you do not know.

1. Using note card to enhance memory is basically based on the flash card

Formulas, concepts or important dates are written on one side of the card
while their difinitions, details, meanings or elaboration are written on the
other side.


Different colour pens may be used for different types of terms or



Reading through these note cards saves time and increases efficiency
during revision.

Front of card:
Overcome The Hurdle
to Academic Success

Critical Thinking
pg. 27

Source from which this

phrase is taken,e.g, title
of book
Page of the book from
where this phrases is

Back of card:
Process of thinking to evaluate whether
info is :

Elaboration of Critical

to a particular situation

9. Spread out your study

avoid cramming

spread out your studies over several days

materials should be studied in small amounts

try to revise the materials that you studied the previous day.

even when you think you know the material, study it.

learning and remembering require a great deal of time and effort.

To read more about how memory works and also

techniques for memorising, please visit :
1. Think of the days when you were in school. How did you remember what
you learnt in History or Science? List down the methods you used.
2. Which of the methods you used was the most effective for you ?
Does your list match any of the methods mentioned above ?
3. Choose two 500-word articles from a magazine or newspaper.
Read each article twice. Select one method which you think will help
you remember the concepts or facts contained in the article. Using one
article at a time, try to recall the concepts or facts 24 hours later. Can
you remember better?

Have you ever wished that you had 48 hours

instead of 24 hours ?
How many times have you said: I dont have time
to do my
assignments. Why are you always short of time?
Perhaps, it is due to your inability to manage your
time well.
As a result you you not seem to have time for your
studies or work.
Lets find your management score.

Do this simple time management quiz at the following

website to find out your time management score:
It is a Time Management Quiz which tests how you
manage your time. There is a Yes/No answer for each
question in the quiz. If your score for the above quiz is
high, between 8 to 10 points, then you have managed
your time well. If your score is between 5 to 7, then your
TM skill is average. However, if your score is below 5, then
you have to think again about your TM skills.

take charge of your time.

have fun and also meet your obligations
control of your time, stress level and energy level
make progress at work
maintain balance between work, personal and family
enough flexibility to respond to new opportunities or
Poor TM = stress

Use of calendar or planner and taking time to

write down everything you must do so that it gets
e.g. going to class, eating, athletic events, social
activities, personal hygience, time-in-transit,
studying, student organizations and telephone and
TV time, and everything in between.

use a wall/desk calendar for major exam,TMA due dates +

keep a pocket/month calendars in a planner as reminder of
tutorials, appts, meetings + errands.
record all class assignments-quizzes, tests, projects + papers.
make a big note on calendar on dates of exams.
set own dates for starting + completing the assignments.
remember to update your semester schedule.
record also work hours, meetings + social commitments.

Make a simple semester calendar. Jot down the important dates

for every month. They may include dates for your major exams,
assignment due dates, tutorials, tests and meetings. These are
basically the events that you must do and which are quite fixed.
State the event, the exact due date, and its percentage
This process will help you to identify times in the semester
when several assignments may bedue at or around the same
time. If this is the case, you will need to set earlier deadlines for
certain work. In order to manage your time successfully and to
avoid stress, it is important to pace the workload more evenly
over the semester. You need to refer to your Student Handbook
for all exact dates of your semester break. You may make a
sample planner as shown below.

Date of each semester week


1 2 3 4 5


7 8 9 10


20 %


In the planner above, write down the dates for a particular week in the Date column, for
e.g., for Week 1, you may write: 2nd 8th Oct. Four separate rows in the planner, namely
A,B,C and D have been drawn for the 4 courses you are taking for the semester. Increase
the no. of rows if you take more courses. The last row, labelled Other has been included
for your work, family and social events. In this case, you may write, for e.g. meeting or

A weekly schedule should be used , which should be made once a week preferably on a
Sunday night before the week begins. This includes:

all classes


exercise routine




extracurricular activities


housekeeping duties





Make sure to leave blank spaces to fit in necessary activities as they come up. These blanks
should be utilised for studying and the completion of assignments. Study time should be
scheduled for at least two hours a day. Do you still remember the total number of hours
you need which was mentioned in Unit 2?
Make a list of what you have to complete during the coming weeks, including assignments
and office work. Include also your family and personal activites. In other words, identify
and take note of deadlines. It is important to estimate how long each task will take.
Prioritise your activities. List down the activites in order of importance. Give priority to those
activities which are important and must be done during the week. The less important
acitvites can be done in another week or when you have less load. Remember, as part
time student, it is advisable to set aside at least an hour everyday for your studies! Then
identify the day on which you will accomplish each task, keeping in mind the amount of
time the task will take and other things you must also do that day.

Based on your semester planner which you have

completed in Activity 3.11, create one weekly
schedule for the first month of your semester.
When you prepare the weekly schedule, bear in
mind the tips you have just learnt in the previous
section. You must remember to include two hours
study time for each day!
After you have completed it, you can compare
your weekly schedule with your course mate. You
will ntice how different their weekly schedules are
compared to yours. Again, you may use the
sample below. Remember, you can modify it to
suit your needs, especially the time slots.


81011- 110am 11am 1pm 3pm

355pm 7pm

799pm 11pm

After you have prepared the schedule, go through it to see how you can re-schedule
it to make it more effective. You may also keep your schedule in a visible place, for
e.g. next to your desk/pin it on a board. Look at it everyday to remind yourself of
your proposed schedule.

Before you start your day every morning, write out a daily schedule .
Include uncompleted tasks from the previous day as well as new tasks.
The list of tasks to be done should be kept short, about 5 or 6 items,
both academic and personal. The items should be small specific goals
such as : Read 5 pages in Learning Skills.
It should not be a whole unit of the course materials. As you write out
your daily schedule, arrange them in order of importance. Some
activities must be done on a particular day while others may be done on
another day. This can definitely reduce your stress level.
Then, you must use your schedules every day and learn to say no to
acivities which are not relevant.
In this way, you are more likely to keep to your schedule. For every
item which you have accomplished, draw a line across the item. The
more lines you see on the list, the more you feel satisfied you should
Take a break when you have finished all the tasks for the day. If you
often find you cannot finish all the tasks most of the days, you need to
review youe schedule.

After you arrange your daily schedule, review it.

Ask yourself whether the schedule for the day is realistic.
If it is not, remove some of the less urgent items.
Every evening, look through the schedule. Ask yourself:
Have I done everything on my list ?
If not, why ?
Was the schedule unrealistic or was my time management
ineffective ?
What adjustment can I make in future to make my schedule
work better for me ?

A sample of a daily schedule is given below:

List of Things To Do

Order of Priority

Lunch with Judy, an old classmate.

Visit RO to find out about the coming

test on Learning Skills.

Read Unit 1 of Learning Skills, section


See the plumber about water leakage in


Shop for a pair of shoes for work.

Use the sample above to create your own daily schedule list.

Look at the chart below. It gives you a summary of the TM you

should do so that you can manage your learning more effctive.
Create a semester schedule

Assess and plan your work load each week

Adjust your plan each day

Evaluate your schedule

Chart 3.1 Time Management

After you have made your semester plan, weekly plan and daily plan, the next most important thing to do is to
stick to your schedule. it is a common weakness among students to forget about hteir schedule after a few weeks
of drawing it up.
Following a regular schedule has many advantages:
It will help motivate you
When you plan and carry out your study in frequent but small,
manageable chunks, it makes your life easier.
A study schedule means that you dont waste time but rather have time
for other commitments.
A schedule also helps you to track your progress. You can see that you
have achieved set tasks, completed assignments on time and made good

1. Stress is a part of everyones life.

2. It is a response of the body to a variety of internal and external
3. External stimuli job change, move to city, death of a loved one
or an illness in family.
4. Internal stimuli physical/mental discomfort.
5. Happy as well sad events can create stress.
6. Stress = need to strive for perfection or to please others.
7. Stress has effects on health and performance.
8. Sometimes, stress helps people attain difficult goals and perform
9. Total absence of stress would make life very boring.
10. Each person handles stress differently so it is important to
recognise your limit.


Good Stress

Bad Stress



1. Good Stress = getting up on time and attending all your tutorial classes.

Stress challenges students to do their best and keeps learning and growing.


Final exams are an especially stressful time.


This stress prompts students to study harder, longer and learn more = +ve stress trigger =
functional stress.


Stress that lasts a short period of time can rapidly motivates us.


A stress that lasts too long, happens too often, or is too strong may bring us physical,
behavioural, and psychological problems = -ve stress = dysfunctional stress.


Examples of bad stress = going to class unprepared, your health, financial problems,or even
a hungry stomach.

1. What do you consider to be good stress in your life since you started
studying at WOU ?
2. Why are they good ?
3. What is bad stress ?
4. Who can you consult for help on this matter ?

Do you want to find out your stress level ? There is a test to find
out your stress level at this website :
All you have to do is to provide a Yes or No answer to 20
simple questions about yourself. You will know you stress
immediately after you submit your answers online. Your score
shows that you are stressed, then you need to take some action.




Difficulty in




with the future
Fear of failure




Tight muscles.

Acting impulsively.

Cold or sweaty hands.

Nervous laughter


Increased smoking

Back or neck problems.

Increased alcohol

Sleep disturbances
Indigestion problems.
Rapid breathing

Figure 3.2 Stress signals

* Consult a doctor if you have any symptoms which disturb you

Making mistakes is terrible.

It is essential to be loved by everyone.
I must always be competent.
Every problem has a perfect solutions.
If others criticise me, I must have done something wrong.
I cant change the way I think.
I must rarely show weakness or cry.
Strong people do not ask for help.
Everything is within my control.
Other people should see things the same way I do.
People should do what I want because they love me.
The world ought to be fair

Take a moment to write down specific things or times that made you feel stressed.
Causes of Stress
Major Expected Events
(something big you know is
Major Unexpected Events
(something big that happens
Daily Grind (All the little things
that make up your
day):Parking, going to class,
Personal Attributes (All things
about you):Genetic makeup,
Flexibilty, Disabilities



Writing down your thoughts will help you

process and understand what causes you
stress and why. Understanding these two
things is fundamental to managing your

Three types of approaches to managing stress:

1. Action-oriented ; confront the problem causing stress,
changing the environment/situation.
2. Emotionally-oriented: we manage stress by changing our
interpretation of the situation and the way we feel about it.
3. Acceptance-oriented: Where something has happened over
which we have no power and no emotional control, and where
our focus is on surviving the stress.
How other people manage stress:

think of positive events children getting award in school


engage in physical exercises- a walk in park, shopping



Now that you have learnt about some of the things that cause you stress
and about a few coping strategies, it is time to do some brainstorming.
Share with your friends your experiences on coping with stress. You may
be surprised to learn of interesting ways that people use to reduce their
stress. You may find their stress. You may find their methods effective.
Now, list down the methods which you would like to try out.
2. _________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________

This section introduced you to efforts which you can take

to succeed in your learning activities. In particular you
learnt strategies to enhance your motivation and memory
for learning. It taught you about good stress and bad
stress and how to deal with them. Finally, you were
introduced to tM and how to control your stress level so
that you can study more effectively.

Read the case given below and answer the questions as follow.
Rose is a thirty year old married woman. She has just signed up for a computing course at a
local college. As she has been away from school for a long time, she is concerned about
how she can manage her many family and social responsibilities while attending
college.She has two young children to take care. In addition, she does not employ a maid to
help out in her housework. While she aims to do well in her studies, she also wants to be a
good wife to her husband and a good mother to her two children. As she is experiencing a
drastic change in her lifestyle now that she has enrolled as a student, she is feeling rather
stressed out.

If you were Rosie, what would you do to manage your time effectively so that you will be able to cope with
your hectic schedule and study well at the same time ?

2. If you were Rosie, which two methods will you use to reduce your stress. Explain how you will do it.

By the end of this section, learners should be able to :
1. Explain the meaning of learning style.
2. Differentiate the 3 types of learning style.
3. Apply appropriate strategies to your learning style.

The way you prefer to learn is your learning style.

It refers to how your brain works most efficiently to learn new
Success comes with many different learning styles
There is no such thing as a good or bad learning style.
We have our own particular way of learning new info.
The most important thing is to be aware of the nature of your
learning style.

learn from texts.

learn by doing.
objects are presented in the form of pictures.
we may classify leaning styles into 4 broad

Case A _____________________________________________________
Rachel understands and remembers best what she studies by doing something active with it. She also likes to discuss with others
what she has learnt. She likes group discussions. And, when in a group , she often likes to lead the group by saying, Lets try it
out to see how it works.
On the other hand, Rachels close friend, Samantha, is just the opposite. She prefers to think over what she has learnt quietly first.
Therefore, she usually does not join Rachels discussion group. She prefers to study alone. Both of them always argue over whether
to try find out some topics they have learnt first or to spend more time thinking over the topic first.
However, both of them have one thing in common, that is, they are not able to sit still throughout a lecture to take notes, more
so for Rachel.

Rajoo and Siva always study together though they have different
learning styles. Rajoo likes to memorise facts, and is very particular
about any single details in what he studies. He is a very practical and
careful person. Solving Mathematical problems using the same old
way is his favourite. He cannot tolerate even a slight difference in
learning style. As such, he likes courses which have connection to the
real world.
Sivas learning style is slightly different. He likes to discover new
ideas on his own compared to Rajoo; to obtain new knowledge. He
also likes new ideas and innovation. Unlike Rajoo, Siva is able to
grasp new concepts. He is more comfortable with abstractions and
mathematical formulation.

Ali tends to gain understanding through linear steps;

with each step following logically from the previous one.
He is also very particular about solving solutions step by
Fatimah, on the other hand, tends to learn in big jumps,
understand without seeing connections. She is able to
solve complex problems quickly though she is not very
particular about the details. So, very often, she is not
able to explain how she solves certain problems.

Mazlan is a person who simply likes garphics. Anything in

pictures will be best for him. He just remembers whatever he
can see, like graphs, diagrams, demonstrations and so on. When
he studies, he likes to transform facts into diagrams or
Some people learn better when they get written explanation.
Soo Keong is one of them. Oral explanations are equally good
for him. If he gets both, that is even better.
By using a search engine (Google or Yahoo) in the Internet, try to identify the different types of learning styles.
Find out the type of learner for each of the four groups mentioned above. Then, write the types on the blank
lines provided at the top of the description for each group.

Case A : Active and Reflective Learners

Case B : Sensing and Intuitive Learners
Case C : Sequential and Global Learners
Case D : Visual and Verbal Learners

1. Find out your particular learning style by answering the

questions at this website:
It is called Index of Learning Style Questionnaire and
contains 44 questions. It will only take a few minutes to
complete. It is fun because you get to know your learning
style immediately when you submit your answers online.
2. Ask your course mates about their learning style. Can you
find anyone who has the same learning style as you?
Perhaps, you can choose to be in the same group for
discussion or other group work later in your course.

The following table suggests the strategies you can use to help you get the most out of
your studies.

Learning Style


Active Learner

Have group discussions.

Group members can take turns to explain different topics to each other.
Group members can also try to predict potential test or examination
questions and discuss answers to these questions.

Reflective Learner

Sensing Learner

Intuitive Learner

Always think about what you read quietly.

Stop periodically to review what you have read by thinking of possible
questions or applications.
Memorisation method does not work for you.
As you read your course materials, write short summaries of readings or
tutorial notes in your own words.
Find many facts about the topic to be learnt.
You need specific examples of concpts and procedures.
Try to find out the applications of concepts.
Try to find out its application in the real world.
Use brainstorming methods with friends or classmates among the application
of those concepts.
Like to discover possibilities.
Ask your instructor for interpretations or theories that link the facts or try to
find the connections yourself.
Take time to read the entire questions before you start answering and be
sure to check your results.

Learning Style


Visual Learner

Try to find diagrams, sketches, schematics, photograph, flow

charts, or other visual representation of course materials.
Get relevant videotapes or CD-ROM related to the course
Prepare concept maps by listing key points, enclosing them in
boxes or circles, and drawing lines with arrows between
concepts to show connections.
Highlight important points.
Use different coloured highlighter for different main points.

Verbal Learner

Write summaries or outlines of course material in your own

Have group discussions.
Take turns to explain to your classmates.

Sequential Learner

Copy every step to a solution carefully. Fill up any missing

ones by making additional references.
Take time to outline the course material for yourself in logical
Relating each new topic you study to things you already know.

Global Learner

You need the big picture of a subject before you can master
Before you begin to study the first section of a chapter in a text,
skim through the entire chapter to get an overview.
Instead of spending a short time on every subject every night,
you might find it more productive to immerse yourself in
individual subjects for a longer period of time. Try to relate the
subject to things you already know, either by asking your tutor
to help you see connections or by looking up references

Choose one section of any of your course materials.

Based on your learning style, try out the strategies
suggested above and see if you can learn more
effectively. You may do your jottings in the space
In this section, you learnt what a learning style is. You
were also introduced to the 4 types of learning styles
and how you can make use them to study effectively.
You also had the opportunity to identify your
dominant learning style- the style that defines the
best way you learn new information.

By the end of this section, learners should be able to :
1. Explain the important of taking notes.
2. Apply the 5 methods of taking notes effecively.
3. Identify the 3 steps involved in taking notes for

1. When you were in primary/secondary school, you were not

required to take much notes.
2. But in a higher level of education, you have to do more note
3. Having good lecture notes to revise can determine how well you
are able to perform during exams.
4. As an ODL, one effective way to learn is to take notes from the
5. You may take down the important points or summaries the text.
6. Taking notes effectively is a skill which you have to develop to
help you improve your studies and remember important facts.

Make you concentrate on what you are learning.

Enable you to put ideas into your own words.
Help you remember things better.
Are excellent for revision.

o Read with a purpose in mind.

o Identify the main points.

o Use your own words.
o Understand first and use own words to explain it.
o Write the notes in own words to remember better.
o Notes are shorter than original materials so easier to revise.

Take notes effectively during tutorials.

Spend some time before tutorial sessions start.
3 steps to take good notes: 1. Prepare

2. Listen 3. Revise

1. Prepare Before Tutorial :

i. Have knowledge about the tutorial topic.
ii. Read up on the topic in the reading material.
iii. Get additional info about the topic Internet/related
books/other sources.
iv. Think about own experiences related to topic.

Refer to your Semester Planner to identify your next tutorial

Use a table below to help you prepare for the tutorial.
Topic of discussion:__________________________

Action to be taken
Read up on the topic in the course material.
Read up on topic from other resources, e.g.
Think of examples or experiences related to
the topic.
Questions to be asked.

Benefits ?

1. Go to tutorial with +ve mind.

2. Make a conscientious effort to pay attention.
3. Without concentration there is no focus, and without focus there is
no learning?
4. Follow closely what your tutor says.
5. Bring highlighters to highlight important points.
6. How tutors give clues to important points:a. Material written on blackboard.
b. Repetition
c. Emphasis tone of voice & gesture, time spent on points
d. Word signals There are 2 pts. of view,the 3rd reason is..In
e. List of things which are being discussed.
f. Summaries given at the end of class.
g. Reviews given at the beginning of class.

a. Start on a new page.-date/number on page

b. Write on one side of paper.
c. Leave blank spaces- to add comments/note questions later.
d. Make notes brief.
e. Develop a system of abbreviations and symbols.
f. Note all unfamiliar vocab or concepts you dont understand
look them up later.

By now you have probably noticed several terms and/or phrases that
each of your tutors uses regularly.
1.Take a moment to think about some of the terms and/or phrases
which you use regularly. Then list them in the left column below.
Frequently used terms/phrases


2. Now, consider abbreviations that you might use for each of the terms
and/or phrases you have listed. For example, if one of the terms is study
skills, you might consider using the abbreviation SS to represent that
phrase in your notes. After considering possible abbreviations for the terms
listed in the left column, place the corresponding abbreviations in the right
column above.
3. Compare your list with the lists generated by your classmates. Write
down some of the additional abbreviations they have come up with that
you find useful.

Look through the notes.

Edit words and phrases that are illegible or to do not make sense. Write out
abbreviated words that might be unclear later.
Rework your notes by adding extra points and spelling out unclear items.
This is important because we tend to forget fast. Allocate enough time for this
Verify your notes by reading the recommended texts.
Edit with a different coloured pen to distinguished between what you wrote
in class and what you filled in later.
Note anything you dont understand by underlining or highlighting to remind
you to ask the instructor.
Compare your notes with the textbook reading and fill in important details
in the blank spaces you left.
Consider rewriting or typing up your notes.
Revise your notes regularly. This is the only way achieve lasting memory.

1. Outline method

dash (-) or indentation is commonly used.

jot down points in an organised pattern based on space indentation.

Write major points on the far left.

Indent each of the more specific points to the right.

Minor points will be placed further away from major points

Definition : means of carrying objects from one place to
- three modes
- air transport
- land transport
- sea transport
Figure 3.3 Outline method of taking notes

2. Summary method
Write in note form, in own words, the essential facts and ideas from
your reading.
Example : The following is a paragraph taken from your reading
material on Strategies to enhance motivation for learning.
Big tasks may worry you. Break down the big tasks into smaller
ones so that they are more manageable. For example, as a
working person, it may be too demanding to revise one whole
chapter at one tme for your test. You may want to break down
the task into revising one section of the chapter at a time.
A sample of the note made using the summary method:

Break down big tasks into smaller units so that you can manage
it better.
Figure 3.4 Summary method of taking notes

3. Annotation method
o The blank space in the margins are commonly used.
o Can write down the main points, question marks, ticks or crosses to
show various meanings.
o e.g. for important points, put asterisk beside the point in the margin.
o For a point which needs more explanation, you may put a question
mark in the margin.
o You may also highlight or underline important points.
o Refer to Figure 3.5 on page 52

4. Charting method
group the important points into categories.
draw columns headed by these categories.
record info (words,phrases,main ideas, etc) into the appropriate
Is useful when you want to get an overview of the whole course in a
sequential manner.
Example Chart format of Learning Styles

Visual Learner

Audio Learner

Kinesthetic Learner


Listen to tapes
Explain to friends


5. Mind map method

Created by Tony Buzan
a very effective method of taking notes.
show not only facts but also overall structure of a subject and relative imporance of individual
parts of it.
show relationships between ideas and/or conceptsand the connections between or among them.
Main topic placed in centre,main topic linked to 6 main ideas and main idea linked to other sub

Conduct study

Suitable time


No distraction

Strategies to enhance
learning motivation

Have incentives

To learn more about mind maps go to www.mind-map.com

down big

Set goals


Mind Map Tips

Use titles, subtitles and bullet points.
Look for key issues and main details which form the focus of the reading
Use short sentences.
Underline key points in red or with a highlighter.
Produce a summary list/table at the end of a section.
Leave lots of blank space while taking notes- add addtional notes later
Leave out full descriptions and explanation- notes short and to the pt.
Dont be afraid to produce table e.g. Advantages & Disadvantages of...
Include topical examples and case study references in your notes
Be selective not jot everything you read/hear.
Write memory jogs to yourself in the margin e.g. Good diagram p.146 in
Book X
Keep notes in order and in one place.
Develop own short forms which you can use all the time e.g. i.e.- in other
words, @ - at etc.

Here are some tips on what you may include in your notes :
Explanations which elaborate on main pts.
List of things which are being discussed
Repeated info
This section exposed you to the importance of taking notes. 5 methods of
note taking were discussed. You also learnt about the 3 steps involved in
taking notes for tutorials, namely: prepare for tutorials, listen during
tutorials and revise after tutorials.

Read the article and make notes of the important ideas.Article 1. Regional haze Health effects
Fine particle pollution, that contributes to regional haze, can affect peoples health. People most
at risk include those with:
heart disease
lung disease
respiratory conditions (include asthma)
diabetes, as well as
older adults and children.
Fine particles are deposited deep into lungs where they can accumulate on the surface or be absorbed by
underlying tissue and enter the bloodstream. People with heart or lung diseases and respiratory conditions, such
as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are
at increased risk of serious effects, because particles can aggravate these diseases.
In people with heart disease, particles have been linked to heart attacks and cardiac arrhythmias (irregular
heart rhythms). Recent evidence suggests that some of these cardiac effects may result from very short-term
exposures, possibly as short as one hour.
People with diabetes may be at increased risk of serious effects from regional haze, possibly because of
underlying cardiovascular disease.
Older adults are at increased risk from regional haze possibly because they may have diagnosed heart or lung
disease or diabetes.
Children are likely to be at risk from regional haze for a number of reasons. For example, they may be more
vulnerable to fine particles because their lungs are still developing. Also, childrens breathing rates can be as
much as twice as rapid as adults under resting conditions, and children tend to have far higher activity levels
than adults on any given day, which will result in more particles being deposited in their developing lungs.

Long-term (years) exposure of healthy people to particles has been associated with reduced
lung function and the development of chronic bronchitis.
Peoples chances of being affected by particles in increase the longer they are active outdoors
and the more strenuous their activity. This is because the harder we work or exercise, the more
rapidly we breathe and greater concentrations of particles reach the deepest and most sensitive
areas of the lungs.
People involved in an activity that requires heavy or prolonged exertion can reduce the time
they spend on the activity or substitute another activity that requires less exertion, especially
on days when particle pollution levels are elevated. For example, alking instead of jogging to
reduce the impact of fine particles on their health.
Symptoms of exposure to fine particles include:
Even healthy people may experience temporary symptoms from exposure to elevated levels of
particles. Symptoms may include: irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, coughing, phlegm,
chest tightness, and shortness of breath.
People with lung disease may not breathe as deeply or as vigorously as normal, and may
experience respiratory symtoms including: coughing,phlegm, chest discomfort, wheezing,
shortness of breath and unusual fatigue. These symptoms are an indication to reduce exposure
and to follow the advice of their doctor.
People with heart disease can have serious effects, such as heart attacks, with no waning
symptoms. If people with heart disease have symptoms of breath, or unsual fatigue, these may
indicate a serious problem and should follow the advise of their doctor.
Asthmatics should already have an asthma action plan that they routinely follow, but may need
to follow it more carefully when particles levels are high.
Source: http://www.maine.gov/dep/air/meteorology/regionalhaze/reghealth.htm(Apr 2006)

In this unit, you learnt many skills which will enable you to
manage your learning more effectively. It started by explaining
the meaning of a goal and more importantly, an effective goal. it
also suggested ways to enhance your motivation and memory
skills so that you can learn effectively. To help you cope with your
busy schedule, suggestions to enable you to manage your time and
stress level were provided.
For individuals with different ways of learning, strategies to
maximise your learning using your styles were explained. Finally,
this unit ended with an explanation on the importance of taking
notes as well as ways of taking notes. By mastering all these
strategies, you would be able to go through your long journey of
obtaining your degree much more smoothly. You will therefore be
able to achieve your goal faster and through a more enjoyable